The monograph presents the results of a systematic archaeoastronomical study of orientations in the lowland Maya architecture. Since the formerly available alignment data were deficient and of low precision, we accomplished field measurements of 271 buildings at 87 archaeological sites; both in fieldwork and in the analyses and interpretations of alignment data we employed more rigorous methodology than the one applied in previous studies. The analyses have shown that most of the important buildings were oriented to sunrises and sunsets on certain dates, whose concentrations and distribution reflect the use of observational calendars, which facilitated the scheduling of agricultural activities and related rituals. Also detected were two orientation groups referring to Venus and lunar extremes. The proposed interpretations concerning the use and significance of orientations are both novel and convincing, not only for being based on a large sample of reliable quantitative data, but also because they are supported by a wide variety of ethnographic, historical and iconographic evidence.