Characteristics of Electrically Driven Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (Impact Factor: 1.89). 10/2005; 41(9):1131 - 1141. DOI: 10.1109/JQE.2005.852800
Source: IEEE Xplore


We demonstrate room-temperature low-threshold-current lasing action from electrically driven wavelength-scale high-quality photonic crystal lasers having large spontaneous emission factors by solving the theoretical and technical constraints laid upon by the additional requirement of the current injection. The ultrasmall cavity is electrically pulse pumped through a submicron-size semiconductor “wire” at the center of the mode with minimal degradation of the quality factor. In addition, to better utilize the low mobility of the hole, we employ a doping structure that is inverted from the conventional semiconductors. Rich lasing actions and their various characteristics are experimentally measured in the single-cell and three-cell photonic crystal cavities. Several relevant measurements are compared with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain computations based on the actual fabricated structural parameters. The electrically driven photonic crystal laser, which is a small step toward a “practical” form of the single photon source, represents a meaningful achievement in the field of photonic crystal devices and photonic integrated circuits as well as of great interest to the quantum electrodynamics and quantum information communities.

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Available from: Young-Gu Ju, Nov 05, 2013
    • "Finally, any other transmission and routing losses will increase the requirements to the source significantly. This letter aims at comparing three different electrical pumping schemes employed in the recently demonstrated PhC nanolasers [6], [10], and [11]. For the evaluation of optical and electrical properties of the nanolasers, Lastip, a commercial 2-dimensional laser diode simulator that self-consistently solves optical, electrical, and thermal equations [12] has been used; in the model the third dimension is assumed infinitely constant and the k·p method and the drift-diffusion model are implemented to describe optical gain and carrier transport respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction with a buried heterostructure. Self-consistent laser-diode simulations reveal that the lateral injection scheme with a buried heterostructure achieves the best lasing characteristics at a low current, whereas the vertical injection scheme performs better at a higher current for the chosen geometries. For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed.
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    • "The latter is important for coupling to in-plane on-chip waveguides. One major limitation is practical electrical injection, although laser diode operation has been reported [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Photonic crystal (PhC) lasers in InGaAsP membranes are bonded after fabrication to a sapphire substrate. The processed devices are held to the sapphire by van der Waals forces and do not require a high temperature anneal. PhC H2 defect cavity devices are found to lase continuous wave and line defect heterostructure devices lase pulsed, both under optical excitation. Postprocess bonding allows extensive fabrication on the native substrate before being transferred to a new substrate, which may be useful for making more complex nanophotonic devices and/or electrically injected devices.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2011 · IEEE Photonics Journal
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    • "PhC resonant cavities can be used for realizing lasers with very small size. A higher selectivity and single mode operation in a waveguide laser can be achieved by including in the cavity a PhC mirror placed [19]. A tunable single mode laser can be also realized by using cavities delimited by PhCs, exploiting the refractive index variation due to a temperature change PhCs allow to realize optical waveguides based on physical effects different from the conventional total internal reflection [20], by exploiting the effect of linear defects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Photonic crystals (PhCs) are artificial materials with a permittivity which is a periodic function of the position, with a period comparable to the wavelength of light. The most interesting characteristic of such materials is the presence of photonic band gaps (PBGs). PhCs have very interesting properties of light confinement and localization together with the strong reduction of the device size, orders of magnitude less than the conventional photonic devices, allowing a potential very high scale of integration. These structures possess unique characteristics enabling to operate as optical waveguides, high Q resonators, selective filters, lens or superprism. The ability to mould and guide light leads naturally to novel applications in several fields.Band gap formation in periodic structures also pertains to elastic wave propagation. Composite materials with elastic coefficients which are periodic functions of the position are named phononic crystals. They have properties similar to those of photonic crystals and corresponding applications too. By properly choosing the parameters one may obtain phononic crystals (PhnCs) with specific frequency gaps. An elastic wave, whose frequency lies within an absolute gap of a phononic crystal, will be completely reflected by it. This property allows realizing non-absorbing mirrors of elastic waves and vibration-free cavities which might be useful in high-precision mechanical systems operating in a given frequency range. Moreover, one can use elastic waves to study phenomena such as those associated with disorder, in more or less the same manner as with electromagnetic waves.The authors present in this paper an introductory survey of the basic concepts of these new technologies with particular emphasis on their main applications, together with a description of some modelling approaches.
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