Introduction: North and South

To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.


Elizabeth Bishop is increasingly recognized as one of the twentieth century's most important and original poets. Initially celebrated for the minute detail of her descriptions, what John Ashbery memorably called her 'thinginess', Bishop's reputation has risen dramatically since her death, in part due to the publication of new work, including letters, stories, and visual art, as well as a controversial volume of uncollected poems, drafts, and fragments. This Companion engages with key debates surrounding the interpretation and reception of Bishop's writing in relation to questions of biography, the natural world and politics. Individual chapters focus on texts such as North and South, Questions of Travel, and Geography III, while offering fresh readings of the significance of Nova Scotia, Massachusetts, and Brazil to Bishop's life and work. This volume explores the full range of Bishop's artistic achievements and the extent to which the posthumous publications have contributed to her enduring popularity.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Since fuzzyfication in IFS theory holds the idea of intuitionism (e.g. see [12] ), IFS does not follow the LEM. On the other hand, this law is thoroughly investigated in the context of IFS, using different forms of LEM and various negation operators [7, 13] . ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we introduce Interpolative Boolean alge-bra (IBA) as a suitable algebra for intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs). IBA is [0,1]-valued realization of Boolean algebra, consistent with Boolean axioms and theorems. IFS theory takes into account both membership and non-membership function, so it can be viewed as a ge-neralization of the traditional fuzzy set theory. We pro-pose a realization of IFS conjunction and disjunction operations based on IBA. This may be viewed as a ge-neralized framework for IFS-IBA calculus. Finally, we investigate the validity of the laws of contradiction and excluded middle in our approach.
... Intuitionistic logic was introduced by L. E. J. Brouwer [3] and his collaborator A. Heyting [11]. The semantic of intuitionistic logic is algebraically axiomatized by the so-called Brouwerian lattice, which is a relatively pseudocomplemented lattice, or by the so-called Heyting algebra, which is a bounded Brouwerian lattice. ...
Full-text available
We introduce two unary operators G and H on a relatively pseudocomplemented lattice which form an algebraic axiomatization of the tense quantifiers “it is always going to be the case that” and “it has always been the case that”. Their axiomatization is an extended version for the classical logic and it is in accordance with these operators on many-valued Łukasiewicz logic. Finally, we get a general construction of these tense operators on complete relatively pseudocomplemented lattice which is a power lattice via the so-called frame. KeywordsBrouwerian lattice–Heyting algebra–Complete lattice–Relative pseudocomplementation–Tense operators–Intuitionistic logic
Full-text available
Classical, two-valued logic deals exclusively with statements which can be unambiguously classified as being either true or false. Other statements simply do not belong to the domain of classical logic.
Quantum physics and many-valued logics were born nearly simultaneously in the third decade of the XX Century. However, the early attempts at identifying logic able to describe quantum systems with some versions of a three-valued logic failed and the opinion that “quantum logic”, although non-classical, is a two-valued logic prevailed. The recently observed revival of interest in applying many-valued logics to the description of quantum physical systems is closely connected with a new and rapidly developing branch of mathematics: the fuzzy set theory. Fuzzy sets, which remain in the same relation to the infinite-valued logic as traditional sets to the classical two-valued logic, form a bridge by which one can pass from the “orthodox” quantum logic in the Birkhoffvon Neumann sense to the infinitely-valued Lukasiewicz logic.
You can't always get what you want but (with a bit of luck) you may get what you expect. We study a bilateral exchange model where decision makers (DMs) perceive subjectively the characteristics of the products they initially own. They use a common language to communicate with each other while four requirements are imposed to prevent them from purposely trying to manipulate the exchange process. We illustrate how, even if these requirements are satisfied, the product that each DM receives from the exchange is possibly quite different from the one (or ones) that each had envisioned based on the reports provided by the other DM. In particular, the products received may deliver a utility higher or lower than that of the product originally owned by each DM which may be a direct consequence of the DMs using linguistic values to describe the qualitative characteristics of their products. However, we show that DMs may agree to exchange and turn out to be worse off even when they are asked to express their qualitative evaluations using real values belonging to a normalized interval. Paradoxically enough, we will argue that quantifying the linguistic values of qualitative characteristics creates more misunderstanding than using the corresponding linguistic values.
In this chapter, some remarks are given on the history, theory, applications and research on the extension of fuzzy sets model proposed by the author in 1983.
How are the various classically equivalent definitions of compactness for metric spaces constructively interrelated? This question is addressed with Bishop-style constructive mathematics as the basic system – that is, the underlying logic is the intuitionistic one enriched with the principle of dependent choices. Besides surveying today's knowledge, the consequences and equivalents of several sequential notions of compactness are investigated. For instance, we establish the perhaps unexpected constructive implication that every sequentially compact separable metric space is totally bounded. As a by-product, the fan theorem for detachable bars of the complete binary fan proves to be necessary for the unit interval possessing the Heine-Borel property for coverings by countably many possibly empty open balls. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
In his dissertation (1907) Brouwer expressed several remarks concerning the subject which was later called "intuitionistic logic." His strict algorithmic point of view led to rejecting the Ex Falso principle and, unfortunately, to many other consequences. The Ex Falso principle was also rejected in Kolmogorov's 1925 paper on logic. However, in 1932, using the "intended interpretation" (interpretation problem), Kolmogorov concluded that this rule should be accepted. Heyting's proof interpretation led to the same conclusion. Here the role of implication and negation in the Ex Falso principle in the works of Brouwer, Kolmogorov, and Heyting is studied. It is asserted that the 1907 point of view of Brouwer is too strict to create a satisfactory logic, and Brouwer exceeds the bounds of minimal logic in his understanding of implication. The above points of view are compared, and it is concluded that the interpretation problem and the proof interpretation, understood correctly, admit the full intuitionistic logic. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Abstract Text Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints
Natural deduction systems with indefinite and definite descriptions (ε-terms and ℩-terms) are presented, and interpreted in Martin-Löf's intensional type theory. The interpretations are formalizations of ideas which are implicit in the literature of constructive mathematics: if we have proved that an element with a certain property exists, we speak of ‘the element such that the property holds' and refer by that phrase to the element constructed in the existence proof. In particular, we deviate from the practice of interpreting descriptions by contextual definitions.
Near the end of Gertrude Stein's American lecture tour (1934–35), she turned her attention to letter writing: because of the writer's consciousness of an audience, she says, letters could never be the purely creative work that her prose poems were, but they usefully put some space between writer and reader. This essay proposes that Stein then wrote Everybody's Autobiography (1937) as a semi-public news-letter. Earlier, in 1930, Laura Riding had tried to interest Stein in the epistolary genre. One of Riding's projects at that time was a collection of letters, which she titled Everybody's Letters (1933). Putting Everybody's Letters and Everybody's Autobiography into dialogue with one another, this essay suggests that what Riding says about letters in her collection anticipates many of the qualities found in Stein's book.
This article confronts the persistent argument that Elizabeth Bishop’s poems are autobiographical, and the implicit assumption that the self and tradition are unitary and contending realities. It calls for a shift toward generic and rhetorical models of lyric subjectivity that remove voice from identity while still allowing for a connection between the poem and history. The article discusses reception of “Crusoe in England” (Complete Poems 162‐ 68) as a focused instance of the critical tendency to absorb voice into author, and vice versa. It presents the poem instead as a configuration of various social impulses struggling toward transition, and as a meditation on the very problem of negotiating a relation between particular experience and the generalities of language.
American Literature 75.4 (2003) 843-867 In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Elizabeth Bishop appeared to withdraw to the private sphere. But long before, according to her biographer, she "had been uncomfortable in the presence of political commitment." Even while serving as poetry consultant at the Library of Congress from 1949 to 1950, during a time of swirling controversies in the U.S. capitol, she maintained a pose of disengagement. She went to the House of Representatives once, but only "to buy a new pen at 10% discount." And yet during this particularly apolitical period in a generally apolitical life, Bishop produced a highly complex and significant political poem: "View of the Capitol from the Library of Congress." It was the only poem she completed in 1950. While common sense might suggest that during the McCarthy era, creative writers would have questioned dominant ideologies more forcefully in private discourse than in published work, I believe that the reverse is true for Elizabeth Bishop. In this essay, I will attempt to unravel the paradox of a writer who primarily inhabited private spaces in her daily existence yet vigorously, if obliquely, critiqued public places in her poetry. In "View of the Capitol," Bishop employed the language of the Cold War against itself. In and out of key with "containment culture," the poem initiated what might be called a Cold War poetics, in which the institution of poetry intersected with the era's political discourse—its war of words backed up by bombs. Perhaps Bishop's personal problems precluded her daily involvement in the public sphere. She was often ill. For recurrent episodes of disabling asthma, she took large doses of adrenaline and ephedrine, no doubt contributing to the nervousness and anxiety attacks from which she also suffered. At least mildly agoraphobic, Bishop frequently invented reasons she could not give public readings, meet with professors or students, or attend other public functions. Compounding these problems were regular alcoholic binges, followed sometimes by hospitalization and always by remorse, anger at herself, and firm decisions never to drink too much again. These physical and psychological struggles alone might be enough to explain Bishop's political quietism. But she also occupied a precarious social position as a closeted lesbian in an increasingly homophobic time, perhaps further explaining her unwillingness to enter the classical polis, a space that Hannah Arendt has characterized as one of merciless "exposure." Whatever the reasons, Bishop demonstrated little interest in political issues or current events. Perhaps in reviewing her manuscript of North & South (1946), she registered its difference from works by her contemporaries, such as Gwendolyn Brooks, John Ciardi, Randall Jarrell, Robert Lowell, Muriel Rukeyser, Karl Shapiro, and even her mentor Marianne Moore, all of whom wrote poems about World War II. In a 1945 letter to her editor, Ferris Greenslet, Bishop apologized for her lack of poems dealing explicitly with World War II: "The fact that none of these poems deal directly with the war, at a time when so much war poetry is being published, will, I am afraid, leave me open to reproach. The chief reason is simply that I work very slowly" (OA, 125). Nearly sixty years later, it is finally time to acknowledge that Bishop was being disingenuous here, for that stream of poems dealing directly with the war, which she implied would begin to flow in the amplitude of time, never actually appeared. As Camille Roman and Thomas Travisano have both suggested, World War II seemed to stunt rather than inspire her creativity. Although her poem "Roosters" does deal indirectly with the war while other poems critique militarism or war in general, Bishop never actually wrote the promised poems that would "deal directly" with World War II. Bishop at midcentury—perhaps as opposed to later—appeared to be relatively unconcerned about world events, even the cataclysmic and incredibly tragic. She seemed more concerned that her lack of World War II poetry would be perceived as a career mistake than with the scotoma it revealed in her field of vision. Six years later, Bishop sounds a similar note of detachment in a letter to her physician, Anny Baumann: "Although this will probably sound crazy to...
Journal of Modern Literature 28.2 (2005) 61-99 In March 1967 Elizabeth Bishop wrote a brief "Gallery Note" for her friend and former poetry student, Wesley Wehr, intended to accompany an exhibition of his miniature watercolors. Bishop states: Bishop herself was a great producer of small works of art. Like Wesley Wehr, Bishop painted miniature watercolors, as small as three inches square but most commonly between five and ten inches. Moreover, her poetry—from her first collection, North & South (1946), to her final volume, Geography III (1976)—is distinguished by her detailed descriptions of art and nature; her predilection for "minor" subjects; and her celebration of "intimate, low-voiced, and delicate things." That she was called a miniaturist and a poet of description caused Bishop great anxiety, however, for she felt that such labels, in their reliance on subtle distinctions of both gender and value, relegated her to a secondary status. In the Romantic tradition, the miniature was associated not with the transformative power of the imagination, but with fancy, a mental faculty defined by its inability to transcend the visual, the material, the contingent or particular; thus fancy was characterized by the accumulation of miniaturist detail; by its status as a derivative craft; and by the logic of the copy versus that of the original. A gendered distinction between fancy and imagination often explicitly guided the early reviews of Bishop's work, with peers such as Robert Lowell and Randell Jarrell voicing discomfort with Bishop's miniaturist inclinations. For instance, William Jay Smith, in a 1966 review of Questions of Travel, called Bishop a "miniaturist," and argued that her penchant for "no detail too small" risked limiting her work to that of a feminine, sentimental tradition. Since the late 1970s, Bishop's critics have soundly reversed the early dismissal of her miniaturist interests. William Meredith's 1976 MLA presentation signaled the change in the Bishop reception; he commented, "Foolish critics reproached Frost and Auden [. . .] for little poems, small themes, taking these for trivia, signs of decline in powers. Miss Bishop was too quick for them. From the first, she has cut small jewels along with the large." In 1977 Lloyd Schwartz pointed out that Bishop's "interest in small things, in 'details,' if we hadn't noticed before, is—as 'Poem' reveals—not a mannerism, but part of a profound vision," and Mark Strand introduced Bishop at the Guggenheim Museum as "our greatest national treasure." Langdon Hammer, Timothy Morris, and Thomas Travisano, in their studies of the Bishop reception, have argued that recent scholarship guided by feminist insights has revalued that which an earlier tradition belittled: the feminine, the queer, the marginal, the fanciful. The miniature had become Bishop's ticket into the realm of the grand: Bishop is now firmly in the canon, not in spite of, but because of, her interest in "intimate, low-voiced, and delicate things." Yet in dismissing or embracing Bishop as miniaturist, critics have overlooked Bishop's profound ambivalence about her place in institutions of cultural memory. Bishop conveyed this ambivalence when she wrote to Lowell in 1951 that "on reading over what I've got on hand I find I'm really a minor female Wordsworth" (One Art 221–222). The phrase "minor female" indicates anxiety that her work would be considered "small-scale" by a critical establishment who valued poets such as Wordsworth...
We do not always remember that Elizabeth Bishop came of age as a writer during the rise of fascism, and that she composed a number of the poems for her first collection, North & South (1946), in Europe, as the Continent consciously prepared for world war. One reason we do not often connect her early work to such dramatic historical context is the late date of her first book: her poems had been appearing in major magazines for a decade when North & South was published. While a few scholars, notably James Longenbach and Betsy Erkkila, have begun to consider Bishop's early poetry within the political context of the 1930s, and to "locat[e] Bishop's work within the debates about the relation between literary modernism and the American—and international—Left[,]" the tendency of many critics has been to focus on what seem to be the purely aesthetic, apparently surrealist elements in Bishop's writing from the '30s and '40s, and to characterize her later work in Brazil, from the '50s and '60s, as a political awakening (Erkkila 285).1 At the same time, insightful biographical and psychoanalytic studies of her work sometimes downplay or overlook the impact of the larger, dramatic historical context in which she was writing her early poems.2 Here I want to consider more deeply the influence, on Bishop's early work, of the year and a half she spent in Europe shortly after college—from July of 1935 to June of 1936, and from June to December of 1937—and to attend to the startling ways that three of her strange, early poems register contemporary anxieties about the development of fascism and militarism in Germany and Italy, the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, and Italy's invasion of Ethiopia. Bishop's work has always resisted easy categorization, and it has been subject frequently to ahistorical readings. Bishop can be aptly discussed as a postmodernist poet, yet her early work can be considered late modernist; the aesthetic-political dilemmas of late modernism in the '30s were very real to Bishop. As Longenbach has argued, "The problem for Bishop, early and late, was not her values as such but her discomfort—nurtured in the thirties—with the conventions of political poetry. . . . [F]rom the beginning of her career, Bishop was 'more interested in social problems' than, in retrospect, she would allow" (Longenbach 468–69). He refers here to statements Bishop herself made, much later in life, about politics and her poetry. For instance, she said in the '60s: "Politically I considered myself a socialist [in the 1930s], but I disliked 'social conscience' writing" ("Interview" 293). As a young writer, Bishop consciously approached the apparent dilemma of any ambitious, socially aware author of the time, who also admired the implicitly elitist aesthetics of modernism: how to allow politics to affect her writing. For a sophisticated writer, of course, this is not a simple problem, and it seems hasty, on the one hand, to fault her early poems for their "Eurocentric aesthetics," and, on the other, to praise Bishop for eventually "moving . . . toward a more socially embedded and class-conscious art" (Erkkila 290). Bishop felt drawn to the poetics of T. S. Eliot, whom she interviewed as an undergraduate at Vassar, but she also found a hero in W. H. Auden, admiring his outspoken leftist politics and his poetic wit, and in college she helped found a leftist magazine, Con Spirito, with Mary McCarthy and Muriel Rukeyser (Millier 48). She did not obviously imitate Auden's voice or style, in its direct appropriation of jargon and topical themes, but her fondness for writing formal, rhymed poems in the '30s may owe something to him.3 At the same time, she disliked some of the more overtly political writing of some of her peers, including Rukeyser.4 She seemed to feel that poetry could be politically engaged without making direct political statements. The development of her political thinking, and the formative influence of the '30s and World War II, emerge in a 1964 letter about her early work, which she wrote in Brazil to the poet Anne Stevenson, her first biographer: [W]ell, at the time I...
Poetry and Visual Media in Stevens, Bishop, and O’Hara
  • Sightings
Life and the Memory of It
  • Bishop
The Geography of Gender
  • Bishop
A Bibliography, 1927-1979
  • Bishop
First Inaugural Address
  • Woodrow Wilson
An Archival Guide to Her Life in Nova Scotia
  • Bishop
Objects & Apparitions
  • Bishop
Words in Air: The Complete Correspondence Between Elizabeth Bishop and Robert Lowell
  • Straus Farrar
Presidential address.
  • Lyndon B Johnson
Elizabeth Bishop’s Poetics
  • Body
  • Song
Elizabeth Bishop Papers, Special Collections, Vassar College Libraries (I.24.4; I.24.9
  • Dorothee Bishop
  • Bowie
The Biography of a Poetry
  • Bishop
‘I could open your belly with my claw’: Touch and the Erotics of Panorama in Elizabeth Bishop.” Draft to Peggy Samuels
  • Phoebe Putnam
The Restraints of Language
  • Bishop
Berryman and the Making of a Postmodern Aesthetic
  • Lowell Bishop
The New Yorker: The Complete Correspondence
  • Bishop
May Swenson Papers, Department of Special Collections
  • Elizabeth Bishop
  • Letter
Questions of Mastery
  • Bishop
Nova Scotia’s “Home-Made” Poet
  • Bishop
Corporeal Sovereignty: The Territory of American Feminism
  • Jan Roselle
Surrealist Women: An International Anthology
  • Penelope Rosemont
This Is Bush’s Vietnam
  • Bob Herbert
The Poems of Charlotte Smith
  • Stuart Curran
  • Ed
The Politics of Editing Bishop’s 1962 Brazil Volume for Life World Library
  • Angus Cleghorn