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Social media marketing

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Abstract and Figures

This chapter provides an insight of contemporary developments in social media marketing with special reference to the emergence of online technology and its influence upon various marketing operations. The information flow through the introduction of the concept of social Media involving the synthesis of sociology and technology and creating an environment on the internet where people share experiences with each other and develop networks followed by analysis of its three main components (Publishing Technology for Everyone, Information Diffusion, and Relationship Building) highlighting its various dimensions. Further, it leads to discussion about Social Media Marketing becoming a latest and popular trend as a digital platform for social interaction between virtual communities. Next section details main social media platforms, their rankings, features, corresponding strategic actions followed by advantages and challenges for organisations using Social Media for Marketing.
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Handbook of Research on
Integrating Social Media
into Strategic Marketing
Nick Hajli
Newcastle University Business School, UK
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Relationship Management, and E-Services
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ISBN 978-1-4666-8353-2 (hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 978-1-4666-8354-9 (ebook : alk. paper) 1. Internet marketing.
2. Marketing--Social aspects. 3. Social media. 4. Strategic planning. I. Hajli, Nick, 1979-
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Chapter 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8353-2.ch021
Social Media Marketing
This chapter provides an insight of contemporary developments in social media marketing with special
reference to the emergence of online technology and its influence upon various marketing operations.
The information flow through the introduction of the concept of social Media involving the synthesis of
sociology and technology and creating an environment on the internet where people share experiences
with each other and develop networks followed by analysis of its three main components (Publishing
Technology for Everyone, Information Diffusion, and Relationship Building) highlighting its various
dimensions. Further, it leads to discussion about Social Media Marketing becoming a latest and popular
trend as a digital platform for social interaction between virtual communities. Next section details main
social media platforms, their rankings, features, corresponding strategic actions followed by advantages
and challenges for organisations using Social Media for Marketing.
The technological developments are having con-
siderable impact upon any organisation in variety
of ways. The emergence of online technology has
revolutionised the marketing operations all over
the world (Baird & Parasnis, 2011).
Now-a-days there is a high competition in
the market and the customers have opportunities
to take better decision for the available range of
goods and services. In this competitive situation,
the organizations need to be vigilant to retain cus-
tomer’s loyalty. Reducing the communication gap
between the company and the consumer could be
a good way to create a better relationship which
can further be helpful to develop a better under-
standing of consumer’s needs and wants. Social
media is playing crucial role in this regard and
the enterprises are taking the benefit from social
media’s friendly approach to build brand relation-
Vipin K. Nadda
University of Sunderland – London, UK
Sumesh Singh Dadwal
Glyndwr University London, UK
Azmat Firdous
University of Sunderland, UK
Social Media Marketing
ship (Hachinski et al., 2010). Social media sites
are the communication ties being used to bind
people together. Research have proven that the
people are moving towards utilizing the social
media for getting access to information, ideas and
opportunities (Donath, 2004).
Social media technology has modified the ways
for managing the relationship between the brands
and the customers. Success of the social media lies
in a fact that it has provided the medium through
which people interact with each other. They have
been able to maintain connections with one another
(Pauwels, 2004).The marketers are using the social
media sites for fostering the brands. They employ
social media to understand customer expectations
and then develop appropriate strategies to promote
their offerings for achieving the marketing goal
(Donath, 2004).
Commutation is very crucial and valuable for
commencing the dialogues. Additionally, com-
munication is the only tool that is used to initiate,
develop and maintain the relationship between
two persons. Communication opens doors for un-
derstanding and eradicating confusion (McEwen,
2005). Social media serves as a podium for com-
munication and engagement of the large variety
of customers. Through this medium, companies
can raise awareness about their brands. They can
also promote their brands by disseminating their
specialty and point of parity (Breivik & Thorb-
jørnsen, 2008).
Social media sites made interaction and
communication so much easy those different
companies can interact with their customers and
know about their preferences which is then used
offline for developing appropriate strategy for
promoting brands.
Social media provide flexibility to approach
huge traffic of target audience due to variety of
features (Brakus et al., 2009). Though face to face
interaction and communication is much power-
ful, yet social media tends to provide an efficient
alternative for communication. It helps to manage
the instant message communication and dialogues
between the brands and customers. The conversa-
tion between the brands and the customers can be
stored over these sites and can be used for further
Brands can also flash their advertisements on
the social networking sites. Flashing the ads on
the pages of the target audience is like winning a
tender. Brands have to understand that they have
to win the bid in displaying their ads. They have to
clearly mention their target audience and place the
highest bids. This ends in generating the exposure
amongst many customers which may indirectly
results in significant amount of sales and huge
fan following for a brand.
Social media platforms are not just a trend that
has to be followed. Rather they have proofed their
importance in building relationship of a brand
with the customer, grabbing potential customers,
customer retention, high end promoting system,
and brand’s potential growth. Companies cannot
afford to tend to ignore such a vital platform for
the development of their brand.
Conrad et al., (2010) said that the social media
and social networking websites are most modern
basis of marketing communication. The platform
is providing the marketers more open and free
way of communication. The new generation of
websites provide the customers more integrative
facilities and marketers are using these facilities.
The security of modern websites is increasing and
this is also enhancing the trust of customers on
online buying the product from the organisation.
The social networking website likes Facebook,
Twitter, and LinkedIn and similar others are at-
tracting million of users. The marketers are looking
for their customers on these social networking
platforms and using these as sources of market-
ing and communication with the customers. Here
customers are getting information from social net-
working websites at the same time they are testing
and exchanging the information with each other.
The reliability and validity of such information
is more as customers trust each other more than
the traditional ways of marketing.
Social Media Marketing
Social media is basically the online content de-
veloped by a variety of people who are open for
access over the internet. In other words, social
media is the shift of people`s attention on the online
platforms where people share, discover and read
information and gain knowledge (Borgan, 2010).
Conrad et al., (2010) believes that social media
is a sort of synthesis of sociology and technology
and creating an environment or platform on the
internet where people share experiences with
each other and develop networks for a variety of
different official and unofficial reasons.
Social media has become an important plat-
form and has gone so important that nearly every
business uses social media for the marketing and
promotion of their business, products and services.
Social media is also used for sharing information
and getting in touch with their customers and
society at large.
Ahmad (2011) suggests that social media can
be divided in to 3 main components:
Publishing Technology for everyone:
Social media is free and open for publish-
ing for everyone and the technological
advancement has made it even more con-
venient. Social media is online therefore
they are not restricted to any physical set
up. Previously social places used to be like
pubs, clubs, gardens where people used
to interact with one another and share in-
formation. Advancement in the technol-
ogy and the development of virtual social
platforms enable people to interact and
develop network with one another, online
social media has become the new talk of
the town. On online social media everyone
can be the publishers and generator of the
content for which the information is shared
(Ahmad, 2011);
Information Diffusion: The rate at which
social media diffuses information, no other
medium is capable of doing so because
other media like TV, newspapers and mag-
azines are not that faster in filtering and
spreading information. Online social me-
dia like Facebook, Twitter are faster in the
transmission of information and relatively
far less expensive than the rest. Barefoot
and Szabo (2010) suggest that previously
companies used to market their products
or services through advertising on TV and
newspapers; making it a one way communi-
cation. Through the development of online
social media, companies interact with their
customers and take feedback and sugges-
tions from them for further developments.
Social media has made the information
open and equally accessible for all. Online
social media has bought democracy in the
sharing of information (Ahmad, 2011);
Relationship Building: Social media has
become a powerful medium for the devel-
opment of relationships through sharing
valuable information and creating won-
derful ideas. Social media helps people in
connecting with one another. A person is
connected and shares information from UK
with a man in New Zealand; all because of
online social media.
Gunelius (2011) states that social media has
gone so powerful that it is now used for not only
business and personal relationships but also for
political developments.
All this clearly highlights the various dimen-
sions and importance of social media. The rise
and advancement of technology and the shift
from traditional media to online social media has
made it more significant. There are many other
reasons due to which people, businesses and even
the political parties are shifting and using social
Social Media Marketing
media for the development of the achievement of
their objectives.
Social Media Marketing
Marketing through social media is the latest and
popular trend in the market. Traditional marketing
tools such as TV, newspapers, magazines have
been very expensive and cover a limited targeted
market. The traditional marketing strategies were
based on focusing on specific markets individu-
ally. Even now it is difficult for businesses to
target and market their products and services to
the big geographical position through one single
campaign such as covering the entire Asia through
one newspaper advertisement; because not every
country in Asia watches the same TV channels
(Evans, 2012).
The social media has entirely changed that
approach towards marketing. When we see the
basic definition of marketing it says to maximize
the usage of resources of the business and develop
products and services to satisfy customer needs.
(Hajir, 2012) The social media marketing has in
reality enabled the businesses to take the feedback,
comments, and suggestions from their customers
through blogs, pictures and ratings and improve
their products and services so that customer needs
could be addressed in a more proactive manner.
So the advertising and marketing has entirely
changed due to social media.
Jaoker, Jacobs and Moore (2009) state that
through social media, customers are building
information about everything from insurance to
career; from pet food to electronic appliances and
through this customers are beating out marketers
in their game. They are sharing their experiences
with one another which now a days is directly
making an impact on the business. This is the era
of information; therefore it has become necessary
that there is a spread of positive information about
the company offerings out in the social platforms.
This positive word of mouth at the social platforms
will help them to retain customers and generate
more sales.
Kabani and Brogan (2010) say that the biggest
comfort with the social media is that it helps the
businesses in marketing their brand to the wider
‘global’ community. The social media platforms
are open and accessible for everyone from every
country and therefore they provide companies with
tremendous opportunities to communicate with
communities and build relationships with their
target audience. The social media marketing is
different all together than the traditional marketing.
Social media in marketing is all about using
the natural conversational platforms of people for
building relationships with them in order to satisfy
their needs. Social media platform are helping
businesses to spread a positive word of mouth
for themselves and their goods so that customers
needs could be addressed effectively. Social media
involves a number of different social channels
as traditional media has offline channels. Social
media keeps changing over time and therefore
it gets better and better. Social media is highly
participative and the participants of the conversa-
tion are the key people that generate the content.
In traditional marketing on TV and newspapers
the marketing and communication is one sided
whereas social media is a collective approach
that enables the collection and sharing of infor-
mation. This information becomes very essential
for businesses to actually revise their business and
marketing plans in order to maximize customer
attraction and retention (Evans and McKee, 2010).
Social Media Platforms
A social media operate as a digital platform upon
which social interaction occurs. Social networking
platforms help in building virtual communities, or
social networks, for individuals with similar at-
titude, interests, education, opinion and lifestyles.
Social Media Marketing
Burke (2006 in Bolotaeva, 2011) defines social
networking platform as: “… a loose affiliation
of people who interact, communicate and share
contents through platforms building relationships
among communities of practices. A social platform
management is a social and technological process
that enables the development, deployment, use
and management of social media solutions and
services. In social aspects a ‘social platform’
enables communities of users in, posting, editing,
and sorting, co-creating and sharing a variety
of contents. Thus it enables to communicate
implicitly or explicitly with specific person or
broadcast to all. Its other features aid in adding
friends into the network, setting privacy controls
and other native social media network features
(Leonardi, 2013). In its technological aspects, a
social platform consists of dimensions of social
mark-up language for creating native applications,
an application programming interface (API) for
third party application integration and a back-
end admin console for managing the entire user
base and preferences, etc. It provides continuous
visibility and persistence to people and content.
Thus a social platform enables creating social
media websites and services with complete social
media network technical, user specific and social
functionality. These are second generation (Web
2.) websites / platforms that provide users the
ability and tools to create and publish their own
mini web sites or web pages using the “bottom up
approach” — using a many-to-many model. Such
platforms provide features such as; user created
contents, high degree of user participation in com-
munities of practice and ability to integrate with
multiple sites or networks (Campbell, 2010). Thus
a social platform include things like social net-
working (Facebook, Google+ MySpace, twitter,
LinkedIn); photo and video sharing sites (Flickr,
Vimio and YouTube); blogs (such as Blogger,
WordPress, Typepad), social bookmarking (Deli-
cious, Stumble Upon) news sharing (Digg, Yahoo!
Buzz) (Campbell, 2010). The social networked
platforms can attract traffic by managing touches
of 4Ps; Personal, Participatory, Physical, Plausible
(Clemons, 2009. cited in Bolotaeva, 2011).
The companies have used social platforms
for internal and external communication and
branding. Its use can be attributed to demand side
factors (the fact that social media give us that we
can’t get offline and let us meet our social needs)
and supply side factors (websites such as Face-
book, Twitter, and LinkedIn have more than 1.2
billion users and account for almost 25 per cent
of Internet use). To get full advantaged of social
media, companies need to develop and harness
their social strategy (Piskorski, 2014).
Over 1.7 billion people use social platforms
on the Internet. Some social platforms, such as
Twitter, MeetUp and eHarmony, enable strang-
ers to connect. eHarmony alone is estimated to
account for one in six new marriages in the U.S.
LinkedIn helps one expand business relationships.
Other social platforms, like Facebook or Renren
in China, creates more relationships with other
known peoples. In fact, Facebook boasts stag-
gering 750 million users, and valuation in excess
of $100 billion (Piskorski, 2014). Different plat-
forms have different levels of restrictions to users
choices. This is puzzling that, some platforms like
e-Harmoney(dating site), WhatsApp (social one
to one texting on phone), headhunting (recruit-
ment) etc., are successful even with restrictive
access and a user fee. On the other hand platforms
like Facebook (social networking), Monster (job
hunting), (travel and tourism),
YouTube etc. that offers unlimited free access
are also successful. The understanding becomes
more complex when even platforms with middle
grounds on access like twitter (limited in words
with unlimited in access to network) and LinkedIn
etc. are also growing. Thus, It can be argued that
the value of participation in a social platform
Social Media Marketing
often depends on the number of choices offered,
and a platform offering unrestricted access (yet in
user’s control) could quickly displace a platform
that restricts choice or provides restricted access.
In June 2014, Ebiz/MBA has ranked top 15 plat-
forms by comprehensively average of integrating
rankings from others ranking evaluators (Alexa
Global Traffic, compete and Quantcast) (Ebi-
zMBA, 2014). In 2013, a study by Pew Reserch
found that in the US around 73% of online adults
use a social networking site of some kind, 42%
of 2% of online adults now use multiple social
networking sites but Facebook at 71% remains
as top platform of the choice. The study by Pew
research also found that users segments of different
platforms are not same. Facebook is preferred by
diverse mix of demographic segments and who
also visit site daily many times. Pinterest has
four times high appeal to female users, LinkedIn
has more college graduates with higher income
households. On the other hands the segments
of Twitter and Instagram are overlapping with
younger adults, urban dwellers, and non-whites
(Duggan, 2013). Further 90% of Twitter users, 93%
of instagram and 83% of linkedin users also use
facebook. A small number of users use only one
type of plateform; 8% LinkedIn, 4% Pinterest, and
2% Instagram or Twitter only (Duggan, 2013). This
pattern shows high level of similarities between
user needs to visit social platforms on one hand
and also put forward a question that why people
visit many platform if one platform can meet their
social needs! Do people have different motives at
each platform or do they have different network
of connections at each of the platform or they
want to exhibit different personalities and roles
at different platforms? The features of different
platforms are used to segment platforms. There
are a variety of Social Media platforms that are in
use with their corresponding features (Table 1).
Nearly one in four people worldwide (1.7bil-
lion people) use social network sites (SEOPres-
sor, 2012). There can be seven kinds of social
media users. The Deal Seeker follow a company
for bargain or value deals, so companies should
always offer them deals along with a request to
refer more friends to the brand; the Unhappy Cus-
tomer has potential to do harm to a company by
creating stream of negative words of mouths, so
company should solve their problems immediately;
The Loyal Fans spreads positive word of mouth
and recommend the brand to their network and
even defends their brand, so the company should
reward their behaviour; a Quiet Follower neutral
and is just there because his friends are there, so
the company should call them to engage in actions;
The Cheerleader is top fan of the brand and likes
everything a company does, hence the company
should keep him fresh and inspiring with updated
information; and lastly the Ranter goes for virtual
fights with strong opinions about everything, so
the company should react cautiously and very
selectively (SEOPressor, 2012). Hence in overall
the company should have a customised social
platform strategy and the contents of the messages
should be engaging with a sense of community,
inclusive in action, newsworthy, and contents from
all followers be allowed and recognised.
In his study of 60 companies, Piskorski, (2012)
found that companies that simply posted their
digital strategies onto the social environments,
failed to succeed on social platforms. These
companies were merely trying to broadcast their
Social Media Marketing
commercial information to customers, intruding
with unwanted advances and yet expecting cus-
tomers to give feedback. In contrast, successful
companies were able to go beyond the trap of
‘maximising number of followers’ and implement
their social strategies. Social strategies at stage
one, advises business to build better relation-
ships between people and provide incentives if
people undertake corporate tasks for free. Only
at second stage, consistent with user behaviour,
the company should make non-intrusive attempt
to build relationship between companies and
consumers. A social strategist will call this social
network of ‘many to many interaction’ as social
platforms (all equal to co-create and share freely)
and should never limit ones thought by calling
this social network as social media (medium to
broadcast or dump contents with commercial
messages). For instant, it has been found that the
cardholders who used open Forum functionalities
are more likely to recommend Amex credit card
to others. The Nike Plus platform, that allows its
5 million customers of Nike’s digital products to
interact with their friends; has contributed up to
30% increase in sales. Cisco’s social platform is
not only protecting the company from aggressive
Table 1. Variety of social media platforms
Social Media Platforms Main Features
Social networking sites- Facebook, Google Plus,
CafeMom, Gather, Fitsugar
Allows users to connect and share with people who have similar interests and
Micro-blogging sites- Twitter, Tumblr, Posterous Allow the users to submit short written entries, which can include links to
product and service sites, as well as links to other social media sites
Publishing tools- WordPress, Blogger, Squarespace Allows users engage in conversations by posting and responding to community
Collaboration tools- Wikipedia, WikiTravel,
Apps or software based social platforms where users can work together
(synchronously or asynchronously) to create, modify and manage content.
Rating/Review sites- Amazon ratings, Angie’s List Using web2. The platforms allow reviews to be posted about people, businesses,
products, or services. It is a social strategy tool professionally designed and
written to maximize conversions sales.
Photo sharing sites- Flickr, Instagram, Pinterest Enable users to upload, transform edit, publish and share pictures and videos etc.
Video sharing sites- YouTube, Vimeo, Viddler allow users to share different types of media, such as pictures and video
Personal broadcasting tools- Blog Talk radio,
Ustream, Livestream, tumbler
Is a way of participatory journalism and synonyms to personal publishing?
Virtual worlds- Second Life, World of Warcraft,
Is a 3D computer based online community environment in which users are
represented on screen as themselves or as made-up characters and interact in real
time with other users using texts, or 2D or 3D models, knows as Avatars.
Location based services- Check-ins, Facebook Places,
Foursquare, Yelp
Apps on gadgets and mobiles that uses geographical position (GPS) and link it
with information, entertainment, or social media service that is available nearby
location. E.g. gas prices and services or restaurants near your location.
Widgets- Profile badges, Like buttons A small helpful software program or Apps, which gives extra power and control
to the user when embedded directly into a web page. These can be used to add
features like, weather, clock, local news, Twitter widget, Mailing list, gossips
and joke of the day etc.
Social bookmarking and news aggregation- Digg,
Delicious, StumbleUpon
Allow users to save and organize links to any number of online resources and
Group buying- Groupon, Living Social, Wowcer,
Latest trend in money saving, with the power to pull in big discounts.
Source: Decidedlysocial, (2012); SEOPressor, (2012);, (2014)
Social Media Marketing
moves of Chinese giant Huawei but also it has
enabled engineers to interact with each other,
achieve a number of certifications and become
more effective on their jobs (Olensky, 2014).
The effective companies needs to ask them-
selves, what is their core capability and how they
can use customer profiles and social platforms to
let the customers chat about their brands. It is about
helping people connect with other people (and not
company to consumers at first stage). To under-
stand online user behaviour on social networks it
is important to know, what they do when they are
on social platforms. Piskorski, (2012) found that
there are three-folds schemes of actions: Class,
Action and Object. There are seven classes of on
line actions namely: Ego, actions that the user
can do to change the content of his or her profile;
Alter, actions to change the content of others’
profiles; Graph, actions of changing users’ on-line
networks; Info, is related to viewing information
on others’profiles;Group, group related activities;
Interact, all communications and; Miscellaneous
actions, e.g. to add someone as a friend. Each of
these 7 classes can have further actions, such as
Add, Approve, Delete, Edit, Reject and ‘Objects
such as Photo, Comment. Piskorski, (2014) found
that 79% of all users activity is related to Info i.e.
viewing other’s profiles, 7% of activities realted
to Ego i.e. adding content to one’s own profile.
Only 1% of all actions are in the Alter i.e. to
change the content of other’s profiles and 8%
of action related to Graph, actions of changing
user’s on-line networks i.e. adding and deleting.
Interact category, of communication is just 5%
and group related activities are miniscule 0.1%.
Further exploration of info class found that 44%
viewed profile and picture of known friends and
equal percentage that of strangers. Remaining
12% of all Info activities was about people view-
ing their own profile analogous to behaviour of
looking at daily looking at mirror before going
it. The study also found that Men 67% off all
additions or deletions to profiles (class Ego) as
compared to 33% in case of women. This may be
due to fact that men usually get less viewing so in
order to boost their profile views they put more
information, other reason may be social roles of
men vs. women in a society. Men who are older,
have public (not private only) profile, not disclose
their corect age, have more online friends and who
are for longtime on network are more likely to look
at womens they did not know. (Piskorski, 2014)
in his reserch at harvard business school, cites
literature that supports three kinds of pardigms in
which social platforms impact markets. The first
pardigm is, ‘the pipes view’, it conciders social
networks are conduits which transfer trustworthy
information about exchange opportunities between
interested parties. The second paradigm is ‘prisms
view’ and posits that a platform offers a network
tie between two parties, it has implications not
only for the parties but also for third-parties not
involved in the exchange. A third pardigm is ‘net-
works as cover’, that posits that interactions with
friends and acquaintances give actors an excuse
to engage in other kind of prying activities, while
still maintaining plausible deniability that they
are not engaging in such behaviors. A ‘cover’
is any social action that allows ‘Ego’ to signal
to ‘Alter’ that he is of type A personality, when
in reality they are of type B. Such covers allow
actors of type A to mix with actors of type B, by
being virtually indistinguishable from actors of
type B. For instant, LinkedIn allows users who
are currently employed to go on the job market
without apearing that they are on the job hunt,
and facebook networks can allow people to look
for new parteners without others realising this
explicitely. Similaraly on social networking sites
people can peek into other users privacy that social
norms may not allow in physical world. The study
found that, only 50 per cent of profile and picture
views are of friends, the remaining 50 per cent is
of strangers (Piskorski, 2012).
In another reserch Deighton (2007) found five
emerging paradigms governing marketing using
digital intercativity and and five ways that firms
interpose themselves into these lives. These five
Social Media Marketing
pardigms are responses to the diminution of mar-
keting’s power relative to the consumer. The five
pardigms are Thought tracing, Ubiquitous con-
nectivity, Property exchanges, Social exchanges,
and Cultural exchanges.
The above findings clearely have implications
in social strategy in general and in toursim sector
in particular. Hotel or toursim products should try
to become part of ‘pictures’ ego of the users and
this information will stretch amongst networks.
The next section details main platforms, their
rankings, features and coressponding social
startgic actions.
Facebook is the biggest social network of the
current era with 1.1 billion registered users and
estimated 750 million unique monthly visitors
(SEOPressor, 2012). Facebook can be utilised by
the companies to build strong base for getting in
touch with the potential customers. the business
need to develop their brand profile through creating
a stellar Facebook page which is worth the attention
on the platform and then share information with
the people that are interesting, and newsworthy to
the consumers. Then the content can be enriched
with information related to the products and ser-
vices, new launches, or company happenings etc.
make sure that Facebook is not a broadcasting
media rather it is a social platform for consumers
and you can be guest there with invitations only.
The company needs to help consumer meet their
social needs and let them fulfil their other needs.
Do not intrude or be pushy like salesman, be so-
cietal oriented marketers and act as facilitator for
community of practitioner -prosumer. Those with
account on Facebook can conveniently join the
company profile and exchange information and
updates provided but it is important that you first
invite your close friends or missionary custom-
ers, they can create budge. Do offer incentives or
recognitions for new needs. Do act according to
kind of Internet users as mentioned in preceding
sections. It gives a great opportunity to enhance
a company`s visibility and image in the virtual
world. Do respond to comments and weave into
your comments and posts to continually extend
this. Individuals interested in the company can
easily share ideas with the actual or potential
customers. They can also create discussion forums
to have feedback about their products and services
(Treadway and Smith, 2010).
Twitter is very popular micro blogging site
amongst the celebrities and Politicians, due to
which it attracts a wide variety of fans of such
personalities from around the globe. It has 500
million registered users and 400 million tweets are
sent each day (SEOPressor, 2012). It allows each
user to post messages of 140 characters or less
at one time. A business should create its unique
profile. People at twitter share their ideas and
link with one another. So it provides an excellent
opportunity to businesses to market their brand.
Companies have also created their profiles on
Twitter in order to get in touch with the audience
Thomases, (2010). The message or tweet can
be personal thoughts, quotes, news and picture
links, brand, and product and service links. The
users starts a Twitter account in order to follow,
and feel connected to, their favourite celebrities,
media personalities, opinion leaders, role models,
sports figure, politicians etc. business can sign
up for a Twitter account to keep up-to-date about
industry leaders, stakeholders and keeping cus-
tomers updated with newsworthy tweets. Invite
friends or brand cheer leaders and follow opinion
leaders or media channels that are of interest to
your customers & followers. Each registered user
has an average of 208 followers that can retweet
if your content is relevant to them and touches
their life or something they care about. The chain
can grow exponentially provided tweet is worth
tweeting repeatedly. Everything that can be ap-
plied to Facebook can also be applied here with
Social Media Marketing
some alteration. Your followers are following you
as role models or reference groups or your power
authority due to rank, expertise; referrals, coercive
etc. ensure that you continuously perform your
role. Tweet yourself and retweet from higher ups
in industry, media, consumer groups, government
reports and news channels etc. sensible uses of
hash tags (# brandname) are very important to
create brand budge. It is about what is happening
right now in the world? So keep up to date but
avoid controversial contents.
LinkedIn is social networking platform mainly
focused on the professional and business network-
ing segments. It has 225 million registered users
and on the average 110 million unique monthly
visitors. This platform strategy also starts with
creating a LinkedIn company page. The accounts
on LinkedIn can help in expanding business or
professional or employment related connections
thus ultimately a platform to gain access to
customers and professionals (Hendricks, 2010).
Remember to follow principles of AIDA – atten-
tion- interest- desire and action. Request cheerlead-
ers and opinion leaders for testimonials. Promote
company through ‘follow’ button and remember
to link your other social media accounts to your
LinkedIn Company Page. Make the information
engaging and varied but also remember pictures
speak more than words.
The basic functionality of LinkedIn allows
users (workers and employers) to create profiles
and “connections” to each other in an online
social network, which may represent real-world
professional relationships. Users can invite anyone
(whether a site user or not) to become a connec-
tion. However, if the invitee selects “I don’t know”
or “Spam”, this counts against the inviter. If the
inviter gets too many of such responses, the ac-
count may be restricted or closed.
This list of connections can then be used in a
number of ways:
Obtaining introductions to the connections
of connections (termed second-degree
connections) and connections of second-
degree connections (termed third-degree
Users can find jobs, people and business
opportunities recommended by someone
in one’s contact network;
Employers can list jobs and search for po-
tential candidates;
Job seekers can review the profile of hir-
ing managers and discover which of their
existing contacts can introduce them;
Users can post their own photos and view
photos of others to aid in identification;
Users can follow different companies and
can receive notifications about the new
joining and offers available;
Users can save (i.e. bookmark) jobs that
they would like to apply for;
Users can “like” and “congratulate” each
other’s updates and new employments;
Users can see who has visited their profile
YouTube with 1 billion registered users at which
videos are viewed 4 billion times per day is largest
media sharing site in the world. With inception
in 2005 this platform has been used to entertain,
educate, share thoughts, provoke, and inspire
people. It is accessible to everyone, with or without
registering an account. A business can register
as a corporate account using Google mail only.
Once registered a business can upgrade with a fee
to get YouTube’s ‘branded channel’ option. It is
important to bring in traffic use SEO keys and
tags that are consumer segment and your brand
related. A business can add as many relevant key
words using the auto body example from the Pin-
terest. If one cannot create video to start with, the
business can upload loyal / missionary customer
videos or can search YouTube for your brand
Social Media Marketing
relevant videos from other channels or industry or
education etc. and link them to your site or social
platform pages. Business should stay current and
follow the rules of movie making and education.
People like seeing more than reading but it must
be something for them (SEOPressor, 2012).
Google+ has 343 million registered users, who
visit 65 million times per month. This social
platform includes number of features that are
very relevant for social platform marketing. For
instance share button can be used to share links,
videos, and photos with segmented and filtered
Google circles. One more feature is option for
bigger and clear cover picture. Business should
use key words strategically. Business can link
this with other websites and social platform and
invite contacts. Other features like story, events,
hangouts, Google+ community are really worth
utility for a business but it is responsibility of the
business to be responsive, empathetic and trust-
worthy to your community (SEOPressor, 2012).
Starting in November 2011, Google+ profiles
are used as the background account for many
Google services including YouTube, Gmail,
Google Maps, Android, Google Play, Google Mu-
sic, Google Voice, Google Wallet, Google Local
and more. As of January 2012, Google Search is
customized with a feature called Search Plus Your
World, which inserts content shared on Google+
profiles and brand pages under Web Search results,
if one is logged into their Google+ account while
using it. The feature, which is opt-in, was received
with controversy over the emphasis of Google+
profiles over other social networking services. The
feature builds upon the earlier “Social Search”
feature which indexes content shared or published
by authors; “Social Search”.
A Google+ User profile is a public visible
account of a user that is attached to many Google
properties. It includes basic social networking
elements like a profile photo, about section, back-
ground photo, previous work and school history,
interests, places lived and an area to post status
updates. It also includes several identity service
sections, such as a contributor and other profiles
area that let one link their “properties across the
web”. These section optionally link to other social
media accounts one has, any blogs one owns or
have written or sites one is a contributor to. This
area is used for Google Authorship. Customized
or Vanity URLs were made available to the public
starting on October 29.2013 to any account that
was 30+ days old, has a profile photo and at least
10 followers. Google removed author photo from
search results in June 2014 and in August 2014
Google will stop showing authorship in search
results both photo and author name.
Circles is a core feature of the Google+ Social
Platform. It enable users to organize people into
groups or lists for sharing across various Google
products and services. Organization of circles is
done through a drag-and-drop interface. Once a
circle is created, a Google+ user can share specific
private content to only that circle. For example,
work themed content can be shared with only
work colleagues, and one’s friends and family
could see more personal content and photos. The
option to share Public or with Everyone is always
available Since September 26, 2011 users can share
Circles; it’s a one-time share, so if the creator of
the Circle updates the members, people’s shared
copies won’t be updated.
Another function of Circles is to control the
content of one’s Stream. A user may click on a
Circle on the left side of the page and the Stream
portion of the page (the center) will contain
only posts shared by users in that Circle. For the
unsegmented Stream (includes content from all
Social Media Marketing
of a user’s Circles), each Circle has a “slider”
configuration item with four positions: nothing,
some things, most things, and everything. The
nothing position requires the user to select (click
on) the Circle name explicitly to see content from
users in that Circle. The everything setting as its
name implies filters nothing out from people in
that Circle. The remaining two positions control
the quantity of posts which appear in one’s main
Stream, but the algorithm controlling what shows
has not been disclosed.
In the Stream”, which occupies the middle of
three columns on the page, users see updates from
those in their Circles. There is an input box which
allows users to enter a post. Along with the text
entry field there are icons to upload and share
photos and videos. The Stream can be filtered to
show only posts from specific Circles.
Instagram is very popular photos and videos shar-
ing platform and recently purchased by Facebook.
It has 130 million active monthly users. The busi-
ness can upload photos or videos and can link with
other social platforms and invite people to click
for favourite ones. To keep always in the trend
continuously upload new actions photos about
your actions that would be of interest to users.
That addresses their social, rational, emotional and
epistemic needs. Promote photo-sharing contests
of different themes, offer discount codes, invite
testimonial and use hashtags (SEOPressor, 2012).
Blogs can be updated on a frequent basis. Blogs
can also be regularly developed for a variety of
different purposes. They are an active source of
promoting products and services and spreading
information (Khare, 2012). There are many dif-
ferent blogs that cover and attract people from
specific industry. Marketers generally develop
their profile and carry on updating them so that the
fans and connected users are kept well informed.
Tumblr is one of the blogging platforms that also
allows sharing photos, videos, quotes almost
everything. It is more images driven, interest
focused rather than personnel oriented and offers
much choice to the users. Tumbler has 300 mil-
lion registered users and 216.3 million monthly
visitors (SEOPressor, 2012). There are many
options of formatting and layouts etc. that can be
customised and focused as per your customers’
need. The Admin option allows adding users,
opinion leaders, experts and so on that can add
blogs to your pages. Try a variety of photos and
videos with themes, and things like bloomers,
how to, behind scenes etc. try to make it as close
to personal site as possible but make sure that
company’s social media strategy should lead to
more contents from others as compared to from
the company. Just like other traditional marketing
platforms, these mediums also require consistent
time and effort. Marketers generally develop their
profile and carry on updating them so that the
fans and connected users are kept well informed.
Development of Tumblr began in 2006 dur-
ing a two-week gap between contracts at David
Karp’s software consulting company, Davidville
(housed at Karp’s former internship with producer/
incubator Fred Seibert’s Frederator Studios which
was located a block from Tumblr’s current head-
quarters). Karp had been interested in tumblelogs
(short-form blogs) for some time and was waiting
for one of the established blogging platforms to
introduce their own tumblelogging platform. As
no one had done so after a year of waiting, Karp
and developer Marco Arment began working on
their own tumblelogging platform. Tumblr was
launched in February 2007 and within two weeks,
the service had gained 75,000 users.
Social Media Marketing
Dashboard: The dashboard is the prima-
ry tool for the typical Tumblr user. It is a
live feed of recent posts from blogs that
they follow. Through the dashboard, us-
ers are able to comment, reblog, and like
posts from other blogs that appear on their
dashboard. The dashboard allows the user
to upload text posts, images, video, quotes,
or links to their blog with a click of a but-
ton displayed at the top of the dashboard.
Users are also able to connect their blogs
to their Twitter and Facebook accounts, so
whenever they make a post, it will also be
sent as a tweet and a status update;
Queue: Users are able to set up a sched-
ule to delay posts that they make. They
can spread their posts over several hours or
even days;
Tags: For each post a user creates, they are
able to help their audience find posts about
certain topics by adding tags. If someone
were to upload a picture to their blog and
wanted their viewers to find pictures, they
would add the tag #picture, and their view-
ers could use that word to search up posts
with the tag #picture;
HTML editing: Tumblr allows users to
edit their blog’s theme HTML coding to
control the appearance of their blog. Users
are also able to use a custom domain name
for their blog.
MySpace (stylized as MySpace, previously stylized
as MySpace) is a social networking service with a
strong music emphasis owned by Specific Media
LLC and pop music singer and actor Justin Tim-
berlake. Myspace was launched in August 2003
and is headquartered inBeverly Hills, California.
In April 2014, Myspace had 1 million unique
U.S. visitors.
Founded in 2003 by Chris DeWolfe and Tom
Anderson, Myspace was later acquired by News
Corporation in July 2005 for $580 million. From
2005 until early 2008, Myspace was the most
visited social networking site in the world, and
in June 2006 surpassed Google as the most vis-
ited website in the United States. In April 2008,
Myspace was overtaken by Facebook in the number
of unique worldwide visitors, and was surpassed in
the number of unique U.S. visitors in May 2009,
though Myspace generated $800 million in revenue
during the 2008 fiscal year. Since then, the number
of Myspace users has declined steadily in spite
of several redesigns. As of May 2014, Myspace
was ranked 982 by total web traffic, and 392 in
the United States.
Myspace had a significant influence on pop
culture and music and created a gaming platform
that launched the successes of Zynga andRockYou,
among others. The site also started the trend of
creating unique URLs for companies and artists.
MySpace is a wide majority of businesses
market and promote their products and services
on MySpace and target its users. The network also
provides a variety of other options like gaming,
music, videos etc. (Singh et al, 2008).
Social Bookmarking
There are many such platforms of social book-
marking such as Stumble Upon. StumbleUpon
discovery engine has 25 million registered users.
It searches and recommends web pages to its users
and can also be shared by others to ‘like it. This
also recommends users other related sites or sites
that your network has liked or submit industry
related sites and blogs or create a stumble upon
channel (SEOPressor, 2012).
Social Media Marketing
Many organizations including those in tourism
now routinely use publicly available social net-
working and micro blogging sites for innovation,
marketing and after sales service purposes This
is due to the fact that social networking offers
many opportunities to address challenges and
improve affordances to its users. The challenges
of locating opinion leaders or experts, find users
motivations to share knowledge and capitalise
on social network connections and can adresse
with help from transactive memory, public goods,
and social capital theories (Leonardi, 2013). The
social media enables different ways to engage
in the publicly visible knowledge and conversa-
tions through different kinds of affordance. The
affordance offered are; visibility, persistence,
editability, and association, metavoicing, triggered
attending, network-informed associating, and
generative role taking (Leonardi, 2013). However
there are still some challenges; like governance,
abundance of information, interpreting quality,
tensions of accessibility, contextual cues, leaky
pipe, echo chambers, and intrinsic interest inherent
in the information that needed to be addressed.
The online social media platforms have become
so powerful and popular that they have proved
to be very excellent for marketing activities too.
Social network marketing can be very advanta-
geous for businesses. As it can help find talent and
customers, build brand awareness and intelligence,
create word of mouth or viral marketing, create
community of customers, and market research
(Bolotaeva, 2011). It also helps customers com-
municate effectively and allow review or see
reviews during decision making process, protect
speaking to outside strategies for information, and
thus decreases cognitive load on the shoppers.
Business can create users relevant contents which
can increase brand visibility. Social strategy can
become core capability if properly managed. It is
trendy much low cost supplement to other contents.
It is multiple to multiple connections that create
opportunities for customers to know, demand,
share, and participate and complaint about expe-
riences of products, services, brands and other
interests. The customers can get better products
and services as they can participate in design,
development and consumptions of products and
services. It provides opportunity of publicity in
contest to paid advertisement.
However there are certain challenges that the
business needs to address it demands commit-
ment of resources, continuous visibility, difficult
to measure ROI and if it goes out of control than
can cause huge damage in the least time. It can
make use of faster diffusion of innovation by us-
ing the pressure of opinion leaders, early adopters
and social pressures. The company in a tourism
sector can use say ‘Trip Advisor’. The company
can understand target consumers’ behaviour and
profile, interact with potential, current or exiting
customers, identify brand advocates and WOM
leaders, improve customer experiences through
all phases of consumer decisions making process,
participate in trade competition, and scan moves
of the competition (Bolotaeva, 2011).
Social network platforms works in various
different ways such as:
Innovation: Social media provides in-
sight into customer experiences and ideas,
which helps businesses to generate ideas
for further development and innovation.
The use of social media is also becoming
very popular, especially in the context of
marketing that it provides the opportuni-
ty to fetch some excellent ideas from the
market without paying even a single penny
(Zarrella, 2009);
Purchasing Decisions: The consumer de-
cision-making models guides that, buying
behaviour results from consumer involve-
ment and engagement in multistage prob-
lem solving tasks. The stages are: need
recognition, information search, evalua-
Social Media Marketing
tion of alternatives (evoked set), evaluation
result, and when buying, post-purchase
evaluation (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2009).
Marketing communication using social
platforms provides consumers informa-
tion, so they become able to support the
learning process by which they acquire
the purchase and consumption knowl-
edge. Consumers’ learning, attitude and
motivation can change due to any newly
acquired knowledge gained from reading,
observation, discussions and virtual or
actual experience. Social platform can ef-
fect consumer perception about evaluating
the desired and actual state, and can drive
active or latent ‘problem recognition’ and
also offer solution to the problem. During
second stage of ‘the information search’,
social platform can aid in learning process
by helping to search either internal or ex-
ternal memory sources. The evaluation of
alternative stage is conditioned by the type
of consumer’s choice and discussion on so-
cial platform which can aid by influencing
consumers’ learning, motivation and atti-
tudes with help of augmented reality expe-
riences. In last stage of consumer decision-
making process-post-purchase evaluation,
the consumer compares the product real
performance with his/her expectations,
and right discussions and word of mouth
on platforms is useful in setting right lev-
els expectations at well above consumers’
minimum noticeable threshold levels and
by reducing any uncertainty in offerings
or services. Right evaluation not only sets
evokes set and helps in making choice of
brand offerings or destination but also, can
create positive word of mouth, customer
loyalty, feedback and cross product buying.
The social platforms can provide conditions for
high level of customer involvement and engage-
ments with the product or the services. Level of
customer involvement in buying process means
amount of psychophysical energy spent by con-
sumer in the buying process. Higher levels of
involvements are associated with greater use of
affective and cognitive decision making strategies
across different cultures (Edgett & Cullen, 1993).
During buying or consuming highly involved in-
dividuals compared to lower involved individuals
will use more criteria search for more information,
accept fewer alternative, process relevant informa-
tion in detail, and will form attitudes that are more
resistant to change. Involvement levels, therefore,
can have an impact on the information processing
decision-making and responses to advertising.
Lack of proper management of touch points /
customer encounters can cause a churn among
the firm’s existing customers. Social platform
not only increases customer relations but also
enhances loyalty, satisfactions through customer’s
involvement and encounter management, socially,
emotionally, visually, auditory and kinaestheti-
cally. The social media marketing platforms are
useful for businesses to spread a positive word of
mouth through which they could influence them
and exchange information. These platforms also
provide an opportunity to clear any misunder-
standing that could have become the hindrance
in the purchasing decisions of customers. Singh
et al (2008) states that because of the sharing of
instant information the developed societies have
got in the habit of creating awareness, sharing it on
the Internet on social platforms and then making
purchasing decisions:
Monitoring: The social media also helps
marketers to monitor what is going on
about them amongst the people. It also
gives them the chance of developing the
strong basis for the business through which
they could inspire individuals. The social
platforms also help in interacting in real
time. A business could clearly watch out of
any incorrect information and take appro-
priate actions accordingly (Khare, 2012);
Social Media Marketing
New Customers: Social media marketing
provides you the opportunity to reach new
customers efficiently. Through social me-
dia you can also study and research people
who could be your potential customers in
the future. This also helps businesses to de-
vise strategies that could target people in a
more effective manner (Safko, 2010);
Referral: The social media also helps
businesses to promote themselves through
clearly targeting people who prefer to be
with your company and like your offerings.
This easily helps in increasing the referral
for the business (Sterne, 2010);
Fan Clubs: The rise of social media has
actually helped businesses to create fan
clubs for their businesses. People who are
crazy for your businesses can easily get
closer to the company. The fan clubs work
tremendously for the creation and spread
of positive word of mouth (Kimbarovsky,
Feedback: Marketing through social me-
dia actually helps businesses to get in one
to one contact with the target audience and
let them share their experiences with you
so that you could work on them to improve
your offerings. Companies by getting in-
volved in such platforms can actually gain
information about their products and ser-
vices and take corrective measures in or-
der to address the issues (Turner and Shah,
When people use a product, they then share
their experiences of the internet with others on the
conversation on social media platforms and this
makes others to revise their purchasing decisions.
A business can effectively take the advantage of
such a platform and interact with its customers
in order to help them satisfy their needs through
addressing their issues promptly (Turner & Shah,
Connections and Access: For marketers,
social media provides an excellent oppor-
tunity to gain access to individuals in an in-
formal manner without even making them
feel different. Databases of customers from
platforms give businesses opportunities
to mine social network information and
contacts. Furthermore, social platforms
help in finding suppliers or employees too
(Bolotaeva, 2011). It has been observed
that social people are more comfortable
and open in sharing information and ex-
periences on social platforms and over the
Internet than in face to face;
Brand Awareness and Image: Business
have been actively involved in sharing
information for the enhancement of their
brand name and to improve the overall po-
sition of their brand in the market (Taylor
& Riklan, 2009). Marketing on social me-
dia has also revised the concept of brand. A
company can carry out brand Intelligence,
thus collect consumer feedback, establish a
brand presence, get insights about the way
its brands are perceived and discussed.
Through continuous interaction with cus-
tomers business can address their needs
and thus build long-term brand relation-
ships (Bolotaeva, 2011);
Product Launching: It has also been no-
ticed that social media also plays a pivotal
role in the launching of the product. A
wealth of word of mouth information re-
garding the brands and products, on social
platforms leads to its use as a new channel
that has features of search engines, review
sites, and price comparison. It directly acts
at least two marketing mix elements place
and promotion which aids in other 2 Ps
Price and product strategies (Bolotaeva,
Sites: Online social media platform give
the opportunity to market products and ser-
Social Media Marketing
vice and make people aware of the upcom-
ing products and services. Social media is
a great way of giving details about your
company, its offerings and operations. It
also helps businesses to create hype in the
market for their products (Zimmerman and
Sahlin, 2010);
Coverage: The social media platform pro-
vides an excellent platform to cover a wide
range of individuals from various seg-
ments of the society. As described earlier
that these platforms are open for all and
does not restrict any one from anywhere.
This makes it convenient for companies to
target wider global market;
Cost: Marketing through social media is
very cost effective as compared to tradi-
tional offline marketing media. This is in-
expensive way to promote a business more
efficiently. Previously Costs on MySpace
($25in 2009), Facebook ($5 daily + $0.01
in 2009) and LinkedIn (a $25/1000 clicks
in 2009) was very competitive and enticing
in the US. In 2013 in UK costs per click on
facebook (£0.25-0.57), Google Ad (£1.50),
Linkedin ((£1.50), Twitter (£0.75) was still
attractive and lower than traditional media
channels (Bryan, 2013).
Companies initially identify their goals and plans
for the future, especially in relation to marketing
and promotion and then develop pages or make
accounts on the social media platforms like Face-
book, Twitter etc. they keep on updating them
with the latest information, pictures, company
news, latest developments, product and service
information, achievements, profits, operations and
so on. The profile is tagged along with the search
engines such as Yahoo, Google, Bing and so on
so that when people are looking for company the
link and profile should come up at the top. The
company also advertises on the general areas of the
social media from where people come also come
to know about the happenings of the business.
Companies further create fun ideas, advertise-
ments, contests, promotions and a variety of other
events through which they get people involved with
them. These activities also inspire more people to
join the company and get linked with the business.
Businesses further monitor and evaluate the
suggestions, comments and user happenings.
Through social media companies also create dif-
ferent blog in discussion forums, where people
share their ideas and this makes the businesses to
gain healthy ideas and creative recommendations
which mainly turn out to be very beneficial for
them (Hajir, 2012).
Businesses also link these social pages and plat-
form with their key websites and portals through
which they also get people in to the habit of visit-
ing their websites and gaining information about
the various products, features and happenings.
Zarrella (2009) suggests that online commu-
nities have become so powerful that they could
make or break a business, individual or society. As
established earlier, social media marketing is all
about making relationships and these relationships
can be taken in favour, or potential competitors
can also develop their own network in order to
break specific business (Tuten, 2008).
Like any other media, social platform also offers
challenges to the business. Challenges such as inva-
sion of user privacy, aggressive advertising, lack
of e-commerce abilities, lack of brand controls,
and certain legal pitfalls can be major disruptions
to social platforms. The consumers do not like
intrusive advertisements and communications and
they are not ready to share their privacy that can
be pervaded in an online platform. Aggressive
Social Media Marketing
advertisements are definitely no-no in an online
platform. The consumers are there on the platforms
to talk to their friends and do not like strangers
being intrusive, aggressive communications and
The businesses needs to be careful against
legal frameworks related to data mining, research
and selling online. As social platforms are user
created contents and users are free to take actions
and comments so with a single mistake from
business may lead to brand campaign going out
of control. The biggest challenges are treating the
social network as a broadcasting media instead
of a social platform for communities of practice
(Bolotaeva, 2011).
Halligan and Shah (2010) identified that there
are a variety of things that businesses believe to be
unimportant because of which they fail to take the
benefit form social media marketing effectively:
Not Developing a Marketing Strategy:
Some businesses do not take social media
seriously and believe that just creating a
page would be enough. Just like other me-
diums, social media platforms also require
a workable marketing strategy;
Gathering Followers not Networks:
some companies are only busy in generat-
ing users and people who could join their
company page. They fail to focus on devel-
oping networks of people who could bene-
fit them; customers who could strategically
benefit them etc.;
Focus Only on Social Media: Social me-
dia can be of great help and support if it is
aligned with other offline marketing tools.
Some companies only focus on social me-
dia for marketing and do not invest at all in
other marketing mediums (Evans, 2012);
Abusing: Some social media blogs do not
give proper attention to their blogs due to
which sometimes people even start using
negative or abusive language for one an-
other. This does not only distracts people
from coming to your blog but will also cre-
ate a negative impression about your busi-
ness (Evans, 2012).
These are some of the notable mistakes done
by companies due to which they lose out on the
benefits of social media, especially in the context
of marketing. The researcher personally believes
that in order to take the maximum benefit out
from social media for marketing and promotion,
it is necessary for businesses to first develop an
effective marketing strategy. That strategy should
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Advantages of Social Platform Marketing:
Share knowledge and capitalise on social network
connections; Enables different ways to engage in
the publicly visible knowledge and conversations
through different kinds of affordance; Visibility,
persistence, editability, and association, meta-
voicing, triggered attending, network-informed
associating and generative role taking.
Challenges for Organisations in Using Social
Media Marketing: Invasion of user privacy, ag-
gressive advertising, lack of e-commerce abilities,
lack of brand controls, and certain legal pitfalls
can be major disruptions to social platforms. Gov-
ernance, abundance of information, interpreting
quality, tensions of accessibility, contextual cues,
leaky pipe, echo chambers and intrinsic interest.
Components of Social media: Three main
components: Publishing Technology for everyone,
Information Diffusion, and Relationship Building.
Five Emerging Paradigms Governing Mar-
keting Using Digital Intercativity: Thought trac-
ing, Ubiquitous connectivity, Property exchanges,
Social exchanges and Cultural exchanges.
Social Media Marketing
Social Media Marketing: It is an approach of
marketing which enables businesses to take the
feedback, comments, and suggestions from their
customers through blogs, pictures and ratings
and improve their products and services so that
customer’s needs could be addressed in a more
proactive manner.
Social Media: Social media is a sort of syn-
thesis of sociology and technology and creating
an environment or platform on the internet where
people share experiences with each other and de-
velop networks for a variety of different official
and unofficial reasons.
Social Network Platforms Works in Various
Different Ways: Such as Innovation, Purchasing
decisions, Monitoring, New Customers, Referral,
Fan Clubs, Feedback, Connections and Access,
Brand awareness and Image, Product Launching
Sites, Coverage Cost etc.
Social Platforms: These are second genera-
tion (Web 2) websites/ platforms which provide
users the ability and tools to create and publish
their own mini web sites or web pages using the
“bottom up approach” — using a many-to-many
model along with features such as; user created
contents, high degree of user participation in
communities of practice and ability to integrate
with multiple sites or networks.
Variety of Social Media Platforms: So-
cial networking sites- Facebook, Google Plus,
CafeMom, Gather, Fitsugar, Micro-blogging
sites- Twitter, Tumblr, Posterous, Publishing tools-
WordPress, Blogger, Squarespace, Collaboration
tools- Wikipedia, WikiTravel, WikiBooks, Rating/
Review sites- Amazon ratings, Angie’s List Photo
sharing sites- Flickr, Instagram, Pinterest, Video
sharing sites- YouTube, Vimeo, Viddler, Personal
broadcasting tools- Blog Talk radio, Ustream,
Livestream, tumbler, Virtual worlds- Second Life,
World of Warcraft, Farmville, Location based
services- Check-ins, Facebook Places, Foursquare,
Yelp, Widgets- Profile badges, Like buttons, Social
bookmarking and news aggregation- Digg, Deli-
cious, StumbleUpon, Group buying- Groupon,
Living Social, Crowdsavings.
... Social media, simply is text, pictures, words, videos, and such with the intention of sharing. In the viewpoint of the marketplace, it is the thoughts and experiences of participants/consumers that relate to brands, products, or service [1]. The nascent social media has changed the way of communication from one dimensional into multi-dimensional, 2-ways, peer-to-peer communications. ...
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Araştırma, müşteri tatmini ve bağlılığının online ağızdan ağıza iletişime (yoğunluk ve değer) olan etkisinin değerlendirilmesi amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın evrenini online alışveriş yapan tüketiciler oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma kapsamında tesadüfi olmayan örneklemelerden "kolayda örneklem" yöntemi uygulanmıştır. Örneklem sayısı ise 427 anket formunda yer alan verilerden yola çıkarak değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmada hipotezlerin test edilmesi için SPSS ve AMOS istatistik programları kullanılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre müşteri tatmininin online ağızdan ağıza iletişimin yoğunluk ve değer boyutlarını pozitif yönde etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Benzer şekilde duygusal bağlılığın online ağızdan ağıza iletişimin yoğunluk ve değer boyutlarını pozitif yönde etkilediği belirlenmiştir. Son olarak yüksek fedakârlık bağlılığının online ağızdan ağıza iletişimin yoğunluk ve değer boyutları üzerinde etkisinin olup olmadığı yapılan yol analizi ile test edilmiştir. Değişkenler arasındaki ilişki istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bulunmuştur ve yüksek fedakârlık bağlılığı ile yoğunluk-değer arasında pozitif bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Fakat hipotezler yüksek fedakârlık bağlılığının yoğunluk ve değer boyutları üzerinde etkisinin olmadığı yönünde belirlenmesi nedeniyle araştırma kapsamında oluşturulmuş hipotezler kabul edilmemiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Müşteri tatmini, Duygusal bağlılık, Yüksek fedakârlık bağlılığı, Online ağızdan ağıza iletişim Abstract The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of customer satisfaction and commitment on electronic word-of-mouth (volume and valence). The universe of the research is the consumers who shop online. Within the scope of the research, "convenience sampling" method was applied among non-random samples. The number of samples was evaluated on the basis of the data in the 427 questionnaire forms. SPSS and AMOS statistical programs were used to test the hypotheses in the study. According to the analysis results, it was determined that customer satisfaction positively affects the volume and valence dimensions of electronic word-of-mouth. Similarly, it was determined that affective commitment positively affects the volume and valence dimensions of electronic word-of-mouth. Finally, whether high sacrifice commitment has an effect on the volume and valence dimensions of electronic word-of-mouth communication was tested by path analysis. The relationship between the variables was found to be statistically significant and a positive relationship was found between high sacrifice commitment and volume-valence. However, the hypotheses created within the scope of the study were not accepted because the hypotheses were determined that high sacrifice commitment had no effect on the volume and valence dimensions.
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İnternet, bilişim ve dijital iletişim teknolojilerindeki gelişim ve değişim her geçen gün web teknolojisinin özelliklerini artırmaktadır. Yazılabilir web, Web 2.0, yeni medya, sosyal medya ve online medya olarak ifade edilen ve çağımızda en çok kullanıcıya sahip olan bu web teknolojisi, etkili bir iletişim platformu haline gelmiştir. İçinde bulunduğumuz dijital çağ, küresel dünyayı ve evrensel iletişimi de dijitalleştirmiştir.
Twitter is a potentially powerful marketing tool. The study is aimed to examine the influence of Twitter in marketing communication rather than mass media. Furthermore, identify the people's perception of Twitter in marketing communication purpose. Quantitative and qualitative data is collected through open-ended questions, fivepoint Likert scale and decided to undertake a study with samples of 198 peoples who are above eighteen years old to examine the influence of Twitter in marketing communication rather than mass media. We applied the structural equation model and was tested with survey data collected from 100 peoples to identify the factors that may motivate these peoples to adopt and use Twitter in marketing communication. Most of the people (64.28%) suggest that Twitter has many features than mass media. Furthermore, the finding highlights the potentialities for the influence of Twitter in marketing communication activities rather than mass media. Indeed, this study highlights the potentialities for the perceived format with perceived ease of use factor (correlation coefficient = 0.62) has a strong positive linear relationship in predicting the adoption of Twitter and the resource and material sharing with perceived communications factor (correlation coefficient = 0.59) also has the strong positive linear relationships in marketing communicational usage of Twitter. Available research papers are investigated the twitter's specific features. However, this study is identified the useful features of Twitter from compared with mass media. Twitter always best to acknowledge tweets that contain sensitive information on direct messages on Twitter. This helps to build better connections with customers and users. The study has improved the efficiency of people who are willing to use Twitter for marketing communication. Potential conclusions have been made from the analysis and suggestions.
Revolutionary development in field of communication and information technology have globally opened new avenue of marketing tourism and hospitality products. Major shift in web usage happened when Napster in 1999 released peer-to-peer share media and then with pioneer social networking websites named ‘Six Degrees'. This kind of interactive social web was named as ‘Web 2.0'. It would create openness, community and interaction. Web2. is also known as Social media base. Social media is incudes “all the different kinds of content that form social networks: posts on blogs or forums, photos, audio, videos, links, profiles on social networking web sites, status updates and more”. It allows people to create; upload post and share content easily and share globally. Social media allows the creation and exchange of user-generated content and experiences online. Thus, social media is any kind of information we share with our social network, using social networking web sites and services.
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False advertising is the use of false, misleading, or unproven information to advertise products to consumers. The advertising frequently does not disclose its source. One form of false advertising is to claim that a product has a health benefit or contains vitamins or minerals that it in fact does not. Many governments use regulations to control false advertising. It might be tempting to deceive in advertisements not only that could attract new customers but also that they might buy products and subscribe to your services. However, usually, this strategy is bad for the future of company, and it might possibly hinder business' success. Companies whose only goal is to rack up as many profits as possible, tend to use advertisements that may conceal some costs, omit important facts, or use misleading images, in a bid to get customers to buy a service or product. This kind of marketing isn't helpful, and it will deprive consumers of the accurate information they need to make good, well-informed decisions. The regulations on advertisement and marketing illegalises use of false or misleading representation or symbol for quality, quantity, data of manufacture, methods of use, content, price, place of origin, the manufacture, processor or place for a product either in advertisement or another platform. In this study, it has been found that while misleading advertisements tend to provide overtly more positive information than is necessary, such positivity tend to result in negative experience for customers. This study has explored the importance of enhancing marketing activities through truthful facts, to ensure that the functions of the organisation (especially outward facing activities like marketing) are believable and thus helpful to customers to make the right decisions.
The current development of the digital economy determines the relevance of digital marketing as an innovative technology of service promotion. The research features a set of marketing tools used by NST company to promote services. The research objective was to develop recommendations for the implementation of digital marketing technology in the company. The study used methods of economic and comparative analysis. The authors analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional marketing tools used by NST and proposed tools of digital marketing, such as website development, SEO-optimization, contextual advertising, and the project of a new business card with a QR-code. A combined use of various digital marketing tools gives a much greater effect, thus attracting more customers and improving the efficiency of the company. The recommendations can be successfully used by other organizations wishing to promote their production and services in the modern market.
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Many studies have proposed the use of the relationship metaphor to enhance the understanding of the relationship between consumers and brands. However, few studies have empirically tested consumer–brand relationship models. In this paper, the authors argue that the success of developing empirical models of consumer–brand relationships depends on the adequacy of the metaphoric transfer. The authors compare two models of consumer–brand relationships—the brand relationship quality (BRQ) model and the relationship investment (RI) model on the basis of empirical fit and model interpretation. They modify both models to better accommodate less involving relationships and test them in two studies. The findings suggest that the modified RI model offers a straightforward interpretation of consumer–brand relationships that vary in intensity. The results from the BRQ model are less clear, though further refinements of the model demonstrates the increased potential of the BRQ model compared with traditional attitude models to explain relationships between consumers and brands.
Das Internet ist sozial – bei vielen Webangeboten können die Nutzer miteinander kommunizieren. Soziale Netzwerke (Social Networks), Foren und Blogs haben gemeinsam, dass sie die Menschen an den Computerbildschirmen zusammenbringen. Das Internet wird so zum Präsentations- und Kommunikationsraum. Auch für Zahnärzte liegt darin eine Herausforderung, der sie sich in Anbetracht der beeindruckenden Nutzerzahlen und der damit verbundenen Bedeutung dieser modernen Medien stellen müssen. Denn hier entstehen auch neue Marketing- und Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten: Zahnärzte können direkt mit Patienten in Dialog treten – und umgekehrt. Jedoch müssen Zahnärzte bei ihren Aktivitäten auch stets das HWG im Hinterkopf haben, denn Äußerungen Dritter dürfen sie nicht zu Werbezwecken einsetzen. Das betrifft vor allem Dankesschreiben, Anerkennungs- und Empfehlungsschreiben. Auch die Hinweise auf solche sind untersagt. Insofern sind Gästebücher auf Websites und die Pinnwand bei einer eigenen Facebook-Präsenz stetig zu kontrollieren. Im ersten Teil dieses Kapitels lernen Sie die wichtigsten Social Media-Instrumente und Beispiele aus der Praxis kennen. Jedoch bringt diese schnelllebige und vernetzte Welt auch einen Nachteil mit sich: Niemand ist mehr davor gefeit, dass jemand anderes im Netz über ihn spricht. Auch dann nicht, wenn man selbst gar nicht im Netz aktiv ist. Solange es sich um positive Äußerungen handelt, stellt das kein Problem dar. Ärgerlich und eventuell sogar berufsschädigend wird es, sobald Patienten zahnärztliche Leistungen oder den Praxis-Service in Bewertungsportalen oder Foren negativ beurteilen. Mehr dazu lesen Sie im Interview am Ende dieses Kapitels. Leider gibt es in den Sozialen Netzwerken richtige „Hass-Gruppen“, in denen Menschen, Unternehmen und Produkte kritisiert und schlechtgemacht werden. Nur wenn Sie davon erfahren, haben Sie eine Chance zu reagieren. Der letzte Teil des Social Media- Marketing-Kapitels zeigt Ihnen, wie Sie Ihren zahnärztlichen Ruf im Auge behalten und wie Sie ein erfolgreiches Reputationsmanagement aufbauen können.
During different time era's different methods of communications has developed and changed the day by day life. Social media has become the method of statement in the 21't century, enabling us to express our belief, ideas and manner in a absolute new way. This way of message have also have a huge impact on corporation, where they have realize that without a correct plan and social media strategy they have no chance to stand out in the rapidly changing digital freedom. To guarantee a successful attendance on social media the companies need to take different marketing theories into consideration so that they can boost their brand in different aspect. If this can be collective with original ways of consumer interaction the companies have a good chance to take the lead in social media marketing'. The meteoric growth of community websites, such as Twitter, Facebook and Linkedln, have usher the world into a new era of social media. The global reach is nothing short of marvelous, so much so that if Facebook were a country, it would be third largest, next to China and India. Some even say that this is the biggest shift since the industrial revolution, which means that the world has a brand new playing meadow At its center, social media is any kind of online media that stimulates participation, openness' conversation, Connecters and sense of community. The social media phenomenon has a profound impact. Social media has transformed research methods. This allows brands to communicate better with their consumers, and intensify their association with them. The advertising world has not been spared from social media influence. Companies are now more careful with advertising; chiefly in anticipate consumer response and avoiding unanticipated blunders to prevent a viral consumer backlash in networking sites. Social media plays a hybrid role in the promotion mix. It allows companies to talk to their clientele and, at the same time, it allows regulars to talk to one another. Shaping customers' discussions to ensure they are aligned to the organization's goals is the firm's best importance. Companies have started provided that their consumers with networking platforms, and have occupied them during blogs and other social media tools. Social media is seen by Marketers today as a great opportunity to boost market share figures. Marketers are only too happy to view the social web as a new set of channels through which to market their goods or services. Social media marketing is a hot topic for companies. It allows companies to establish a communication channel with its customers, market their products, build brand equity, and boost clientele faithfulness.However, as it is a two-way channel, it requires effort and care to manage this communication. Dissatisfied customers can protest out loud, attainment many other customers easily and damaging the brand's image. In order to avoid the risk of damaging the brand's image rather than improving it, the company should align their social media marketing with the global marketing strategy of the company. In order to do this, the business should choose the profile of people that matches its target segment and communicate with them accordingly.
Almost no one had heard of social media a decade ago, but today websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn have more than 1 billion users and account for almost 25 percent of Internet use. Practically overnight, social media seems indispensable to our lives--from friendship and dating to news and business. What makes social media so different from traditional media? Answering that question is the key to making social media work for any business, argues Mikolaj Piskorski, one of the world's leading experts on the business of social media. In A Social Strategy, he provides the most convincing answer yet, one backed by original research, data, and case studies from companies such as Nike and American Express. Drawing on his analysis of proprietary data from social media sites, Piskorski argues that the secret of successful ones is that they allow people to fulfill social needs that either can't be met offline or can be met only at much greater cost. This insight provides the key to how companies can leverage social platforms to create a sustainable competitive advantage. Companies need to help people interact with each other before they will promote products to their friends or help companies in other ways. Done right, a company's social media should benefit customers and the firm. Piskorski calls this "a social strategy," and he describes how companies such as Yelp and Zynga have done it. Groundbreaking and important, A Social Strategy provides not only a story- and data-driven explanation for the explosion of social media but also an invaluable, concrete road map for any company that wants to tap the marketing potential of this remarkable phenomenon.
Social media are increasingly implemented in work organizations as tools for communication among employees. As these technologies begin to proliferate across the enterprise, it is important that we develop an understanding of how they enable and constrain the communicative activities through which work is accomplished because it is these very dynamics that constitute and perpetuate organizations. We begin by offering a definition of enterprise social media and providing a rough historical account of the various avenues through which these technologies have entered and continue to enter the workplace. We also review areas of research covered by papers in this special issue and papers on enterprise social media published elsewhere to take stock of the current state of out knowledge and to propose directions for future research.
Long-term marketing effectiveness is a high-priority research topic for managers, and emerges from the complex interplay among dynamic reactions of several market players. This paper introduces restricted policy simulations to distinguish four dynamic forces: consumer response, competitor response, company inertia, and company support. A rich marketing dataset allows the analysis of price, display, feature, advertising, and product-line extensions. The first finding is that consumer response differs significantly from the net effectiveness of product-line extensions, price, feature, and advertising. In particular, net sales effects are stronger and longer-lasting than consumer response. Second, this difference is not due to competitor response, but to company action. For tactical actions (price and feature), it takes the form of , as promotions last for several weeks. For strategic actions (advertising and product-line extensions), by other marketing instruments greatly enhances dynamic consumer response. This company action negates the postpromotion dip in consumer response, and enhances the long-term sales benefits of product-line extensions, feature, and advertising. Therefore, managers are urged to evaluate company decision rules for inertia and support when assessing long-term marketing effectiveness.