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Desarrollo de un bioplaguicida a base de Trichoderma koningiopsis Th003 y uso en el cultivo de lechuga para el control del moho blanco (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum y Sclerotinia minor)

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En el mercado mundial la tendencia actual de la demanda se caracteriza por el consumo de alimentos “limpios”, de buena apariencia física y con óptimas cualidades organolépticas (Min. Ambiente, 2002). Al respecto, la legislación en varios países exige una disminución considerable del uso de plaguicidas químicos, la implementación de medidas fitosanitarias integradas y de buenas prácticas agrícolas (http://www.cci.org.co/noticias.html; http://www.eurep.org/fruit/index_html).
... SSF has advantages over submerged fermentation including high volumetric productivity, low cost of the equipment involved, a better yield of product, lesser waste generation, and less time-consuming processes, among others [19]. This process has been widely investigated for several Trichoderma species and strains, in many cases using industrial or agricultural wastes as a growth substrate either for enzyme production [20][21][22] or for producing conidia to be used as an active ingredient in biopesticides [23,24]. ...
Article
Trichoderma is a well-known soil-borne fungus, highly efficient producer of extracellular enzymes including chitinases. The aim of this study was to recover a chitinase from fermentation waste after harvesting Trichoderma koningiopsis Th003 conidia and assess its potential as an enhancer of Beauveria bassiana insecticidal activity against Diatraea saccharalis. T. koningiopsis was produced by solid fermentation, conidia were harvested, and a crude extract (CE) was recovered by washing the residual substrate (rice:wheat bran). The partially purified chitinase (PPC) (75 kDa product) with N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activity was obtained by chromatography to 29.3-fold with optimal activity at pH 5 and 55°C. Both the CE and the PPC were mixed with B. bassiana Bv062 conidia and assessed in a bioassay against D. saccharalis larvae. The CE and PPC from T. koningiopsis Th003 did not affect the germination or viability of B. bassiana conidia and enhanced its insecticidal activity when used at 0.06 U/ml enzymatic activity with a 24.5% reduction in B. bassiana lethal time (LT90). This study demonstrated the potential of chitinases produced by T. koningiopsis in solid fermentation to be recovered from the waste substrate and used as an additive to enhance B. bassiana, adding value to the main waste from the Trichoderma biopesticide/biofertilizer industries.
... Las plantas bajo el manejo integrado de la enfermedad presentaron mayor peso, en especial en el tratamiento con cobertura plástica, en comparación con los demás tratamientos. A los 62 días después de trasplante, la incidencia de S. sclerotiorum en el tratamiento químico fue de 4,5 %, en el testigo no tratado fue del 4,4 % y en el tratamiento de manejo integrado de plagas (mip) fue de 1,4 %, presentando así una eficacia del 70 % (Moreno, Smith, & Cotes, 2010). En consideración con las propiedades de T. koningiopsis Th003 y de las características del producto Tricotec ® , su incorporación en esquemas de manejo integrado del cultivo (mic) se configura como una opción satisfactoria para el control de Sclerotinia spp. ...
Article
Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. (Hypocreales: Nectriaceae) is one of the most devastating plant pathogens worldwide, causing vascular wilt in several crops. Management of this disease primarily relies on chemical fungicides and resistant cultivars in high value crops. However, due to the limited efficacy of these methods, alternative control methods are needed. Biological control is a sustainable, safe, and effective alternative, but the use of a single biological control agent (BCA) usually has inconsistent results. The consistency of biocontrol could be enhanced using microbial consortia. In this context, the aim of this work was to select an effective microbial consortium against vascular wilt in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. physali, from a mixture of four strains of Trichoderma spp. Pers. (Hypocreales: Hypocraceae) and Bacillus velezensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) Bs006. The calculated synergy factor was used as a selection criterion. Then the selected consortium was evaluated in the field and compared to carbendazim. The Trichoderma virens Gl006 and B. velezensis Bs006 consortium showed synergistic activity against vascular wilt under greenhouse and field conditions and efficacy similar to chemical control. These results suggest that Gl006 and Bs006 have a higher potential in controlling Fusarium wilt in cape gooseberry when applied as a consortium compared to separate, single strains.
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Fungi as biological controllers are important in development of bioproducts for sustainable agriculture in the management of phytopathogens such as Sclerotinia sp., which causes white rot in lettuce, crops insomuch as infectious viability in soil lasts up until five years. Lettuce cultivation is essential in Colombia’s agricultural economy, and Sclerotinia sp. causes losses until 50% of crops. The aim of this work was to evaluate in vitro the antagonistic capacity of three strains of Trichoderma sp. Tr1, Tr2 and Tr3 and, three strains of Aspergillus sp. As1, As2 and As3 against Sclerotinia sp Scl., individually and in consortia. Recovering, maintenance and evaluation of fungi was carried out by mediums as PDA, V8 Juice and Honey-Oat. The control strains -Tr1, Tr2, Tr3, As1, As2 and As3- were confronted among them and in consortia against the phytopathogen with dual technique. The consortia As1+As2+Tr2, As1+As2+-Tr1, and As1+As2+Tr3 had a degree of inhibition on the phytopathogen, being more efficient the combination As1+As2+Tr1 -85,1%-; and individually the strains Tr2 and As1 with an efficiency of 95,6% and 95,1%, respectively. It was corroborated that the growth of Scl. using the consortia was not more than 14,9% in the best treatment. In none of the confrontations with the consortia was evidence of sclerotia formation, resistance structure for infection process and persistence in soils after to ten days of evaluation.
Article
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La pudrición blanca producida por Sclerotium cepivorum es la principal limitante del cultivo de ajo en Colombia, causando pérdidas superiores al 50%. La ausencia de semilla de calidad contribuye a su diseminación e infestación en áreas de siembra, siendo la principal estrategia de control la aplicación de fungicidas, por ende, es necesario integrar alternativas de manejo orientadas a su sostenibilidad. Así, el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar bajo condiciones controladas el potencial de control de S. cepivorum con antagonistas microbianos y aceites esenciales. Se determinó en PDA suplementado con cada aceite el efecto sobre el crecimiento del patógeno y para los antagonistas su capacidad para degradar esclerocios. Igualmente, en suelo infestado con esclerocios se determinó el efecto de las aplicaciones de los antagonistas y aceites seleccionados sobre la reducción de incidencia y mortalidad. Los resultados mostraron que la exposición al aceite de eucalipto (10000 ppm) y orégano (200; 250 ppm) inhibió en un 92% el crecimiento del patógeno; en tanto, que los antagonistas colonizaron más del 95% de los esclerocios, provocando su degradación. Mientras que en suelo infestado presentaron un control entre 30 al 70%, siendo Trichoderma asperellum Th034 el que presentó la menor incidencia y mortalidad (21%).
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Resumen La creciente conciencia del consumidor relacionada con el impacto negativo de los plaguicidas sintéticos sobre el medio ambiente y la salud humana ha aumentado las tasas de adopción de bioplaguicidas a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, actualmente los bioplaguicidas solo representan el 5% del mercado de productos para protección de cultivos, se espera que este segmento siga creciendo con una tasa de crecimiento anual de 15-20% para el 2020. Analistas del mercado consideran que este crecimiento será liderado por regiones como Europa debido a las nuevas legislaciones, y Latinoamérica donde han aparecido plagas más resistentes. Para responder a las necesidades de este creciente mercado, se debe contar con un proceso de producción a gran escala, con buenos rendimiento, y que proporcione un producto de calidad. Por lo tanto, el presente artículo ofrece una revisión crítica sobre aspectos técnicos de los diferentes procesos de fermentación utilizados en la producción de bioplaguicidas microbianos basados en hongos (micoplaguicidas), los sustratos comúnmente utilizados y el potencial uso de residuos agroindustriales. Adicionalmente, ofrece una visión general del panorama de la producción de micoplaguicidas en Latinoamerica y el Caribe, y algunas perspectivas futuras en el proceso de investigación y desarrollo de los mismos. Palabras clave: micoplaguicidas; fermentación; bioplaguicidas; separación; sustratos. Abstract The adoption rate of biopesticide worldwide has been increased because of the consumer´s growing level of awareness about the negative impact of the synthetic pesticides over the environment and the human health. Nonetheless, biopesticides today hold just 5% of the total crop protection market. This segment would increase with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 15-20% until 2020. Business analysts think that this growing will be guided by world regions such as Europe and Latin America driven by the new laws and the new resistant pests, respectively. The demand of this growing market requires a cost-efficient and reliable process of mass production, with good yield, and with a good quality product. Therefore, this article presents a critical review about technical points of the different kinds of fermentation systems, which are usually used in the production of microbial biopesticides with fungi as the active ingredient (mycoplaguicides). Also, it has a survey about the typical substrates used and the potential application of agroindustrial wastes as substrates. As well, a broad view is introduced about the mycopesticides production in Latin America and the Caribbean. Finally, the article shows future perspectives on research and development of mycopesticides production.
Article
Full-text available
The adoption rate of biopesticide worldwide has been increased because of the consumer´s growing level of awareness about the negative impact of the synthetic pesticides over the environment and the human health. Nonetheless, biopesticides today hold just 5% of the total crop protection market. This segment would increase with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 15-20% until 2020. Business analysts think that this growing will be guided by world regions such as Europe and Latin America driven by the new laws and the new resistant pests, respectively. The demand of this growing market requires a cost-efficient and reliable process of mass production, with good yield, and with a good quality product. Therefore, this article presents a critical review about technical points of the different kinds of fermentation systems, which are usually used in the production of microbial biopesticides with fungi as the active ingredient (mycoplaguicides). Also, it has a survey about the typical substrates used and the potential application of agroindustrial wastes as substrates. As well, a broad view is introduced about the mycopesticides production in Latin America and the Caribbean. Finally, the article shows future perspectives on research and development of mycopesticides production
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