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The role of students' motivation and participation in predicting performance on a MOOC

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Abstract

Over the last 5 years, massive open online courses (MOOCs) have increasingly provided learning opportunities across the world in a variety of domains. As with many emerging educational technologies, why and how people come to MOOCs needs to be better understood and importantly what factors contribute to learners' MOOC performance. It is known that online learning environments require greater levels of self-regulation, and that high levels of motivation are crucial to activate these skills. However, motivation is a complex construct and research on how it functions in MOOCs is still in its early stages. Research presented in this article investigated how motivation and participation influence students' performance in a MOOC, more specifically those students who persist to the end of the MOOC. Findings indicated that the strongest predictor of performance was participation, followed by motivation. Motivation influenced and was influenced by students' participation during the course. Moreover, situational interest played a crucial role in mediating the impact of general intrinsic motivation and participation on performance. The results are discussed in relation to how educators and designers of MOOCs can use knowledge emerging from motivational assessments and participation measures gleaned from learning analytics to tailor the design and delivery of courses.

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... D'ailleurs, certains trouvent qu'il s'agissait de la plus importante expérience jamais réalisée en pédagogie universitaire (Weissmann, 2012) et d'autres trouvent que le principal avantage des MOOC est avant tout l'idée de l'éducation gratuite et accessible à distance à tous (Harder, 2013 Au regard de l'importance de ce phénomène récent, susceptible de changer la donne et l'intérêt grandissant de toutes les parties prenantes qui y sont associées, les travaux de recherche relatifs à ce domaine restent limités et timides (Remond, 2017). Afin de mieux appréhender les contours de ce phénomène qui a soulevé plusieurs questionnements, il nous semble indispensable de poursuivre et intensifier les travaux de recherche pluridisciplinaires au sujet des MOOC qui sont encore embryonnaires (Greene et al. 2015 ; de Barba et al. 2016). Bonk et al. (2017) trouvent que les opportunités offertes par les MOOC sont multiples, notamment assurer le développement professionnel et la formation continue des personnes qui le souhaitent, sans limites. ...
... Les travaux menés par Kizilcec et al. (2013) Barba et al., 2016 ;Khalil et Ebner 2017 ;Poellhuber et al., 2019 ;Slouma et al., 2019 ;Vayre et al., 2019 ;Semenova, 2020). D'autres se sont intéressés à l'engagement des apprenants dans plusieurs MOOC différents selon leurs conceptions ou domaines et thèmes traités Halawa et al., 2014 ;Ferguson et Clow 2015 ;Qiu et al., 2016 ;Cisel, 2017 ;Williams et al., 2018 ;Fincham et al., 2019 ;Goli et al., 2019 ;Semenova, 2020). ...
... Les travaux de recherche étudiés ont analysé les traces logs des MOOC hébergés sur différentes plateformes : Coursera Sinha et al., 2014 ;de Barba et al., 2016 ;Pursel et al., 2016 ;Goli et al., 2019 ;Semenova, 2020) ; edX Fincham et al., 2019) ; FutureLearnen (Ferguson et al., 2015 ;Vayre et al., 2019) ; FUN (Cisel, 2017 ;Slouma et al., 2019) ; Sakai (Poellhuber et al., 2019) (Kizilcec et al., 2013 ;Ferguson et al., 2015 ;Khalil & Ebner, 2017 (Kizilcec et al., 2013 ;Qiu et al.,Khalil et Ebner, 2017 ;Poellhuber et al., 2019 ;Slouma et al., 2019) (Belanger et al., 2013 ;Breslow et al., 2013 ;Coffrin et al., 2014 ;Halawa et al., 2014 ;Colin Taylor 2015 ;Ferguson et al., 2015 ;Kizilcec et Halawa 2015 ;Xiong et al., 2015 ;Shrader et al., 2016 ;Tseng et al., 2016 ;Khalil et Ebner 2017 ;Fincham et al., 2019 ;Goli et al., 2019 ;Semenova, 2020) et/ou au temps passé par les apprenants lors de la réalisation de ces travaux. ...
Thesis
Au cours de ces dernières années, les cours massifs ouverts en ligne (CLOM) ou les Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) ont offert des possibilités d'apprentissage dans le monde entier dans divers domaines. Néanmoins, ces dispositifs sont critiqués vu leurs taux de réussite très bas. La recherche actuelle s’intéresse à la problématique de l’engagement et la réussite dans les MOOC. Comme pour de nombreuses technologies éducatives émergentes, il convient de mieux comprendre pourquoi et comment les apprenants réussissent aux MOOC et, surtout, quels sont les facteurs qui contribuent à améliorer leurs performances dans ces dispositifs. Cette thèse a pour objectif de contribuer à une meilleure compréhension des déterminants qui affectent l’engagement et les performances des apprenants dans les MOOC. Dans les environnements d'apprentissage en ligne, le niveau d’engagement semble être lié aux performances des apprenants. Cependant, l’engagement est une construction complexe et la recherche sur la façon dont il fonctionne dans les MOOC n'en est qu'à ses débuts. Nous avons cherché dans ce travail à proposer une modélisation théorique de l’engagement en tant que concept multidimensionnel qui joue le rôle d’une variable médiatrice qui s’intercale entre les variables individuelles et les performances des apprenants dans les MOOC. En invoquant un cadre théorique multi-référencés et à travers l’analyse des données empiriques et les traces log de 5904 apprenants dans un xMOOC, notre travail propose un modèle permettant d’une part de mesurer l’engagement des apprenants dans un MOOC et d’autre part d’interroger la nature des relations qui existent entre les variables individuelles, l’engagement et les performances des apprenants. Les résultats saillants de ce travail de recherche mettent en valeur :-Les effets positifs de l’âge de l’apprenant sur son engagement comportemental et cognitif ;-Les effets positifs du principal motif d’inscription sur l’engagement comportemental et cognitif et sur les performances de l’apprenant ;-Les effets positifs du contexte du suivi du MOOC sur l’engagement comportemental, cognitif, social et les performances de l’apprenant ;-L’effet négatif du genre de l’apprenant sur son engagement cognitif ;-Et l’absence de l’effet du niveau d’études de l’apprenant sur son engagement et sur ses performances.Les résultats de ce travail de recherche permettent ainsi de valoriser le rôle médiateur de l’engagement qui s’intercale entre les variables âge, principal motif d’inscription et contexte de suivi du MOOC et les performances et de mettre en exergue les effets positifs de l’engagement dans ses dimensions comportementale, cognitive et sociale sur les performances d’un apprenant dans le MOOC PRD5, avec un effet plus important de l’engagement comportemental, suivi de l’engagement cognitif et en fin de l’engagement social.
... Furthermore, as online learning environments require a high level of self-control, students need high levels of motivation to actively use their skills (de Barba et al., 2016). Whether the concept of motivation attracts the attention of the student is considered as whether the teaching is related to student goals, establishing confidence in realistic expectations, and ensuring that the student is satisfied with the teaching (Keller, 2008). ...
... As a result of the study, it was determined that students who have greater interest with regard to distance learning tend to be more engaged in it. de Barba et al. (2016) conducted a study on students who attended the online course until the end, and found that one of the factors affecting performance was motivation. Moreover, it was determined that situational interest mediated both motivation and performance. ...
... Motivation and goal-setting could also greatly shape behaviors of students who had various levels of self-regulation . Motivation levels could greatly improve self-regulation skills in the context of MOOCs, which could lead to satisfactory learning outcomes (de Barba et al., 2016). Motivation and participation in MOOCs-based learning greatly influenced learning outcomes, which differed in different patterns of MOOCs and different types of participants. ...
... Engagement was the strongest indicator of performance in MOOCs, followed by motivation. Situational interest greatly and positively influences student engagement in MOOCs, and mediates the effect of intrinsic motivation and engagement on student performance (de Barba et al., 2016). Dropout rates tend to decline if students are engaged in repeated and frequent social interactions. ...
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With the rapid development of information technologies, the new decade has been witnessing an advancement of massive open online courses (MOOCs)-based learning. However, MOOCs are infamous for the lower engagement and completion rates and very few studies have systematically reviewed student performance, motivation, engagement and interactions in MOOCs-based learning in order to provide constructive suggestions for researchers and practitioners. Through content analysis, this study firstly identified top 10 cited works and their major concerns and then discussed student performance, motivation, engagement, and interactions, as well as methods to improve the effectiveness of MOOCs-based learning. It also provides constructive suggestions for future design of MOOCs, and complements for the missing link in literature. Future research could focus on the measurements of variables in MOOCs-based learning in order to improve the quality of MOOCs and help students achieve success in MOOCs.
... Due to advancements in the Internet, technologies, learning platforms and tools in recent years, we have witnessed the rapid development of online education with its advantages of flexibility, availability, openness and low cost (de Barba et al., 2016;Sun et al., 2019). Notwithstanding the difficulty of a common definition, most researchers define 'online learning' as access to learning experiences via the use of technology (Moore et al., 2011). ...
... Accordingly, online learning is characterised by the utilisation of advanced technologies and new paradigms of pedagogical methods (Moore et al., 2011). Specifically, online learning differs considerably from traditional classroom learning in several ways: students interact with teachers, peers and contents online with the use of technologies whilst being physically separated and geographically isolated; students self-regulate and self-manage their learning process and learning activities in a self-paced environment, providing them with more autonomy to proceed at their own pace; and students can rely on rich sources of easily accessible contents found on the Internet and use a wide range of technology-based tools (Butz & Stupnisky, 2016;de Barba et al., 2016). Researchers have argued that it is more essential for learners in online learning environments to demonstrate higher levels of self-regulation, self-motivation and self-management compared to traditional on-site courses (Moore & Wang, 2020;Wang et al., 2019). ...
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COVID-19 has caused the overnight migration of learning and teaching to online platforms and has significantly impacted students’ learning opportunities and experiences worldwide. The results of emergency online learning have heavily relied on students’ abilities to exercise agency in maintaining active motivation and engagement with online learning. Despite the wide application of motivation theories to diverse contexts, how to adapt motivation theories to develop online learning effectively and sustainably in complex and situational online learning environments is still under-investigated. Using a large sample of 14,935 postgraduate students from 31 universities in China, this study examined the effects of student motivation and engagement on students’ academic achievement in the COVID-induced online learning anchored by the theoretical perspective of self-determination theory. This study made contribution to the self-determination theory by extending it to the complex emergency situation and supported its main argument that online emergency learning environments satisfying students’ psychological needs of autonomy and competence promote optimal motivation, positive engagement and academic achievement. This study also contributed to reveal the ‘sophisticated’ nature of relatedness satisfaction in the case wherein its specific effects depend on the cultural configuration of the contexts and on the specific types of engagement. Given the fact that COVID-19 continues to be a public challenge throughout the world, implications for improving the quality of online teaching in the future were also discussed.
... Learning motivation (Cluster 0), as a keyword of high frequency and high centrality, informs that it is a favorite research topic on the factors of dropout rate in MOOC. Many studies have identified motivation as a contributor to a learner's engagement and success (De Barba et al., 2016). The motivation to participate in MOOCs can be divided into internal motivation and external motivation. ...
... Clustering based on keyword co-occurrence analysis Intrinsic or internal motivation is usually measured by the level of interest, enjoyment, and commitment (De Barba et al., 2016). Research studies have emphasized the importance of a learner's intrinsic motivation in promoting their intention to continue (Khan et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose Although MOOCs have become a pervasive online learning model, the problem of high dropout rates still persists. Gathering the reasons for the high dropout rate can help to improve the platform design and management of the MOOCs. Design/methodology/approach A total of 74 studies was extracted from the Web of Science and Scopus. Following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, the open-source program CiteSpace is employed to review and induce the studies on the antecedents of MOOC dropout. Findings The antecedents of the MOOC dropout rate are the psychological, social, personal, course-related, and time factors, and the unexpected hidden cost. Motivation and interaction, which have a decisive impact on the dropout rate of MOOCs, interact with each other. Interaction helps to strengthen the motivation, and appropriate course design enhances the degree of interaction. Originality/value From the perspective of a learner, the more knowledge and skills the learners acquire, the more likely they will complete the course. Possessing adequate foundational knowledge is one way to arrest the dropout rate. On the part of the MOOC platform, better course design eases the dropout rate. Further, the course duration and hidden cost in MOOCs contribute to the dropout rate.
... It is a group of influences that affect the personal adoptions and actions. A number of researches highlight that investigating the behaviour of students towards the use of MOOCs will explains the students' motivation, engagement [72,73] and satisfaction [14,74]. It is emphasized that knowing the factors that influence the motivation of learners towards their use of technology is an essential part of the development. ...
... According to Hakami[48], there are a number of studies that investigate the students' acceptance of utilizing different kind of ICT in learning procedure, but still there is a need to investigate the students' acceptance of MOOCs. A number of researches highlight that investigating the behaviour of students towards the use of MOOCs will explains the students' motivation, engagement [72,73] and satisfaction [14,95]. It is emphasized that knowing the factors that influence the behaviour of learners towards their use of technology is an essential part of the development. ...
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Several studies stated that Computer Science (CS) students at Saudi Arabia universities face difficulties in programming languages learning (PLL) and need more assistance. Fortunately, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been recognized as modern means that could be acceptable amongst CS learners. This piece of research aims to clarify the importance of enhancing PLL via MOOCs in Saudi Arabia. This research applied a quantitative research approach that utilized questionnaire as a research instrument. The survey was distributed among CS students to illustrate the current situation of the students' need and acceptance of MOOCs on PLL. The investigation included 132 participants from different departments in the faulty of Computer Science (CS) at Umm Alqura University and Taif University in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire results show that 98% believe that they need additional courses in PLL and 94% are accepting the idea of utilizing MOOCs on PLL, on the other hand, the results also show that 77% of the participants have not attended a single PLL course via MOOC. Other results and future research are discussed as well.
... For example, Romero-Frías et al. (2020) found that MOOC learners showed a high level of intrinsic motivation, while at the same time, certain extrinsic motivations also played a role in their MOOC learning. Barba et al. (2016) found a positive relationship between learner motivation, participation, and performance in MOOCs. Learners enroll in MOOCs to pursue different goals, and their core motives affect how they approach the courses and whether they complete them or not (Kizilcec & Schneider, 2015). ...
... Littlejohn et al. (2016) stated that learners' motivation is critical in how they perceive their learning process. In this study, we found that learners with diverse motivations have diverse time-management strategies, which supports the prior studies from Barba et al. (2016) and Kizilcec and Schneider (2015). In the current study, we discovered that learners exhibiting motivations to obtain a certificate or finish the course to support their formal education and career development had relatively strict and fixed time-management strategies. ...
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Article
... For example, Romero-Frías et al. (2020) found that MOOC learners showed a high level of intrinsic motivation, while at the same time, certain extrinsic motivations also played a role in their MOOC learning. Barba et al. (2016) found a positive relationship between learner motivation, participation, and performance in MOOCs. Learners enroll in MOOCs to pursue different goals, and their core motives affect how they approach the courses and whether they complete them or not (Kizilcec & Schneider, 2015). ...
... Littlejohn et al. (2016) stated that learners' motivation is critical in how they perceive their learning process. In this study, we found that learners with diverse motivations have diverse time-management strategies, which supports the prior studies from Barba et al. (2016) and Kizilcec and Schneider (2015). In the current study, we discovered that learners exhibiting motivations to obtain a certificate or finish the course to support their formal education and career development had relatively strict and fixed time-management strategies. ...
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Given the increasing number of learners in massive open online courses (MOOCs), students’ self-directed learning (SDL) skills are necessary for their success. The purpose of this study was to explore learners’ motivation for enrolling in MOOCs and their SDL strategies, as well as instructional elements that support SDL from learners’ perspectives. This qualitative study adopted a phenomenological research design. The data source was semi-structured interviews with 15 learners from three MOOCs. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The researchers found that the motivation for enrolling in MOOCs included intrinsic motivation (e.g., curiosity, improving personal knowledge, and personal interest) and extrinsic motivation (e.g., supporting formal education and career development). The learning strategies used by MOOC learners were task strategies, self-monitoring, and self-management strategies. The task strategies included taking notes, reading texts or subtitles, watching videos, and conducting further research. The self-monitoring strategies included self-assessment, self-reflection, progress indicators, final projects, and authentic tasks. Learners’ self-management strategies (e.g., time management and resource management) varied depending on their diverse motivations. In addition, the instructional elements that support SDL were self-assessment and discussion forums, instructor feedback, flexibility, clearly stated learning goals, the authenticity of the content, and small learning units. The implications of the study are discussed in the paper.
... It has been additionally stated that "active facilitation is a key component of successful online courses, requiring instructors to review and comment upon student comments, raise questions, and make observations to move discussions in a desired direction" [11]. Therefore, proper facilitation approaches can help learners become actively involved in the learning process [12], which has been associated with better course results and effective learning [13]. Accordingly, in the context of a MOOC forum, it is suggested that learner facilitators should not merely distribute knowledge to be used passively by learners but, rather, assist learners construct ways by which new knowledge is generated and incorporated into existing knowledge [14]. ...
Article
One of the main challenges of massive open online courses (MOOCs) is the effective facilitation of learners in the course forum. The more learners participating in the forum, the more difficult it is for instructors to provide timely support. The effective intervention of teaching assistants (TAs) can play a crucial role in mitigating this issue; however, questions arise regarding the instructional approaches that TAs follow and whether they can effectively promote learning in a MOOC environment. In this article, we study the instructional approaches that TAs followed in two MOOCs of different subject matters, using mixed-methods. The goal was to evaluate the pedagogies that TAs adopted in facilitating learners, following a broadly accepted framework on MOOC instructional quality. Content analysis and interviews with the TAs provided insights into their intervention strategies, while linguistic and social network analysis enhanced the findings. The study revealed that the TAs most often were rushing to provide direct answers rather than guiding learners in finding themselves an answer. Problem-solving approaches and collaboration were not adequately promoted. The findings of this article provide design implications for the development of supportive tools that could automatically assess facilitators’ instructional approaches in the forum. Thus, timely feedback could be provided to instructors so as to refine the instructional design of their online courses and to provide guided support to their learner facilitators while courses are running.
... Finally, in order to verify the actual effect of the reform program, this paper carried out a study on the learning effect of 100 students in the form of questionnaire survey and communication. Through the analysis of the survey results, we can see that the mixed teaching mode of higher vocational English based on MOOC+SPOC can effectively improve students' enthusiasm for learning and play a good auxiliary role in improving students' English writing ability [1][2][3]. ...
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Under the wave of education informatization in the past six years, the rapid development of MOOC has greatly promoted the fairness of education and improved the quality of education. However, in the actual English writing learning process, the traditional MOOC mode still has many shortcomings. Based on this, this paper proposes a research on the MOOC+SPOC hybrid higher vocational English teaching mode, by combining the advantages of MOOC and SPOC to improve the shortcomings of the existing online teaching mode. Through the analysis of basic theoretical research, this paper believes that MOOC has the advantages of openness, massive resources, and personalized learning, and the combination with SPOC can fully make up for the deficiencies in teaching evaluation and learning assessment in MOOC mode. Based on the above theories, this paper proposes a reform method of college English writing teaching mode based on MOOC+SPOC. The core of the reform method of the mode is to establish a new teaching goal. The new teaching goal is divided into four systems, which can cultivate students’ learning ability from different dimensions. In the teaching process, the utilization rate of learning resources is improved, and the interaction and feedback mechanism are improved. In order to verify the actual effect of MOOC+SPOC mixed higher vocational English teaching mode, this paper establishes a number of surveys including the investigation and analysis of knowledge internalization and the investigation of improving English writing level. By analyzing the survey data, it can be shown that the methods of this article can be effectively used to enhance students’ learning effectiveness and significantly increase their learning ability and interest in learning.
... Lan and Hew (2020) found that active learning, course resources, and instructor accessibility are essential factors to boost both completers' and non-completers' learning engagement. De Barba et al. (2016) discovered that situational interest has a stronger impact on learners' participation than general learning motivation. Courses can be designed to create more situations to stimulate learners' motivation for further learning, constantly activate learners' situational interest, and enhance their future learning. ...
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In an open and flexible context of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), learners who take final assessments exhibit the motivation for performance goals. The learning trajectories of this group usually provide more clues for course design and teaching improvement in that this group tend to interact more fully with course learning activities and resources for better learning outcomes. This study focused on such learners to investigate their learning engagement, time organization, content visit sequences, and activity participation patterns by applying statistical analysis, lag sequence analysis, and other data mining methods. This study examined the data of 535 learners taking the assessment in a MOOC to detect the differences in learning engagement and the above learning patterns amongst three groups of learners with different achievement levels, labeled failed , satisfactory and excellent . We found differences in both learning engagement and learning patterns among the three groups. The results indicated that for the learners to be successful, they require a certain degree of task completion as a basic guarantee for passing the course, effective session workload organization, reasonable learning content arrangement, and more cognitive engagement (rather than investing more time and energy). Based on the outcomes, implications for personalized instructional design and intervention to promote academic achievement in MOOCs are discussed.
... Motivation is, however, a complex construct, and research on its function in this context is still in an early stage. de Barba et al. (2016) studied how educators and developers of learning management systems can use knowledge emerging from assessments of motivation and participation gleaned from learning analytics for the design of courses. While technology and learning analytics alone cannot solve this problem, it could be addressed by adopting a neurodidactics paradigm, which would mean that the roles of the educators and students would have to be redesigned (Anastasia, 2016). ...
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In this work, 29 features were defined and implemented to be automatically extracted and analysed in the context of NeuroK, a learning platform within the neurodidactics paradigm. Neurodidactics is an educational paradigm that addresses optimization of the learning and teaching process from the perspective of how the brain functions. In this context, the features extracted can be fed as input into various machine learning algorithms to predict the students’ performance. The proposed approach was tested with data from an international course with 698 students. Accuracies greater than 0.99 were obtained in predicting the students’ final performance. The best model was achieved with the Random Forest algorithm. It selected 7 relevant features, all with a clear interpretation in the learning process. These features are related to the principles of neurodidactics, and reflect the importance of a social learning and constructivist approach in this context. This work constitutes a first step in relating the tools of learning analytics to neurodidactics. The method, after its adaptation to capture relevant features corresponding to different contexts, could be implemented on other management learning platforms, and applied to other online courses with the aim of predicting the students’ performance, including real-time tracking of their progress and risk of dropout.
... Respecto a la motivación en los MOOC, De Barba et al. (2016) sugieren utilizar los resultados de la investigación sobre la influencia en el rendimiento de la participación y la motivación intrínseca para adaptar el diseño e impartición de MOOC. Lo anterior hace sentido considerando que, para González & Carabantes (2017), las certificaciones oficiales tienen una relación directa sobre la motivación, la disponibilidad y la finalización de un MOOC y que existen investigaciones sobre personalización de MOOC con hallazgos respecto a la motivación (Núñez, 2019;Qaffas et al., 2020). ...
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Los MOOC (Massive Open Online Course, por sus siglas en inglés) se han convertido en un fenómeno educativo emergente y se encuentran en plena evolución. A más de una década de su lanzamiento, los MOOC dan muestra de su flexibilidad al surgir nuevas propuestas taxonómicas y avanzar en el camino de la personalización para adecuarse a las necesidades de las instituciones educativas. Partiendo de una revisión de la literatura científica y el análisis crítico de ésta, este trabajo muestra una perspectiva de la realidad de los MOOC en torno a la educación superior, específicamente en la formación docente. El análisis realizado toma como base las experiencias y el surgimiento de diversas propuestas relacionadas con el diseño y la puesta en marcha de algún tipo de MOOC, como parte de las estrategias para la formación permanente de docentes de educación superior. Los resultados obtenidos dan cuenta de la evolución de los MOOC y su impacto en la formación docente. Se identifican relaciones interesantes entre ciertas categorías de análisis, tales como la motivación, las expectativas, el tiempo y el conocimiento disciplinar, mismas que son destacadas por diversos autores como influyentes en el éxito de este tipo de cursos; siendo posible observar una concepción de MOOC cada vez más diversificada y con criterios más pedagógicos.
... Learners experience lower levels of motivation when they skip classes or do not participate in the activities. De Barba et al. (2016) found state-level motivation at the moment of learning acts as a mediator between intrinsic motivation and involvement. ...
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Abstract The widespread use of technology has accelerated many changes in the education sector including higher education. The Internet has made online learning feasible, and many researchers and educators are interested and took part in online learning to enhance and improve student language learning involvement while combating the reduction in resources. It is imperative that researchers and educators consider the effectiveness of language online learning compared to traditional face-to-face format and the factors that influence the effectiveness of online courses. Using a qualitative content analysis approach, in-depth interviews had been conducted with twenty (20) University of Technology Sarawak (UTS) students who had undertaken online courses. The study is aimed at understanding the learning effectiveness for online language courses and to identify multiple factors that contribute to the students’ involvement in online learning. Based on the findings, the researcher considered that effective online instruction is dependent upon 1) well-prepared online learning tools, 2) students and instructors’ proficiency in technologies practise, 3) motivated interaction between the instructors and learners, and 4) well-prepared and fully-supported instructors. In doing this, it is hoped that this will stimulate an on-going discussion of effective strategies that can enhance schools, institutions, and universities success in transitioning to teach online.
... Participants lose motivation during MOOCs, making it all the more difficult for them to concentrate on classes. Research also shows that motivation plays a key role in completing MOOCs (Alraimi et al. 2015; Barba et al. 2016). Learners face some other problems during MOOCs, such as low teacher-student interaction, a lack of an open environment for discussion, and insufficient infrastructure (Ji and Cao 2016;Karlsson et al. 2014;King et al. 2018;Rice 2013;Christensen and Alcorn 2014). ...
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This study investigated teachers’ views of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). The sample consisted of 30 teachers recruited from different cities of Turkey using criteria sampling. Phenomenology was the research method of choice. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form and analyzed using content analysis. Participants use MOOCs because they are free of charge and have good content and high quality. MOOCs help them learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, gain professional knowledge, and develop skills, and positive attitudes and values. Most participants are interested in integrating MOOCs in their classes; however, they face various problems during MOOCs, such as loss of motivation and Internet connection issues. It is recommended that MOOCs be designed in such a way that they increase participants’ motivation and allow for feedback.
... Research indicates that low motivation levels contribute to low retention rates (Artino, 2008;Keller, 2008), and high motivation is related to distance learner retention in distance education (Levy, 2007). In the relevant literature, some studies determine that high motivation explains class participation and academic achievement (de Barba, Kennedy & Ainley, 2016;Giesbers et al., 2013;Guay et al., 2008;Lopéz-Pérez et al., 2011;Rovai & Wighting, 2005;Yi & Hwang, 2003). The study by Albelbisi and Yasop (2019) determined that a lack of motivation in online learning can cause individuals to spend extra time completing ...
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Article
Purpose: A total of 422 university students participates in this study where the digital literacy of university students studying via distance education in the Covid-19 pandemic by online learning motivation variable is examined. Methodology: In the study, Personal Information Form, Digital Literacy Scale (DLS) and Online Learning Motivation Scale (OLMS) are used. The research is structured in descriptive and relational scanning models. Findings: According to the data obtained, it is stated that the digital literacy and online learning motivation of the students within the scope of the research is at medium level; digital literacy levels do not differ by gender and grade level; there is a statistically significant difference in online learning motivation level of students in favor of female students; on the other hand, in the score of the whole online learning motivation scale, there is a significant difference between 2nd and 4th grade students in favor of 2nd grade students and between 3rd and 4th grade students in favor of 3rd grade students; there is a moderately positive and statistically significant relationship between students’ digital literacy and online learning motivation levels and their online learning motivation and digital literacy predict each other by 21.8 %. Highlights: Given that 21.8 % of students’ online learning motivation is interpreted by their digital literacy or vice versa, increasing the development of students’ both digital literacy and online learning motivation levels with in-school and out-of-school trainings is suggested.
... Learners experience lower levels of motivation when they skip classes or do not participate in the activities. De Barba et al. (2016) found state-level motivation at the moment of learning acts as a mediator between intrinsic motivation and involvement. ...
... Extant literature adopts different criteria to evaluate MOOC success, including completion rate (Handoko et al., 2019), dropout rate (Onah et al., 2014), final grades (de Barba et al., 2016), and satisfaction (Lu et al., 2019;Lundqvist et al., 2020). From learners' perspectives, it might be inaccurate to determine success by using variables related to course completion. ...
... To understand MOOC learners' motivations, several studies have explored why learners sign up for MOOCs and have identified factors that keep them engaged during the course (Alario-Hoyos, Muñoz-Merino, Pérez-Sanagustín, Kloos, & Parada G, 2016;de Barba, Kennedy, & Ainley, 2016;Hew & Cheung, 2014; Author 2). Hew and Cheung (2014), for example, found four reasons why learners signed up for MOOCs: (a) to learn about a new topic or to extend current knowledge, (b) curiosity about MOOCs, (c) a desire for a personal challenge, and (d) to obtain completion certificates. ...
... Sometimes the impulse from within is greater than the impulse from the outside and vice versa. Intrinsic motivation can be divided into mastery approach, value beliefs, and interest of the individual (de Barba et al. 2016). Motivation which is extrinsic is the satisfaction gained from external factors of individual (Ryan and Deci, 2000). ...
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Entrepreneurship has become a sector considered by the government in creating jobs for the community. Entrepreneurs are the focus of the entrepreneurial process that must receive special attention in increasing interest in entrepreneurship among the younger generation. Efforts to develop entrepreneurship have been carried out by the government and private agencies through coaching programs, especially for novice entrepreneurs who are just starting their business as food entrepreneurs. In this research, the authors would like to examine if there are differences in the variables of self-efficacy, motivation, competence, and creativity with factors that differentiate based on age, geographic area, gender, parental background as entrepreneurs, having other jobs, having businesses after and before the COVID-19 pandemic. and opinions about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on them. By using Mann Whitney that is used to decide the difference in the median of the 2 independent groups. The results displayed that based on of age, geographical area, having another job, having a business after and before the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impact of the pandemic there was no difference in self-efficacy, motivation, competence, and creativity. Differences happen in the variables of motivation, competence and creativity based on gender. In the competence and creativity variables, there are differences based on parents who have entrepreneurial backgrounds. The managerial contribution in this research is that universities must take different approaches to male and female students and students who have family backgrounds as entrepreneurs. Abstrak: Kewirausahaan telah menjadi sektor yang dipertimbangkan oleh pemerintah dalam menciptakan lapangan pekerjaan bagi masyarakat. Wirausahawan merupakan fokus proses wirausaha yang harus mendapat perhatian khusus dalam meningkatkan minat berwirausaha di kalangan generasi muda. Upaya pengembangan kewirausahaan telah dilakukan oleh instansi pemerintah maupun swasta melalui program pembinaan khususnya bagi pengusaha pemula yang baru memulai usahanya sebagai pengusaha makanan. Pada penelitian ini, penulis ingin mengkaji apakah terdapat perbedaan pada variabel efikasi diri, motivasi, kompetensi dan kreativitas dengan faktor pembeda berdasarkan usia, wilayah geografis, jenis kelamin, latar belakang orang tua sebagai wirausaha, memiliki pekerjaan lain, memiliki usaha setelah dan sebelum pandemi COVID-19 dan opini tentang dampak pandemi COVID-19 bagi mereka, dengan memakai Mann Whitney yang digunakan untuk mengetahui perbedaan median 2 kelompok bebas. Hasil penelitian memerlihatkan bahwa berdasarkan usia, wilayah geografis, memiliki pekerjaan lain, memiliki usaha setelah dan sebelum pandemi COVID-19, dan dampak pandemik tidak terdapat perbedaan pada efikasi diri, motivasi, kompetensi, dan kreativitas. Perbedaan terjadi pada variabel motivasi, kompetensi dan kreativitas berdasarkan gender. Pada Variabel kompetensi dan kreativitas terdapat perbedaan berdasarkan orangtua yang memiliki latar belakang kewirausahaan. Kontribusi manajerial dalam penelitian ini adalah perguruan tinggi harus melakukan pendekatan yang berbeda-beda kepada mahasiswa laki-laki dan perempuan serta mahasiswa yang memiliki latar belakang keluarga sebagai wirausahawan. Kata kunci: efikasi diri, kompetensi, motivasi, kreativitas, pengusaha makanan
... Some participants in MOOCs may be more motivated by the information available and not so much by the curriculum or the certification in the course and the instructional design should take this into account, designing space both for those who come for the pure pursuit of knowledge and also for those who, for example, want to deepen their learning in the framework of their professional development and skills acquisition (Scagnoli, 2012;De Barba, Kennedy & Ainley, 2016). Starting from the assumption that participants in a MOOC should benefit from the knowledge of an expert, but also need to feel contemplated and empowered to share their knowledge within a learning community, Scagnoli (2012) proposes five elements to be considered in the design of a MOOC, relating them to some activities that favour them: Previous experience (remembering past experiences with videos, case studies, and other resources); New Learning (input from videos, readings and other multimedia); Understanding (diagnosing comprehension with quizzes and tests); Engagement (Forums, Peer Assessment) and Legacy (interactions in social media). ...
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In early childhood, the curricular integration of computational thinking, programming, and robotics topics is ever more pressing. Therefore, preparing teachers and educators to implement this integration in the curriculum is fundamental. In the project «Laboratory of Technologies and Learning of Programming and Robotics in basic and preschool education in Portugal», the proposal of a MOOC was designed to meet this demand. This paper discusses aspects of the architecture of MOOCs, and their typologies, in the context of the challenges that the researchers encountered in the design process of the present MOOC. To do so, the Interaction Equivalency Theorem was considered, which equates the fundamental types of interaction to be considered in course design (learner-instructor; learner-content; learner-learner). Considering that learning design is both a process and a product the design of the MOOC is analysed in terms of its socio-technical context and systemic tensions present in work-based learning. Through a qualitative analysis of an individual interview and of a focus group, the paper describes formal and informal interactions and attempts to define a common vision, consensus, and divergences and contradictions that are part of the learning design process. Finally, the MOOC is presented, and its pedagogical design is substantiated. KEY WORDS: MOOCs; Diseño de aprendizaje; Formación del profesorado; Teorema de equivalencia de la interacción; Aprendizaje basado en el trabajo; Pensamiento computacional; Programación; Robótica. En la primera infancia, la integración curricular del pensamiento computacional, la programación y la robótica es cada vez más urgente, y es esencial preparar a los profesores y educadores para aplicarla. En el proyecto "Laboratório de Tecnologias e Aprendizagem de Programação e Robótica no Ensino Primário e Pré-Escolar em Portugal", se diseñó un MOOC para responder a esta demanda. Este artículo analiza aspectos de la arquitectura de los MOOC y sus tipologías, en el contexto de los retos encontrados durante el diseño de este MOOC. Se tuvo en cuenta el Teorema de la Equivalencia de la Interacción, que considera los tipos de interacción que deben tenerse en cuenta al diseñar un curso (alumno-instructor; alumno-contenido; alumno-aprendizaje). Considerando que el diseño del aprendizaje es tanto un proceso como un producto, el diseño de los MOOC se analiza en función de su contexto sociotécnico y de las tensiones sistémicas del aprendizaje en contexto de trabajo. Mediante el análisis cualitativo de una entrevista individual y de un grupo de discusión, se describen las interacciones y se intenta definir una visión común, las divergencias y las contradicciones que forman parte del proceso de aprendizaje. Por último, se presenta el MOOC y se fundamenta su diseño pedagógico.
... Especially in online learning activities, recording the interactions of learners with learning content with log records makes it easier to reveal these relationships. In this context, Barba et al. (2016) revealed that there is a positive relationship between learner motivation and participation in online environments. Similarly, in the study conducted by Çebi and Güyer (2020), evidence was obtained that students with higher motivation to learn have higher interactions with learning content. ...
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Student interactions in distance learning have been a critical element of the transactional distance theory. Research shows that student interactions have a positive effect on learning outcomes. However, little is known about how student interactions can be improved. The need to understand student interactions and to determine the relationships between the variables that are effective in these interactions has become evident. This study aims to investigate the impact of e-learning readiness and the motivations of students in distance learning on student interactions. In addition, it was examined whether motivation mediated the relationship between e-readiness and student interactions. The study was conducted with 172 students enrolled in a postgraduate program conducted by distance learning. Results showed that students' e-learning readiness and motivation are essential predictors of student interactions in distance learning. Furthermore, it was found that motivation had a mediation effect on the relationship between e-learning readiness and student interactions. The results of the research are helpful for both instructional designers and instructors of distance learning who want to reduce the transactional distance by increasing student interactions.
... Video learning analytics approaches using explicit factors (macrolevel data), such as views, video hits, and annotations (de Barba et al., 2016;Namuddu & Watts, 2020), provide insights into video usage (e.g., number of views, time spent on a video) and students' questions/comments related to content, but they do not provide collective fine-grained information about when students are engaged, confused, or distracted while interacting with a video. Although user-defined annotations are helpful (e.g., MRAS; Bargeron et al., 2002), analyzing and interpreting them to inform instruction is challenging. ...
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The use of online video lectures in universities, primarily for content delivery and learning, is on the rise. Instructors’ ability to recognize and understand student learning experiences with online video lectures, identify particularly difficult or disengaging content and thereby assess overall lecture quality can inform their instructional practice related to such lectures. This paper introduces Tcherly, a teacher-facing dashboard that presents class-level aggregated time series data on students’ self-reported cognitive-affective states they experienced during a lecture. Instructors can use the dashboard to evaluate and improve their instructional practice related to video lectures. We report the detailed iterative prototyping design process of the Tcherly Dashboard involving two stakeholders (instructors and designers) that informed various design decisions of the dashboard, and also provide usability and usefulness data. We demonstrate, with real-life examples of Tcherly Dashboard use generated by the researchers based on data collected from six courses and 11 lectures, how the dashboard can assist instructors in understanding their students’ learning experiences and evaluating the associated instructional materials.
... There is evidence to suggest that the autonomous nature of MOOCs can mean that students' motivation and goals shape how they understand MOOCs and their experience online (Littlejohn, Hood, Milligan, & Mustain, 2016). This finding should be cross-referenced with results suggesting that the impact of participation in and initial intrinsic motivation for a MOOC is at least partially mediated by the situational interest students experience across the MOOC course (de Barba, Kennedy, & Ainley, 2016). ...
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As research questions in the rapidly growing field of Open, Distance, and Digital Education shift from if to how these forums should be approached, a paramount and complementary area of research is the accompanying motivation students’ exhibit to learn in ODDE environments. This chapter critically examines the existing literature on student motivation in ODDE at each of the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels, and beyond. Much existing research involves one-off comparisons between students’ motivation in using popular tools such as MOOCs, gamification of learning, interactive whiteboards, and AR/VR tools with not using them. While mixed effects have been observed, seldom are tools catered to theory and context in a manner that best supports students’ learning. To see the field continue to mature, results from studies must be situated within robust theories of motivation in educational psychology. More program-level research built on more stringent standards in design, analysis, and replication is required. Future directions of research are discussed.
... In online learning environments, these proactive actions could reflect in more contributions to the discussion forum, and more emotional and cognitive events in the discussion Fig. 4 Path diagram of the mediation models of objective measure of Learning Engagement discourse. For the second stage of the mediation process (i.e., the association between learning engagement and online learning performance), our results are compatible with previous studies illustrating the link between certain aspects of learning engagement and online learning performance (e.g., Barba et al., 2016;Morris et al., 2005). The more learners engage in online learning in the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive aspects, the better learning performance they could gain. ...
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Research on online learning effectiveness has experienced a shift towards focusing on learner characteristics or differences. However, little attention has been paid to learners' personality traits, especially those that highly match with the environmental characteristics of online learning. Guided by recent active learning approach and Model of student differences for learning in online education, this study adopts proactive personality (a dispositional tendency to be active, goal-oriented, and not constrained by environmental forces) as a key predictor and examines whether its relationship with online learning performance is mediated by learning engagement as a multidimensional construct. Using a multi-method approach (including self-reports, log file analysis, and content analysis), this study collected both subjective and objective measures of learning engagement from a total of n = 322 undergraduates. Results showed that proactive personality was positively associated with on-line learning performance. In addition, this association was mediated by all subjective and certain objective measures of learning engagement. Findings contribute to understanding the impact of proactive personality on online learning performance and the interplay of learners' individual factors and learning engagement factors in online learning environments. This study recommends promoting learning engagement to realize learners' online success, especially for those with low levels of proactive personality.
... Fostering interest in physics is a key component in national and international physics education standards (National Research Council, 2013;OECD, 2017). Empirical research has found that interest enhances persistence and achievement while engaging with an object (de Barba et al., 2016;Kauertz & Fischer, 2006;Nuutila et al., 2020). Interest plays an important role in shaping students' course and career choices (Ainley & Ainley, 2011;Maltese & Tai, 2011;Tyson et al., 2007). ...
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Given the importance of fostering students' interest as a goal of physics education in meeting international science standards, empirical support for the theoretical description of the interest construct is essential. Empirical studies require the use of psychometrically sound measurement instruments. This study developed an instrument to measure students' interest in particle physics (IPPI). Drawing from previous research, we defined interest in particle physics, identified corresponding behaviours, and proposed a hierarchy of students' levels of interest in particle physics. Then, we developed the IPPI, using rating scale items that assessed the latent trait developed from our theory regarding the degree of interest in particle physics. We tested the IPPI in student think-aloud interviews and validated it in a field test on a sample comprising 99 German-speaking grade 9 students. A Rasch analysis provided evidence supporting the content, construct, statistical, and fit validity of the IPPI. We revised the hypothesised hierarchy of students' levels of interest in particle physics based on the item hierarchy revealed by the Rasch analysis. We associated each level with different contexts, such as socio-scientific issues. Knowing about these levels of interest in particle physics can help educators design their learning activities better and foster their students' interest.
... When students skip classes and do not take part in activities, they experience lower levels of motivation. De Barba et al (2016) found that the state-level motivation of learning acts as a middle point between participation and intrinsic motivation. Later on they discussed how much activities and content in an online learning environment are able to keep students' attention and will increase students' motivation and participation as situational interest. ...
... Learning motivation attributes to favorable academic achievements as well as students' perceptions of pleasure, happiness, and satisfaction, which in turn further encourage their commitment to learning (Dishon-Berkovits, 2014). For example, Barba et al. (2016) found that students' learning motivation has the positive effect on their learning interest, learning engagement and performance. Ecosystem theory highlights that environmental factors generally act through a number of intrinsic individual variables (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). ...
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This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement and exploring the mediation role played by technology acceptance and learning motivation. It adopted a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach, with sampling 467 students from four middle schools in eastern China. The research findings showed that perceived teacher support is significantly associated with learning engagement. Learning motivation plays a mediating role in the relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement. There is the chain mediating effect of technology acceptance and learning motivation on the relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement. All of these are of great importance for the teachers in the middle schools, as they help to increase students’ engagement with learning activities considering the background of the deep integration of information technology and education teaching.
... Different learning motivations produce different learning outcomes [5]. Firat et al. used the IMeL questionnaire method to determine the level of intrinsic motivation of open and distance education students [6,7], and Dunn used the questionnaire method to classify learning motivation, which is used as an engagement indicator to predict students' final performance at the same time [8,9]. However, not every student can benefit from an online learning model even if they enroll in the same courses, as learning outcomes are greatly influenced by students' selfregulated learning ability and motivation. ...
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Ideological and political education in colleges and universities is routinely burdened with the job of building morality and cultivating people, which is related to the cultivation of college students’ ideals and beliefs, spiritual pursuits, and political literacy. Based on self-determination theory (SDT), this paper modeled different learning motivations in the early stage of ideological and political courses and analyzed the learning motivation of different student groups combining the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and stacked autoencoder (SAE). Meanwhile, the study in this paper compared the participation characteristics of different learning motivation clusters, the differences between the ideological and political course performances of students with different learning motivations, and the potential link between learning motivation and learners’ educational level. The experimental results show that students with extrinsic motivation will have better performance in the courses. The strength of extrinsic motivation is positively correlated with students’ academic performance, and 70% of students with intrinsic motivation achieve excellent results. In addition, the χ2 test result of the two courses selected is 6.442, which confirms the effectiveness of the clustering model proposed in this paper from the side and provides effective theoretical support for the implementation and reform of ideological and political education strategies.
... Individual attributes could include learners' background knowledge, readiness, self-regulation capacity [18][19][20][21], and motives and goals [9,22]. One of the most vital factors of these individual attributes is the motivational aspect. ...
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Massive open online courses (MOOCs) continue to remain in the spotlight as a promising future education environment. However, more than 80% of learners stop learning before attending one-third of the course. Despite a continuous spread of MOOC and high dropout rate, little has examined the antecedent factors that influence student engagement in technology enhanced MOOC learning environment from the Job Demand-Resources (JD-R) model. The purpose of this study was to empirically identify the effects of individuals’ basic psychological needs and the task–technology fit on MOOC learners’ continuance intention to use, as well as the mediating effect of student engagement in MOOCs. Based on survey data from 201 Korean-MOOC learners, structural equation modeling was employed to assess the model. The findings are as follows: The basic psychological needs in MOOCs did not directly affect continuance intention to use, but did affect student engagement; the task–technology fit of MOOCs directly affected continuance intention to use and student engagement; and student engagement in MOOCs mediated between the basic psychological needs and task–technology fit, and continuance intention to use. It directly affected continuance intention to use. Implications were suggested for designing courses in MOOCs to increase student engagement for continuance intention to use.
... Although previous studies demonstrated that educational situation Frontiers in Psychology 13 frontiersin.org perception can be predictive of students' learning endeavor behaviors (de Barba et al., 2016), the different teaching leadership of educators, the diversity of students' learning styles and the limitations of network hardware environment may also lead to some differences in the research results. Future research could benefit from investigating how definite environmental elements could influence students' achievement behaviors in language learning and its potential mechanism. ...
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The study explored the multidimensional relationships between educational situation perception, teacher support, online learning engagement and academic self-efficacy in technology-based language learning in a sample of Chinese undergraduate students, and meanwhile examined the mediating effects of academic self-efficacy and teacher support. A total of 392 (126 male and 266 female) Chinese university students reported on their perceived educational situation, teacher support, online learning engagement, and academic self-efficacy. Results showed that educational situation perception was significantly and positively associated with teacher support, online learning engagement and academic self-efficacy; teacher support and academic self-efficacy was positively correlated with online learning engagement. More importantly, academic self-efficacy as well as teacher support mediated the relationship between educational situation perception and online learning engagement. These findings extended previous research by considering both the external factors (i.e., educational situation; teacher support) and the internal factors (i.e., academic self-efficacy) of influencing students’ online learning engagement in technology-based language learning, thereby contributing to enhancing our understanding of the joint drive of the inherent and extrinsic power mechanisms. This study highlighted the following aspects: (1) strengthening the consideration of the key elements of the educational situation; (2) clarifying the pivotal position of intelligent technology in educational situations; and (3) emphasizing the reconstruction of intelligence teaching ecology driven by learning activities. Besides, this study indicated the significance of elevating teachers’ awareness, willingness and capacity of the substantial supports in enhancing students’ online learning engagement and would inform that the future research on the connotation and ways of teacher support should be responding to technology-based learning environments.
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In the Covid-19 era, traditional lecture-based teaching has been undergoing changes in learning design, learners’ engagement, and technology integration. Online learning has become an integral part of education around the globe due to its flexibility in learning with respect to place and time. These online courses are available to larger audiences and enable students to have more freedom over the study process. However, freedom also means that instructors have less control to keep students making progress on the course. The flexibility of online courses is encouraging the students to enrol with a few clicks but most of these students are dropping out due to losing interest in the course contents within a few weeks. On the contrary, online learning produces large amounts of data that can be used to follow the learning process and give useful insights for both teachers and students. Learning analytics algorithms utilize these data to identify the factors and parameters that can explain learners’ dropout rate, learning performance, as well as suggest possible actions to intrigue learners’ active engagement. To conduct further research on the parameters affecting learners’ participation in an online course, it is essential to find out the previous research works, best practices, and research trends of learning analytics. In the scope of this work, the authors formulated a search query to generate a pool of most relevant papers from the Scopus database and, hence, identified seven clusters which illustrate the landscape of the learning analytics domain. The authors also employed the Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic modeling algorithm which is a form of text data mining and statistical machine learning approach to compare the similarities with the clusters generated as a part of literature review. The authors further analyzed the papers in each cluster to identify the parameters which are significant to build a predictive model on learners’ dropout rate. This work not only provides a baseline to conduct further research to find out the parameters affecting learners’ retention rate but also introduces a systematic methodology to validate the findings of the literature review with a data-driven algorithmic approach.
The Language Massive Open Online Courses (LMOOCs) is a new platform of computer assisted language learning (CALL); since most LMOOCs witness high dropout rates, empirical evidence on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ motivation to accept and utilize LMOOCs for English language learning is warranted. This study recruited 237 Taiwanese participants with experience in completing at least one LMOOC to answer question items based on the levels of three psychological needs (i.e. autonomy, competence, and relatedness) of self-determination theory (SDT) as well as the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to explore the structural relationship between the variables of SDT and UTAUT. Additionally, linear modelling was employed to test the moderating effect of motivation on the relationship between the four determinants of UTAUT, behavioural intention, and use behaviour. The results of this study report that autonomy, competence, and relatedness are significant to EFL learners’ motivation for using LMOOCs. However, while performance expectancy was not statistically significant to behavioural intention, effort expectancy and social influence were. Moreover, behavioural intention and facilitating conditions were significant to use behaviour, while motivation was a significant predictor of LMOOC use behaviour. However, the moderating effect of motivation was only significant to the relationship between the variables of social influence and behavioural intention.
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Online learning emerges as an alternative mode for students to learn remotely in response to the shutdown of campus during COVID-19 pandemic. However, students who learned online usually had higher dropout rates and easily distracted from learning. This study aimed to examine the determinants that affect students’ learning motivation in online learning. The research question is: What are the factors affecting students’ motivation to learn in online learning? It was hypothesized that preference to online learning, social presence like engaging or interacting with peers and teachers, and learning efficacy influenced students’ learning motivation. A survey was distributed to 100 Hong Kong undergraduates. The result showed that preference to online learning had a direct, positive, and significant effect to learning motivation (β = 0.295, p < 0.001). Moreover, learning efficacy demonstrated a significant interaction effect with preference to online learning to increase learning motivation (β = 0.223, p < 0.05), while social presence demonstrated a significant interaction effect to decline learning motivation (β = −0.270, p < 0.01). The findings suggested that learning efficacy and social presence play different roles on motivation in online learning, respectively. The implications were discussed.KeywordsOnline learningMotivationSocial PresenceEfficacy
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Being renowned as the state-of-the-art of open educational movement , Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been expanded noticeably in online schooling. This study aims to unify learners' online motivational self-system and online self-regulation in MOOC. To meet this end, 358 Iranian EFL learners from five cities in Iran were signed up on two online platforms (i.e., Edmodo and Google Classroom) and responded to two questionnaires of Online Language Learning Motivation (OLLM) and Online Self-Regulation (OSEL) developed by Zheng et al. (2018). The result of the structural equation modeling (SEM) portrayed learners with positive future images and intrinsic interest in English culture that could manage their online self-regulation. Additionally, learners who learn English for their extrinsic objectives and optimize their social obligation and expectation could manipulate their language learning behaviors in MOOC. Furthermore, learners with a low online language learning experience could positively manipulate their self-regulation the implications of the current study are taking language learners' ideal image priority on their online achievement and encouraging them to interact with the target culture in MOOC.
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Diagnosing the knowledge mastery levels of students on required concepts and providing tailored exercises to them is an essential task in e-learning environments. Due to the different knowledge levels of students and the large scale of exercise banks, it is difficult for general recommenders to recommend suitable exercises for each student, which decreases their learning efficiency. In this paper, we develop a 2-layer multi-objective framework for exercise recommendations with self-attention networks, abbreviated as MulOER-SAN, to capture the change in students’ knowledge acquisition and thus provide customized exercise recommendations. Note that MulOER-SAN is a 2-layer framework. Via the bottom layer, a self-attention mechanism is adopted to predict the coverage in the next exercise, which can lead the learning process in the right direction. Moreover, we implement a novel knowledge tracing model with an enhanced self-attention sub-layer, thus tracing students’ dynamic knowledge state evolution. As the top layer of the 2-layer model, exercises are filtered according to the bottom layer’s predicted results, and the candidate subsets with appropriate difficulty and novelty are generated. From the perspective of diversity, we also carefully develop a chaotic sparrow search algorithm to further filter the candidate subset to avoid redundancy of recommended results. On the above basis, a simple yet effective difficulty smoothness factor is implemented to generate a high-quality ranking list in a real teaching application scenario. Comprehensive experiments conducted on three real-world datasets have demonstrated that the proposed MulOER-SAN framework significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of various evaluation metrics.
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This study aimed to understand the effect of task motivation on online group creative performance and interpersonal interaction. A total of 150 university students were recruited to collaborate online on creativity tasks in dyads. The Mmembers’ task motivation was manipulated, resulting in three groups that differed in their motivation composition. Ratings of creative performance (fluency and originality), hemodynamic inter-brain synchronization, and lag sequential analysis were compared among the three groups. The results showed that groups comprising two highly motivated members conducted an efficient communication mode and achieved the best creative performance. Contrastingly, groups composed of one high- and one low-motivation member demonstrated the closest interpersonal interaction among members. The findings of this study suggest that it is essential to ensure that every member is highly motivated to improve creative performance in online groups. However, this may result in reduced interpersonal interaction.
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Teaching students to think and act as scientists through inquiry is at the core of recent science education. Although self-regulated learning (SRL) is acknowledged as crucial to performing scientific inquiry, much is yet to be understood about the specifics of students’ interactions with the scientific process. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the role of students’ SRL and related attitudes when completing an online scientific inquiry- based task. A task with a Predict-Observe-Explain learning design was used to examine the role of students’ SRL and attitudes within specific phases of the scientific inquiry process. Participants were 233 students from an online undergraduate course. Four groups were identified with differing levels of SRL skills, challenge and confidence. We found that students with low SRL skills who also perceived a learning situation as challenging and had low confidence in their ability to learn, had difficulties designing effective experiments and correctly interpreting data. Implications and future studies are discussed.
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The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a MOOC on the attitudes of pre-service and in-service teachers toward education on death. The study adopted a pre- and post-test design. Participants (N = 139) answered the Death Education Attitudes Scale-Teachers (DEAS-T) questionnaire at the beginning and end of the course. The results confirmed significant differences between the pre- and post-course applications in the three scale factors-need for training in the Pedagogy of Death, inclusion of death in education, and educational awareness of death. Open-access, free, mass training through a MOOC could have a positive impact on attitudes toward death education among both pre- and in-service teachers.
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This study investigates the effects of student engagement and rapidity of completing exams on student performance before and during the first wave of COVID-19 in March 2020, examining the effect of the shift from face-to-face to online teaching and exams in a Master’s in Business Administration degree at a university in Italy. Prior literature mainly finds that student marks benefit from student engagement, but it has been unclear how COVID-19 affected this link. We find that COVID-19 reduced this benefit in the short term. Prior literature also finds that student performance benefits from passing the exam at the earliest opportunity but the effect of COVID-19-related changes on this remains unclear. We find that the link between higher exam marks and rapidity of completing exams was strengthened by COVID-19. The research contributes to the debate on costs and benefits of COVID-19 on accounting education quality. It confirms that there are disadvantages, in terms of the lower efficacy of student engagement, and advantages, in terms of higher marks from more rapid academic progress.
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The low readiness of university students to implement e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic is a worrying issue. Lack of motivation and satisfaction in learning coupled with low technological skills are widely revealed as contributing factors. This study examines the role of technological skills, equipment capabilities, user satisfaction, and motivation on e-learning readiness. Furthermore, the study also examines the significance of the mediating role of motivation. The study adopted an ex-post-facto design involving 1052 students as participants. Data is collected from a questionnaire form integrated into the university's e-monev system. SEM-PLS is a data analysis tool with a confidence interval of 97.5%. After being analysed, technology skills, equipment capabilities, user satisfaction, and motivation are proven to play a role in e-learning readiness. Likewise, motivation also succeeded in proving its mediating role in this study. The study's results further clarify that efforts to improve e-learning readiness require digital technology capabilities, equipment capabilities, user satisfaction, and motivation, so vocational education must strengthen these aspects.
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Students' social experiences are critical to their academic success, including determining their motivation and engagement. However, little is known about how various social factors, including social presence and teacher involvement, relate to expectancy, task value, and facets of engagement in online learning. Using path modeling to analyze the survey responses of 122 college students, we examined the relations among social presence, teacher involvement, expectancy, task value, and cognitive and behavioral engagement guided by the situated expectancy-value theory. We discovered that social presence predicted expectancy, task value, and behavioral engagement, and task value impacted cognitive engagement. We found a mediating effect of expectancy-to-task value in the link between social presence and cognitive engagement. Overall, the predictive influence of expectancy on task value was critical in the model. Interestingly, teacher involvement did not play a role. These findings confirm the significance of online social features to motivation and engagement and further highlight the value of motivation for online learning success. Therefore, it is important to design online learning environments whereby students feel socially connected and motivated.
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Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have brought online learning movement to the forefront of educational research, but one of the major critiques of this learning platform is the very low completion rate. This chapter not only highlights the factors that influence low completion but also interprets how incompletion can fulfill goals of enrollment. Self-motivation is identified as a key factor for success in online learning platforms. This chapter puts together a review of existing research on MOOC enrollment and completion and also explains how success can be defined in a broader way in online learning. Along with that it draws on examples of success through incompletion in MOOCs from a qualitative study on female MOOC users from South Asia. Findings suggest that users enroll into MOOCs with goals to complete but also with specific needs to fulfill. An in-depth analysis of the interviews highlights how women have utilized this platform for their personal, professional or academic development and self-improvement.
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Participation in educational activities is an important prerequisite for academic success, yet often proves to be particularly challenging in digital settings. Therefore, this study set out to increase participation in an online proctored formative statistics exam by digital nudging. We exploited targeted nudges based on the Fogg Behaviour Model, highlighting the relevance of acknowledging differences in motivation and ability in allocating nudges to elicit target behaviour. First, we assessed whether pre‐existing levels of motivation and perceived ability to participate are effective in identifying different propensities of responsiveness to plain untailored nudges. Next, we evaluated whether tailoring nudges to students' motivation and perceived ability levels increases target behaviour by means of a randomized field experiment in which 579 first‐year university students received 6 consecutive emails over the course of three weeks to nudge behaviour regarding successful participation in the online exam. First, the results point out that motivation explains differences in engagement as indicated by student responsiveness and participation, whereas the perceived ability to participate does not. Second, the results from the randomized field experiment indicate that tailored nudging did not improve observed engagement. Implications for the potential of providing motivational information to improve participation in online educational activities are discussed, as are alternatives for capturing perceived ability more effectively.
Article
The rapid developments and diffusion of new technologies abruptly changed world dynamics. This study pursued the motivational factors (controlled and autonomous) and technology factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness) to predict the students perceived satisfaction and continued intention toward MOOCs. Using an online survey, this research collected data from 333 students, and analysis performed through PLS-SEM. The findings revealed that controlled motivation positively influenced the perceived satisfaction. However, autonomous motivation positively affected students perceived satisfaction and continued intention toward MOOCs. The technology factors such as PEU strongly impacted PU. Similarly, PU positively impacted students perceived satisfaction and continued intention toward MOOCs. This research guides essential theoretical insights and provides practical guidelines to educational institutions and technologists to develop and implement systems and strategies in online environments.
Article
Research has addressed the benefits of immersive virtual reality (IVR) for affective learning rather than cognitive performance, indicating the necessity to explore what factors may influence learners’ attitudinal learning, defined as the result of instruction for changing learners’ attitudes, when engaging in immersive instructional mediums. This study proposes an affection-oriented model to understand the roles of young learners’ epistemic curiosity traits and triggered situational interest in their attitudinal learning from the affective, cognitive, and behavioral dimensions in IVR learning contexts. Through a series of PLS-SEM analyses with 90 elementary school students, the results of the measurement model test have verified the reliability and validity of the instruments employed in this study. The structural relationships among epistemic curiosity, situational interest, and attitudinal learning were also confirmed. The triggered situational interests of novelty and exploration intention during the IVR learning process were further identified as the mediators in the research model. While the students’ senses of novelty mediated the relationship between curiosity and cognitive attitudinal learning, their senses of interest in exploration intention mediated both the relationships between curiosity and affective attitudinal learning and between curiosity and behavioral attitudinal learning. This study contributed to establishing the theoretical framework for affection-oriented IVR learning.
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This combination of research analysis and motivation will be able to see a certain way in class. The aim of the study is to analyze the articles in which learning analytics and motivation variable are used together, according to their years, countries, methods, technology tools used, keywords, number/levels of participants, results and suggestions. As a result of the search in the Web of Science database, 146 articles suitable for the purpose of the research were analyzed. According to the results of the research, there has been an increase in the number of articles prepared in this field in the last three years, experimental designs from quantitative methods are preferred more in research, Moodle system is the most preferred learning management system, Mass Open Online Course (MOOC) platforms are mostly used as a teaching environment, It was seen that the participants of the articles were mostly undergraduate students, and the most studies were prepared in the United States. In order to get more efficiency from learning analytics, it is suggested that studies should be focused on designing different learning environments that can evaluate student behaviors from the beginning to the end of the teaching process. In addition, in order to ensure effective learning in MOOCs, it is recommended to support teaching with dashboards that will make students more active.
Article
The rapid rise of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) has attracted intense discussion on their benefits to education transformation and related challenges. Language MOOCs (LMOOCs) as an emerging field requires more empirical attention, particularly in terms of learners' perceptions and needs regarding LMOOC learning. This study aimed to explore LMOOC students' sentiments and opinions through sentiment analysis and content analysis of their comments posted in the discussion forums of 60 LMOOCs and examine the correlation between student sentiment and course rating. The results indicated that the majority of the comments were positive, and student sentiment was positively correlated with course rating. Five major themes that encapsulated students' opinions about LMOOCs and their experiences in LMOOC learning were identified: attitudes towards the LMOOCs, comments on the LMOOCs, evaluations of LMOOC instruction and instructors, learning outcomes, and suggestions. To shed light on LMOOC development, the LMOOC learners’ concerns and suggestions were particularly examined, and tactics possibly used by learners to express euphemistically or circumvent negative feedback were speculated. Implications for LMOOC instructors and developers and future research are finally presented.
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MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are the educational buzzword of 2012. Media frenzy surrounds them and commercial interests have moved in. Sober analysis is overwhelmed by apocalyptic predictions that ignore the history of earlier educational technology fads. The paper describes the short history of MOOCs and sets them in the wider context of the evolution of educational technology and open/distance learning. While the hype about MOOCs presaging a revolution in higher education has focussed on their scale, the real revolution is that universities with scarcity at the heart of their business models are embracing openness. We explore the paradoxes that permeate the MOOCs movement and explode some myths enlisted in its support. The competition inherent in the gadarene rush to offer MOOCs will create a sea change by obliging participating institutions to revisit their missions and focus on teaching quality and students as never before. It could also create a welcome deflationary trend in the costs of higher education. Explanatory Note During my time as a Fellow at the Korea National Open University (KNOU) in September 2012 media and web coverage of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) was intense. Since one of the requirements of the fellowship was a research paper, exploring the phenomenon of MOOCs seemed an appropriate topic. This essay had to be submitted to KNOU on 25 September 2012 but the MOOCs story is still evolving rapidly. I shall continue to follow it. 'What is new is not true, and what is true is not new'. Hans Eysenck on Freudianism This paper is published by JIME following its first release as a paper produced as part of a fellowship at the Korea National Open University (KNOU). Both the original and this republication are available non-exclusively under Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY). Apart from this note and minor editorial adjustments the paper is unchanged. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE
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Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are a recent addition to the range of online learning options. Since 2008, MOOCs have been run by a variety of public and elite universities, especially in North America. Many academics have taken interest in MOOCs recognising the potential to deliver education around the globe on an unprecedented scale; some of these academics are taking a research-oriented perspective and academic papers describing their research are starting to appear in the traditional media of peer reviewed publications. This paper presents a systematic review of the published MOOC literature (2008-2012): Forty-five peer reviewed papers are identified through journals, database searches, searching the Web, and chaining from known sources to form the base for this review. We believe this is the first effort to systematically review literature relating to MOOCs, a fairly recent but massively popular phenomenon with a global reach. The review categorises the literature into eight different areas of interest, introductory, concept, case studies, educational theory, technology, participant focussed, provider focussed, and other, while also providing quantitative analysis of publications according to publication type, year of publication, and contributors. Future research directions guided by gaps in the literature are explored.
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This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.
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Assessing overall fit is a topic of keen interest to structural equation modelers, yet measuring goodness of fit has been hampered by several factors. First, the assumptions that underlie the chi-square tests of model fit often are violated. Second, many fit measures (e.g., Bentler and Bonett's [1980] normed fit index) have unknown statistical distributions so that hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, or comparisons of significant differences in these fit indices are not possible. Finally, modelers have little knowledge about the distribution and behavior of the fit measures for misspecified models or for nonnested models. Given this situation, bootstrapping techniques would appear to be an ideal means to tackle these problems. Indeed, Bentler's (1989) EQS 3.0 and Jöreskog and Sörbom's (forthcoming) LISREL 8 have bootstrap resampling options to bootstrap fit indices. In this article the authors (a) demonstrate that the usual bootstrapping methods will fail when applied to the original data, (b) explain why this occurs, and, (c) propose a modified bootstrap method for the chi-square test statistic for model fit. They include simulated and empirical examples to illustrate their results.
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Technical Report
This report sets out to help decision makers in higher education institutions gain a better understanding of the phenomenon of Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) and trends towards greater openness in higher education and to think about the implications for their institutions. The phenomena of MOOCs are described, placing them in the wider context of open education, online learning and the changes that are currently taking place in higher education at a time of globalisation of education and constrained budgets. The report is written from a UK higher education perspective, but is largely informed by the developments in MOOCs from the USA and Canada. A literature review was undertaken focussing on the extensive reporting of MOOCs through scholarly blogs, press releases as well as openly available reports and research papers. This identified current debates about new course provision, the impact of changes in funding and the implications for greater openness in higher education. The theory of disruptive innovation is used to help form the questions of policy and strategy that higher education institutions need to address.
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Conference Paper
With thousands of learners watching the same online lecture videos, analyzing video watching patterns provides a unique opportunity to understand how students learn with videos. This paper reports a large-scale analysis of in-video dropout and peaks in viewership and student activity, using second-by-second user interaction data from 862 videos in four Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) on edX. We find higher dropout rates in longer videos, re-watching sessions (vs first-time), and tutorials (vs lectures). Peaks in re-watching sessions and play events indicate points of interest and confusion. Results show that tutorials (vs lectures) and re-watching sessions (vs first-time) lead to more frequent and sharper peaks. In attempting to reason why peaks occur by sampling 80 videos, we observe that 61% of the peaks accompany visual transitions in the video, e.g., a slide view to a classroom view. Based on this observation, we identify five student activity patterns that can explain peaks: starting from the beginning of a new material, returning to missed content, following a tutorial step, replaying a brief segment, and repeating a non-visual explanation. Our analysis has design implications for video authoring, editing, and interface design, providing a richer understanding of video learning on MOOCs.
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Connectivist massive open online courses (cMOOCs) represent an important new pedagogical approach ideally suited to the network age. However, little is known about how the learning experience afforded by cMOOCs is suited to learners with different skills, motivations, and dispositions. In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 participants on the Change11 cMOOC. These accounts were analyzed to determine patterns of engagement and factors affecting engagement in the course. Three distinct types of engagement were recognized – active participation, passive participation, and lurking. In addition, a number of key factors that mediated engagement were identified including confidence, prior experience, and motivation. This study adds to the overall understanding of learning in cMOOCs and provides additional empirical data to a nascent research field. The findings provide an insight into how the learning experience afforded by cMOOCs suits the diverse range of learners that may coexist within a cMOOC. These insights can be used by designers of future cMOOCs to tailor the learning experience to suit the diverse range of learners that may choose to learn in this way.
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Conference Paper
As MOOCs grow in popularity, the relatively low completion rates of learners has been a central criticism. This focus on completion rates, however, reflects a monolithic view of disengagement that does not allow MOOC designers to target interventions or develop adaptive course features for particular subpopulations of learners. To address this, we present a simple, scalable, and informative classification method that identifies a small number of longitudinal engagement trajectories in MOOCs. Learners are classified based on their patterns of interaction with video lectures and assessments, the primary features of most MOOCs to date. In an analysis of three computer science MOOCs, the classifier consistently identifies four prototypical trajectories of engagement. The most notable of these is the learners who stay engaged through the course without taking assessments. These trajectories are also a useful framework for the comparison of learner engagement between different course structures or instructional approaches. We compare learners in each trajectory and course across demographics, forum participation, video access, and reports of overall experience. These results inform a discussion of future interventions, research, and design directions for MOOCs. Potential improvements to the classification mechanism are also discussed, including the introduction of more fine-grained analytics.
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Massive Open Online Courses are an exciting new avenue for instruction and research, yet they are full of unknowns. In the Spring of 2013, MITx released its first introductory physics MOOC through the edX platform, generating a total enrollment of 43,000 students from around the world. We describe the population of participants in terms of their age, gender, level of education, and country of origin, highlighting both the diversity of 8.02x enrollees as well as gender gap and retention. Using three midterm exams and the final as waypoints, we highlight performance by different demographic subpopulations and their retention rates. Our work is generally aimed at making a bridge between available MOOC data and topics associated with the Physics Education Research community.
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“Circuits and Electronics” (6.002x), which began in March 2012, was the first MOOC developed by edX, the consortium led by MIT and Harvard. Over 155,000 students initially registered for 6.002x, which was composed of video lectures, interactive problems, online laboratories, and a discussion forum. As the course ended in June 2012, researchers began to analyze the rich sources of data it generated. This article describes both the first stage of this research, which examined the students’ use of resources by time spent on each, and a second stage that is producing an in-depth picture of who the 6.002x students were, how their own background and capabilities related to their achievement and persistence, and how their interactions with 6.002x’s curricular and pedagogical components contributed to their level of success in the course.
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The present study explores whether students' learning strategies and academic motivation predict persistence and academic success in the first year of higher education. Freshmen students in a professional bachelor program in teacher education were questioned on their learning strategy use and motivation at the start and at the end of the academic year. Students' learning strategies were assessed using the inventory of learning styles-SV. Motivation was measured using scales from the self-regulation questionnaire and the academic motivation scale. Gender and students' prior education were incorporated as control variables. Logistic regression analyses and general linear modelling were applied to predict persistence and academic success, respectively. In each case a stepwise approach in data analysis was used. Results on persistence indicate that lack of regulation and amotivation at the start of the year are significant predictors. For academic success, results showed that relating and structuring, lack of regulation, and lack of motivation at the end of the year are meaningful predictors. Overall, our study demonstrates that learning strategies and motivation have a moderate explanatory value regarding academic success and persistence, and that these effects remain even after controlling for the influence of background variables.
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Achievement goal theory has been one of the most prominent theories of motivation in educational research for more than 25 years. It has undergone considerable revision during that span, most notably with the distinction between approach and avoidance goals, debate concerning the critical features of performance goals, and the emergence of a multiple goal perspective that emphasizes the positive potential of performance-approach goals alongside mastery goals. This multiple goal perspective has met several criticisms from theorists taking the traditional perspective that emphasizes mastery goals over performance goals. We review these criticisms and the ongoing debate in light of the relevant research. We then spotlight two areas for future research, with the aim of advancing theory development and bridging these perspectives.
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The study of knowledge transfer rarely draws upon motivational constructs in empirical work. We investigated how students' achievement goals interact with different forms of instruction to promote transfer, defined as preparation for future learning (Bransford & Schwartz, 19998. Bransford , J. D. and Schwartz , D. L. 1999 . Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications . Review of Research in Education , 24 : 61 – 100 . [Web of Science ®]View all references) Students were given either invention or tell-and-practice activities when learning statistics concepts and their achievement goal orientations were measured at the beginning of the experiment. We also assessed students' goals during the learning activity. We predicted that students who entered the experiment with a high mastery-approach goal orientation would be more likely to transfer, regardless of instruction. We also hypothesized that invention activities would lead to higher mastery-approach goal adoption for the task and more attention to important conceptual features, as students would focus on trying to understand the material. Finally, because we expected that invention activities would promote mastery goal adoption during the task, we predicted a moderating effect of invention activities, such that there would be a smaller effect for students' initial mastery-approach goal orientation on transfer for those who invented compared to those who received tell-and-practice instruction. All three hypotheses were supported. Results are discussed in terms of contributions to research on knowledge transfer, achievement goals, and educational practice.
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The dynamics of individual and situational interest and academic performance were examined in the college classroom and 7 semesters later in conjunction with achievement goals. At the beginning of an introductory psychology course, participants reported their initial interest in psychology, achievement goals, and situational interest in course lectures. At the end of the semester, participants (N = 858) reported their situational interest in course lectures and psychology. In the short term, relationships emerged among initial interest, achievement goals, situational interest, and class performance. Longitudinally, situational interest during the introductory course, independent of initial interest, predicted subsequent course choices. Results are discussed in terms of S. Hidi and K. A. Renninger's (2006) 4-phase model of interest development and the multiple goals model (J. M. Harackiewicz, K. E. Barron, P. R. Pintrich, A. J. Elliot, & T. M. Thrash, 2002). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It is argued that interest is central in determining how we select and persist in processing certain types of information in preference to others. Evidence that shows that both individual and text-based interest have a profound facilitative effect on cognitive functioning and learning is reviewed. Factors that contribute to text-based interest are discussed, and it is suggested that interest elicits spontaneous, rather than conscious, selective allocation of attention. It is further proposed that the psychological and physiological processes associated with interesting information have unique aspects not present in processing information without such interest. Current advances in neuro-cognitive research show promise that we will gain further knowledge of the impact of interest on cognitive functioning and that we will finally be in a position to integrate the physiological and psychological aspects of interest.
Article
This integrated literature review examined factors associated with the ability of students to persist in an online course. Lack of persistence in online education and its' consequence of attrition, is an identified problem within the United States and internationally. Terminology has wavered between persistence and success, where each has been interchangeably used to characterize a student that completes a course and continues to program completion. Separate searchers were conducted in Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus, the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) Education Full Text, Ovid, and the Journal of Online Learning and Teaching (JOLT). Search terms included persistence, distance education, and online learning. Inclusion criteria included published after 1999, article from a peer-reviewed journal, and article addresses student factors leading to persistence. Exclusion criteria included article not related to factors of persistence, no original data, and article not written in English or not related to online courses. Factors associated with student persistence in an online program include satisfaction with online learning, a sense of belonging to the learning community, motivation, peer, and family support, time management skills, and increased communication with the instructor. Persistence carries the nuance of complexity beyond mere success. Factors unrelated to knowledge have the ability to provide support, thus allowing the student to overcome hardships in completing a course. If persistence factors are not present in sufficient quantity, the student may be at risk of withdrawing from an online course.
Article
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have commanded considerable public attention due to their sudden rise and disruptive potential. But there are no robust, published data that describe who is taking these courses and why they are doing so. As such, we do not yet know how transformative the MOOC phenomenon can or will be. We conducted an online survey of students enrolled in at least one of the University of Pennsylvania’s 32 MOOCs offed on the Coursera platform. The student population tends to be young, well educated, and employed, with a majority from developed countries. There are significantly more males than females taking MOOCs, especially in BRIC and other developing countries. Students’ main reasons for taking a MOOC are advancing in their current job and satisfying curiosity. The individuals the MOOC revolution is supposed to help the most — those without access to higher education in developing countries — are underrepresented among the early adopters.
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A meta-analysis of single-item measures of overall job satisfaction (28 correlations from 17 studies with 7,682 people) found an average uncorrected correlation of .63 (SD = .09) with scale measures of overall job satisfaction. The overall mean correlation (corrected only for reliability) is .67 (SD = .08), and it is moderated by the type of measurement scale used. The mean corrected correlation for the best group of scale measures (8 correlations, 1,735 people) is .72 (SD = .05). The correction for attenuation formula was used to estimate the minimum level of reliability for a single-item measure. These estimates range from .45 to .69, depending on the assumptions made.
Article
Building on and extending existing research, this article proposes a 4-phase model of interest development. The model describes 4 phases in the development and deepening of learner interest: triggered situational interest, maintained situational interest, emerging (less-developed) individual interest, and well-developed individual interest. Affective as well as cognitive factors are considered. Educational implications of the proposed model are identified.
Conference Paper
Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) are growing substantially in numbers, and also in interest from the educational community. MOOCs offer particular challenges for what is becoming accepted as mainstream practice in learning analytics. Partly for this reason, and partly because of the relative newness of MOOCs as a widespread phenomenon, there is not yet a substantial body of literature on the learning analytics of MOOCs. However, one clear finding is that drop-out/non-completion rates are substantially higher than in more traditional education. This paper explores these issues, and introduces the metaphor of a 'funnel of participation' to reconceptualise the steep drop-off in activity, and the pattern of steeply unequal participation, which appear to be characteristic of MOOCs and similar learning environments. Empirical data to support this funnel of participation are presented from three online learning sites: iSpot (observations of nature), Cloudworks ('a place to share, find and discuss learning and teaching ideas and experiences'), and openED 2.0, a MOOC on business and management that ran between 2010--2012. Implications of the funnel for MOOCs, formal education, and learning analytics practice are discussed.
Article
Because testing time in educational research is typically scarce, the use of long scales to assess motivational-affective constructs can be problematic. The goal of the present study was to scrutinize the psychometric properties of short scales (with three items) and single-item measures for two core motivational-affective constructs (i.e., academic anxiety and academic self-concept) by conducting systematic comparisons with corresponding long scales across school subjects and within different subject domains (i.e., mathematics, German, French). Statistical analyses were based on representative data from 3,879 ninth-grade students. All short forms possessed satisfactory levels of reliability (range: .75 to .89) and substantial correlations with the long scales (range: .88 to .97); correlational patterns with educational student characteristics (e.g., achievement, school satisfaction, gender, academic track, and socioeconomic status) were comparable to those obtained with the corresponding long scales (all average differences in correlations below .10). The correlational patterns between all single-item measures and the external criteria were similar to those obtained with the corresponding long scales (all average differences in correlations below .10), yet the single-item measures demonstrated low to modest score reliabilities (estimated with the model-based omega coefficient; range: .22 to .72) and correlations with full scales (range: .50 to .88). When long scales are not applicable, short forms and perhaps even single-item measures may represent psychometrically sound alternatives for assessing academic anxiety and academic self-concept for educational research purposes.
Article
This research comprised 3 studies (2 prospective and 1 short-term longitudinal) designed to investigate mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals as predictors of achievement-relevant processes prior to the undergraduate examination experience. Results from across the 3 studies were supportive of the authors' hypotheses and revealed a differential predictive pattern for each of the achievement goals. Mastery goals were linked to numerous positive processes (e.g., challenge appraisals, absorption during preparation), performance-approach goals were linked to a more limited set of positive processes (e.g., challenge appraisals, grade aspirations), and performance-avoidance goals were linked to numerous negative processes (e.g., threat appraisals, anticipatory test anxiety). Implications for the trichotomous achievement goal model and educators are discussed.
Article
A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Students’ achievement task values, goal orientations, and interest are motivation-related constructs which concern students’ purposes and reasons for doing achievement activities. The authors review the extant research on these constructs and describe and compare many of the most frequently used measures of these constructs. They also discuss their development during childhood and adolescence. They review the research on the relations of these constructs to achievement outcomes, and their relations to each other both contiguously and over time. Suggestions for future research include testing theoretically derived predictions about how students’ achievement values, goal orientations, and interest together predict various achievement outcomes; and examining how their relations with one another become established and change over time.
Article
Interests and goals have been identified as two important motivational variables that impact individuals' academic performances, yet little is known about how best to utilize these variables to enhance childrens' learning. We first review recent developments in the two areas and then examine the connection between interests and goals. We argue that the polarization of situational and individual interest, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and performance and mastery goals must be reconsidered. In addition, although we acknowledge the positive effects of individual interest, intrinsic motivation, and the adoption of mastery goals, we urge educators and researchers to recognize the potential additional benefits of externally triggered situational interest, extrinsic motivation, and performance goals. Only by dealing with the multidimensional nature of motivational forces will we be able to help our academically unmotivated children.
Article
A motivational science perspective on student motivation in learning and teaching contexts is developed that highlights 3 general themes for motivational research. The 3 themes include the importance of a general scientific approach for research on student motivation, the utility of multidisciplinary perspectives, and the importance of use-inspired basic research on motivation. Seven substantive questions are then suggested as important directions for current and future motivational science research efforts. They include (1) What do students want? (2) What motivates students in classrooms? (3) How do students get what they want? (4) Do students know what they want or what motivates them? (5) How does motivation lead to cognition and cognition to motivation? (6) How does motivation change and develop? and (7) What is the role of context and culture? Each of the questions is addressed in terms of current knowledge claims and future directions for research in motivational science.
Article
The attractiveness of dynamic systems perspectives for expanding thinking about motivation, more particularly interest, lies in the central proposition that the individual is a self-organizing system in which “novel forms emerge without predetermination and become increasingly complex with development” (Lewis, 2000, p. 36). As Lewis further points out, “self-organization is not a single theory or model. Rather it is an idea … that promises coherent explanation in the study of pattern, change and novelty” (Lewis, 2000, p. 42). Thelen and Smith (2006) have proposed that self-organization is a “fundamental property of living things” and “by self-organization we mean that pattern and order emerge from the interactions of the components of a complex system without explicit instructions, either in the organism itself or from the environment” (p. 259). They suggest that understanding change and development concerns “the elaborate causal web between active individuals and their continually changing environments” (p. 271) and refer to specific units of organization within the system as “patterns assembled for task-specific purposes whose form and stability depended on both the immediate and more distant history of the system” (p. 284). To date, dynamic systems perspectives have been applied to a wide range of psychological phenomena, for example, the development of perceptual, motor and cognitive systems in infancy and early childhood (see e.g., Thelen & Smith, 2006). Jörg, Davis, and Nickmans (2007) have argued for a similar approach for the learning sciences. They propose a new complexity paradigm suggesting that more attention needs to be given to understanding the dynamics of the complex systems that make up the science of education and teaching.
Article
It is argued that interest is central in determining how we select and persist in processing certain types of information in preference to others. Evidence that shows that both individual and text-based interest have a profound facilitative effect on cognitive functioning and learning is reviewed. Factors that contribute to text-based interest are discussed, and it is suggested that interest elicits spontaneous, rather than conscious, selective allocation of attention. It is further proposed that the psychological and physiological processes associated with interesting information have unique aspects not present in processing information without such interest. Current advances in neuro-cognitive research show promise that we will gain further knowledge of the impact of interest on cognitive functioning and that we will finally be in a position to integrate the physiological and psychological aspects of interest.
Article
Examines the classroom learning environment in relation to achievement goal theory of motivation. Classroom structures are described in terms of how they make different types of achievement goals salient and as a consequence elicit qualitatively different patterns of motivation. Task, evaluation and recognition, and authority dimensions of classrooms are presented as examples of structures that can influence children's orientation toward different achievement goals. Central to the thesis of this article is a perspective that argues for an identification of classroom structures that can contribute to a mastery orientation, a systematic analysis of these structures, and a determination of how these structures relate to each other. The ways in which interventions must address the independency among these structures are discussed in terms of how they influence student motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
it is the thesis of this chapter that the way in which children play with play objects reflects what they represent to themselves as potential actions for play with these objects and may serve to gate information available to them in their subsequent play activity the chapter focuses on aspects of young children's identified interests, or stored knowledge and value, for the play objects in their nursery school class / findings from two studies conducted on the same sample of children will be used as the basis for this discussion of the role of individually identified interests and noninterests in children's representation of possibilities for action and their subsequent engagement with play objects in the first study, a combined naturalistic-experimental methodology was employed to evaluate the effect of interest on attention and memory of 3-year-old children / in the second study, the naturalistic component of the first study was examined in more depth / in this study the play actions of each child in free play were evaluated as a function of the value (interest, noninterest) of the play object, the affordances of that play object generally, and the gender of the child / discussion of both studies focuses on the interest-representation-activity relation, the role of specific content in representation, and the implications of individual variation in interests for understanding children's development (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Individual interest was examined as a moderator of effects of situational factors designed to catch and hold task interest. In Study 1, 96 college students learned a math technique with materials enhanced with collative features (catch) versus not. Catch promoted motivation among participants with low individual interest in math (IIM) but hampered motivation among those with high IIM. In Study 2 (n = 145), catch was crossed with a hold manipulation, emphasizing utility. Effects of each manipulation depended on IIM. The catch results were similar to those in Study 1. Hold promoted motivation among participants with high IIM and undermined it among participants with low IIM. Discussion centers on the intersection of individual and situational interest. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes how motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills. Recent research within the social-cognitive framework illustrates adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns, and a research-based model of motivational processes is presented that shows how the particular performance or learning goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to success and failure and influence the quality of their cognitive performance. Implications for practice and the design of interventions to change maladaptive motivational processes are outlined. It is suggested that motivational patterns may contribute to gender differences in mathematics achievement and that empirically based interventions may prevent current achievement discrepancies and provide a basis for more effective socialization. (79 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Achievement behavior is defined as behavior directed at developing or demonstrating high rather than low ability. Ability can be conceived either with reference to the individual's own past performance or knowledge, a context in which gains in mastery indicate competence, or as capacity relative to that of others, a context in which a gain in mastery alone does not indicate high ability. To demonstrate high capacity, one must achieve more with equal effort or use less effort than do others for an equal performance. The conditions under which these different conceptions of ability function as individuals' goals and the nature of subjective experience in each case are specified. Different predictions of task choice and performance are derived and tested for each case using data from previously published studies. The effects of task and ego involvement, task choice, and self-perceptions are discussed. (125 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Mastery goals have been linked to adaptive outcomes in normative goal theory and research; performance goals, to less adaptive outcomes. In contrast, approach performance goals may be adaptive for some outcomes under a revised goal theory perspective. The current study addresses the role of multiple goals, both mastery and approach performance goals, and links them to multiple outcomes of motivation, affect, strategy use, and performance. Data were collected over 3 waves from 8th and 9th graders ( N = 150) in their math classrooms using both self-report questionnaires and actual math grades. There was a general decline in adaptive outcomes over time, but these trends were moderated by the different patterns of multiple goals. In line with normative goal theory, mastery goals were adaptive; but also in line with the revised goal theory perspective, approach performance goals, when coupled with mastery goals, were just as adaptive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Latin root of motivation means "to move" and fundamentally, motivational psychologists study what moves people to act and why people think and do what they do (Weiner, 1992). In keeping with this broad view of motivation, we focus on individuals' choices about which tasks to do, the persistence with which they pursue these tasks, the intensity of their engagement in these tasks, and their thoughts about their performance and their goals (see also Eccles-Parsons et al., 1983; Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). The work reviewed here addresses the following types of questions: Why do people have different goals? Why do some people invest time and energy in developing their academic skills, while others, with similar levels of intellectual ability, focus on other skills such as sports, or no particular skills at all? Why do some continue to persist even when they are struggling, while others quit at the first sign of difficulty? In addition, since most of the relevant developmental work has focused on achievement motivation--the motive related to performance on tasks involving standards of excellence--we focus on this particular aspect of motivation. We begin with a brief historical review of the early developmentally focused theories and empirical work and then discuss more extensively the current theoretical perspectives and empirical work on developmental changes in, socialization of, and contextual influences on motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study investigates possible relationships among motivational and learning variables (interest, self-efficacy and self-regulation) and three types of student engagement (behavioural engagement, emotional engagement and cognitive engagement) in a distance education setting. Participants were 203 students enrolled in online classes in the fall semester of 2008 in the Schools of Gerontology and Engineering at a large research university in the south-western USA, who completed an online survey assessing their levels of situational interest, computer self-efficacy, self-regulation and engagement in distance education. Situational interest and self-regulation were found to be significantly correlated with three types of engagement (behavioural, emotional and cognitive), while computer self-efficacy did not appear to be associated with any of those engagement variables. Results suggested that online activities and tools such as multimedia and discussion boards may increase emotional engagement in online learning, although they do not necessarily increase behavioural or cognitive engagement, that educators should identify students who are taking online courses for the first time and provide necessary technical help to increase their emotional engagement, and that it is important for educators to offer students strategies for increasing their self-regulation in distance education environments.
Article
In this paper we draw on our research on interest to explore the questions posed for this special issue. Interest is conceptualized as an affective state that represents students’ subjective experience of learning; the state that arises from either situational triggers or a well-developed individual interest. Drawing on the broad research literature on interest, and using our own findings in relation to the state of interest, we consider how interest represents an integration of affect, motivation and cognition. In particular, how the state of interest brings together motivation in the form of prior goals and interests and focuses them into on-task behavior. We illustrate ways that our research monitoring on-task sequences of affect and behavior, is confronting some of the methodological concerns posed in relation to measurement of affective states. Finally, we examine some of the paths by which triggered states of interest can contribute to productive student engagement with learning.
Article
A micro-level approach to the study of relationships between component processes within self-regulated learning in young adolescent students is described. Using this approach, contingencies between self-regulatory processes can be identified and insight into factors that promote students’ use of self-regulatory strategies can be investigated. Evidence is presented showing how the influence of mastery achievement goals on specific task goals can be mediated by students’ state of interest. Further development of this approach requires consideration of the measurement issues associated with using single items to measure on-task states. Evidence for the reliability and validity of single-item measurement of states is considered in relation to areas of psychological inquiry that regularly use single-item measures and we conclude that further development of these types of measure has the potential to expand our understanding of self-regulated learning.
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate how situational interest develops over time and how it is related to academic achievement in an active-learning classroom. Five measures of situational interest were administered at critical points in time to 69 polytechnic students during a one-day, problem-based learning session. Results revealed that situational interest significantly increased after the problem stimulus was presented. Subsequently, situational interest gradually decreased but at the end of the day increased again. Testing a path model relating the situational interest measures showed strong (directional) interrelations. Moreover, situational interest was highly predictive for observed achievement-related classroom behaviors. The latter, in turn, proved to be a significant predictor of academic achievement. Aggregating situational interest over the day led to less accurate predictions of achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Implications of these findings for situational interest research are discussed.