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Academic success among students at risk for school failure

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Abstract

A sample of 1,803 minority students from low-income homes was classified into 3 groups on the basis of grades, test scores, and persistence from Grade 8 through Grade 12; the classifications were academically successful school completers (''resilient'' students), school completers with poorer academic performance (nonresilient completers), and noncompleters (dropouts). Groups were compared in terms of psychological characteristics and measures of ''school engagement.'' Large, significant differences were found among groups on engagement behaviors, even after background and psychological characteristics were controlled statistically The findings support the hypothesis that student engagement is an important component of academic resilience. Furthermore, they provide information for designing interventions to improve the educational prognoses of students at risk.

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... First of all, Germany took time to engage a wide range of stakeholders in the development project, trial and implementation of the standards. Second, along with the standards, the states developed a range of resources to implement them in classrooms, including guidelines for instructional design, lesson plans and pedagogy (Finn, 1997). Capacity to implement the standards was developed at all levels of the education system. ...
... In fact, the majority of teachers in both the eastern and western world need qualification framework that is beyond training programs. But the bigger problem is that policy makers often do not have much of a sense of the capacity and expertise that is dormant among their teachers, because all their efforts focus on getting government prescription into classrooms, rather than getting the good practice from great classrooms into the education system (Finn, 1997). The point is that teachers will accept evaluation more easily if they are consulted as the process is being designed. ...
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My research is a result of accumulated provocation of obsolete and paralyzing education that has been frozen since the middle ages. We have to admit that before the pandemic, education was already in crisis. Governments have been ignoring to adopt any comprehensive plan to reform the educational systems till it has been unprecedently disrupted by COVID-19. I try through this paper to make a global call for governments to immediately start cooperating together for setting international qualifications framework that best suit future competencies. This call should be prioritized on the world agenda. It would be more plausible for governments, UNESCO and other education stakeholders to seize the opportunity of the 2020 disruption of life cycle for the maximum benefit of humanity. For this to happen we need exceptional leaders with extraordinary vision to transform education instead of ensuring children can keep learning and that every single child returns to school after the pandemic. Another challenge to be expected is the reduction in education budgets being under pressure as governments shift spending towards the health and economic response to the pandemic. The impact of schools closing on a generation of children will be immense on the long term. We must act now to save the education and life chances of generations of youth. At this time of unprecedented crisis, the world must come together to protect education and put it at the very heart of the global recovery effort. Recovery, not as before but as convenient and sustainable with the perspective requirements. It is time to expose youth to real life experiences; we need our children to learn about finance from characters like Jef Bezos or Bill Gates or Mukesh Ambani; to learn about psychology from John Anderson, Eliot Aronson and Ahmed Ukasha; to know approaches of math and physics as Elon Musk and Steve Wozniak. We shouldn’t settle for less when it comes to building minds and souls of our children. With all due respect to teachers and university professors, they are not the only best option for qualifying and training our youth for tomorrow’s challenges. However, those entrepreneurs are not teachers or willing to be, education specialists and strategists are required to set the vision and the procedures required to pave the way for highly practical competencies framework. Analgesics are no longer feasible.
... Second, along with the standards, the states developed a range of resources to implement them in classrooms, including guidelines for instructional design, lesson plans and pedagogy. (Finn, 1997) Capacity to implement the standards was developed at all levels of the education system. Unlike the United States, the German states also put a premium on the improvement, rather than the accountability, function of these standards. ...
... But the bigger problem is that policy makers often do not have much of a sense of the capacity and expertise that is dormant among their teachers, because all their efforts focus on getting government prescription into classrooms, rather than getting the good practice from great classrooms into the education system. (Finn, 1997) The point is that teachers will accept evaluation more easily if they are consulted as the process is being designed. In addition, this is a good way to recognize and capitalize on their professionalism, the importance of their skills and experience, and the extent of their responsibilities. ...
Article
Full-text available
My research is a result of accumulated provocation of obsolete and paralyzing education that has been frozen since the middle ages. We have to admit that before the pandemic, education was already in crisis. Governments have been ignoring to adopt any comprehensive plan to reform the educational systems till it has been unprecedently disrupted by COVID-19. I try through this paper to make a global call for governments to immediately start cooperating together for setting international qualifications framework that best suit future competencies. This call should be prioritized on the world agenda. It would be more plausible for governments, UNESCO and other education stakeholders to seize the opportunity of the 2020 disruption of life cycle for the maximum benefit of humanity. For this to happen we need exceptional leaders with extraordinary vision to transform education instead of ensuring children can keep learning and that every single child returns to school after the pandemic. Another challenge to be expected is the reduction in education budgets being under pressure as governments shift spending towards the health and economic response to the pandemic. The impact of schools closing on a generation of children will be immense on the long term. We must act now to save the education and life chances of generations of youth. At this time of unprecedented crisis, the world must come together to protect education and put it at the very heart of the global recovery effort. Recovery, not as before but as convenient and sustainable with the perspective requirements. It is time to expose youth to real life experiences; we need our children to learn about finance from characters like Jef Bezos or Bill Gates or Mukesh Ambani; to learn about psychology from John Anderson, Eliot Aronson and Ahmed Ukasha; to know approaches of math and physics as Elon Musk and Steve Wozniak. We shouldn't settle for less when it comes to building minds and souls of our children. With all due respect to teachers and university professors, they are not the only best option for qualifying and training our youth for tomorrow's challenges. However, those entrepreneurs are not teachers or willing to be, education specialists and strategists are required to set the vision and the procedures required to pave the way for highly practical competencies framework. Analgesics are no longer feasible.
... According to Finn and Rock (1997) [18] and Fredricks et al. (2004) [24] , behaviour engagement entails good behaviour such as conforming to classroom standards, obeying regulations, and not engaging in disruptive behaviours. Discussions, contributions, asking questions, paying attention, concentrating, demonstrating tenacity, and putting forth effort are all examples of behaviour engagement in learning and academic-related tasks (Fredricks et al., 2004;Skinner & Belmont, 1993) [24,20] . ...
... According to Finn and Rock (1997) [18] and Fredricks et al. (2004) [24] , behaviour engagement entails good behaviour such as conforming to classroom standards, obeying regulations, and not engaging in disruptive behaviours. Discussions, contributions, asking questions, paying attention, concentrating, demonstrating tenacity, and putting forth effort are all examples of behaviour engagement in learning and academic-related tasks (Fredricks et al., 2004;Skinner & Belmont, 1993) [24,20] . ...
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The study examined the analysis of the relationship between students' engagement and academic achievement: Impact on College of Education students in Ghana. The descriptive survey design was used to conduct the study. A multi-stage sampling procedures (proportionate and simple random sampling) were used in the selection process. In all 5 Colleges of Education and 310 students comprising 187 males and 123 females were selected to participate in the study. Standardised instrument was used to collect data for the study which was tested using both descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation as well as inferential statistics such as multiple regression and independent sample t-test. The findings showed that the self-reported behavioural, emotional and cognitive engagement did not predict academic achievement of College of Education students. When the total student's engagement construct was put together, it also did not predict academic achievement. The results again showed that there is no significance gender difference in students' engagement of College of Education students. The study recommended that policymakers and teachers should consider or pay attention to student's classroom participation in a way that directly or indirectly influences academic attainment. The study again recommended that teachers should be assigned to use methods to create students' school engagement in order to evaluate the effectiveness of each method, and if teachers recognize the benefits and outcomes that have occurred with students, teachers should become aware of the importance of their role in promoting students' school engagement. The study went on to say that principals in various Colleges of Education should encourage school programs to be held on a regular basis so that students understand that if they are more involved in school learning and activities, their grades will always be the best, and they will avoid dropping out from school.
... Over the years, there has been series of research efforts, geared towards helping students to achieve optimally in their learning outcomes. However, academic challenge, setback, and adversity are a reality of everyday school life [15]. When some students are faced with these academic challenges and setbacks, there is the likelihood that they will begin to manifest academic handicapping. ...
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The study examined the relationship between self-handicapping and academic buoyancy among final year students in secondary schools in Nsukka education zone of Enugu State of Nigeria. This study adopted the cross-sectional survey research design. Through multistage sampling technique, 120 final year students were selected. The questionnaires, such as Academic Buoyancy Scale (ABS) and Self-handicapping Scale were used to collect data. The internal validity of self-handicapping and academic buoyancy scales were ascertained using the Bartlett's tests for Sphericity and it was reported to be highly significant (p<0.05). The internal consistency of the questionnaires was ensured by using the Cronbach's alpha and a value of 0.844 and 0.867 was reported for the self-handicapping and academic buoyancy scales respectively. The quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that there was low negative insignificant relationship between the two variables (Beta=-0.105; R=-0.105; p<0.253), indicating that high level self-handicapping is negatively associated with academic buoyancy among final year students in secondary schools. The study recommends that student counselors should develop structured and comprehensive cognitive behavioral therapy sessions to enhance the self-handicapping of final year students in secondary schools.
... = 0.251 ; p < 0.01). Our results support (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Marks, 2000) which confirm that engaged students tend to perform better academically and do well on standardized tests, also, our results corroborate (Finn & Rock, 1997 ;Wang and Holcombe, 2010) who indicated that academic engagement is critical to students' academic success and Eccles, 2012a , 2012b ) who denoted that youth need to be actively involved in their education in order to acquire the knowledge and skills required for successful transition to postsecondary programs and careers. It is found that the qualifying high school students interviewed, are cognitively engaged as they see the knowledge and skills acquired as relevant to their personal goals and interests and are of great value in creating opportunities in the future, we agree with (Roeser et al., 1998), who predict that students feel a sense of autonomy when they are doing work that, rather than simply fulfilling the requirements of school, relates to their interests and has personal meaning. ...
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The present work is interested in the resonance of teacher commitment on students' academic commitment and consequently on their academic achievement. It aims to identify the determinants of the commitment of Moroccan teachers at the qualifying secondary level specifically in the Provincial Directorate of National Education of Tangier-Assilah (Morocco), in particular organizational commitment and professional commitment with repercussions on student commitment in its two dimensions: affective, cognitive and its extension on academic achievement. This article has discussed the conceptual and theoretical details as well as the problematic, the main hypotheses and the conceptual model of the research. Then, it has presented the results of the empirical study which is based on a quantitative methodological approach of a positivist hypothetical deductive nature. The data were collected by a questionnaire submitted by e-mail to our study population, which consists of 204 teachers and 380 students of the qualifying secondary level in 29 local public schools of the qualifying secondary cycle in the Provincial Directorate of National Education of Tangier-Assilah (Morocco). The result of our empirical study shows that the teacher commitment had a positive and statistically significant effect on student academic achievement through student engagement in local public schools of the qualifying secondary cycle in the Provincial Directorate of National Education of Tangier-Assilah (Morocco).
... Previous work has demonstrated that engagement can predict students' academic performance (Fredricks et al., 2004), hence identifying students' engagement in academic environment is crucial. Conversely, academic performance has largely been assessed through standardized tests, performance test scores, academic grades, and GPA (Finn & Rock, 1997;Fredricks et al., 2004;Upadyaya & Salmela-Aro, 2013). Significant relationship between engagement and academic performance were shown by a considerable number of studies. ...
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This paper aims to determine the influence of students’ engagement on academic performance. A total of 84 non-food science students enrolled in a food science course were chosen to answer the questionnaire. The overall mean of students’ engagement was found to be 3.63 (SD =.24). Respondents were found to be more engaged in social engagement (x̄ = 3.98, SD =.63), followed by emotional engagement (x̄ = 3.96, SD =.52), behavioural engagement (x̄ = 3.46, SD =.44) and cognitive engagement (x̄ = 2.80, SD =.28). Results showed significant positive relationship between overall students’ engagements with academic performance (r = 0.312; p < 0.001). Two components of students’ engagement, i.e., emotional engagement (r = 0.529**; p < 0.001) and cognitive engagement (r = 0.391; p < 0.001), both showed positive relationship to academic performance. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that emotional domain contributed to 38.6% of variation on students’ performance, hence plays a vital role in students’ academic performance. © 2021. Journal of Turkish Science Education. All Rights Reserved.
... This decision may negatively affect their understanding of the course material and their performance in the class (Fischer et al., 2015). The lack of finances can also hinder students at risk from academic success due to low engagement (Finn & Rock, 1997) and high stress. ...
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The use of Open Educational Resources (OER) in course settings provides a solution to reduce the textbook barrier. Several published studies have concluded that high textbook costs may influence students' educational choices. However, there are other student characteristics that may be relevant to OER. In this work, we study various factors that may influence students' educational choices regarding OER and their impact on a student’s perspectives on OER use and quality. More specifically, we investigate whether there are significant differences in the frequency of use and perceived quality of the OER textbook based on gender, prior academic achievements, income, seniority, sentiment about online format, and motivation to learn. Our study involved students enrolled in the “Data Structures” course at Columbus State University (N=61) and analyzed students’ feedback before and during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide insights that can inform the decision of adopting OER in higher education settings. The results indicate that there is no significant difference between most of the students’ characteristics and the perception of the quality and use of the OER textbook. However, two student characteristics presented significant differences. Students who used the OER textbook more frequently were more likely to have a less positive attitude towards the online format of the textbook. Also, students with higher motivation to learn perceived it as a better resource than the traditional textbook compared to students with lower motivation to learn.
... Positive behaviors include following instructions, involvement in school tasks and activities proposed by the teacher, and participation in extracurricular activities [44], [47]. Negative behaviors include absenteeism, disruptive behavior, and lack of academic effort [48], [49]. ...
Article
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Digital game-based learning is a ludic approach that has evolved through the development of information and communication technologies (ICT), making the learner an active participant in the virtual learning environment instead of a mere observer. It is an electronic simulation tool suitable for improving learning efficiency as well as learner engagement and motivation. The integration of this educational technology in the teaching and learning process can contribute to the construction of knowledge, the development of new skills and attitudes among students. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of serious game on the learning, behavioral engagement, and motivation of nursing students. To do this, we first conducted a study with a sample of 58 polyvalent nursing students divided into two groups; one experimental and the other as a control. Both groups benefited from the same content taught at a distance, however, the experimental group benefited from an online serious game after the course. By comparing the summative scores of the two groups using the Student's t-test, the results show that the serious game improved the students' clinical knowledge of pediatric nursing (t= -2.706,p=0.009). However, it did not have an effect on clinical skills (t= -0.373, p=0.711). As a second step, we have studied the impact of the game on the learners' behavioral engagement based on the analysis of the digital traces of the students' work. Meanwhile, the motivation is analyzed using a questionnaire developed from the ARCS scale of Killer (2010), which is distributed to the experimental group. By comparing the means and deviation standards, the results show that the students give the satisfaction factor the highest score (4.71±0.34) followed by the relevance, attention, and confidence factors. To obtain reliable results, however, it is necessary to repeat the serious game experience in several nursing modules. In addition, the impact of combining serious game with simulation on the learning of nursing students should be studied.
... They can gain better self-esteem and greater autonomy and self-control through the process of participation. These experiences and feelings thereby increase life satisfaction and lower the possibility of causing anti-social or dangerous behaviors (Finn and Rock, 1997). ...
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Life satisfaction is a research hotspot in positive psychology in recent years. This study uses overseas students as subjects and attempts to examine the effect of place attachment and student life satisfaction on Mainland Chinese students’ word-of-mouth (WOM) recommendations and their Ambassador Behavioral (AB) intention. A survey was systematically conducted in six institutions in Macao. The results of 312 valid data indicate that place dependence has a positive influence on place identity; place identity and place dependence have a positive influence on student life satisfaction; student life satisfaction mediates the influence of the two dimensions of place attachment on WOM and AB intention. Recommendations are provided to improve overseas students’ life satisfaction in the study places. It helps to improve their sense of ownership and actively participate in the construction of the study places.
... Generally, student engagement is defined as a meta-construct that includes three dimensions [91,92]: (1)behavioural engagement focuses on participation and involvement in academic, social, and co-curricular activities. Some researchers define behavioural engagement with regards to positive conduct, e.g., following the rules, obeying the classroom norms, and the absence of disruptive behavior such as skipping school [92,96,97]; (2) emotional engagement focuses on the extent of positive and negative reactions to teachers, classmates, academics, and school, which includes a sense of belonging or connectedness to the school [92,98]; (3) participants if they need to complete the survey for each class. ...
... Teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates and results from standardized tests. Students' academic performance often defined students' grade point, test scores and persistence level (Finn & Rock, 1997). There are various methods of measuring students' academic performance in terms of success and or failure and this includes: Continuous Assessment (CA), Examination, Grade Point Average (GPA), Graduation rate etc. ...
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Since the number of students entering into the higher education system is increasing along with the dropout rates, therefore it is important for the institutions to identify the reasons that impact students’ academic performance in order to introduce the provision for necessary support for the students. This study is stimulated by the demand to determine such factors at undergraduate level that cause academic failure and dropout rates. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate what students perceive as the key influential factor the effects the academic performance of first year undergraduate students at university level. A quantitative research approach was followed to conduct the study. A survey was designed with questionnaires and was administered. Total 450 first year students, both from public and private universities in Bangladesh, were selected by convenience and stratified simple random sampling. The findings of this study disclosed that appropriate choice of course of study; students’ interest in the subject; regular attendance at lectures; timely and regular examination preparation; teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and skills; effective written communications skills; effective study methods are the topmost success factors that influence students’ academic performance. Oppositely, lack of interest in the course content; inadequate or poor exam preparation; irregular attendance at lectures/tutorials; late submission of assignments; lack of self-discipline, self-motivation and confidence; inability to distinguish between important and unimportant information; heavy course workload; inefficient time management reverse the academic performance of the students.
... Por otra parte, el abandono educativo temprano cuenta con una amplia literatura (Finn & Rock, 1997;Corbeta & Roisman, 2000;Smyth et al., 2004;Breen & Jonsson, 2005;Entorf & Minoiu, 2005;Zvoch, 2006;Rumberger & Ah Lin, 2008;Bernardi & Requena, 2010;Casquero & Navarro, 2010;Mena et al., 2010;Rumberger, 2011;Fernández, 2011;Van Dijk, 2012;Román, 2013;De Witte et al., 2013;Weiss, 2014;Estrada de Madariaga, 2017;Balkis, 2018;Saccone, 2018;Romero & Hernández, 2019;San Fabián, 2020) que, tomada en su conjunto, revela la complejidad que lo caracteriza, no solo como fenómeno educativo y social, sino también como constructo. Los factores son diversos, y tienen que ver con el nivel socioeconómico y cultural, el contexto familiar, las situaciones de pobreza, la conflictividad, el origen migratorio, la etnia, el género, el rendimiento EL ABANDONO ESCOLAR DESDE LA INTERSECCIONALIDAD: EL GÉNERO MARCA DIFERENCIAS Cad. ...
Article
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El trabajo aborda el abandono educativo, tema de interés, a nivel nacional e internacional. Este constructo responde a formas de entender la excelencia en el marco de las jerarquías (sociales, educativas o culturales). Nos interesa su análisis desde una mirada interseccional, en la que sin duda el género juega un papel clave. El análisis se realiza desde la investigación cualitativa, escuchando las voces de 18 chicas entre 12 y 16 años, nacidas en Cádiz (España) y que han abandonado el sistema educativo; accediendo a ellas mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas. Se aplicó Nvivo11 en el tratamiento de los datos. Las jóvenes participantes muestran que el género es determinante: la responsabilidad otorgada de cuidado o los roles estereotipados, entre otros elementos, son motivos para el abandono.
... Engagement in learning activities and motivation to learn play an important role in students' academic achievement and performance, both in traditional [1][2][3] and online classroom settings [4,5]. Students who possess a strong motivation to learn and show a high level of academic task engagement are more likely to carry out successfully their learning experience [6], are more resilient [7] and less likely to drop out [8] or adopt negative behaviours including academic cheating [9]. Several studies referred to gamification, which can be defined as the "use of game design elements to motivate user behavior in non-game contexts" [10], as a possible strategy to foster students' engagement and motivation in educational contexts [11][12][13]. ...
Chapter
The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of university teachers’ attitudes toward gamification. A broader goal is to lay the groundwork for a better understanding of how university teachers gaming habits and preferences might be leveraged in efforts to introduce gamification in Higher Education (HE). Building on previous research, showing no differences in teachers’ attitudes towards gamification by age, gender or type of institution (public or private), this exploratory study tries to assess whether teachers’ level of familiarity with games may have an influence on their attitudes and their expectations about the use of a gamified approach in a Higher Education course. The data were collected through focus groups, involving 13 teachers all in-service in a private Italian university, and were analysed through qualitative content analysis. Participants were divided into three groups according to their playing habits and preferences (well-rounded gamers, casual gamers and non-gamers). Results show that, even though the participants’ overall attitude towards gamification was favourable, there were some differences between the three groups. For instance, teachers in the “well-rounded gamers” group expressed the highest level of concern about the possible negative effects of the use of gamification in HE, while “casual gamers” and “non-gamers” seemed to be less cautious and more focused on the possible advantages of a gamified educational strategy. “Non-gamers” were the group more concerned about the time and guidance needed to really be able to use this new pedagogical approach in their courses.
... Among the different ways of measuring engagement either observation of behaviors (Appleton et al., 2008) or self-report measures (Finn & Rock, 1997;Reeve & Tseng, 2011) can be used. A self-report measure has been developed by Schreiner and Louis (2011): the Engaged Learning Index (ELI). ...
Article
The introduction of digital learning environments in higher education requires teachers to be able to optimize their use to improve student engagement in the learning process during in-person classes. In a quasi-experiment (N = 303), an increasing number of functionalities of a digital learning environment was used to examine the impact on changes in cognitive, affective, and behavioral student engagement between the beginning and the end of a series of lectures. The three conditions were: ‘low number of functionalities’ in which students had only to answer quizzes during the lectures; ‘moderate number of functionalities’ in which, in addition to quizzes, students could ask the teacher written questions at different moments during the lectures; ‘high number of functionalities’ which added a functionality compared to the previous two enabling students to visualize the teacher's slideshow for the course on their own device in real time during the lectures. Results revealed that visualizing the teacher's slideshow on their own device in addition to quizzing and questioning increased affective engagement of students between the beginning and end of the lectures. Furthermore, when only quizzing activities were provided, a greater proportion of students engaged behaviorally to perform additional quizzes administered one week after the end of the last lecture to prepare exams. The discussion evokes both preventing multi-tasking activities, and the need for students to self-evaluate by performing additional quizzes depending on the functionalities used by the teacher during the lectures.
... 200). Furthermore, lack of sense of belonging in school frequently predicts adolescents' dropout rates (Finn & Rock, 1997). Based on her review of correlational studies, Juvonen proposes that educators should "capitalize on affiliative needs to engage students" (p. ...
Technical Report
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Adolescents’ Engagement in Academic Literacy Edited By John T. Guthrie, Allan Wigfield and Susan Lutz Klauda Final Report to NICHD, USA
... Yapılan bir araştırmada dezavantajlı öğrencilerin okul başarıları düşük bulunmuştur (Finn, 1993). Dezavantajlı öğrencilerin akademik başarılarının düşük olmasının önemli bir nedeni okul bağlılıklarının düşük bir düzeyde kalmasıdır (Finn ve Rock, 1997). ...
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Öz. Araştırmanın amacı; öğretmen algılarına göre, okullardaki sosyal adalet liderliğinin durumunu belirlemektir.Bu araştırma, karma yöntem araştırma desenleri arasında yer alan yakınsayan paralel desen(çeşitleme/birleştirme deseni) biçimindedir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Ankara il merkezindeki resmi örgüneğitim kurumlarında görevli öğretmenler oluşturmaktadır. Nicel verilerin toplanması için, “Sosyal AdaletLiderliği Ölçeği”; nitel verilerin toplanması için, görüşme yapmak amacıyla araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilmiş“Görüşme formu” kullanılmıştır. Uygulamalar; araştırmacı tarafından, okul yönetimi ve öğretmenleringönüllülüğü dikkate alınarak, örneklem listesi doğrultusunda her bir okulda uygulamaya katılan öğretmenlerlegörüşülerek, ölçme aracı hakkında bilgi verilmesi ile birlikte gerçekleştirilmiştir. Demografik değişkenlere ilişkinaraştırma sonuçları incelendiğinde; öğretmenlerin okul yöneticilerinin sosyal adalet liderliği düzeyine ilişkinalgıları, cinsiyet, medeni durum, yaş ve öğrenim durumu değişkenlerine göre anlamlı bir farklılık göstermiştir.Ayrıca gerçekleştirilen görüşme sonucunda; özellikle okul yöneticilerindeki sosyal adalet durumunun önemiortaya çıkmıştır. Araştırmada, okullarda sosyal adalet liderliği ve bu kapsamdaki destek, eleştirel bilinç vekatılımın yeterli olduğu bulunmuştur. Bu olumlu gidişatın devam etmesi ve artması için tüm eğitim paydaşlarınıbilinçlendirici eğitimler düzenlenebilir. Toplumda dezavantajlı olan kesimlerle okullarda birtakım ortaketkinlikler düzenlenerek, etkin bir sosyal adalet liderliği sağlanabilir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyal adalet, Sosyal adalet liderliği, Okul, Okul yöneticisi, Öğretmen.Abstract. Purpose of the research; to determine the status of social justice leadership in schools according toteachers' perceptions. This research is in the form of convergent parallel pattern (diversification/combiningpattern) which is among the mixed method research designs. The working group of the research consists ofteachers working in formal education institutions in Ankara city center. “Social Justice Leadership Scale” forcollecting quantitative data; In order to collect qualitative data, "Interview form" developed by the researcherwas used for interview. Apps; It was carried out by the researcher, taking into account the volunteering of theschool management and teachers, interviewing the teachers who participated in the practice in each school inline with the sample list, and providing information about the measurement tool. When the research resultsregarding demographic variables are examined; Teachers 'perceptions of school administrators' level of socialjustice leadership showed a significant difference according to the variables of gender, marital status, age andeducational status. In addition, as a result of the meeting; In particular, the importance of social justice inschool administrators has emerged. In the research, it was found that social justice leadership and support,critical awareness and participation in this context are sufficient in schools. Awareness-raising trainings can beorganized for all education stakeholders in order to continue and increase this positive trend. By organizingsome joint activities at schools with the disadvantaged segments of the society, an effective social justiceleadership can be achieved.Keywords: Social justice, Social justice leadership, School, School administrator, Teacher
... Although scientific consensus regarding a definition is lacking, SAL is generally understood to be an individual outlook on school that can have detrimental effects on a student's academic development. Adolescents who are alienated from school are likely to disengage from school (Finn & Rock, 1997). This may lead to low school achievement, a lack of identification with school, predominant negative emotions about school, and eventually school dropout (Finn, 1989;. ...
Article
In recent years, scholars have referred to school alienation as a severe problem that affects the socio-emotional and cognitive development of students. In this study, the authors examined how the relationships with teachers and classmates are associated with students’ state of alienation from learning, from teachers, and from classmates, applying a cross-sectional research design. Participants included 543 Grade 7 students from the Swiss canton of Bern who took part in the binational research project “School Alienation in Switzerland and Luxembourg (SASAL, 2015-2019)”. Results of correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed that the student-teacher and student-student relationships were associated with alienation from school.
... Students' intrinsic motivation predicts their intention to stay in school (Renaud-Dubé et al., 2015), whereas students who do not feel self-determined are more likely to drop out of school (Vallerand et al., 1997). Halting disengagement is crucial to dealing with underachievement and disaffection with the school system (Duffy & Elwood, 2013;Finn & Rock, 1997). For example, one group of researchers found that introducing intrinsically motivating activities such as gardening led to a substantial decrease in school failure, school dropout, and disruptive behaviours (Ruiz-Gallardo et al., 2013). ...
Thesis
Children are born naturally curious and eager to learn, but as they go through school this inner motivation to learn diminishes. Yet children’s inner motivation to learn is essential to deep learning, positive attitudes to school and wellbeing. Self-Determination Theory suggests that supporting children’s need for autonomy – that is to say the feeling that actions stem from internal sources rather than being imposed externally – is essential to supporting inner motivational resources. This thesis is concerned with how teachers may be able to support children’s autonomy and inner motivation in the early Primary classroom in England and how we may be able to capture changes in children’s inner motivation in those settings. It is divided into two parts. In Part I, I used interpretive methods to understand teachers’ attempts to provide greater opportunities for children’s autonomy in Year 1 classrooms through a professional development programme. This programme was developed by a team of researchers at the PEDAL centre using a Community of Practice model and involved nine teachers in trying out strategies to support children’s autonomy. Through stories of change, I show that teachers’ use and interpretations of the strategies varied, and this was affected by the teachers’ school context and their own beliefs. Through thematic analysis, I show that the classrooms in the study functioned as ecosystems of teacher control, which was itself under pressure from top-down directions through governmental policies and institutions as well as senior leaders. This resulted in a teaching mindset focused on strict learning objectives which left little space for children to take ownership of their learning. Despite this, teachers were sometimes able to provide pockets of space for children’s autonomy, though these took diverse forms. The extent of these spaces for autonomy depended on individual school and classroom contexts. The proposed model – pockets of space within an ecosystem of teacher control – explains the tensions between teachers’ need for control in the classroom and opportunities for children’s autonomy, as well as areas where teachers’ attempts to increase children’s autonomy were successful. In particular, I show that teachers needed to provide support and stimulation as well as space in order to support both autonomy and inner motivation. Part II is concerned with measuring inner motivation for research purposes and in particular for future evaluations of the above professional development programme. This research focuses on the validity and reliability of an existing instrument, the Leuven Involvement Scale (LIS). This instrument aims to capture a form of engagement in learning activities that is related to inner motivation. The studies in Part II investigate the reliability and stability of the instrument, as well as factors associated with variation in engagement using multilevel modelling. I found that the LIS can be reliable as long as raters share a common understanding of different child behaviours in the classroom. In addition, I found that engagement varied hugely from one moment to the next, with very little variation between children. What little variation existed between children was explained by the association between engagement and aspects of children’s self-regulatory capacities, namely effortful control and negative emotions, measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Child Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ). However, overall this research suggests that it is the individual moment that matters, rather than characteristics of the children. To better understand the influence of contextual factors, I investigated the association of activity setting (whether children are in teacher-directed, independent or free choice situations) with engagement. Children were significantly more engaged in free choice settings compared to whole class teacher-directed settings. However, there was a large amount of remaining variation and I discuss the implications this has for the role of teachers in supporting children’s engagement. Overall, this thesis makes a contribution towards our understanding of children’s autonomy and inner motivation in the classroom and teaching practices that support it, as well as how we may be able to study it in classroom contexts.
... Furthermore, engaged learners are more likely to show higher levels of school belongingness and socio-emotional well-being [22,36,73]. They are also are less likely to drop-out [2,3,41] or demonstrate negative behaviors in school [62,93]. Consistent with these general educational outcomes, a positive association between active participation in online discussion forums and academic achievement has been found [23,51,85]. ...
Conference Paper
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The need to identify student cognitive engagement in online learning settings has increased with our use of online learning approaches because engagement plays an important role in ensuring student success in these environments. Engaged students are more likely to complete online courses successfully, but this setting makes it more difficult for instructors to identify engagement. In this study, we developed predictive models for automating the identification of cognitive engagement in online discussion posts. We adapted the Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP) Engagement theory [15] by merging ICAP with Bloom's taxonomy. We then applied this adaptation of ICAP to label student posts (N = 4,217), thus capturing their level of cognitive engagement. To investigate the feasibility of automatically identifying cognitive engagement, the labelled data were used to train three machine learning classifiers (i.e., decision tree, random forest, and support vector machine). Model inputs included features extracted by applying Coh-Metrix to student posts and non-linguistic contextual features (e.g., number of replies). The support vector machine model outperformed the other classifiers. Our findings suggest it is feasible to automatically identify cognitive engagement in online learning environments. Subsequent analyses suggest that new language features (e.g., AWL use) should be included because they support the identification of cognitive engagement. Such detectors could be used to help identify students who are in need of support or help adapt teaching practices and learning materials.
... The crime is increasingly noticed in every single district of the country [7].In India boys are marginally more likely to face physical abuse (73 per cent) than girls (65 per cent). Corporal punishment in both government as well as private educational institutions is deeply ingrained as a tool to discipline children and as a normal action [8][9][10]. But most children do not report or confide about the problem to anyone and suffer silently. ...
Article
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High school students are in the stage of Adolescence and it is the time for developing independence. Typically, adolescents exercise their independence by questioning and sometimes by breaking rules. Parents and teachers must play a major role in supporting & influencing the children positively by their ethical & appropriate approaches. Teachers in school as well as parent at home, often wonder how to disciple a child and to mould their behaviour so to bring up the child with virtues. Although some children truly have challenging behaviours regardless of what strategies to try, many children just need to have the adults in their lives make changes in the way they react, respond, or interact with them. It is also a great responsibility of the teacher in school to have positive approach towards students. If not there are possibilities in change of behaviour among students & leads to several problems. For example, frequent episodes of fighting, scholastic backwardness, substance abuse; antisocial or institutional activities, destructive behaviour and change in attitude in students are much more significant than isolated episodes of the same activities. Other warning signs include deterioration of performance at school and running away from home. This research paper’s aim is the teacher-students relationship and its impact on the behaviour of High school students. The objectives are to know the teachers attitudes both positive and negative towards students and its impact to bring positive as well as negative behaviour change in the students. The study has reported that students are often facing emotional problems by the negative approach of the teachers. It is recommended that to create awareness among teachers in the school for the smooth handling the children with the positive approaches. 50 high school students; 25 girls and 25 boys were taken and interview schedule is used. Both the primary and secondary methods are used and the study is descriptive in nature.
... Furthermore, academic success can be defined as the success that the students take from academic courses; meanwhile, failure can be defined as the failure of these courses. In a nutshell, academic achievement is the getting a passing grade or above, and failure is getting a grade below the passing grade (Carter & Good, 1973;Charters & Good, 1945;Finn & Rock, 1997;York, Gibson & Rankin, 2015). In order to be successful in any course at the end of the school year, a student in secondary education in Turkey should have; a) at least 50 of the arithmetic average of the two semesters score or at least 70 of the second-semester score regardless of the first-semester score, b) skills training in the enterprises, the arithmetic of the first and second semester scores and the skill exam score the average must be at least 50 or a skill exam score of 70 (URL-3). ...
Article
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One of the most important goals of education is to ensure that students are academically successful. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors ensuring success and causing failure of students in educational environments. In the research, single survey model, one of the survey models, was used. Extreme or deviant (outlier) sampling method, which is one of the purposeful sampling methods determined within the scope of the research, was used. The study group of the study consists of 21 students who are in the 11th grades of a secondary education institution and who are either successful or unsuccessful in academia. For this purpose, interview method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used. The data of the research were collected using semi-structured interview questions and analyzed by induction method. The answers obtained from the students were written and analyzed first by content analysis and then by descriptive analysis. It was detected that individual factors, teacher attitude factor, family influence factor and out-of-school support factors were effective in achieving of successful students. It was also detected that unsuccessful students' academic failure was caused by difficulty of lessons, teacher attitude, friend effect and other factors. As a result of the research; suggestions were made on how the success and failure factors identified can be reflected positively and effectively on the education and training environment. Eğitimin en önemli amaçlarından biri öğrencilerin akademik olarak başarılı olmasını sağlamaktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı eğitim öğretim ortamlarındaki öğrencilerin başarılarını sağlayan ve başarısızlıklarına sebep olan faktörleri araştırmaktır. Araştırmada tarama modellerinden tekil tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında belirlenen amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden aşırı/aykırı durum örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu bir ortaöğretim kurumunun 11. sınıflarında yer alan ve akademik olarak başarılı ya da başarısız olan 21 öğrenciden meydana gelmektedir. Araştırmanın verileri yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme soruları kullanılarak toplanmıştır ve tümevarım yöntemiyle analiz edilmiştir. Görüşme kapsamında uzman görüşleri doğrultusunda araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme soruları öğrencilere sorulmuştur. Öğrencilerden elde edilen cevaplar yazılmış ve önce içerik analiziyle daha sonra ise betimsel analizle incelenmiştir. Başarılı öğrencilerin başarı sağlamalarında "bireysel faktör, öğretmen tutumu faktörü, aile etkisi faktörü ve okul dışı destek faktörlerinin etkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Başarısız öğrencilerin akademik başarısızlığına "derslerin zorluğu, öğretmen tutumu, arkadaş etkisi ve diğer" faktörlerin sebep olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırmanın sonucunda; tespit edilen başarı ve başarısızlık faktörlerinin eğitim öğretim ortamına olumlu ve etkin bir biçimde nasıl yansıtılabileceğine dair önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
... Locus of control also explains several other phenomena within and across individuals, thereby rendering it an important construct for a variety of research questions. It has been related to a variety of behavioral [7], affective and cognitive [8], and physiological outcomes [9,10] in different areas of life (e.g., health, education, work, or social relationships), across different age groups [11,12], and across countries [13]. ...
Article
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The Internal–External Locus of Control Short Scale–4 (IE-4) measures two dimensions of the personality trait locus of control with two items each. IE-4 was originally developed and validated in German and later translated into English. In the present study, we assessed the psychometric properties (i.e., objectivity, reliability, validity) of the English-language IE-4, compared these psychometric properties with those of the German-language source version, and tested measurement invariance across both language versions. Using heterogeneous quota samples from the UK and Germany, we find that the English-language adaptation has satisfactory reliability and plausible correlations with 11 external variables (e.g., general self-efficacy, self-esteem, impulsive behavior, Emotional Stability), which are comparable with those of the German-language source version. Moreover, metric measurement invariance of the scale holds when comparing the UK and Germany, implying the comparability of correlations based on the latent factors across the two nations. As an ultra-short scale (completion time < 30 s), IE-4 lends itself particularly to the assessment of locus of control in survey contexts in which assessment time or questionnaire space are limited. It can be applied in a variety of research disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, or economics.
... The authors explained that engaged children regularly attend courses, concentrate on learning, avoid disruptive behaviours and generally perform well in academics. In summary, children's learning engagement is an antidote to poor academic performance and is affected by parental involvement (Finn & Rock, 1997;Fredricks et al., 2004;Loera et al., 2011). When considering this evidence together, it is reasonable to assume that children's learning engagement might mediate the association between parental involvement and children's academic achievement. ...
Article
Background: COVID-19 has infected over twenty million people across 200 countries. UNESCO claimed that more than 190 countries had implemented countrywide school closures, which resulted in preventing 1.6 billion students of their classroom learning opportunities. As children are unable to study in the classroom with teachers' supervision, the importance of parental engagement is amplified in children's learning at home. Aim: The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate how parental involvement contribute to children's academic achievement during school closure. Sample: Two hundred and twenty-nine primary school children and their parents. Method: Children's academic achievement before (T1) and after school closure (T3), parental involvement (T2) and children's learning engagement (T2) during school closure were measured. Results: After controlling for gender, age, grade and SES, children's learning engagement (T2) served as a full mediator of the association between parental involvement (T2) and children's academic achievement from T1 to T3. Moreover, parental psychological control (T2) moderated the association between parental involvement (T2) and children's learning engagement (T2). Specifically, the contribution of parental involvement to children's learning engagement became stronger for children whose parents had higher levels of psychological control. Higher Chinese parental psychological control did not always correlate to lower academic outcomes in the context of COVID-19. Conclusion: These findings highlight the central roles of parental involvement and children's learning engagement in children's academic achievement during school closure caused by COVID-19.
... La recherche montre que l'engagement scolaire des élèves est lié au décrochage scolaire (Finn & Rock, 1997;National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2004), aux résultats scolaires, à l'obtention d'un diplôme (Appleton, Christenson & Furlong, 2008;Eccles, 2004;Finn, 1989Finn, , 1993Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Jimerson, Campos, & Greif, 2003), au développement des jeunes (Lerner, Lerner, & Benson, 2011), et, plus tard, au succès académique et professionnel . D'après Christenson, Reschly et Wylie (2012), s'il y a consensus sur l'idée que l'engagement scolaire est un concept multidimensionnel, les auteurs divergent fortement quant au nombre de dimensions constitutives de ce concept. ...
... Low participation lowers academic attainment, which leads to a lower identification-sense of belonging and valuing-of the student with the school. In his later works, the author focuses on the relationship between variables of that second model, substituting 'identification' by 'engagement' (Finn, 1993;Finn & Rock, 1997). ...
Thesis
To access tertiary studies, to “land” a better job, to not have to go through what their parents went through, or just “to be someone in life” —students from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are quick to provide a myriad of reasons why they ought to complete secondary education. In most societies nowadays all children, disadvantaged or not, are expected to start attending school at a specific age and to complete a certain amount of years of schooling. Yet there are many whom, for one reason or another, quit school at some point, before completing the necessary requisites to obtain a diploma. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as school dropout. Leaving school before completing secondary education puts these individuals at a disadvantage when they try to get a job or to continue their studies. Compared to secondary school graduates, those who drop out tend to perceive a lower income, have poorer health and well-being. High dropout rates have also been associated with multiple negative consequences and high costs for the society as a whole, such as increased delinquency, loss of tax revenues and more dependence on social welfare. Causes and consequences of school dropout have been extensively studied. Several theories and conceptual models exist that help to understand the process by which this outcome materializes. Yet dropout rates continue to be of concern. In 2015, the United Nations member countries agreed to achieve universal secondary school completion by 2030. This has increased the international pressure to reduce dropout rates, especially in parts of the world where massification of secondary education access and completion is rather recent and educational systems’ efficiency is not at its best, as is the case in Latin America. Uruguay is one of many Latin American countries which could benefit from narrowing the gap in secondary school completion between individuals from higher and lower socio-economic backgrounds. Having accomplished universal primary school graduation since a long time, the current challenges for Uruguay lie in smoothing the transition from primary to lower secondary school, as well as in fostering students’ successful academic and social integration in the first year of secondary education. To achieve this, the current knowledge base on secondary school dropout ought to be enriched by empirical research on the ways lower secondary schools can positively impact the trajectory through the first year of secondary school of students whose prior schooling, individual and family characteristics put them at higher risk of dropout. Understanding the specific circumstances under which disadvantaged, “high-risk” population live and attend school is key for designing, targeting, implementing and evaluating successful dropout prevention strategies. The overall objective of this research is, therefore, to contribute to the scientific knowledge on the secondary school dropout phenomenon. We aim to add to the empirical base of this field of research by combining statistical analyses and case studies in a mixed methods approach. We intend to contribute to the theoretical base of dropout research by applying and adapting Vincent Tinto’s “longitudinal model of student departure” to the Uruguayan lower secondary school setting, by assessing how well students pre-entry characteristics predict dropout, by analyzing the influence of preventive interventions in the summer transition period, as well as by exploring the particular role context variables—such as the socioeconomic composition of the school and community violence exposure—play in students’ academic success and dropout decisions. By providing insights on these aspects of the dropout phenomenon and intervention possibilities, we intend to support school staff, teachers and principals working in low-SES, high-violence settings in their dropout prevention efforts. We also wish to provide some recommendations and implications, based on our findings, for policymakers working in the fields of education and social development.
... Past studies have identified different factors that facilitate resilience, such as self-efficacy and self-concept (Cheung, 2017), academic interest and perseverance (Thorsen et al., 2021), school engagement (Finn & Rock, 1997), supportive learning environments (Padron et al., 2014), and disciplinary climate among others (Agasisti et al., 2021). These findings suggest that resilience is a complex phenomenon that is multiply determined (Kumpfer, 1999). ...
Article
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Students from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds generally have worse academic outcomes than their more advantaged peers. However, some resilient students beat the odds and achieve academic success despite socioeconomic adversity. Identifying the factors that promote resilience is of critical theoretical and practical importance. Hence, this study aims to examine the different personal and social-contextual factors that predict resilience. We utilized the 2018 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) data from Hong Kong and focused specifically on the 1,459 students in the bottom socioeconomic quartile. Of these, 251 were identified as resilient students as they demonstrated a high level of achievement despite being from disadvantaged backgrounds. Machine learning (i.e., random forest classification) was adopted to understand the relative importance of 30 different personal and social-contextual factors in classifying students into those who are deemed resilient versus those who are not. Eight top variables that best predicted resilience were identified, including the use of meta-cognitive strategies, joy of reading, teacher-directed instruction, perception of difficulty of the PISA test, sense of belonging to school, discriminating school climate, self-efficacy, and perceived teacher’s interest. This study sheds light on the factors that underpin resilience, providing important theoretical and policy implications.
... We are, however, unaware of any study that has experimentally investigated the experience of flow by students in teacher-training programs, that has endeavored to explain their preference for face-to-face learning environments, or that has detailed their perception of distance learning environments. This represents a clear research gap, especially as student engagement is considered to be one of the most important variables in academic achievement [39,40], and as a social dimension seems necessary for lifelong learning readiness [41]. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to contribute to instructional design for curricula in teacher education by collecting and assessing the self-reported learning experience of students in two synchronous environments (face-to-face and online). ...
Article
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Digitization in teacher education is currently being promoted, but the choice between face-to-face instruction and online learning environments remains challenging. Previous studies have documented ambivalent results regarding personal preference and academic achievement, and experimental investigations into attention comparing learning in these two settings are largely lacking. In this context, the present study adopts a counterbalanced design to compare different dimensions of student experience of flow in face-to-face settings and online learning environments. Two groups of students in teacher-training programs (n = 37) completed an EduFlow questionnaire at the end of the same interactive courses in the two different settings. The results indicate globally lower attention and engagement in the online environment, suggesting that in-person instruction induces better cognitive absorption, greater time transformation, and a stronger autotelic experience. While the findings represent a contribution to the discussion on how to best design online education, more research is needed to identify the specific mechanisms regarding attention and motivation that can impact flow in these two environments.
Article
The present study details the development and validation of an engagement instrument in the pre-service teacher education context. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses were used to obtain the factor structures performed on a sample of 196 and 212 pre-service teachers respectively. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated four empirically interpretable and reliable dimensions: academic engagement, peer engagement, intellectual engagement, and online engagement. The confirmatory factor analysis results also supported the correlational four-dimensional model with adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Results also depicted convergent and discriminant validity of the instrument. Future research involved in the iterative process of instrument development is discussed.
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Even though international student mobility has been cut short due to the pandemic, this process that has been going on for years has been making valuable contributions for a long time for everyone involved. International students help host countries both financially and culturally while they gain experience, interact with different cultures and carry on with their academic studies. One of the serious issues they may face abroad is disruptions in their academic performance. While there may be many reasons behind this, previous literature has focused on possible causes and solutions to implement. This chapter briefly explains the viewpoints of scholars in this field and what can be done to combat unfavourable factors which may harm international students' academic performance along with policy implications for the rapidly digitalizing internationalization process. Challenges that may arise in the future are also discussed.
Article
This paper aims to clarify the notion of engagement in MOOCs discussion forums as perceived by students. To do this, we relied on the qualitative approach used by Fredricks et al. (2016) in the context of mathematics and science. The analysis of the eleven semi-structured interviews conducted with MOOCs students highlights three main findings. First, engagement as a construct with four dimensions (behavioural, affective, cognitive and social). Secondly, a clear distinction between these dimensions using the related indicators we have identified. Finally, the dynamic aspect of engagement: engagement may be absent, low or high among students. These results provide a socially and contextually grounded definition of engagement in MOOCs forums that ensures the development of reliable and essential tools for measuring it and observing its quality over time.
Article
Academic engagement has been studied for several years because of its influence on student attrition. According to Tinto, engagement is the most important predictor for student dropout, which makes it relevant to understand how the environment influences engagement. Yet very few studies have addressed this relationship outside higher income countries. The results of a 2 × 2 factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) suggest significant differences in engagement means between students from one American and one Bolivian university.
Article
Using the data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), this paper proposes to theoretically redefine and empirically capture the concept of emotional capital as it applies to students, employing five components (engagement, school belonging, grit, peer social support, and life satisfaction). The study demonstrates the associations between students’ demographic characteristics and emotional capital on one hand, and the relationships between emotional capital and student behavior, on the other. We found that higher SES students and girls possessed higher levels of emotional capital. Stronger feelings of engagement and school belonging were associated with reduced internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and improved approaches to learning. Grit and peer social support were associated with reduced internalizing behavior problems and improved approaches to learning. Higher level of life satisfaction was associated with reduced externalizing behavior problems. We discuss the implications of these findings to educational policy and practice.
Article
This ethnographic study of high school students’ classroom practices and perceptions about participation reveals the extent to which students’ perceptions determine their understandings of practice, even when these understandings conflict with researcher observations and the bulk of the literature on gender and participation. This study shows, moreover, that although there were gender-stratified patterns of participation in the classroom between girls and boys, the underlying conceptualizations about what constituted a supportive environment for participation differed little between genders: Both girls and boys revealed themselves as dependent upon teachers, peers, and “knowing.” What did differ were the ways in which girls and boys described this dependence and the ways in which they understood what occurred in classrooms. Conducted at a large inner-city high school in California populated primarily by low-income, first-generation Latina/Latino students, classroom research took place over a period of 2 years in a series of Life Skills for the 21st Century classes. Dependent primarily upon formal interviews and participant observations, this research focus was on how particular participation strategies were understood and made manifest in the classroom. Beyond the contributions of new information on the importance of the relationship of perception to practice, this research shows that we need to be cautious when we think about gender issues, and how students, particularly ethnic minorities, understand the classroom dynamic.
Article
This article presents findings about the implementation of a system for rapidly assessing student progress in math and reading in grades K-12—a system that potentially could reduce pressure on teachers resulting from high-stakes testing and the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act. Interviews with 49 teachers and administrators in one Texas school district suggest that the assessments allowed teachers to individualize and target instruction; provide more tutoring; reduce drill and practice; and improve student readiness for, and spend more time on, critical thinking activities, resulting in a more balanced curriculum. Teachers reported that the assessments provided a common point for discussion, increased collaboration among teachers to improve instruction and resolve instructional problems, and supported both new and experienced teachers in implementing sound teaching practices. The individualized curriculum and rapid feedback on progress reportedly gave students the feeling that they were successful and in control of their own learning, engaging students who previously disliked reading and math—including dyslexic children and children in special education—reducing stress, and improving student achievement. These findings are interpreted through Corbett and Wilson's framework for understanding why high-stakes testing often has negative effects and why the implementation of rapid assessment systems could reduce unintended negative consequences of testing.
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This manuscript introduces I-Three Learning Model (ITLM) intervention to build competency among scholastically backward children by facilitating easy input, processing and output of information. Child receives information through sensory path ways, learning ability is the capacity of the children to collect, process, retain and retrieve information. Children are unique in mental maturity and learning ability. Reasoning is influenced by the auditory, visual, kinaesthetic and tactile inputs. Competency of children with poor social and emotional skills, learning adjustment and academic performance can be improved by enriching their abilities connected to attention, self-learning, logical thinking, reasoning, adjustment, confidence, comprehension and problem solving. This manuscript is both descriptive and exploratory in nature. On the basis of standard Psychological Assessment, a child studying in the eight standard aged 14 years is identified to be poor in social and emotional skills, learning adjustment and academic performance. This case study is carried to derive the findings of these objectives and establishes that ITLM intervention has certainly improve capacity of receiving, processing and retrieving information in the children and recommends for the usage of model for building competency of scholastically backward students.
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The pandemic has implications for policy changes in Indonesia, especially in the field of education. Face-to-face learning is then transformed into online learning through learning from home policies. Unfortunately, online learning carried out by students has various challenges, so academic resilience is needed. This study aims to analyze how students own academic resilience and how social support performs a role in online learning. This study utilizes a literature study approach by collecting data from various journals, government websites, books, and appropriate references. The analysis results explain that the academic resilience of students in online learning during the pandemic is at the lower middle level. This level means that students cannot maximize online learning during a pandemic. Furthermore, social support variables enhance students' academic resilience so that social support through various sources will affect students' academic success during online learning. Abstrak: Pandemi berimplikasi pada perubahan kebijakan di Indonesia, khususnya dalam bidang pendidikan. Pembelajaran tatap muka kemudian bertransformasi menjadi online learning melalui kebijakan belajar dari rumah. Sayangnya, pembelajaran daring yang dilakukan oleh para siswa mempunyai berbagai tantangan yang dihadapi, sehingga dibutuhkan resiliensi akademik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis bagaimana resiliensi akademik yang dimiliki oleh siswa dan bagaimana peran dukungan sosial pada resiliensi akademik selama pembelajaran daring. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan study pustaka dengan mengumpulkan data dari berbagai jurnal, website pemerintah, buku-buku, dan referensi yang sesuai. Berdasarkan hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa resiliensi akademik siswa dalam pembelajaran daring selama
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Biti tretiran pravedno, neovisno o kojoj životnoj domeni se radi, želja je gotovo svih ljudi, a sam konstrukt pravednosti najviše se očituje kroz socijalne interakcije u kojima prevladavaju implicitna ili eksplicitna pravila. Donedavno, pravednost je bila predmetom istraživanja u organizacijskom kontekstu. U međuvremenu, istraživači su se orijentirali na odnos percipirane pravednosti s nizom konstrukata karakterističnih za područje edukacijske psihologije poput akademske samoregulacije i angažiranosti. Kako je riječ o istraživanjima provedenim izvan područja RH, cilj ovog rada bio je istražiti odnos samoregulacije studenata, percipirane pravednosti profesora i kolega te akademske angažiranosti studenata RH. Također, cilj rada je bio istražiti medijacijsku ulogu akademske samoregulacije u odnosu percipirane pravednosti profesora i akademske angažiranosti studenata. Ispitivanju ovih konstrukata koristila su se tri upitnika: Upitnik akademske samoregulacije (UAS), Studentska verzija Utrecht skale radne angažiranosti (UWES-SS) i Upitnik pravednosti profesora i kolega. U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 392 studenata različitih studijskih usmjerenja na području RH. Utvrđene su pozitivne povezanosti distributivne, proceduralne i interakcijske percipirane pravednosti profesora s indeksom akademske samoregulacije kao i s akademskom angažiranošću studenata. Osim toga, indeks akademske samoregulacije i akademska angažiranost također su pozitivno povezane. Nadalje, utvrđena je djelomična medijacijska uloga akademske samoregulacije u odnosu distributivne, proceduralne i interakcijske percipirane pravednosti profesora i akademske angažiranosti studenata.
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Student engagement is a pivotal contributor to academic achievement, retention, and well-being, and yet the role of teacher influence on engagement is poorly understood. This is in part due to the contextual and ‘hidden’ nature of student engagement, and as such, levels of student engagement are assumed through observable factors such as attendance and conduct. It is also due to the difficulty in mapping student engagement simultaneously with understanding the teacher practices used to influence it. This article reports on a pre-post case study in which student survey and teacher focus group data were analysed together, revealing the nature and depth of association between the practices adopted by teachers and student engagement. By comparing the change of engagement at a class or homegroup level, it was possible to identify how approaches used by teachers impacted various elements of engagement. Furthermore, it found a high correlation between teacher practices and change in student engagement at a class or homegroup level, providing the opportunity for teachers to learn what practices were effective in their specific context.
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This article examines a multidimensional conceptualization of engagement and how it is related to achievement outcomes and teacher classroom practices in mathematics (including structure, support, and challenge). It draws insights from existing literature on engagement and other related research areas, including motivation and teaching effectiveness, and conducts empirical investigations using international large-scale survey and assessment data in four education systems (i.e., Singapore, Finland, Australia, and Romania) that have distinct cultural and social backgrounds and achieve at varying levels on international assessments. Confirmatory factor analysis results validate engagement as a multidimensional construct across contexts. Path analysis results reveal different patterns in the relations among engagement, achievement, and teacher classroom practices. In some contexts, relations between teacher practices and engagement or achievement vary as a function of student or teacher report. Implications and future directions are discussed.
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Self-monitoring is a promising evidence-based intervention for students who benefit from supplemental supports to stay on-task during academic periods. I-Connect, a technology-based self-monitoring intervention with a substantial body of research, allows students to discretely recognize and record their behavior on a mobile or desktop app at scheduled intervals, to improve positive behavior and increase inclusion opportunities. This meta-analytic review examined the effect of I-Connect on the on-task behavior of students with or at risk for disabilities to determine the omnibus effect of using I-Connect across students and intervention packages. Students received 20–45 minutes of training before using I-Connect and most students monitored their on-task behavior every 30-seconds during 10-minute monitoring sessions. Under these conditions, I-Connect was found to demonstrate strong functional relations, an abrupt increase in on-task behavior and consistently positive parametric effects across all 14 elementary and secondary students receiving special education.
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There are many factors that can affect academic success efforts of academics. In the study, it is aimed to determine the relationships between the ethical leadership behaviour of the managers, the loyalty of the academicians to their institutions and managers, and the behaviours of envy and jealousy to their colleagues. Within the framework of this purpose, a model was created and scale questions related to research variables were developed in the research conducted on 609 academicians. When the relationships in the research are examined; It has been seen that the ethical leadership behaviours of the administrators have a positive total effect on the academic success efforts of the academicians. It has been observed that the ethical leadership behaviours of the administrators have a positive effect on the loyalty of the academicians to both their institutions and their managers. It has been observed that the loyalty of academicians to their institutions has a positive effect on academic success efforts. It has been concluded that the jealousy behaviours of the academicians have a negative effect on their academic achievement efforts, while the envy behaviours have a positive effect. It has been observed that envy behaviour has a moderator effect on the effect of academics' loyalty to their institutions on their academic achievement efforts. In the research, it was concluded that the ethical leadership behaviours of the administrators have a mediating effect on the academic success efforts of the academicians, and the loyalty of the academicians to their institutions.
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Schools should be institutions that support the social, emotional and physical development of students as well as their academic development. For this reason, students' levels of school engagement significantly affect their academic, social and emotional development. In this study, it was aimed to examine the moderation effect of social and emotional learning relationship between school engagement and student motivation on adolescent. 303 adolescents [146 female (48.2%) and 157 male (51.8%)] were participated in the study. The School Engagement Scale, The Educational Motivation Scale, The Social and Emotional Learning Scale and the personal information form were used as data collection tools in the study. As a result of the research, when school engagement level increases, student motivation level also increases. The moderator effect of social and emotional learning on the relationships between school engagement and motivation was statistically significant. According to the results of the research, it was found that the relationship between school engagement and motivation was stronger in students with low social-emotional learning levels.
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The purpose of this study; is to develop an educational virtual reality application about fractions of fourth grade and to evaluate this application with the dimensions of academic achievement, student engagement and flow theory. In the research, educational virtual reality application which consists of four parts and including activities related to fractions subject has been developed and the application is named as "Keşfet Kurtul". Keşfet Kurtul has been designed in such a way that the fractions lasting a total of 4 weeks can be used every week, according to the opinions of the field experts. Mixed research method was used in the research. The quantitative data of the research were collected with the Academic Achievement Test developed by the researcher for fractions, Student Engagement in Mathematics Scale and Flow State Scale. Qualitative data of the study were obtained through semi-structured interview forms, observation reports and student notes. A total of 64 fourth grade students were included in the study. Interviews were conducted with 4 students selected by typical case sampling from the results obtained from the flow state scale and notes were filled out by these students. In addition, the researcher and 3 teachers participated as observers to the study. According to the results of the research it was found that the educational virtual reality application Keşfet Kurtul used in the experimental group, and the current method applied in the control group, had the same effect on the academic achievement of students. Similarly, when the students' engagement to mathematics was evaluated, it was concluded that the methods used in the experimental and control groups did not show a statistically significant difference. When the flow experience data obtained using the Flow State Scale were analyzed, it was found that the educational virtual reality application Keşfet Kurtul used in the experimental group was more effective than the current method used in the control group. This result is consistent with the findings obtained from the qualitative data of the study. According to the findings obtained from qualitative data, it has been concluded that in some parts of the educational virtual reality application Keşfet Kurtul can be arranged to provide a better flow experience.
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This article discusses the essence of the educational process. The subject of the study is knowledge management as an emerging trend of systematization of effective factors in the development of education. Philosophical ideas of self-organization and involvement of holistic thinking, contextual vision of the situation in the educational process play a special role. The perspective of the development of education is connected with the peculiarities of the influence of globalist and postmodern worldviews on approaches to educational activities and knowledge management in general. The methodological basis of the study is a holistic approach to education. The formation of the unity of the educational process is connected with the distribution of educational initiatives on an equal footing between the teacher and the students of the higher school. The results of the study emphasize the need for the teacher to master the position of a creative manager in taking into account the many positions of self-education of students in the space of social communication management. In response, students as students need philosophical and psychological preparation for managing their education and a high level of reflection in controlling their ways of mastering knowledge and accompanying social relations. The novelty of the work lies in determining the role, necessity, area of responsibility and list of competencies of a creative manager – an expert in educational activities. It arises when there is a figurative connection among students and their adjustment to a contextual vision of the situation. The scope of application of the results is any educational process in which students are involved – from higher education to corporate training. The modern educational system must meet the challenges of digital reality with its ubiquity of information. The approach to student education should be refocused on the constant exchange of teacher-student roles between student and teacher. For the competent implementation of the exchange of roles, students must be properly prepared. The quality of education should be monitored by a special expert with the necessary competencies in the field of knowledge management.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is twofold: explore problems in juvenile delinquency and derive a macrobarrier to change. Juvenile delinquents have histories and complex needs which are poorly understood by educators. A barrier is the failure to understand the needs of juvenile delinquents through the leader-member exchange. Understanding the plight of juvenile delinquents serves as the microcosm for the macrobarrier of absorptive capacity. Leadership is the driving force which defines absorptive capacity. Futures studies, not solutions rooted in the past, should define the second-ordered change necessary to improve online and remote work. Three futures are offered, and a framework to develop strategic thinking gives a path to improved learning outcomes.
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This manuscript introduces I-Three Learning Model (ITLM) intervention to build competency among scholastically backward children by facilitating easy input, processing and output of information. Child receives information through sensory path ways, learning ability is the capacity of the children to collect, process, retain and retrieve information. Children are unique in mental maturity and learning ability. Reasoning is influenced by the auditory, visual, kinaesthetic and tactile inputs. Competency of children with poor social and emotional skills, learning adjustment and academic performance can be improved by enriching their abilities connected to attention, self-learning, logical thinking, reasoning, adjustment, confidence, comprehension and problem solving. This manuscript is both descriptive and exploratory in nature. On the basis of standard Psychological Assessment, a child studying in the eight standard aged 14 years is identified to be poor in social and emotional skills, learning adjustment and academic performance. This case study is carried to derive the findings of these objectives and establishes that ITLM intervention has certainly improve capacity of receiving, processing and retrieving information in the children and recommends for the usage of model for building competency of scholastically backward students.
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Research on dropping out of school has focused on characteristics of the individual or institution that correlate with the dropout decision. Many of these characteristics are nonmanipulable, and all are measured at one point in time, late in the youngster’s school career. This paper describes two models for understanding dropping out as a developmental process that may begin in the earliest grades. The frustration-self-esteem model has been used for years in the study of juvenile delinquency; it identifies school failure as the starting point in a cycle that may culminate in the student’s rejecting, or being rejected by, the school. The participation-identification model focuses on students’ “involvement in schooling,” with both behavioral and emotional components. According to this formulation, the likelihood that a youngster will successfully complete 12 years of schooling is maximized if he or she maintains multiple, expanding forms of participation in school-relevant activities. The failure of a youngster to participate in school and class activities, or to develop a sense of identification with school, may have significant deleterious consequences. The ability to manipulate modes of participation poses promising avenues for further research as well as for intervention efforts.
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Close to 140 studies comprising an African-American empirical literature on motivation were reviewed. The review was organized around five topics subsumed under three broader assumptions about the relationship between ethnic minority status and motivation. First, research on the achievement motive was reviewed to examine the belief that African Americans lack certain personality traits deemed necessary for achievement strivings. Second, the empirical literatures on locus of control and causal attributions were summarized to investigate the assumption that African Americans are less likely to believe in internal or personal control of outcomes, the belief system that theoretically should accompany high achievement-related behavior. And third, research on expectancy of success and self-concept of ability was reviewed to examine the hypothesis that African Americans have negative self-views about their competence. None of these assumptions was supported in the review. In fact, African Americans appear to mai...
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Several investigations have confirmed self-worth predictions that greater shame at failure is experienced under high-effort conditions. In contrast, studies conducted under B. Weiner's (e.g., Weiner et al; see record 1972-22619-001) attributional model have suggested the opposite, that increased shame is associated with low-effort expenditure. The present research, conducted with 1,026 undergraduates, provided empirical support for a proposed resolution of these apparently conflicting findings. Ss were administered a questionnaire designed to manipulate different levels of perceived ability (high and low) and to establish different degrees of certainty regarding these ability perceptions. Results indicate that shame was a global, undifferentiated emotion that shared an ability-linked component (humiliation) and an effort-linked component (guilt). Consistent with self-worth predictions, effort was found to increase humiliation via inability ascriptions because a combination of high effort and failure implies low ability. Conversely, consistent with Weiner's theory, high effort also was found to decrease the guilt component of shame. It was further predicted and confirmed that the relative strength of these ability/effort → affect linkages also depended on whether the S had adopted a failure-avoiding or failure-accepting mode for coping with achievement demands. (64 ref)
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In this investigation we examined the relation between teachers' ratings of the classroom behavior of 1,013 fourth graders and student achievement. Students were identified whose behavior was frequently inattentive and withdrawn, and others were identified who were disruptive. Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced achievement tests indicated that inattentive-withdrawn behavior was associated with depressed academic performance, at least to the extent that disruptive behavior was. These results have strong implications for research and practice. Disruptive students tend to draw far more attention from teachers, whereas teachers may overlook inattentive students in spite of the potentially profound effects of nonparticipation in class.
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This article examines the effects of a number of factors on the dropout behavior of high school students drawn from the base year and first followup of High School and Beyond. The author found that cutting classes, suspensions, dating, being older, and being female substantially increased the odds of Chicano students dropping out. Among Cuban students, suspensions increased the odds of dropping out, but having disciplinary problems at school, high socioeconomic status, and having two parents at home substantially decreased them. For Puerto Rican students, cutting classes, suspension, being older, and being female increased the odds, but having two parents at home decreased them. Intra-Hispanic differences in the effects of immigration on school attrition were also observed.
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Adjustment difficulties have serious impact on children's academic achievement. Using an anthropological approach to data collection and analysis, the nature of Mexican and Mexican-American children's adjustment problems in school was investigated based on the hypothesis that their maladjustment stems from their inability to communicate and understand the school as a cultural unit. The focus was on specific manifestations of adjustment problems and the mechanisms used by the subjects to cope. A total of 16 distinct characteristics of maladjustment were identified. Coping mechanisms generally fell in three categories: underparticipation, overparticipation, and selective participation in academic tasks under protest. However, students were found to modify their behavior in response to different interactional contexts. A major influence on the children's responses to stressful situations and demanding tasks was found to be home socialization. Implications of the findings are drawn for school practices and future research directions. Basic to the suggestions to school personnel is the need to create humane and appropriate learning environments for Hispanic and other minority students including shared decision-making and closer home-school ties. Educational recommendations also include more effective teacher training at both the preservice and the inservice level as well as increased availability of aides. Identified research needs center around effective learning environments, impact of home environment, and basic skills acquisition.
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This paper reviews research in which the primary focus was directed toward the construct validation of self-concept (SC) within an educational framework. Specifically, studies are included that investigate SC internally, with respect to its general facet (GSC) and academic facet (ASC), and externally, with respect to its relationship with academic achievement (AA). The literature is divided into two broad categories: within-network research and between-network research. Within these divisions, the studies are further classified according to their methodological procedures. It is concluded that SC is a multidimensional construct, having one general facet and several specific facets, one of which is ASC. Although important findings have been noted regarding relations among GSC, ASC, and AA, an overall conceptual model and operational definition of SC have not been established and universally accepted. A number of very recent studies, however, have provided increasing support for the hierarchical model. Although one study has determined causal predominance between SC and AA, the findings are considered tentative. Considerations of definition and conceptualization, together with construct validation techniques, are also presented.
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Four potential protective factors appear to promote resilience in disadvantaged African-American children through facilitating development of school-relevant social competencies. The factors are the following: (1) early education experiences; (2) parental involvement in early schooling; (3) early peer relationships; and (4) culturally compatible classroom programs. (SLD)
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Research on children at risk for school failure emphasizes the need to understand the ways in which pupils are engaged or disengage from class and school activities. This paper describes the development of a teacher rating scale that assesses the form and extent of participation among elementary grade pupils. The Student Participation Questionnaire was tested with a large sample of Grade-4 teachers and their pupils. Three reliable scales were obtained and labeled (a) Effort, (b) Initiative, and (c) Nonparticipatory Behavior, along with a short scale that reflects the extent to which the student values school achievement. Analysis of variance of the subscales indicated that females, pupils from homes with higher incomes, and nonminority pupils generally participate in the classroom more than their peers, although there is some confounding of the race and SES effects. The instrument should prove particularly useful in further research on student involvement.
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Background characteristics, school performance, and achievement test data were analyzed for 788 third-grade boys and 774 third-grade girls who were known later to have become high school dropouts or graduates. As early as the third grade, dropouts differed significantly from graduates in age, IQ level, marks received in course work, parent's occupational and educational level, family size, marital status of parents, and tested reading, arithmetic, and language skill achievement. A combination of predictors produced a multiple correlation with dropout or graduation of .51 for boys and .49 for girls. A discriminant function yielded an overall correct classification of dropouts and graduates of 75%. Although prediction was less accurate for dropouts than for graduates, 6 or 7 of every 10 later school failures were correctly classified by characteristics exhibited in the third grade.
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Studied student, school, and staff characteristics to determine factors related to the disproportionate numbers of male and Black students suspended or expelled from school. School practices and conditions said to mediate the problem are identified. (Author/MW)
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Social-cognitive, cognitive-motivational, and situational factors influencing children's effectiveness in using adults and other children as learning resources (help-seeking) are considered. Effective help-seeking can meet the dual developmental needs of minority students, specifically African-Americans, for autonomy and social support. (SLD)
Article
The paper reviews literature relating to extracurricular participation and adolescent development. Five areas are described: personal-social characteristics, academic achievement, educational aspirations and attainments, participants’ roles in activities, and environmental social context. A methodological critique and directions for future research are provided. Participation correlated with higher levels of self-esteem, improved race relations, involvement in political/social activity in young adulthood, academic ability and grades in males, educational aspirations and attainments, feelings of control over one’s life, and lower delinquency rates. However, causal relationships between participation and desirable characteristics have not been demonstrated. Students in smaller schools participate in a greater number and variety of extracurricular activities than students in larger schools. Low-ability and lower SES students are more involved in school life in smaller schools. The existing findings justify additional research into the processes by which participation may influence students’ lives.
Article
Investigated whether academic acheivement could be predicted from rates of specific task-oriented and non-task-oriented behaviors. A total of 103 4th graders in 2 schools were observed for 9 days during arithmetic periods. For each school, multiple regression equations (multiple Rs) were generated using rates of specific behaviors as independent variables and scores on the Stanford Achievement Test as dependent variables. The final multiple Rs for predicting arithmetic achievement in the 2 schools were .69 and .63. Cross-validation procedures resulted in correlations of .58 and .50. Final multiple Rs for predicting reading and spelling achievement from the arithmetic observational data provided moderate multiple Rs of .66 and .50. On cross-validation, 1 correlation was maintained. Implications of the findings for helping young children achieve academically are discussed. (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Effects of total extracurricular activity participation (TEAP) during the last 2 yrs of high school were examined using the large, nationally repesentative High School and Beyond data. After controlling background variables and sophomore outcomes, TEAP had small but statistically significant and positive relations with 17 of 22 senior and postsecondary outcomes (e.g., social and academic self-concept, educational aspirations, coursework selection, homework, absenteeism, academic achievement, and subsequent college attendance). Whereas there were small nonlinear components, increases in TEAP across almost the whole range of TEAP scores were associated with increases in benefits for most of the outcomes. Results contradict zero-sum models positing that TEAP detracts from more narrowly defined academic goals and support a commitment-to-school hypothesis in which identification with school and school values is enhanced by TEAP. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
REPORTS ON A LONGITUDINAL STUDY CONCERNED WITH TEST BEHAVIOR OBSERVATIONS OF KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN AND PREDICTIONS OF THEIR SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT 5 YR. LATER. THE PACIFIC TEST BATTERY WAS EMPLOYED AS THE TASK TO BE OBSERVED BY TEACHERS AND FROM WHICH BEHAVIOR RATINGS WERE MADE (FOR ATTENTION, SELF-CONFIDENCE, EFFORT, INTEREST, ETC.). 5 YR. LATER 59 OF THE ORIGINAL 100 SS COULD BE LOCATED; THEIR SCORES FROM THE CALIFORNIA ACHIEVEMENT TEST WERE ALSO AVAILABLE. THE RATED BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS WERE CORRELATED WITH THE TEST RESULTS. 30 OF THE 70 CORRELATIONS (43%) WERE SIGNIFICANT BEYOND THE .05 LEVEL. THE TEST BEHAVIOR OBSERVATION GUIDE IS CONSIDERED TO BE A PROMISING TECHNIQUE FOR THE PREDICTION OF LATER ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
To investigate the relationships between preschool competencies and later academic functioning, multiple regression analyses were conducted using kindergarten intellectual, academic, and social variables (Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Wide Range Achievement Test, teacher ratings of academic readiness, and the Sells Teacher Rating Scale of Peer Relations) to predict 3rd-grade classroom behavior and achievement. A random sample ( n = 50) of 184 3rd-grade children evaluated during the 1973–1974 kindergarten year and a 2nd sample ( n = 49) with additional Time 1 social and background variables were included. Ss were observed in classrooms and administered achievement tests during the 1976–1977 school year. Results indicate that kindergarten social and academic competencies typically entered as optimal predictors of later achievement-related behaviors and achievement. A social competence measure of initiative was a particularly successful predictor of achievement. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the unique and common contributions made by global self-concept, academic self-concept, and need for academic competence to the variance in academic achievement of inner city Black adolescents. Data on these variables were collected from 328 8th-grade students attending a New York City public junior high school. Results of commonality procedures indicate that academic self-concept and need for academic competence each accounted for significant proportions of criterion variance, whereas global self-concept did not. Explanations of variance in academic achievement were better for males than for females after the possible confounding effects of verbal ability had been partialled out. Directions for intervention strategies aimed at enhancing academic achievement are suggested for the 2 sexes. (53 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Results of a study of characteristics of middle school students revealed highly significant differences between problem absence students and non-problem absence students on all study variables except sex. Characteristics such as increasing grade, being behind appropriate grade, busing and special education status, and the particular school attended were highly correlated with this behavior, as were race and increasing age.
Article
This study examined the empirical validity of a model of human motivation as it applies to school success and failure in 3 independent samples of 10-to 16-year-old African-American youth. Specifically, we assessed how indicators of context, self, and action relate to measures of risk and resilient outcomes in school in 3 different samples, using 3 different measurement strategies. Correlational and path analyses on the 3 data sets supported the empirical validity of the model. African-American youth's experience of their parents' school involvement predicted a composite of self-system processes, which in turn predicted the subjects' reports of their engagement in school. Engagement then predicted school performance and adjustment. The data supported a reciprocal path from action to context, suggesting that youth who show more disaffected patterns of behavior and emotion in school experience less support from their families than those reporting more engaged patterns of action. Implications for program and policy decisions are discussed.
Article
In the year-and-a-half since the College Board released detailed tables on SAT scores by race, much of the heated reaction has now abated. This study explores the data behind those tables and seeks a fuller explanation of the observed differences in SAT scores among racial and ethnic segments of college-bound test takers. It highlights a social psychological correlate that mediates between environmental factors and SAT performance, beginning with the finding that blacks at the same level of test performance exhibit greater self-esteem than whites on a series of self-rated abilities. Implications of the analysis are discussed and directions for further research suggested.
Article
This paper tests a cultural resources/social interaction model of gatekeeping by school teachers using data for seventh- and eighth-grade students in a city school district. Where previous investigations of "cultural capital" have focused on the rewards accruing to highbrow music and arts activities, we examine the informal academic standards by which teachers reward more general skills, habits, and styles. The result is a recursive causal model including the following blocks of variables: (a) student and teacher background characteristics, (b) student basic skills, absenteeism, and teacher judgments of student work habits, disruptiveness, and appearance; (c) coursework mastery; and (d) course grades. This model fits the data quite well, and almost completely accounts for the course-grade differentials observed for gender, ethnicity, and poverty groups. The most important predictor variable is the teacher's judgment of student work habits, followed by cognitive performance on both basic skills and coursework mastery. The results suggest that the standard (Wisconsin) status attainment model be modified to include cultural/social-interactional-based measures of individual and gatekeeper behaviors and perceptions.
Article
This meta-analysis examines the relationship between the various self-measures and measures of performance and achievement. The statistical results of 128 studies are transformed to a common measure, namely, correlation coefficients. These studies represent a total sample of 202,823 persons and produce a data base of 1,136 correlations between self-ratings and performance measures. A range in the relationship of —.77 to .96 was reported with an “average” correlation of .21. It was found that this average relationship was modified by a number of variables. The more significant modifiers of the average relationship were the grade-level of subjects, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, ability of subjects, self-term used in the study, name of self-test used, type and name of performance/achievement measures, and the reliability of both the self-ratings and performance/achievement measures.
Article
Findings from an explanatory study of the relationship between inattentiveness in the classroom and reading achievement are reported for a sample of 5,000 students (age, 5-14 years) drawn from a normal school population. Results of structural equation modeling showed that regardless of family socioeconomic status, age, and gender, students' inattentiveness had strong negative effects on their achievement as well as on their attitudes toward reading and reading activity at home. Moreover, the findings indicated strong reciprocal effects, suggesting that whereas inattentive behaviors lead to reduced achievement, reading achievement--mediated by attitudes and reading activity at home--leads to increased attentiveness in the classroom. The strategic implications of the findings are discussed.
Article
The stability of individual differences in test anxiety and learned helplessness over a 2-year period and their relation to concurrent and future school achievement were examined. Several issues regarding the assessment of learned helplessness are also addressed. 82 children were administered measures of test anxiety and helplessness in the third grade and again in the fifth grade. Teachers also provided reports of learned helpless and mastery-oriented behaviors at these 2 grade levels. It was found that: (a) both self-report and teacher-report measures of helplessness were stable over the 2-year period; (b) helplessness in the third grade was related to achievement test scores in the fifth grade; and (c) teacher reports may be a viable means of identifying helplessness. These findings are discussed in terms of cognitive developmental changes in children's understanding of effort and ability, and their implications for the assessment of learned helplessness are outlined.