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Trashed - Across the pacific ocean, plastics, plastics, everywhere

  • Algalita Marine Research and Education
Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere
CHARLES MOORE / Natural History v.112, n.9, Nov03
[More on plastic in the ocean]
It was on our way home, after finishing the Los Angeles-to-Hawaii sail race known as the Transpac, that
my crew and I first caught sight of the trash, floating in one of the most remote regions of all the oceans. I
had entered my cutter-rigged research vessel,Alguita, an aluminum-hulled catamaran, in the race to test
Bottle caps and other plastic objects are visible inside the
decomposed carcass of this Laysan albatross on Kure Atoll, which
lies in a remote and virtually uninhabited region of the North Pacific.
The bird probably mistook the plastics for food and ingested them
while foraging for prey.
a new mast. Although Alguitawas built for research trawling, she was also a smart sailor, and she fit into
the "cruising class" of boats that regularly enter the race. We did well, hitting a top speed of twenty knots
under sail and winning a trophy for finishing in third place.
Throughout the race our strategy, like that of every other boat in the race, had been mainly to avoid the
North Pacific subtropical gyre-the great high-pressure system in the central Pacific Ocean that, most of
the time, is centered just north of the racecourse and halfway between Hawaii and the mainland. But after
our success with the race we were feeling mellow and unhurried, and our vessel was equipped with
auxiliary twin diesels and carried an extra supply of fuel. So on the way back to our home port in Long
Beach, California, we decided to take a shortcut through the gyre, which few seafarers ever cross.
Fishermen shun it because its waters lack the nutrients to support an abundant catch. Sailors dodge it
because it lacks the wind to propel their sailboats.
I often struggle to find words that will communicate the vastness of the Pacific Ocean to people who have
never been to sea. Day after day, Alguita was the only vehicle on a highway without landmarks, stretching
from horizon to horizon. Yet as I gazed from the deck at the surface of what ought to have been a pristine
ocean, I was confronted, as far as the eye could see, with the sight of plastic.
It seemed unbelievable, but I never found a clear spot. In the week it took to cross the subtropical high,
no matter what time of day I looked, plastic debris was floating everywhere: bottles, bottle caps,
wrappers, fragments. Months later, after I discussed what I had seen with the oceanographer Curtis
Ebbesmeyer, perhaps the world's leading expert on flotsam, he began referring to the area as the
"eastern garbage patch." But "patch" doesn't begin to convey the reality. Ebbesmeyer has estimated that
the area, nearly covered with floating plastic debris, is roughly the size of Texas.
My interest in marine debris did not begin with my crossing of the North Pacific subtropical gyre.
Voyaging in the Pacific has been part of my life since earliest childhood. In fifty-odd years as a deckhand,
stock tender, able seaman, and now captain, I became increasingly alarmed by the growth in plastic
debris I was seeing. But the floating plastics in the gyre galvanized my interest.
I did a quick calculation, estimating the debris at half a pound for every hundred square meters of sea
surface. Multiplied by the circular area defined by
our roughly thousand-mile course through the gyre, the weight of the debris was about 3 million tons,
comparable to a year's deposition at Puente Hills, Los Angeles's largest landfill. I resolved to return
someday to test my alarming estimate.
Historically, the kind of drastic accumulation I encountered is a brand-new kind of despoilment. Trash has
always been tossed into the seas, but it has been broken down in a fairly short time into carbon dioxide
and water by marine microorganisms. Now, however, in the quest for lightweight but durable means of
storing goods, we have created a class of products—plastics—that defeat even the most creative and
voracious bacteria.
Unlike many discarded materials, most plastics in common use do not biodegrade. Instead they
"photodegrade," a process whereby sunlight breaks them into progressively smaller pieces, all of which
are still plastic polymers. In fact, the degradation eventually yields individual molecules of plastic, but
these are still too tough for most anything—even such indiscriminate consumers as bacteria—to digest.
And for the past fifty years or so, plastics that have made their way into the Pacific Ocean have been
fragmenting and accumulating as a kind of swirling sewer in the North Pacific subtropical gyre.
It surprised me that the debris problem in the gyre had not already been looked at more closely by the
scientific community. In fact, only recently starting in the early 1990s—has the scientific community begun
to focus attention on the trash in the gyre. One of the first investigators to study the problem was W
James Ingraham Jr., an oceanographer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
in Seattle. Ingraham's Ocean Surface Current Simulator (OSCURS) predicts that objects reaching this
area might revolve around in it for sixteen years or more [below].
Ocean Surface Current Simulator (OSCURS) model developed by W James Ingraham Jr., an
oceanographer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), predicts the trajectory of
drift originating along the coasts of the North Pacific rim. Drift from Japan is shown in red; drift from the
United States, in blue. The diagrams show the position of drift after 183 days (left), three years (center),
and ten years (right).
A year after my sobering voyage, I asked Steven B. Weisberg, director of the Southern California Coastal
Water Research Project and an expert in marine environmental monitoring, to help me make a more
rigorous estimate of the extent of the debris in the subtropical gyre. Weisberg's group had already
published an article on the debris they had collected in fish trawls of the Southern California Bight, a
region along the Pacific coast extending a hundred miles both north and south of Los Angeles. As I
discussed the design plan for our survey with Weisberg's statisticians, Molly K. Leecaster and Shelly L.
Moore, it became apparent that we were facing a new problem. In the coastal ocean, bodies of water are
naturally defined, in part, by the coasts they lie against. In the open ocean, however, bodies of water are
bounded by atmospheric pressure systems and the currents those systems create. In other words, air,
not land, defines the body of water. Because air pressure systems move, the body of water we wanted to
survey would be moving as well. A random sample of a moving area such as the gyre would have to be
done quite differently from the way Weisberg's group had conducted their survey along the Pacific coast.
The gyre we planned to survey is one of the largest ocean realms on Earth, and one of five major
subtropical gyres on the planet. Each subtropical gyre is created by mountainous flows of air moving from
the tropics toward the polar regions. The air in the North Pacific subtropical gyre is heated at the equator
and rises high into the atmosphere because of its buoyancy in cooler, surrounding air masses. The
rotation of the Earth on its axis moves the heated air mass westward as it rises, then eastward once it
cools and descends at around 30 degrees north latitude, creating a huge, clockwise-rotating mass of air
[see map at right].
The rotating air mass creates a high-pressure system throughout the region. Those high pressures
depress the ocean surface, and the rotating air mass also drives a slow but oceanic-scale surface current
that moves with the air in a clockwise spiral. Winds near the center of the high are light or even calm, and
so they do not mix the floating debris into the water column. This huge region, what I call a "gentle
maelstrom," has become an accumulator of debris from innumerable sources along the North Pacific rim,
as well as from ships at sea.
The subtropical gyres are also oceanic deserts in fact, many of the world's land-based deserts lie at
nearly the same latitudes as the oceanic gyres. Like their terrestrial counterparts, the oceanic deserts are
low in biomass. On land the low biomass is caused by the lack of moisture; in oceanic deserts the low
biomass is a consequence of great ocean depths.
In coastal areas and shallow seas, winds and waves constantly stir up and recycle nutrients, increasing
the biomass of the food web. In the deep oceans, though, such forces have no effect; the bottom
sequesters the nutrient-rich residue of millions of years of near-surface photosynthetic production, as well
as the decomposed fragments of life in the sea, trapping them miles below the surface. Hence the major
source of food for the web of life in deep ocean areas is photosynthesis.
But even in the clear waters that prevail in the subtropical gyres, photosynthesis is confined to the top of
the water column. Sunlight attenuates rapidly with depth, and by the time it has gone only about 5 percent
of the way to the bottom, the light is too weak to fuel marine plants. The net effect is a vast area poor in
resources, an effect that makes itself felt throughout the food web. Top predators, such as tuna and other
commercially viable fish don't hang out in the gyres because the density of prey is so low. The human
predator stays away too: the resources that have drawn entrepreneurs and scientists alike to various
regions of the ocean are not present in the subtropical gyres.
Currents in the North Pacific move in a clockwise spiral, or gyre, which tends to
trap debris originating from sources along the North Pacific rim. Plastics and other
waste have accumulated in the region, which includes the foraging areas of Pacific
bird colonies, such as that of the Tern Island albatross, shown in blue, and that of
the Guadalupe Island albatross, shown in green.
What does exist in the gyres is a great variety of filter-feeding organisms that prey on the ever-renewed
crop of tiny plants, or phytoplankton. Each day the phytoplankton grow in the sunlit part of the water, and
each night they are consumed by the filter feeders, a fantastic array of alien-looking animals called
zooplankton. The zooplankton include chordate jellyfishes known as "salps," which are among the fastest-
growing multicellular organisms on the planet. By fashioning their bodies into pulsating tubes, the salps
are able, each day, to filter half the water column they inhabit, drawing out the phytoplankton and smaller
zooplankton for food. But salps are gelatinous creatures with a low biomass, and so there is no market for
them, either. Hence the realm they dominate, one of the largest uniform habitats on the planet, remains
unexploited and largely unexplored.
Leecaster, Moore, and I came up with a plan to make a series of trawls with a surface plankton net,
along paths within a circle with a 564-mile radius. The area of the circle would then be almost exactly 1
million square miles. Trawling would start when we estimated we were under the central pressure cell of
the high-pressure system that creates the gyre. We would regard the starting point as the easternmost
point along the circumference of the circle. Then we would proceed due west to the center of the circle,
turn south, and sail back to the southernmost point on the circumference, alternating between trawling
and cruising. We intended to obtain transect samples with random lengths and random spacing between
trawls. To be conservative about our sampling technique, we decided that any debris we collected would
count only as a sample of the debris within the area of the transected circle.
In August 1998 1 set out with a four-member volunteer crew from Point Conception, California . heading
northwest toward the subtropical gyre. Onboard Alguita was a manta trawl, an apparatus resembling a
manta ray with wings and a broad mouth, which skimmed the ocean surface trailing a net with a fine
mesh. Eight days out of port, the wind dropped below ten knots and we decided to practice our manta
trawling technique, taking a sample at the edge of the subtropical gyre, about 800 miles offshore. We
pulled in the manta after trawling three and a half miles.
What we saw amazed us. We were looking at a rich broth of minute sea creatures mixed with hundreds of
colored plastic fragments-a plastic-plankton soup. The easy pickings energized all of us, and soon we
began sampling in earnest. Because plankton move up and down in the water column each day, we
needed to trawl nonstop, day and night, to get representative samples. When we encountered the light
winds typical of the subtropical gyre, we deployed the manta outside the port wake, along with two other
kinds of nets. Each net caught plenty of debris, but far and away the most productive trawl was the
There was plenty of larger debris in our path as well, which the crew members retrieved with an inflatable
dingy In the end, we took about a ton of this debris on board. The items included
a drum of hazardous chemicals;
an inflated volleyball, half covered in goose-neck barnacles;
a plastic coat hanger with a swivel hook;
a cathode-ray tube for a nineteen-inch TV;
an inflated truck tire mounted on a steel rim;
numerous plastic, and some glass, fishing floats;
a gallon bleach bottle that was so brittle it crumbled in our hands; and
a menacing medusa of tangled net lines and hawsers that we hung from the A-frame of our
catamaran and named Polly P, for the polypropylene lines that made up its bulk.
In 2001, in the Marine Pollution Bulletin, we published the results of our survey and the analysis we had
made of the debris, reporting, among other things, that there are six pounds of plastic floating in the North
Pacific subtropical gyre for every pound of naturally occurring zooplankton. Our readers were as shocked
as we were when we saw the yield of our first trawl. Since then we have returned to the area twice to
continue documenting the phenomenon. During the latest trip, in the summer of 2002, our photographers
captured underwater images of jellyfish hopelessly entangled in frayed lines, and transparent filter feeding
organisms with colored plastic fragments in their bellies.
Entanglement and indigestion, however, are not the worst problems caused by the ubiquitous plastic
pollution. Hideshige Takada, an environmental geochemist at Tokyo University, and his colleagues have
discovered that floating plastic fragments accumulate hydrophobic-that is, non-water-soluble-toxic
chemicals. Plastic polymers, it turns out, are sponges for DDT, PCBs, and other oily pollutants. The
Japanese investigators found that plastic resin pellets concentrate such poisons to levels as high as a
million times their concentrations in the water as free-floating substances.
The potential scope of the problem is staggering. Every year some 5.5 quadrillion (5.5 x 1015) plastic
pellets—about 250 billion pounds of them—are produced worldwide for use in the manufacture of plastic
products. When those pellets or products degrade, break into fragments, and disperse, the pieces may
also become concentrators and transporters of toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Thus an
astronomical number of vectors for some of the most toxic pollutants known are being released into an
ecosystem dominated by the most efficient natural vacuum cleaners nature ever invented: the jellies and
salps living in the ocean. After those organisms ingest the toxins, they are eaten in turn by fish, and so
the poisons pass into the food web that leads, in some cases, to human beings. Farmers can grow
pesticide-free organic produce, but can nature still produce a pollutant-free organic fish? After what I have
seen first hand in the Pacific, I have my doubts.
Many people have seen photographs of seals trapped in nets or choked by plastic six-pack rings, or sea
turtles feeding on plastic shopping bags, but the poster child for the consumption of pelagic plastic debris
has to be the Laysan albatross. The plastic gadgets one typically finds in the stomach of the bird-whose
range encompasses the remote, virtually uninhabited region around the northwest Hawaiian Islands-could
stock the checkout counter at a convenience store. My analysis of the stomach contents of birds from two
colonies of Laysan albatrosses that nest and feed in divergent areas of the North Pacific [see map above]
show differences in the types of plastic they eat. I believe those differences reveal something about the
way plastic is transported and breaks down in the ocean.
On Midway Island in the Hawaiian chain, a bolus, or mass of chewed food, coughed up by one bird
included many identifiable objects. By contrast, a bird on Guadalupe Island, which lies 150 miles off the
coast of Baja California, produced a bolus containing only plastic fragments. The principal natural prey of
both bird colonies is squid, but as the ecologist Carl Safina notes in his book Eye of the Albatross, the
birds' foraging style can be described as "better full than fussy." Robert W Henry III, a biologist at the
University of California, Santa Cruz, and his colleagues have tracked both the Hawaiian and the
Guadalupe populations of birds and found that the foraging areas of each colony in the Pacific are
generally nonoverlapping and wide apart.
One difference between the two areas is apparently the way debris flows into them. In Ingraham's
OSCURS model, debris from the coast of Japan reaches the foraging area of the Hawaiian birds within a
year. Debris from the West Coast of the United States, however, sticks close to the coast until it bypasses
the foraging area of the Guadalupe birds, then heads westward to Asia, not to return for six years or
more. The lengthy passage seems to give the plastic debris time to break into fragments.
The subtropical gyres of the world are part of the deep ocean realm, whose ability to absorb, hide, and
recycle refuse has long been seen as limitless. That ecologically sound image, however, was born in an
era devoid of petroleumbased plastic polymers. Yet the many benefits of modern society's productivity
have made nearly all of us hopelessly, and to a large degree rationally, addicted to plastic. Many, if not
most, of the products we use daily contain or are contained by plastic. Plastic wraps, packaging, and
even clothing defeat air and moisture and so defeat bacterial and oxidative decay. Plastic is ubiquitous
precisely because it is so good at preventing nature from robbing us of our hardearned goods through
incessant decay.
But the plastic polymers commonly used in consumer products, even as single molecules of plastic, are
indigestible by any known organism. Even those single molecules must be further degraded by sunlight or
slow oxidative breakdown before their constituents can be recycled into the building blocks of life. There
is no data on how long such recycling takes in the ocean-some ecologists have made estimates of 500
years or more. Even more ominously, no one knows the ultimate consequences of the worldwide
dispersion of plastic fragments that can concentrate the toxic chemicals already present in the world's
Ironically, the debris is re-entering the oceans whence it came; the ancient plankton that once floated on
Earth's primordial sea gave rise to the petroleum now being transformed into plastic polymers. That
exhumed life, our "civilized plankton," is, in effect, competing with its natural counterparts, as well as with
those life-forms that directly or indirectly feed on them.
And the scale of the phenomenon is astounding. I now believe plastic debris to be the most common
surface feature of the world's oceans. Because 40 percent of the oceans are classified as subtropical
gyres, a fourth of the planet's surface area has become an accumulator of floating plastic debris. What
can be done with this new class of products made specifically to defeat natural recycling? How can the
dictum "In ecosystems, everything is used" be made to work with plastic?
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... Such debris poses a threat to the marine ecosystem [5], where pollutants are more common and persistent [6,7]. The regions adjacent to this environment also receive pollutants from industrial, domestic and agricultural effluents, which are often discharged directly into the water without adequate treatment. ...
... The lowest quantity of debris pollution was observed at site-V and highest quantity observed at site-III (Fig. 4 [55]. The debris spread and accumulate in the beaches, washing up on high and low tide activities through entering in the seawater, and land runoff of the heavy rainfall, heavy wind speed and ocean currents were spread the offshore coastal marine ecosystems [56,57]. The floating debris in the offshore environment settles in sediment benthic zones and was ingested by marine organism mistaking the plastics for foods [58]. ...
The present investigation is focused on the forecasting visual observation of the impact of anthropogenic activity on the pilgrimage places located along the coastal environments in Tamil Nadu, India. Devotees performing the unregulated ritual ceremonies, open defecation, waste materials dumping and local municipality discharging wastewater contamination levels were assessed from direct visual surveillance, and by taking photographs and baseline information collected from five different pilgrimage sites. Results showed that ritual ceremonies, wastewater discharges and debris highly contaminated site-III, and found open defecation at site-I. The lack of coastal regulation, pollution awareness, insufficient sanitation facilities and failure to control the commercial and recreational activities have major deleterious effects on the present and future environments of the coastal areas. This is the first attempt conducted by visual assessment of the coastal pollution in pilgrimage places. The results immensely support the recommendation for proper regulation of ritual activities, arrangement of basic sanitation facilities and prohibition of wastewater discharges to prevent waterborne diseases as well as to strictly follow the regional and national level of coastal regulation policy to protect the biological resources of the Gulf of Mannar marine ecosystems.
... Most studies of marine debris have focused on easily visible and identifiable plastic objects Nakashima et al. 2011). Plastic materials have the ability to proliferate in innumerable sizes, shapes and colors throughout the marine environment worldwide (Moore 2003). ...
The global demand for materials and energy grows apace since the middle of last century and no stopping seems feasible in the next decades. Erosion of mangrove substrate results in mobilization of sediments enriched in metals and their release and availability to the biota. Changes in agricultural practices and the introduction of new practices can also result in increased flows of metals to the environment. The impacts of climate change on trace metal contamination have been fully discussed for marine ecosystems. Trace metal contamination often accumulates in the topsoil and the contaminant leaching is therefore controlled by the location of the water table. Total concentrations of heavy metals with high adsorption capacities to suspended solids also increase, due to increased resuspension of contaminated suspended sediment under high river discharge rates. The imbalance of heavy metals dynamics and circulation within marine environments has been fully modified during the last centuries, after the Industrial Revolution, but particularly in the last decade.
Intensive use of plastic products and improper management of plastic wastes have resulted in unprecedented plastic pollution in nearly every corner of the world. Plastic particles in the environment may be fragmented into small pieces (<5 mm) commonly defined as microplastics (MPs), which can be synthesized to serve as ingredients in certain consumer products. Plastics/MPs are known to prevalently derive from land-based sources to the oceans/seas via riverine runoff. The ubiquity of plastics/MPs in aquatic environments has gained increasing global attention. This chapter compiled and analyzed available data in the literature on the distribution of plastics/MPs in global oceans/seas and rivers and estimated riverine plastics outflows to global oceans. The results showed that global oceans were heavily polluted by MPs, with the Pacific Ocean containing the highest mean concentration. The concentrations of MPs in oceans/seas were highly correlated to those in adjacent rivers. To estimate the riverine plastic outflows to the global oceans, models have been developed, calibrated, and validated using field data. When all modeling results and field measurements were compared against each other, the Human Development Index was shown to be a better predictor in estimating global riverine plastic outflows than mismanaged plastic waste.
Microplastic accumulation in marine ecosystem is the potential environmental hazard because of its adverse impacts on the marine life. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of microplastic particles to the higher level in food chain is an associated serious concern. Monitoring of microplastic in marine ecosystems can be done using a number of methods, i.e., by direct observations; using ships and aerial views, GIS, and trawl surveys; using Remote-Operated Vehicles (ROVs), etc. Few scientific studies have evaluated the temporal trends in plastic accumulation in the marine environment. These include directed efforts of shoreline monitoring through monthly and annual sampling on beaches, seafloor, and surface waters. Various temporal trends that have been observed suggest that there is annual as well as seasonal increase in the marine microplastic pollution. This infers that only yearly monitoring is not sufficient, and there must be a seasonal or, more precisely, monthly sampling in order to have more accurate pattern of the changes occurring in microplastic accumulation. Plastic debris can also be monitored using indicator species. A significant example is the determination of plastic ingestion by Fulmarus glacialis or northern fulmars. It began in 1980s, and the plastic levels in the animal are used as a measure of the accumulation of plastic in European Coastlines and North Sea for OSPAR Ecological Quality Objective on marine litter.KeywordsMonitoringMicroplasticPollution
Although marine debris has been accumulating for many decades, only during the last three the accumulation of millions of waste tons at seas and oceans has generated interest and concern of scientists and governments. While marine debris may present different origins and nature, polymers lead in abundance. Annually, 1.15–2.41 million tons of plastic arrive to the ocean from rivers. Wastes are distributed at different marine compartments according to their density, with a huge impact in both marine fauna and water pollution. It becomes necessary, consequently, besides avoiding further waste dumping, to collect and manage the waste, not only marine one, but also the land waste. Both terrestrial and marine plastic waste can constitute resources or raw materials for different applications such as fuel, energy and of materials production. Research on suitable management and recycling/valorization are required to move towards a circular economy for generating more sustainable societies. In the present chapter, the main studies carried out about the recyclability of the main polymers present in marine waste are presented and analyzed, together with the main limitations and opportunities related with this recycling process.
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Atmospheric and Geological Entanglements is a study of contemporary North American ecopoetry, a poetry which is characterized by a negotiation or subversion of established cultural representations of nature, and by a re-deployment of poetic forms such as lyrical poetry, pastoral and elegy. The studied poets experiment with form and question well-established categories such as human and nature, instead emphasizing connections between the human, other organisms, and inorganic matter. Their poetry—one of several results of their artistic and critical practice, or poetics—thus highlights entanglements of various kinds and draws attention to the world as varied, complex and interconnected. The study has a specific focus on how twentieth-century ecopoetry relates to two material and aesthetic dimensions of the Anthropocene: the atmospheric and the geological. Geological imagery has been dominant in discussions about and in the Anthropocene, but ecopoetry emphasizes song, breathing and air as liberating atmospheric figures for communication and relationships, and for thinking with others and the planet.
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