Book

Standard Electroencephalography in Clinical Psychiatry: A Practical Handbook

Authors:
  • Università della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli

Abstract

This book provides a concise overview of the possible clinical applications of standard EEG in clinical psychiatry. After a short history, the book describes the physiologic basis of the EEG signal, then reviews the principles of EEG in terms of technical backgrounds and requirements, EEG recording and signal analysis, with plentiful illustrations of the most frequent biological or technical artefacts. Normal EEG patterns and waveforms for easy reference are clearly presented, before the detailed description of abnormal patterns. With the basic information in hand, the reader progresses to an account of the role of EEG in the diagnostic work up in psychiatry, covering nonconvulsive status epilepticus, frontal lobe seizures and non-epileptic seizures. The clinical application of EEG in both childhood and adult disorders follows, including many case vignettes. The effects of psychotropic drugs on EEG are highlighted. The book closes with a discussion of currently available certification venues for Clinical Neurophysiology along with limitations of each venue. It calls for the development of training guidelines and certification processes specific to Psychiatric Electrophysiology. The material is clearly presented throughout, with plenty of figures, tables with summaries of relevant findings, flow diagrams for diagnostic work-up, boxes with learning points, and short lists of key references. We fully expect the book will become the standard teaching source for psychiatry residents and fellows, as well as a useful resource for practising psychiatrists and clinical psychologists. Praise for the book: "This distinguished group of editors has put together chapters that represent an excellent practical handbook on electroencephalography in clinical psychiatry, now a very important topic. I highly recommend it not only to psychiatrists, but also to anyone interested in neuroscience." John R. Hughes, DM (Oxon), MD, PhD, Professor of Neurology, University of Illinois Medical Center, at Chicago, Illinois, USA.
... Organic lesions of the brain lead as a rule to well detectable local disruptions and paroxysmal forms of EEG [6]. There is no such specificity in EEG patterns of the diffuse activity [7]. It forces investigators to search new analytic methods [8,9]. ...
... It is known that the prevalence of the well-defined alpha rhythm with the index I¼70% and the absence of other rhythms reflect the most optimal cortico-subcortical relations [1,7,24]. It has been observed in the background patterns of the healthy subjects. ...
... For these patients having encephalopathy of various ethiology the main feature is the relationship between the decline in the alpha rhythm index and the decrease of the wavelet spectrum energy. Reduction of the alpha rhythm index and especially the emergence of the other range rhythms, relative to pathological, is the manifestation of cortico-subcortical disruptions of the different degree [7,12]. Thus, our results demonstrate the relations between the values of the alpha index, maximal energy of the wavelet spectrum and optimality of cortico-subcortical links. ...
... A TD child develops an 8 Hz alpha rhythm around the age of 3 years. [35][36][37][38] The mean dominant frequency of the alpha rhythm gradually increases to approximately 10 Hz, from the age of 10 years through adulthood. 33,[38][39][40] In healthy elderly subjects, alpha activity may decrease up to 1 Hz every 10 years after the age of 50 years but always remains above 8 Hz, even beyond the age of 100 years. ...
... [35][36][37][38] The mean dominant frequency of the alpha rhythm gradually increases to approximately 10 Hz, from the age of 10 years through adulthood. 33,[38][39][40] In healthy elderly subjects, alpha activity may decrease up to 1 Hz every 10 years after the age of 50 years but always remains above 8 Hz, even beyond the age of 100 years. 38,41 Gender Various studies in TD populations report gender differences in structural brain development. ...
... 33,[38][39][40] In healthy elderly subjects, alpha activity may decrease up to 1 Hz every 10 years after the age of 50 years but always remains above 8 Hz, even beyond the age of 100 years. 38,41 Gender Various studies in TD populations report gender differences in structural brain development. 42,43 Differences are also evident in EEGdthe most common finding is earlier EEG maturation in males, which is commonly reflected by increased alpha and reduced delta or theta power in males during childhood. ...
Article
Background: Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used for almost a century to identify seizure-related disorders in humans, typically through expert interpretation of multichannel recordings. Attempts have been made to quantify EEG through frequency analyses and graphic representations. These "traditional" quantitative EEG analysis methods were limited in their ability to analyze complex and multivariate data and have not been generally accepted in clinical settings. There has been growing interest in identification of novel EEG biomarkers to detect early risk of autism spectrum disorder, to identify clinically meaningful subgroups, and to monitor targeted intervention strategies. Most studies to date have, however, used quantitative EEG approaches, and little is known about the emerging multivariate analytical methods or the robustness of candidate biomarkers in the context of the variability of autism spectrum disorder. Methods: Here, we present a targeted review of methodological and clinical challenges in the search for novel resting-state EEG biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder. Results: Three primary novel methodologies are discussed: (1) modified multiscale entropy, (2) coherence analysis, and (3) recurrence quantification analysis. Results suggest that these methods may be able to classify resting-state EEG as "autism spectrum disorder" or "typically developing", but many signal processing questions remain unanswered. Conclusions: We suggest that the move to novel EEG analysis methods is akin to the progress in neuroimaging from visual inspection, through region-of-interest analysis, to whole-brain computational analysis. Novel resting-state EEG biomarkers will have to evaluate a range of potential demographic, clinical, and technical confounders including age, gender, intellectual ability, comorbidity, and medication, before these approaches can be translated into the clinical setting.
... Este registro que se denomina electroencefalograma (EEG), representa la actividad bioeléctrica espontánea generada por las neuronas cerebrales. Está compuesto de ritmos eléctricos y actividades puntuales que se diferencian por su localización, frecuencia, periodicidad y propiedades funcionales (Boutros, Galderisi, Pogarell, & Riggio, 2011). ...
... Las estructuras cerebrales responsables en la generación de ritmos del EEG implican principalmente al tálamo y al córtex cerebral, además de algunos sistemas moduladores resultantes del núcleo del bulbo raquídeo, del hipotálamo posterior y de la parte basal del prosencéfalo (Boutros, Galderisi, Pogarell, & Riggio, 2011). ...
... Los circuitos responsables de que se produzca y se module el comportamiento rítmico están formados por tres tipos de neuronas: tálamo-corticales, tálamo-reticulares, talámicas y corticales. (Boutros, Galderisi, Pogarell, & Riggio, 2011) ISSN 2410-3551 ECORFAN ® Todos los derechos reservados. ...
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Se evaluaron los efectos de la microinyección (MI) de la N-etoxicarbonil-2-etoxi-1,2-dihidroquinolina (EEDQ), bloquedor irreversible de los receptores a dopamina (DA), dentro de las bursas ováricas sobre la ovulación espontánea (OE) en ratas hembra con ciclo estral (CE) regular de cuatro días de duración. A las 08:00, 13:00 y 20:00h de uno de cada día del CE, animales con CE regular recibieron una MI con 100 μg de EEDQ diluídos en 20 μL de etanol-agua 1:1 (vehículo). Los grupos testigo recibieron la MI con vehiculo. Se registró la OE en la mañana del estro esperado buscando la presencia de ovocitos frescos en los oviductos. La MI con EEDQ realizada en el día del estro (EEDQ: 7/17 vs. Testigo: 14/16, p<0.01) y del diestro-1 (EEDQ: 3/12 vs. Testigo: 16/24, p<0.001) inhibieron la OE, lo que no ocurrió en los grupos tratados en el diestro-2 (EEDQ: 7/14 vs. Testigo: 13/16, ns) o en el proestro (EEDQ 12/12 vs. Testigo 14/14, ns). El reemplazo hormonal con GnRH o benzoato de estradiol (BE) reestableció la ovulación (EEDQ: 10/29 vs. GnRH+EEDQ 26/27 y BE+EEDQ 24/25 p<0.0001; Prueba de probabilidad exacta de Fisher). Durante la primera mitad del CE la DA ovárica juega un papel crítico en el control de la OE en la rata. Es probable que los receptores a DA del ovario activen las señales que conducen a la secreción de estrógenos.// We evalated the effects microinjection (MI) of N-etoxicarbonil-2-etoxi-1,2-dihidroquinolina (EEDQ), a irrebersible blocker of dopamine (DA) receptors, inside ovarian burses on spontaneous ovulation (SO)in female adult rats that exhibited regular estral cycles (EC) four days long. At 08:00, 13:00 and 20:00h in one each EC day, groups of rats with regular EC recibed a single MI with 100 μg of EEDQ diluited in 20 μL of water-ethanol 1:1 (vehicle). Sham groups reciben just vehicle MI. We registred the SO in the morning of estrous day spected with ova shed into oviducts. The EEDQ MI performed on estrous (EEDQ: 7/17 vs. Sham: 14/16, p<0.01) and diestrous-1 days (EEDQ: 3/12 vs. Sham: 16/24, p<0.001) SO were inhibited, although these don’t ocurrs in groups treated on diestrous-2 (EEDQ: 7/14 vs. Sham: 13/16, ns) or proestrous day (EEDQ 12/12 vs. Sham 14/14, ns). Hormonal replacement with GnRH or oestradiol benzoate (EB) was effective in ovulation restablisment (EEDQ: 10/29 vs. GnRH+EEDQ 26/27 y EB+EEDQ 24/25 p<0.0001; Exact probability Fisher´s test). In the rat, ovarian DA palys a critical role on ovulation control during EC first half. Probably that ovarian DA receptors turning on the signals that lead estrogen secretion.
... Este registro que se denomina electroencefalograma (EEG), representa la actividad bioeléctrica espontánea generada por las neuronas cerebrales. Está compuesto de ritmos eléctricos y actividades puntuales que se diferencian por su localización, frecuencia, periodicidad y propiedades funcionales (Boutros, Galderisi, Pogarell, & Riggio, 2011). ...
... Las estructuras cerebrales responsables en la generación de ritmos del EEG implican principalmente al tálamo y al córtex cerebral, además de algunos sistemas moduladores resultantes del núcleo del bulbo raquídeo, del hipotálamo posterior y de la parte basal del prosencéfalo (Boutros, Galderisi, Pogarell, & Riggio, 2011). ...
... Los circuitos responsables de que se produzca y se module el comportamiento rítmico están formados por tres tipos de neuronas: tálamo-corticales, tálamo-reticulares, talámicas y corticales. (Boutros, Galderisi, Pogarell, & Riggio, 2011) ISSN 2410-3551 ECORFAN ® Todos los derechos reservados. ...
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El Bioterio “Claude Bernard” de la BUAP posee una cepa de rata mutante alopécica hipotímica (MAH) que sobrevive en condiciones convencionales. Los parámetros reproductivos básicos en hembras adultas de la MAH estudiados se compararon con los de una cepa Long Evans (CII-ZV) que también se produce. La duración media del ciclo estral de la MAH es mayor (MAH (n=18): 6.2±0.1 días vs CII-ZV (n=30): 4.0±0.0 días, p<0.0001). El tamaño de camada fue menor en las hembras MAH (MAH (n=13): 7.0±0.6 crías vs CII-ZV (n=17): 11.9±0.4 crías, p<0.001). El incremento del peso corporal (gramos) a partir de los 90 hasta los 160 días en la rata MAH es menor (90 días, MAH: 127±5 vs CII-ZV: 186±3; 120 días, MAH: 142±5 vs CII-ZV: 247±4) y 160 días, MAH: 152±3 vs CII-ZV: 300±2; p<0,001). No se observaron diferencias en la duración de la gestación entre ambas cepas (MAH (n=4): 22.5±0.5 días vs CII-ZV (n=4): 21.5±0.5 días, ns) pero la edad de apertura vaginal es mayor (MAH: 45-50 días vs CII-ZV: 35-40 días. La rata hembra adulta MAH presenta parámetros reproductivos diferentes a los de la cepa CII-ZV.// We evuated cytotoxic or inflammatory effects of DMSO inyected on ovarian tissue in 14 CII-ZV adult female rats or in dermis tissue of 2 alopecic hipothymic mutant rats. We test 100%, 50%, 25%, 5% and 0% DMSO solutions interjecting 20μL into an ovarian bursa of CII-Zv rats and 50μL of same solutions in dorsal skin of alopecic rats. Necropsies were performed at 24, 48, or 96h after on avarian treatments or al 2 and 24h after subcutaneous injectios in alopecic animals. The ovaries and skin were proceesed by histologic hematoxylin-oesin stainless. We registred all the alteration or necrosis signs in hislological cuts. DMSO induced distention signs on linfatic and venous vassels just in ovarian medulla but none cortical compartiments: follicles (teca and granullosa), corpora lutea or intersticial gland. The subcutaneous injection of DMSO either showed none inflammation or necrosis signs in dermis. Apparently, DMSO is an optimal vehicle for isoluble pharmacologic drougs infiltration in rat ovarian tissues or skin.
... EEG can also be a helpful tool in the differentiation of delirium from a primary mood, anxiety, or psychotic disorder. 8 This "routine" and conventional EEG procedure is sometimes complemented by quantitative analyses of the digitized EEG (qEEG), a technique used for differential diagnosis and treatment response assessment. Sometimes semiautomated assessments of wakefulness regulation during prolonged resting state measurements is performed to estimate the usefulness of, for example, stimulant medication. ...
... 181 The EEG can be helpful tool in the differentiation of delirium from a primary mood, anxiety or psychotic disorder. 8 (b) Several studies have found that a sizeable proportion of borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients show an EEG with presence of a static (nonprogressive) and nonmetabolic diffuse EEG slowing and paroxysmal activity. They either found evidence of brain dysfunction or current epilepsy in 27% of related cases, as well as a history of head trauma, encephalitis, or past seizures in 11%. ...
Article
Introduction The global COVID-19 pandemic has affected the economy, daily life, and mental/physical health. The latter includes the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in clinical practice and research. We report a survey of the impact of COVID-19 on the use of clinical EEG in practice and research in several countries, and the recommendations of an international panel of experts for the safe application of EEG during and after this pandemic. Methods Fifteen clinicians from 8 different countries and 25 researchers from 13 different countries reported the impact of COVID-19 on their EEG activities, the procedures implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and precautions planned or already implemented during the reopening of EEG activities. Results Of the 15 clinical centers responding, 11 reported a total stoppage of all EEG activities, while 4 reduced the number of tests per day. In research settings, all 25 laboratories reported a complete stoppage of activity, with 7 laboratories reopening to some extent since initial closure. In both settings, recommended precautions for restarting or continuing EEG recording included strict hygienic rules, social distance, and assessment for infection symptoms among staff and patients/participants. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic interfered with the use of EEG recordings in clinical practice and even more in clinical research. We suggest updated best practices to allow safe EEG recordings in both research and clinical settings. The continued use of EEG is important in those with psychiatric diseases, particularly in times of social alarm such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
... T HE human brain has a complicated structure, and it can be considered as a network of very large number of neurons which are interconnected to each other [1]. The electrical activity of the human brain can be measured using the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, and these signals are recorded using electrodes [2]. ...
... The types of EEG signals depend on the way of recording them using number of electrodes in the recording instrument or system. For example, if surface electrodes are used for recording then, the recorded signals are known as surface EEG signals [1]. On the other hand, if electrodes are inserted inside of the brain then this type of recording is known as intracranial EEG signals [3]. ...
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Epilepsy is a neurological disorder, and it is diagnosed using electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. The discrimination of focal and non-focal categories of EEG signals is the primary task to locate epilepsy affected regions in the brain. In this paper, a novel approach to classify the focal and non-focal types of EEG signals is proposed. This approach is based on the decomposition of the EEG signal into reconstruction components (RCs) using sliding mode-singular spectrum analysis (SM-SSA). A total of five RCs are extracted from each EEG signal using SM-SSA. Then, a classifier is designed by combining the sparse-autoencoder (SAE) hidden layer, and radial basis function neural network (RBFN). Each RC obtained from the SM-SSA of EEG signal, and the SAE based RBFN (SAE-RBFN) classifir are used to classify the focal and non-focal types of EEG signals. The performance of the proposed approach is assessed using a publicly available database. The experimental results demonstrate that the third RC coupled with SAE-RBFN classifier produces an average accuracy, average sensitivity and average specificity values of 99.11%, 98.52%, and 99.70%, respectively using 10-fold cross-validation. The proposed approach is compared with existing methods for the discrimination of focal and non-focal EEG signals.
... The literature suggests that IEDs tend to be more prevalent in specific conditions including habitual violence/aggression and panic attacks. 12 In prepubescent individuals whose brains are changing rapidly, the cerebral dysrhythmia from IEDs may also contribute to maturation issues by way of transient cognitive impairment. [13][14][15] Isolated epileptiform discharges also have a higher prevalence among childhood psychiatric disorders as compared with healthy children, specifically ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, and Tourette syndrome. ...
... [13][14][15] Isolated epileptiform discharges also have a higher prevalence among childhood psychiatric disorders as compared with healthy children, specifically ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, and Tourette syndrome. 12 The population of ASD has a high prevalence of EEG abnormalities compared with other psychiatric disorders. 16 When Mulligan and Trauner compared forms of ASD, they found that those patients with more aggressive behavior had higher incidence of IEDs compared with those with less severe forms of Autism. ...
Article
Introduction: Data from an EEG is not commonly used by psychiatrists to plan treatment and medication. However, EEG abnormalities such as isolated epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are found to be more prevalent in psychiatric patients, particularly those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most medications prescribed for ASD lower seizure threshold and increase side-effects. Therefore, it may be prudent to order an EEG for ASD cases, especially those categorized as refractory. The objective of this study was to explore integrating EEG into a psychiatric practice that treats patients with ASD. Methods: The dataset was obtained from a multidisciplinary practice that treats a wide variety of neuroatypical children and adolescent refractory patients. This study investigated 140 non-epileptic subjects diagnosed with ASD, ages 4 to 25. Visual inspection of the EEG was performed in order to search for paroxysmal, focal, or lateralizing patterns. Results: Of the 140 subjects, the EEG data identified 36 percent with IEDs. The Chi-square analysis found no significant difference between genders among the three age groups. Findings indicated a high prevalence of IEDs among individuals with ASD. Conclusions: Our results find that compared to the healthy population, a large number of patients with ASD have IEDs despite never having a seizure. Our findings support the use of EEG in children, adolescents, and young adults with ASD, regardless of gender or age. This is particularly true for those who exhibit aggressive behaviors or those who have failed prior medication attempts with stimulants, antidepressants, and/or antipsychotics.
... Letters correspond to the general region/lobe of the brain to which they overlie. Numbers indicate the location relative to the midline (Boutros, Galderisi, Pogarell, & Riggio, 2011 (cognitively nonactive) to an active state (during cognitive engagement) to be examined. ...
... Letters correspond to the general region/lobe of the brain to which they overlie. Numbers indicate the location relative to the midline (Boutros, Galderisi, Pogarell, & Riggio, 2011). Numbers 1, 3, 7 overlie the left hemisphere; Numbers 2, 4, 8 overlie the right hemisphere; Z (zero) indicates electrodes on the centre/midline. ...
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Nurses' inherently stressful occupation leaves them at a higher risk of developing negative mental states (stress, anxiety, and depression). However, research examining the effect of negative mental states on these health professionals' cognitive performance is sparse. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the link between negative mental states and cognitive performance in nurses (n = 53). Negative mental state data was obtained using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, brain activity was measured using electroencephalography, and finally, cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognistat and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Significant negative correlations (p <.05) were observed between anxiety and attention, and all three negative mental states and memory performance. Electroencephalographic changes indicated that increases in anxiety were significantly associated (p <.05) with decreases in gamma reactivity at fronto-central sites. The current study suggests that higher levels of negative mental states are associated with domain-specific cognitive impairments, and variations in gamma reactivity; possibly reflecting less optimal cortical functioning.
... Theta waves are often seen during times of drowsiness, daydreaming or during light sleep, but can also occur during thoughtless, restless over activity (are common in children but not in normal awake adults). A fourth type of brain wave, called delta, is seen during deep sleep [6] [7]. An increasing number of studies within the recent years connected physical exercise with changes in brain cortical activity [5]. ...
Article
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The results of some studies show that the first changes happening due to the physical activity in brain are the changes in alpha and beta brain wave activity. These changes are more obvious when individuals are allowed to take part in their favorite activities and the desired intensity for a long time. Therefore, this research aims at studying the comparison of brain cortex electrical activity between endurance runners and sedentary men during rest period. In this research, the researcher has compared changes in dependent variables between experimental and control groups. To do this, ten male endurance runners, with the average age 24/23±2/12, who had participated in National and International competitions and also performed endurance training for at least five years, have been compared with ten sedentary men with the average age 24/21±2/32. The results of this research showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in brain cortex alpha and beta waves (p≤0.05). It also showed that there was a significant difference between these two groups in brain cortex lobes alpha wave, especially in occipital lobe and generally in the other lobes. It should be mentioned that the significant difference of beta wave in frontal lobe was seen (p≤0.05). In general, it can be concluded that chronic endurance training causes an increase in brain cortex electrical activity (alpha and beta brain waves) and then leads to improvement of alertness, concentration, creativity, visualization, and relaxation. INTRODUCTION The human brain emits electrical activity in waves that can be measured by a device called an Electroencephalograph (EEG). EEG reflects electrical activities of human brain neuronal populations which can be affected by physical, physiological, and psychological (emotional) states directly [1][18]. When the results of an EEG measurement are analyzed, scientists are able to identify certain brain wave patterns recorded by the machine. There are several frequencies of brain waves when we are awake; these are called alpha (medium), beta (fast), and theta (slow) waves. Alpha waves are seen when a person is in a relaxed state, and not actively thinking or interacting with one's environment (awake but relaxed state). Beta waves are present when a person is interacting with the surrounding environment, and is concentrating, thinking, or solving problems (awake, alert state). Theta waves are often seen during times of drowsiness, daydreaming or during light sleep, but can also occur during thoughtless, restless over activity (are common in children but not in normal awake adults). A fourth type of brain wave, called delta, is seen during deep sleep [6] [7]. An increasing number of studies within the recent years connected physical exercise with changes in brain cortical activity [5]. Exercise is well known to result in changes of brain cortical activity measured by EEG. The effect of acute exercise on the EEG (rhythms and event-related potentials; ERP) has been investigated by several researchers [8]-[16]. Krause et al. found a significant increase in the peak frequency of the alpha wave during static muscle work but no significant difference in the power densities in four EEG rhythms (delta, theta, alpha and beta waves) [8]. It has been reported that absolute EEG band power significantly increased after resistance exercise in the alpha, beta, theta and delta bands [9]. Stock et al. have also examined a suppressive influence of massage treatment during regeneration on central and front lateral beta waves. These changes are more obvious when individuals are allowed to take part in favorite physical activities. However, these researches focused on the influence of acute low, preferred and high intensity exercise on the EEG rhythm with reference to the pre-, post-and during exercise state. Of interest is the assessment of effect of the chronic endurance exercise on the EEG which has not been well investigated conventionally. The present study thus examined the amplitude (power) of the EEG rhythms (alpha and beta waves) after a chronic and favorite aerobic exercise with high intensity during rest period.
... To illustrate this point, we will focus our presentation on two specific clinical applications: epilepsy and Alzheimer disease. Nevertheless, M/EEG can be useful for a wider range of applications both in neurological and psychiatric disorders [36,15]. ...
... The use of EEG moved into multidisciplinary areas such as Psychiatry and Neurology. The brain abnormalities such as epilepsy and structural lesions were some of the major fields in clinical applications [1].The EEG signal and its oscillatory activity are strongly related with temporal modulation of information processing. Generally, oscillations of alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12) Hz) band of the EEG rhythm, the amplitude of the signal changes in the memory and cognitive based tasks [7], [6]. ...
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In this study, we investigate the clustering information of alpha band brain networks during memory load task. For this purpose, short time memory task which includes memory load varieties is implemented to the subjects. To calculate mutual information, time and frequency information is both taken into consideration due to Cohen class time-frequency distribution (TFD) formulation. Cohen class based mutual information helps us to integrate adjacency matrices based on the similarity information of individual electrode pairs. In addition, essential frequency bins are selected from the TFD with respect to the default alpha frequency (8 - 12Hz) intervals. Moreover, graph based spectral clustering algorithm is used to parcellate memory related circuits on the brain. From the calculated adjacency matrices, the N-cut algorithm is used for node wise clustering between nodes. After node wise clustering information, subject wise clustering is applied with respect to the similarities of node information over all subjects.
... Although both forms of diffuse EEG slowing are correlates of a diffuse encephalopathic process, the two forms are not necessarily the same physiologically, as intermittent slowing that is maximal in frontal regions tends to correlate with delirium, whereas regular diffuse slowing may correlate more with degenerative disorders like dementia. 52 It should be noted that this potential difference in EEG changes that occur after ECT has not been explored any further in the literature. Furthermore, follow-up EEG studies have varied in their estimates of when the EEG slowing completely abates but varies from hours to months. ...
Article
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains to be one of the most effective treatment options in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). From the early days, researchers have embarked on extracting information from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings before, during, and after ECT to identify neurophysiological targets of ECT and discover EEG predictors of response to ECT in patients with MDD. In this article, we provide an overview of visually detected and quantitative EEG features that could help in furthering our understanding of the mechanisms of action of ECT in MDD. We further discuss the EEG findings in the context of postulated hypotheses of ECT therapeutic pathways. We introduce an alternative and unifying hypothesis suggesting that ECT may exert its therapeutic efficacy through resetting the aberrant functional connectivity and promoting the generation of new and healthy connections in brain regions implicated in MDD pathophysiology, a mechanism that may be in part mediated by the ECT-induced activation of inhibitory and neuroplasticity mechanisms. We further discuss the added value of EEG markers in the larger context of ECT research and as complementary to neuroimaging and genetic markers. We conclude by drawing attention to the need for longitudinal studies in large cohort of patients and the need for standardization and validation of EEG algorithms of functional connectivity across studies to facilitate the translation of EEG correlates of ECT response in routine clinical practice.
... Electrophysiological measures that have been established as clinically useful, or have the potential to become so, include the standard, visually inspected, EEG (heretofore called standard or sEEG and not to be confused with stereo-EEG, used to invasively identify epileptic foci for surgical purposes), quantified EEG (qEEG), cerebral evoked potentials (EPs) including event-related potentials (ERPs), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and polysomnography (PSG). The sEEG remains the corner stone of this field and the one testing modality with the most established clinical applications (Boutros et al., 2011). In general, all current widely accepted clinical applications fall in the category of identifying medical causes of psychiatric symptoms. ...
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Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a major public health issue, with comorbid OCD contributing to the general medical costs and severity associated with TRD. Recent research has investigated the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and its variant rTMS) in ameliorating the symptoms of depression and OCD. Most studies have used TMS to facilitate electromagnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a region implicated in depression, or the supplemental motor area, a region implicated in OCD. However, it is difficult to achieve full remission with TMS alone. A parallel line of research has examined the effects of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, on both depression and OCD. A primary benefit of ketamine is that it provides short-term but rapid relief from certain grave TRD symptoms within approximately two hours. As of yet, little is known about the possible synergistic effects of combined TMS/ketamine for comorbid TRD and OCD. Thus, I report on the case of a 32-year-old male who presented with chronic OCD with somatic fixation, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder, who was treated with a novel combined TMS/ketamine treatment for 12 weeks. Measures of depression and OCD symptoms were administered pre and post treatment. The patient showed significant reductions in depression, but not OCD symptoms, which is consistent with previous research.
... Therefore, under diagnosis and misdiagnosis is significant in this disorder (6,9). The QEEG as a common and reliable biomarker can be helpful in identification of neurophysiological differences in brain activity which are considered as main factors in occurrence of psychiatric disorders (10,11,12,13,14). The QEEG method is defined as "The mathematical processing of digitally recorded EEG in order to highlight specific waveform components, transform the EEG into a format or domain that elucidates relevant information, or associate numerical results" (15). ...
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Objective: Early diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar mood disorder is very challenging particularly in adolescence. Hence, we aimed to investigate the cerebral cortex function in these patients, using quantitative electroencephalography analysis to obtain significant differences between them. Methods: Thirty- eight adolescents (18 patients with bipolar disorder I and 20 with BMD II) participated in this study. We recorded the electroencephalogram signals based on 10-20 international system by 21 electrodes in eyes open and eyes closed condition resting conditions. Forty seconds segments were selected from each recorded signals with minimal noise and artifacts. Periodogram Welch was used to estimate power spectrum density from each segment. Analysis was performed in five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma), and we assessed power, mean, entropy, variance and skewness of the spectrums, as well as mean of the thresholded spectrum and thresholded spectrogram. We only used focal montage for comparison. Eventually, data were analyzed by independent Mann-Whitney test and independent t test. Results: We observed significant differences in some brain regions and in all frequency bands. There were significant differences in prefrontal lobe, central lobe, left parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe between BMD I and BMD II (P < 0.05). In patients with BMD I, spectral entropy was compared to patients with BMD II. The most significant difference was observed in the gamma frequency band. Also, the power and entropy of delta frequency band was larger in the left parietal lobe in the BMD I patients compared to BMD II patients (P < 0.05). In the temporal lobe, significant differences were observed in the spectrum distribution of beta and gamma frequency bands (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The QEEG and entropy measure are simple and available tools to help detect cerebral cortex deficits and distinguish BMD I from BMD II.
... Event-related potentials (ERPs) are common non-invasive clinical examinations in psychiatry that are derived from electroencephalograms (EEGs). ERPs are thought to contribute to the delivery of differential diagnoses, the establishment of treatment procedures and modalities, as well as to the follow-up of psychiatric pathologies (e.g., Boutros et al., 2011). In light of their optimal temporal resolution they can be applied to monitor brain electrical activity on a milliseconds scale. ...
Article
Objective: We found previously that use of a bimodal oddball design with synchronized pairs of audio-visual stimuli increased the sensitivity of the P300 wave to detect subclinical anxiety-depression in otherwise healthy subjects. Here, we wished to determine whether these P300 modulations would also be encountered when a clinical population comprised of patients with an adjustment disorder (AJD) was compared to healthy controls. Method: Two groups, each comprised of twenty-five participants (AJD patients, and controls; N=50) had to detect deviant stimuli among frequent stimuli in an oddball task by clicking on a button. Separate blocks involving audio (A), visual (V) or bimodal congruent (AV) stimuli were used and compared. Results: P300 amplitudes of the control group were higher than those displayed by AJD patients, but only in the bimodal AV oddball task, while unimodal (visual or auditory) oddball tasks did not reveal any significant differences. Conclusions: The increased sensitivity of the bimodal P300 that we observed previously in subclinical anxiety-depression was also observed in AJD patients. Significance: The impaired "bimodal congruence effect" in AJD suggests that these patients have altered integrative processes, which has potential implications for cognitive therapy.
... As a general note, the terms motor and sensory apply to activity in premotor/primary motor and sensory/parietal regions, respectively, as primary motor activity was not statistically different from premotor activity over time, nor was parietal activity different from sensory activity. Additionally, although EEG monitors the ion currents associated with neural activity, both inhibitory and excitatory potentials may be detected as negative or positive depending on where they are generated [32,33]. For each subject and protocol, polarity was typically established from the first repetition and few subjects crossed from negative to positive. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cortical activity is thought to reflect the biomechanical properties of movement (e.g., force or velocity of movement), but fatigue and movement familiarity are important factors that require additional consideration in electrophysiological research. The purpose of this within-group quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) investigation was to examine changes in cortical activity amplitude and location during four resistance exercise movement protocols emphasizing rate (PWR), magnitude (FOR), or volume (VOL) of force production, while accounting for movement familiarity and fatigue. EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets. Biomechanical, biochemical, and exertional data were collected to contextualize electrophysiological data. The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity. Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall. Our findings suggest that cortical activity is strongly related to aspects of fatigue during a high intensity resistance exercise movement.
... In this study, we assumed that an input-output relationship existed between surface EEG and EMG signals. We further assumed that the EEG signal from C z primarily reflected the postsynaptic potentials on the apical dendritic tufts of the pyramidal neurons in the primary motor cortex (Olejniczak, 2006;Kirschstein and Köhling, 2009;Bucci and Galderisi, 2011;Buzsáki et al., 2012) and that these pyramidal neurons received predominantly excitatory input (Spruston, 2008). Lastly, because pyramidal neurons that connectmonosynaptically to the α motor neurons are concentrated in the primary motor cortex (Maertens DeNoordhout et al., 1999;Kalaska and Rizzolatti, 2013), the most appropriate scenario for EEG-EMG coherence may be monosynaptic corticomotoneuronal recruitment via the corticospinal tracts. ...
Article
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In humans, the midline primary motor cortex is active during walking. However, the exact role of such cortical participation is unknown. To delineate the role of the primary motor cortex in walking, we examined whether the primary motor cortex would activate leg muscles during movements that retained specific requirements of walking (i.e., locomotive actions). We recorded electroencephalographic and electromyographic signals from 15 healthy, young men while they sat and performed bilateral, cyclical ankle movements. During dorsiflexion, near-20-Hz coherence increased cyclically between the midline primary motor cortex and the co-contracting antagonistic pair (i.e., tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles) in both legs. Thus, we have shown that dynamic increase in corticomuscular coherence, which has been observed during walking, also occurs during simple bilateral cyclical movements of the feet. A possible mechanism for such coherence is corticomuscular communication, in which the primary motor cortex participates in the control of movement. Furthermore, because our experimental task isolated certain locomotive actions, the observed coherence suggests that the human primary motor cortex may participate in these actions (i.e., maintaining a specified movement frequency, bilaterally coordinating the feet, and stabilizing the posture of the feet). Additional studies are needed to identify the exact cortical and subcortical interactions that cause corticomuscular coherence and to further delineate the functional role of the primary motor cortex during bilateral cyclical movements such as walking.
... Снижение альфа-ритма и тем более его отсутствие, а также появление ритмов других диапазонов, относящихся к патологическим, считается проявлением нарушения корково-подкорковых взаимоотношений разной степени тяжести [127,129,149,150]. Наши результаты свидетельствуют о корреляции значения индекса альфа-ритма, энергии вейвлетного спектра и оптимальности корково-подкорковых взаимоотношений. ...
Book
The monograph is a continuation of the development of the concept of reducing the dynamic complexity of physiological rhythms in the event of a pathological condition. The results presented in the monograph represent new evidence of the change in this complexity in various disorders of the functional state of the central nervous system, and give an understanding that only a complex application of a combination of nonlinear dynamics and wavelet analysis methods to the analysis of physiological signals allows, firstly, to identify statistical significant differences in the structure of the patterns of the studied signals for a healthy person and a person with functional disorders, and, secondly, to determine the biophysical mechanisms of changes in the dynamic complexity of these patterns when the functional state changes. The biophysical mechanisms underlying the change in the dynamic complexity of patterns of electrical activity of the brain and involuntary hand oscillations in the event of pathological conditions associated with anxiety-phobic disorders, vascular disorders, epileptic injuries, motor dysfunctions, and neuropathic pain are considered. It is shown that in the case of multifractal signals, these mechanisms are associated with a change in the degree of correlation of patterns due to the occurrence of fluctuations in sequential signal values, and in the case of non-fractal signals, with the occurrence of bifurcations leading to a change in oscillation modes. The possibility of using wavelet, multifractal and recurrent characteristics of EEG patterns and involuntary hand oscillations is demonstrated to assess the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic treatment in pain syndrome in patients with anxiety-phobic disorders, to find the degree of deviation of a person’s motor function from the norm and to reliably distinguish between parkinsonian and essential tremors. The mechanisms of structural rearrangements in the patterns of tremor arising during the performance of a motor task are revealed, and an explanation is obtained for the decrease in this complexity with an increase in the degree of deviation of a person’s motor function from the norm. The molecular mechanism underlying the change in the dynamic complexity of the patterns of impulse activity of sensory neurons in the event of an antinociceptive response has been identified. The monograph is addressed to both biophysicists, neurophysiologists, and clinical practitioners, since the research results presented in it allow assessing the degree of disorders of the functional state of the nervous system and represent new approaches to the diagnosis of these conditions. The monograph includes a detailed description of modern methods for analyzing the dynamics of non-stationary physiological signals and can be used by graduate students and researchers specializing in the study of the structure of dynamic changes in complex signals generated by physical, chemical, biological or economic systems.
... Due to its process of measuring time in milliseconds (ms), EEG has excellent temporal resolution and is suitable for both resting/default state and task-based experiments (Schomer and Lopes da Silva, 2011;Srinivasan and Nunez, 2012;Mohammad-Rezazadeh et al., 2016). EEG is particularly useful in understanding the behavioural and cognitive challenges experienced by patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and ASD, and can provide a potential biomarker of disorder, particularly in measuring responses to sensory stimuli (Boutros, 2011;Webb et al., 2015). ...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting about 1 in 100 children and is currently incurable. ASD represents a challenge to traditional methods of assessment and diagnosis, and it has been suggested that direct measures of brain activity and connectivity between brain regions during demanding tasks represents a potential pathway to building more accurate models of underlying brain function and ASD. One of the key behavioural diagnostic indicators of ASD consists of sensory features (SF), often characterised by over- or under-reactivity to environmental stimuli. SF are associated with behavioural difficulties that impede social and education success in these children as well as anxiety and depression. This review examines the previous literature on the measurement of EEG connectivity and SF observed in individuals with ASD.
... The popularity of cognitive neuroscience during the past few decades is widespread due to non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG). EEG offers a temporal measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) through the recording of the cerebral activity of depressive disorder patients in milliseconds (Boutros et al., 2011) while establishing a correlation between neural activity and stimulus processing (Luck, 2014;Luck and Kappenman, 2012;Jagaroo and Santangelo, 2017). This method directly stimulates the specific region of brain through the stimulus, and records electrical signals by placing electrodes on the surface of the scalp and comparing the electrical voltage fluctuation across regions of brain. ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses neurocognitive mechanisms in terms of latency and amplitudes of EEG signals in depression that are presented in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs). Reviewing the available literature on depression, this chapter classifies early P100, ERN, N100, N170, P200, N200, and late P300 ERP components in frontal, mid-frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Using auditory oddball paradigm, most of the studies testing depressive patients have found robust P300 amplitude reduction. Proposing EEG methods and summarizing behavioral, neuroanatomical, and electrophysiological findings, this chapter discusses how the different tasks, paradigms, and stimuli contribute to the cohesiveness of neural signatures and psychobiological markers for identifying the patients with depression. Existing research gaps are directed to conduct ERP studies following go/no-go, flanker interference, and Stroop tasks on global and local attentional stimuli associated with happy and sad emotions to examine anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) dysfunction in depression.
... Event-related potentials (ERPs) are electroencephalogram (EEG) indexes that allow for non-invasive recordings of cerebral activity with a temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds (Boutros et al., 2011). Such recordings may also allow for further identification of the relationship between neural activity and stimulus processing, each of which may be abnormal in individuals with psychiatric disorders (Charney and Nestler, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective In this study, we investigated auditory-visual stimulation-induced P300 and examined whether P300 was differentially modulated between individuals with clinical depression and healthy controls. We hypothesized that the P300 component would significantly differ between individuals with depression and healthy individuals Specifically, we predicted that the P300 component induced by the bimodal oddball task would be significantly different from that induced by the unimodal task. Methods Forty-five individuals with depression and forty-five healthy controls participated in this study. All participants were instructed to complete three oddball tasks—auditory (A), visual (V), and bimodal (AV)—while their electroencephalographic signals were recorded. Results Individuals with depression had a lower P300 amplitude and a longer latency than controls in the bimodal task. P300 amplitudes in the bimodal task were significantly higher than in the auditory or visual tasks in both groups. In the depression group, the P300 amplitude was negatively correlated with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores in the bimodal task. Conclusions Our results, which agree with those reported previously, suggest that there is a heightened P300 amplitude sensitivity in the bimodal task in individuals with depression. Our data also suggest that P300 amplitudes in the bimodal task may reflect the severity of depression. Significance The reduced task-related ERP response in individuals with depression suggests significant impairments in these individuals in stimulus integration and response functions.
... The recording of the EEG signals is carried out based on either non-invasive or invasive ways using electrodes. The EEG signals which are recorded noninvasively using electrodes are termed as surface EEG signals [11]. Moreover, the intracranial EEG signals are recorded in an invasive way by inserting the electrodes inside of the human brain [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The neurological pathology which occurs due to the disturbance of the nerve cell activity and causing recurrent seizures is called epilepsy. In medical practice, the localization of the epileptogenic area or region in the brain is the primary task for the effectiveness of the epilepsy surgery. The epileptogenic region is identified based on the presence of focal electroencephalogram (EEG) signals during recording. Therefore, the classification of focal (FL) and non-focal (NFL) classes of EEG channels is the prerequisite to identify the epileptogenic regions in the brain. In this paper, a hybrid approach based on the combination of the band or rhythm specific Fourier-Bessel series expansion domain empirical wavelet transform (FBSE-EWT) filter bank and sparse autoencoder (SAE) based support vector machine (SAE-SVM) network is proposed for the categorization of FL and NFL types of EEG channels. The rhythms such as \delta, \theta, \alpha, \beta, and \gamma are obtained from the EEG signal of each channel using FBSE-EWT filter bank. The SAE-SVM network classifies the FL and NFL categories of EEG channels directly from the rhythms. The results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid approach has 100% accuracy for the classification of FL and NFL types using the \delta-rhythms of EEG signals for both channels. The approach extracts learnable features in the SAE stage, and these features have higher performance as compared to the existing features for the categorization of FL and NFL types of EEG channels.
... The Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important, non-invasive and cost-efficient medical technique allowing the investigation of electrical activity in the brain. It is a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric, neurological and medical conditions that can help monitor and evaluate the clinical and/or therapeutic course of psychiatric disorders [1]. ERPs like the P300 are time-related voltage fluctuations linked to internal or external events (e.g. ...
Article
Introduction: Diagnosis in psychiatry remains largely subjective. Developing biological observations in psychiatric disorders into laboratory-based diagnostic tests can significantly impact diagnosis and management of these disorders. Diagnostic electrophysiological techniques are non-invasive and relatively inexpensive. Areas covered: In this review, the authors propose that enough knowledge has accumulated to allow the establishment of psychiatry-based clinical electrophysiology laboratories (PCELs). A brief summary of established clinical indications for electrophysiology tests, summary of highly promising technologies and a presentation of a proposed four-step approach to facilitate the translation of promising biological observations into diagnostic tests are provided. The reader should develop an appreciation of the current status of the clinical applications of psychiatric electrophysiology. The authors propose to capitalize on the widely accepted indication to rule out medical causes of psychiatric symptoms (e.g., epileptic activity) to begin developing PCELs as the equipment and skills necessary are basic to the entire discipline. The potential impact of the growing knowledge on the practice of psychiatry is explored to update clinicians and administrators as they develop laboratory and service plans. Expert opinion: Psychiatric electrophysiology currently plays a limited role in the diagnosis and management in psychiatry. This status is not supported by the existing literature. The underutilization of electrophysiological tests in psychiatry is propagated by the fact that the laboratories providing the service are not managed by psychiatrists. The authors propose that the first steps are to establish such laboratories and train psychiatrists to competently provide the service.
Article
Malignant catatonia is a life-threatening syndrome that could be observed in various psychiatric and neurological conditions. We describe the challenging case of a young woman with relapsing-remitting malignant catatonia, which finally resolve after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Details regarding her psychiatric symptoms, dynamics, and EEG features during each acute and post-acute phases of the disease are described and long-term follow-ups are provided. We emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary cross talk between neurologists and psychiatrists to ensure adequate management of this dangerous condition. Knowledge and gaps in the field of autoimmune psychosis are also discussed.
Article
Conventional electroencephalogram (EEG) is an essential non-invasive technique to determine the physiological and functional brain status. EEG is worthy of interest (i) for the diagnosis of neurological diseases in psychiatric syndromes and (ii) for the monitoring of possible iatrogenic effects of some psychiatric treatments: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), antipsychotics (particularly clozapine), lithium and tricyclic antidepressants. The purpose of this article is to provide a basic knowledge to psychiatrists about the EEG signal and its origin, the special techniques used in psychiatry and EEG vocabulary description, in order to precise the best prescriptions of it and to understand the reports in their daily clinical practice. The relevance of the conclusion of an EEG requires an electro-clinical confrontation that involves a good knowledge of psychiatry by neurophysiologists and a good knowledge of EEG by psychiatrists. This complementary approach associated with an easy EEG accessibility in psychiatry allows this examination to keep an essential place for quality of health care of patients with mental disorders.
Article
Epileptiform discharges (EDs) in nonepileptic populations remain controversial as to their role in psychopathology. Previous studies have unsuccessfully attempted to correlate specific waveforms of EDs, defined by duration and morphology, with broad diagnostic categories such as depression and anxiety. These diagnostic categories often include heterogeneous patient populations, with potentially divergent biological underpinnings of clinical presentation. This study examined epileptiform activities as a single phenomenon, identifying the relationships between distribution patterns of EDs and endorsement of clinical symptoms across affective, cognitive, and somatic domains. In a sample of 71 nonepileptic psychiatric patients, those with EDs appearing in homologous electrode pairs endorsed significantly fewer symptoms related to affective deregulation. These patients were also significantly less likely to endorse a history of severe symptomatology, including suicidal ideation/previous attempt, self-injurious behavior, psychoses or dissociation, and previous psychiatric hospitalization. Conversely, patients with isolated EDs focused to a single brain region endorsed greater affective deregulation and severe clinical symptoms. These findings offer new possibilities regarding the potentially protective role that EDs may play when distributed across hemispheres, particularly in light of recent theories exploring functional connectivity of neuronal networks.
Article
Full-text available
Much of our behaviour is driven by two motivational dimensions—approach and avoidance. These have been related to frontal hemispheric asymmetries in clinical and resting‐state EEG studies: Approach was linked to higher activity of the left relative to the right hemisphere, while avoidance was related to the opposite pattern. Increased approach behaviour, specifically towards unhealthy foods, is also observed in obesity and has been linked to asymmetry in the framework of the right‐brain hypothesis of obesity. Here, we aimed to replicate previous EEG findings of hemispheric asymmetries for self‐reported approach/avoidance behaviour and to relate them to eating behaviour. Further, we assessed whether resting fMRI hemispheric asymmetries can be detected and whether they are related to approach/avoidance, eating behaviour and BMI. We analysed three samples: Sample 1 (n = 117) containing EEG and fMRI data from lean participants, and Samples 2 (n = 89) and 3 (n = 152) containing fMRI data from lean, overweight and obese participants. In Sample 1, approach behaviour in women was related to EEG, but not to fMRI hemispheric asymmetries. In Sample 2, approach/avoidance behaviours were related to fMRI hemispheric asymmetries. Finally, hemispheric asymmetries were not related to either BMI or eating behaviour in any of the samples. Our study partly replicates previous EEG findings regarding hemispheric asymmetries and indicates that this relationship could also be captured using fMRI. Our findings suggest that eating behaviour and obesity are likely to be mediated by mechanisms not directly relating to frontal asymmetries in neuronal activation quantified with EEG and fMRI.
Book
This volume is designed to serve as a reference source containing both historical and recent references with a special focus on the existing gaps of knowledge regarding EEG deviations in psychiatric populations. Every chapter begins by outlining the clinical issues, then reviews available literature and concludes by highlighting a) currently supportable findings, and b) open research questions. In some chapters the author makes suggestions regarding the research design that will most likely lead to generating data that can move the field towards resolving unresolved issues. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013. All rights are reserved.
Conference Paper
This paper presents electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and normal distribution technique to recognize the complex emotion. In the recent years, there has been a trend towards recognizing human emotions, however not many researcher aware that human can recognize more than one emotion at one time. Thus, in this study, normal distribution is utilized to recognize the expected emotion. The feature extraction and classification were obtained using a Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The correlation between human emotion and mood is also the essential point, since the mood can affected to the human emotion. The results show that the human emotions is strongly influenced by his initial mood.
Chapter
Zu den neurophysiologischen Untersuchungsmethoden zählen die Elektroenzephalografie (EEG) und die ereigniskorrelierten Potenziale (EKP). Beide Verfahren sind in der Psychiatrie als nichtinvasive, funktionsdiagnostische Instrumente zur Abbildung neuronaler Massenaktivität unersetzbar. Sie liefern z. B. bei Demenzen wichtige diagnostische und differenzialdiagnostische Hinweise, sind zum Ausschluss epilepsietypischer Veränderungen obligat und erlauben die Erkennung neurotoxischer Reaktionen auf Psychopharmaka. Für spezielle Fragestellungen spielt außerdem die Schlafpolygrafie eine wichtige Rolle.
Chapter
The designation “controversial EEG wave forms” refers to a number of EEG patterns that tend to be more frequently detected in psychiatric populations and their association with epilepsy is weak, if at all. Included under this category are the Small Sharp Spikes (SSS), the Mitten pattern, the 6–7 and 14 positive spikes (PS), the six per second spike and waves (6/s SpW), Wicket Spikes (WS), and the Rhythmic Mid-Temporal Discharges (RMTD). It is of great interest that these waveforms have generated such heated arguments and almost all of them have two designations indicative of whether or not the speaker believes they have any clinical relevance. For example, using the term Benign Epileptiform Transients of Sleep (BETS) to refer to the SSSs would indicate that the speaker does NOT believe that this wave form has any clinical relevance. For more expanded discussion please refer to Hughes and Wilson (1983) and Hughes (1994). In the next four chapters examples of these patterns are given. The most important message is that these patterns are relatively more difficult to detect particularly to the unexperienced or hurried EEG reader. Additional examples of these patterns can be found in Gibbs and Gibbs (1964).
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.