Book

Managing in a VUCA world

Authors:
  • VARI (Value Research Institute)

Abstract

This book examines volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA) and addresses the need for broader knowledge and application of new concepts and frameworks to deal with unpredictable and rapid changing situations. The premises of VUCA can shape all aspects of an organization. To cover all areas, the book is divided into six sections. Section 1 acts as an introduction to VUCA and complexity. It reviews ways to manage complexity, while providing examples for tools and approaches that can be applied. The main focus of Section 2 is on leadership, strategy and planning. The chapters in this section create new approaches to handle VUCA environments pertaining to these areas including using the Tetralemma logics, tools from systemic structural constellation (SySt) approach of psychotherapy and organizational development, to provide new ideas for the management of large strategic programs in organizations. Section 3 considers how marketing and sales are affected by VUCA, from social media's influence to customer value management. Operations and cost management are highlighted in Section 4. This section covers VUCA challenges within global supply chains and decision-oriented controlling. In Section 5 organizational structure and process management are showcased, while Section 6 is dedicated to addressing the effects of VUCA in IT, technology and data management. The VUCA forces present businesses with the need to move from linear modes of thought to problem solving with synthetic and simultaneous thinking. This book should help to provide some starting points and ideas to deal with the next era. It should not be understood as the end of the road, but as the beginning of a journey exploring and developing new concepts for a new way of management. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. All rights reserved.

Chapters (17)

The world has changed: Since the financial crisis, there has been an increased awareness about the globally interconnected world of business; its complexity and sustainability. Some would believe that its unpredictable and situations change rapidly which is resulting in the obsolescence of existing models to deal with complexity and uncertainty. Some call the situation today a “VUCA” environment (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, Ambiguity) (http:// knowledgenetwork . thunderbird. edu/ research/ 2012/ 07/ 09/ kinsinger-walch-vuca/ ). The mainstream of applied management tools and frameworks is still unchanged: While the business environment is rapidly undergoing a change, the business tools and frameworks are lagging behind. Need for broader knowledge and application new concepts and frameworks: This book attempts to bring together and discuss concepts, tools and frameworks for management to cope with the new situation. The book will be of use to academics, practitioners and those who are just starting to engage with the business world.
Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity (VUCA): People cannot reduce the environment’s ‘degree’ of VUCA, but a company’s capability to deal with it can increase. One of the most promising methods for doing this includes expanding the capability to oscillate. Oscillation increases the complexity within the company itself since it creates variable options for management to take action and respond. A general frame for such oscillations is given by the “SySt-Tetralemma”. With some practice in exploring the Tetralemma, you can find a way out of most dilemmas and generate useful developments from most problems. Sometimes VUCA leads to paradox situations where the impossible must be made possible, i.e., from the point of view of the SySt-Tetralemma, the ability to open the limits of the system from within is required.
In organizations dealing with complex and volatile environments, projects and programs are an important tool to structure and manage complex tasks within the organization. Especially when it comes to the need for continuous change to adapt to VUCA environments or to reach a competitive advantage, strategic programs are used by top management in large companies to structure and implement strategic priorities. While traditional approaches on program management focus mainly on technical tools, this article broadens the perspective to a more systemic view of program and project management. We disuses the SySt system principles as well as the Triangle of Belief Polarities (TBP) as two concepts that could help project and program managers as well as top managers to deal with projects and programs in VUCA situations.
As against most common views, complexity is nothing new. We’ve simply just started to realise. Therefore, we have to find ways of dealing with a complex environment and its ambiguous, uncertain face. Due to an enormous explosion of knowledge in almost every field of our lives we can see that well-known recipes and rules for success do not work anymore. Trying harder makes it even worse, since the rules of the game have changed. Even more so: the game is a different one. Knowledge creating uniqueness becomes the key for competitive advantages, resilience and sustainable vitality more and more (The new edge in knowledge. How knowledge management is changing the way we do business. Wiley, Hoboken, 2011). Therefore, organisations have to take an active role in shaping their own position continuously taking advantage of creating such knowledge. Based on a new collaborative approach, the authors describe a well-structured mix of methods and instruments introducing “Cooperative Management-Systems”, the “CS-Procedure” and the “Heartbeat-Model”. This way, a complex and ambiguous environment is not just a threat to organisations but a playground for opportunities.
Regardless of the legal necessity, increasingly more companies are coming to recognise the massive need to implement a holistic risk management system. This is especially true of retail groups operating multinationally, which are being exposed to an increasingly complex and dynamic VUCA world. By adequately implementing a risk management system, risks can be overcome despite this increased uncertainty and volatility. Assistance in implementing a risk management process commensurate to the requirements of a VUCA world is provided in the form of practical guidelines. At the same time, the process must be designed quickly and easily in order to maintain its power to act in the face of greatly reduced reaction times and increased complexity. With regard to organisational integration, different alternatives are compared and recommendations for practical actions to be taken are suggested. Risk management must be supported by an IT tool that specifically allows for cross-border utilisation by multinational companies. Its interfaces need to pass on meaningful reports that present a company’s overall risk situation in a manner that reduces complexity. This promotes immediate countermeasures in a dynamic and volatile business environment. Ultimately, it is the function of risk management to ensure the company’s long-term success despite the growing challenges of a VUCA world.
Rapidly changing market conditions and intensifying competition may also have a negative impact on the customer relationship in terms of a more volatile and less loyal customer behavior. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the current status of the customer relationship is required. Firstly, a framework to structure different perspectives to understand the relationship between a company and its customers is presented. In addition to the process of delivering the right benefits or value to the customers (“value creation”) managers are increasingly challenged to prove that the measures they take generate a significant Return on Invest. From a financial perspective the customer benefits have to be capitalized into corporate value (“value appropriation”). Secondly, a segmentation approach is shown, which integrates the key measures of customer relationship management: (a) Value generation from the customer perspective (“value to the customer”) and (b) value generation from the company’s perspective (“value of the customer”). To determine the value to the customer a deep understanding of the needs and preferences of the customers is required. In a further step the key drivers for the purchase decision have to be identified. The measurement of the value of the customer incorporates all relevant information concerning the revenue stream and specific costs of a single customer. Thirdly, by segmenting customers based on both perceived value and profitability it is explored whether and for which segments the process of value creation can be deployed in the marketplace (“value appropriation”). The practical application of the “Value-to-Value”-segmentation (V2V) approach is illustrated by project examples covering both, B2B as well as B2C markets. Here, the consequences of a higher complexity and uncertainty as well as measures to stabilize the customer loyalty and revenue streams are discussed.
Typically, three parameters (cost, competitors and customers) are seen as pivotal, when determining the optimal price for a product. While a focus on the cost of production leads to a cost-plus pricing and a focus on competition leads to a price matching, a value-based pricing is derived from the customer perspective. In a world characterized by uncertainties and rapid structural changes, these landmarks only have a limited value. It is an illusion and rather naïve to assume the maximum willingness to pay for individual decision makers is robust and remains unchanged over a long period of time. In addition, modern IT-systems allow a fast reaction of the competition on individual pricing-decisions taken by a company. Against this background, the author recommends, when deriving the value-based pricing from the customer perspective, to use an extended holistic approach. This “pricing-in-3-D” approach takes into account different decision criteria: (1) the customers’ willingness to pay for the product or service, (2) psychological factors influencing the customer decision and (3) impact of price decisions on the long-term customer relationship.
Each change at the company is an intervention into a living system. Although companies oftentimes have complex structures, the communication during changes has the goal of disseminating the messages as personally and directly as possible. In addition to the consistency and authenticity of the messages, continuity is an important core component for successful communication during changes—that the management level sticks to its core messages during its regular communication and likewise demonstrates this. One can thus reduce the influence of uncertainty among the employees. Despite the preparatory work for communications planning, one must make reference to the influences and adjust the plan situationally. For the selection of the communication channels and media, one must ensure that the possibility exists for an answer channel.
The complexity of the global supply chain operations has not been more apparent than during the financial crisis of recent times. It led to raised awareness about the vulnerability of the complex operations that span over a number of continents. Trends in business indicate that there is a movement to restrain and even reverse outsourcing and backshoring to check volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA) that characterize international business today. In this paper we discuss how business performance measures like cost, quality, customer satisfaction, security, access to market and innovation are affected by VUCA and how insourcing and backshoring have lately emerged on top as they lower the impact of VUCA on these business measures. The paper ends with a word of caution—the rapidly changing global business environment requires that the performance measures be monitored keeping the VUCA factors in mind as markers.
This chapter seeks to show how small medium enterprises (SMEs) have become more responsive to deal with the unexpected changes in the business environment. However, the impact on SME’s is not always clear, as resources required to implement such strategic responsiveness are often fall beyond what is considered to be acceptable risk. In this chapter an integrated approach is proposed to facilitate the ‘responsiveness’ when faced with uncertainty and environmental turbulences in supply chain design thus contributing to the notion of Operational Agility and Supply Chain Integration (SCI). The framework is based on earlier work developed by the authors, which focused on the integration of operational agility tools and techniques through external intervention. An implementation model is presented in which the practical aspects of the framework stages are presented. The framework is validated through case study observations, a number of issues raised in the framework are discussed and validated.
The medium-sized enterprises, called Mittelstand, of the German economy have always been in an intensive competitive environment. Recently they find themselves confronted with events in a so called “VUCA-world” with extreme financial outcomes. An example marks the sudden decline of 26 % of German exports to Russia in 2014 compared to 2013. Leadership needs information and information are created and provided by Controlling. This article discusses a few thoughts about Controlling at “mittelstand-enterprises” in a “VUCA-World”.
In a time of growing climate awareness, Canada’s major airlines are facing increasing challenges to provide a sustainable and measurable reduction in emissions. Air Canada and WestJet demonstrate a commitment to environmental responsibility and emission reductions through replacing their fleet with newer and more fuel efficient aircraft, however this historically accepted approach is not sustainable in today’s changing world. Assessing the capacity of an airline to meet its emission targets in the volatile aviation industry, this analysis identifies the importance of values statements in guiding employee behavior, establishing culture, and the role values play in environmental responsibility; specifically attuned to the ability of airlines to sustain their emission reduction programs. Specifically, this research draws attention to the ability of airlines to achieve organizational targets through reducing ambiguity whilst increasing values congruence. In the identification and measurement of airline emission reduction strategies, it is evident that no established mechanism exists for airlines to quantify their emission reduction sustainability. Considering the volatile and uncertain future faced by airlines to meet corporate social responsibility goals, this analysis presents a framework that will enable airlines to forecast, measure and analyze their capacity to meet sustainable emission reduction targets.
Today, many organizations are today governed in more or less the same style, since Henri Fayol, Frederick W. Taylor, Arthur D. Little, and Henry Ford proposed and implemented new ways of working during the Second Industrial Revolution. These traditional models seemed to work very well as they gave stability and order in the dynamic competition. However, there are doubts that these principles are enough to secure the survival of a company. This paper outlines several recent activities in the domain of organizational development and distills three main common similarities between these activities. Finally, approaches to overcome both kinds of shortfalls—organizational as well as operational—are shortly presented.
It is increasingly apparent that environmental damage resulting from globalized corporate activity has disproportionately impacted marginalized communities. What may not be readily apparent is the positive correlation between vulnerable populations and environmental hazards not only in emerging economies, but also in developed countries. The environmental justice movement suggests a framework to help address this issue. However, without understanding some of the underlying causes of environmental injustice, applying the framework meets with limited success. This paper looks at how the theory of stakeholder identity and salience, a commonly applied management approach—particularly in a VUCA world—contributes to environmental injustice. Following the tenets of this theory can logically lead to vulnerable populations being considered as very low-priority or less salient stakeholders. Thus their interests are subjugated to those of more powerful and visible stakeholders. Drawing on a Canadian example, this paper goes on to describe how an industry-government partnership may help mitigate these concerns.
The growing demand for information, an increase in personal computer skills and the key figure-driven management of companies have made IT ubiquitous, even indispensable. However, are users and decision makers better informed than their ancestors, more secure in their decisions today? Or does the ubiquity of information lead to a higher uncertainty, to an endless search for undisputable decision-making to no avail? Our subjective familiarity with information technology borders to over-assessment, and may lead to us taking higher risks both in economic, but also social nature. The article follows this question along three infrastructural spheres, based on F.A. von Hayeks “pretence of knowledge”: the development of technology relies on an existing technology infrastructure (the Internet), which allows to connect even smallest information feeds (the Internet of Things). Based on this, the knowledge infrastructure allows sustainable business models to provide new economic services. Both technology and knowledge follow a “spontaneous order”, and so it is a requirement for us humans to develop and maintain a legal order to provide acceptable borders between which the development of secure and safely to use information technology can take place.
In many industries, the introduction of new technological elements will institute a paradigm shift encompassing the entire value system. These threaten to rupture existing value chains, change the form, nature and content of products and their delivery, in and to provide a catalyst to the creation of a tsunami of change and dislocation. The VUCA forces will present businesses with the need to move from linear modes of thought to problem solving with synthetic and simultaneous thinking. They cannot be ignored as hidden in the challenges are the essential opportunities that are necessary for survival and sustainability. This paper explores the impact that the information technology elements are having on the Higher Education (HE) sector through the exploration and application of VUCA forces to a sustainability framework to determine the major areas of challenge. The paper will outline how Higher Educational institutions can identify and thereby potentially address the VUCA effects that impact the sustainability components of economics, ecology, politics and culture.
... O Ambiente VUCA pode ser encarado como mudanças do paradigma gerencial e do foco de competitividade causadas pela implantação ou tentativa de interação na Quarta Revolução Industrial (Bennett & Lemoine, 2014a). Esse fato desenvolve no contexto das organizações novas formas de pensar (Mack, Khare, Krämer, & Burgartz, 2015). E alterações ambientais das quais os gestores sequer poderiam prever com muita antecedência (Fletcher & Griffiths, 2020), fruto das inevitáveis mudanças e estratégias para a reorganização dos processos e incertezas (Lechler, Canzaniello, Roßmann, Heiko, & Hartmann, 2019;Van der Wal, 2020). ...
... Cada termo não deverá ser pensado, analisado e aplicado em uma equipe ou organização de forma individual (Bennett & Lemoine, 2014a). Entretanto, essa afirmativa encontra resistência em Mack et al. (2015), pois percebem a complexidade como um fator sobrepujante aos demais. Petricevic and Teece (2019), porém, apontando a necessidade de composição de uma estratégia destinada ao aumento da competitividade, reforçam a percepção de interdependência das variáveis. ...
... Cada variável tem semelhante grau de importância para que a organização (ou agente) seja mais flexível e aceite a flexibilidade de seus parceiros estratégicos (Ungureanu et al., 2018). Mack et al. (2015) compreendem que os modelos tradicionais de gestão e de relacionamento com parceiros estratégicos não mais conseguirão corresponder às expectativas e às necessidades de desafios organizacionais maiores. Por isso, caberá às organizações gerenciarem a mudança e se prepararem para grandes eventos (Tuchen et al., 2020), para coletar informações, processar dados e conhecimento, e fomentar a digitalização da cadeia de suprimentos, dos processos e dos métodos que estão ligados ao seus compartilhamentos de valor (Lechler et al., 2019). ...
Conference Paper
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Descomplicando o VUCA (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity). Investigação e Considerações sobre as Publicações A1 da Área 27 do Qualis/Capes Resumo Uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre o Mundo VUCA, de forma censitária, foi realizada em todos os 307 periódicos científicos da Classificação 'Estrato A1', da Área de Avaliação 'Administração Pública e de Empresas, Ciências Contábeis e Turismo' (Área 27). A investigação foi promovida para atingir os objetivos propostos no trabalho: investigar e classificar os periódicos e trabalhos científicos do Estrato A1-Área 27 que tratavam do tema de pesquisa; e analisar a compreensão, aplicabilidade e tendências do Mundo VUCA. Sete especialistas entrevistados sugeriram descritores para a pesquisa. A abordagem do trabalho foi qualitativa, com exame pormenorizado dos 199 trabalhos encontrados. Em alguns trechos das análises optou-se pela técnica Análise de Conteúdo, efetuada pelo software AQUAD. As contribuições teóricas foram: (i) sugerir uma sequência de referências para serem apreciadas pelos pesquisadores do tema, e (ii) a composição de uma visão teórica sintética sobre o Ambiente VUCA. As contribuições práticas foram: (i) a sugestão de aplicação do índice original IRR proposto para a hierarquização de trabalhos científicos para a seleção de referencial teórico e (ii) um ordenamento de periódicos do Estrato A1 da Área 27, receptivos para a futura submissão de trabalhos que analisem e apliquem cenários instáveis e voláteis.
... Im Zuge der Globalisierung, Digitalisierung und des gesellschaftlichen Wandels hat sich auch die Arbeitswelt in den letzten Jahren stark und nachhaltig verändert. Arbeitsprozesse werden fortlaufend schneller, komplexer und dynamischer und fordern eine erhöhte Flexibilität und Mobilität der Arbeitnehmer (Mack et al., 2015). (Johns, 2010). ...
... Globalization, digitization and societal transformations have changed the world of work dramatically in the last decades: work processes have become more complex, more intense, and require more flexibility and mobility from employees (Mack et al., 2015). Productivity per hour worked has increased by approximately 20% since the year 2000 across OECD countries (OECD, 2018a). ...
... Work processes are becoming more complex and the density, intensity and speed of many tasks are increasing (Mack et al., 2015). These developments are associated with rising psychological demands for many employees and present serious challenges for their mental and physical health (Kivimäki et al., 2006;Magnusson-Hanson et al., 2009;Melchior et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
Im Zuge der Globalisierung, Digitalisierung und des gesellschaftlichen Wandels, hat sich die Arbeitswelt in den letzten Jahren stark verändert. Diese Veränderungen stellen erhöhte Anforderungen an die psychische Gesundheit der Beschäftigten. Die Prävention psychischer Störungen am Arbeitsplatz und die Frage, wie Arbeit gesund gestaltet werden kann, gewinnt daher zunehmend an Bedeutung. Eine zentrale Rolle nimmt dabei die Führungskraft ein, da diese maßgeblich die Arbeitsumgebung und die Arbeitsprozesse gestaltet und im direkten Kontakt mit ihren Mitarbeitenden steht. Zudem haben in den letzten Jahren achtsamkeitsbasierte Programme zur Prävention psychischer Störungen enorm an Bedeutung gewonnen, deren Wirksamkeit im Arbeitskontext jedoch oft in Frage gestellt wurde. Ziel dieser Dissertation ist es, die Wirksamkeit und potentielle Wirkmechanismen achtsamkeitsbasierter Programme in der Arbeitswelt zu prüfen und deren Integration im Rahmen der gesunden Führung zu untersuchen. Zu diesem Zweck ist die vorliegende Dissertationsarbeit in insgesamt vier Abschnitte gegliedert. In Abschnitt 1 wird der Effekt psychischer Belastungen von N = 2.287 Studienteilnehmenden im Hinblick auf deren Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage und Krankheitskosten in den folgenden zwei Jahren geprüft, um die langfristigen ökonomischen Folgen psychischer Belastungen zu erörtern und die Relevanz von Präventionsangeboten aus einer sozioökonomischen Perspektive zu beurteilen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen signifikanten Zusammenhang zwischen subjektiv erlebter psychischer Belastung und späteren Arbeitsunfähigkeitstagen bzw. Krankheitskosten. So zeigt sich, dass schwer belastete Personen 27mal so viele Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage im ersten Jahr und 10mal so viele Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage im zweiten Jahr aufweisen, verglichen mit Personen ohne psychische Belastungen. Außerdem zeigten schwer belastete Personen 11fach erhöhte Krankheitskosten im ersten Jahr und 6fach erhöhte Krankheitskosten im zweiten Jahr, verglichen mit nicht belasteten Personen. Auch schon bei leichten und mittleren psychischen Belastungen zeigten sich signifikant erhöhte Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage und Krankheitskosten (2fach bis 11fach erhöht). Diese Ergebnisse verdeutlichen die sozioökonomische Relevanz psychischer Belastungen und bilden eine empirische Grundlage für die Annahme, dass durch effektive Präventionsmaßnahmen sowohl individuelles Leid gelindert als auch sozioökonomische Kosten reduziert werden können. In Abschnitt 2 wird in Form einer Übersichtsarbeit der aktuelle Forschungsstand zu achtsamkeitsbasierten Programmen in der Arbeitswelt skizziert und deren Wirksamkeit und potentielle Wirkmechanismen metaanalytisch geprüft. Über k = 56 randomisiert-kontrollierte Interventionsstudien hinweg zeigen sich kleine bis mittlere Effekte (g = 0,32 bis 0,77) auf unterschiedlichen gesundheitsbezogenen Variablen (z.B. Wohlbefinden, Stress, subsyndromale Symptome, Burnout und somatische Beschwerden) sowie arbeitsbezogenen Variablen (z.B. Arbeitsengagement, Arbeitszufriedenheit und Produktivität), die bis zu 12 Wochen nach der Intervention bestehen bleiben. Diese Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass achtsamkeitsbasierte Programme effektiv in verschiedenen Arbeitskontexten eingesetzt werden können und somit eine gute Grundlage zur Prävention psychischer Störungen in der Arbeitswelt bilden. In Abschnitt 3 wird der Zusammenhang zwischen gesunder Führung und psychischer Gesundheit aus Perspektive von Führungskräften und deren Mitarbeitenden in einem querschnittlichen Studiendesign mit Hilfe von Mehrebenenanalysen untersucht, um den komplexen Zusammenhang zwischen Führung und Gesundheit besser zu verstehen. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Einschätzungen der gesunden Führung zwischen Führungskräften und ihren Mitarbeitenden deutlich abweichen und nur auf konkreten Verhaltensdimensionen signifikante Zusammenhänge aufweisen. Die subjektive Wahrnehmung der gesunden Führung durch die Mitarbeitenden zeigt einen signifikanten Zusammenhang mit deren psychischer Gesundheit, nicht aber die Selbsteinschätzungen der Führungskräfte. Insgesamt weisen diese Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass die subjektive Wahrnehmung gesunder Führung eine wichtige Determinante für die psychische Gesundheit bei der Arbeit darstellt, dass das Thema gesunde Führung jedoch expliziter im Arbeitskontext ausgestaltet werden sollte, um ein gemeinsames Verständnis von gesunder Führung zwischen Führungskräften und Mitarbeitenden zu schaffen. In Abschnitt 4 wird dargestellt, wie die gesunde Führung mit Hilfe einer gezielten Intervention gefördert werden kann und welche Rolle das Konzept der Achtsamkeit dabei einnimmt. Die achtsamkeitsbasierte Intervention umfasst drei Seminartage (à 8 Stunden) zu i) gesunder Selbstführung, ii) gesunder Mitarbeiterführung und iii) Umgang mit psychisch belasteten Mitarbeitenden sowie zwei Nachhaltigkeitstermine (à 3 Stunden). Anschließend werden die Wirksamkeit sowie potentielle Wirkmechanismen der Intervention in einem quasiexperimentellen Studiendesign sowohl auf Ebene der Führungskräfte als auch auf Ebene der Mitarbeitenden empirisch geprüft. In 12 Unternehmen nahmen insgesamt 117 Führungskräfte an der Intervention teil. Die Führungskräfte und deren 744 Mitarbeitende machten Angaben zu ihrer psychischen Belastung sowie zur gesunden Führung zu drei Messzeitpunkten (Prä, Post, 3 Monate Follow-Up). Diese Angaben wurden mit einer passiven Kontrollgruppe, basierend auf Propensity Score Matching, verglichen. Hierarchische lineare Modelle ergaben, dass die Führungskräfte, die an der Intervention teilgenommen haben, eine signifikant stärkere Abnahme der psychischen Belastung und eine Zunahme der gesunden Selbst- und Mitarbeiterführung im Zeitverlauf aufzeigen als die gematchten Kontrollpersonen (g = 0,27 bis 0,55). Der signifikante Interventionseffekt auf die psychische Belastung der Führungskräfte wird durch die Häufigkeit der selbstständig durchgeführten Achtsamkeitsübungen moderiert und durch eine Zunahme der gesunden Selbstführung vermittelt. Auf Mitarbeiterebene ergaben sich keine signifikanten Effekte zwischen den Gruppen im Zeitverlauf. Es zeigte sich jedoch ein signifikanter Zusammenhang zwischen der subjektiv erlebten gesunden Führung und der späteren psychischen Belastung. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass die subjektive Wahrnehmung der gesunden Führung eine wichtige Determinante der psychischen Gesundheit von Mitarbeitenden darstellt. Insgesamt tragen diese Ergebnisse zu unserem Verständnis bei, wie eine gesunde Führung effektiv trainiert werden kann, um die gesunde Selbst- und Mitarbeiterführung der teilnehmenden Führungskräfte zu erhöhen und deren psychische Belastung zu reduzieren. Die Ergebnisse weisen jedoch gleichermaßen auf die Herausforderung hin, Interventionsprogramme weiter zu verbessern, um deren indirekte Effektivität auf Mitarbeiterebene zu erhöhen. Diese Dissertation trägt insgesamt dazu bei, die Bedeutung der Prävention psychischer Störungen in der Arbeitswelt zu verdeutlichen und zeigt Möglichkeiten auf, wie eine effektive Prävention in Unternehmen ausgestaltet werden kann.
... In fact, the successful implementation of the concept of responsible management is influenced by the dynamics of the economic, social, political, demographic, ecological, and technological environment. The dynamics of these areas are fully cover the components of Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity (VUCA) and make the mission of managers very difficult (Mack, Khare, Kramer, & Burgartz, 2016). ...
... In an environment influenced by all the VUCA type characteristics, it remains vital for companies not only to function, but also to build and implement their strategies, so that they not only survive but develop (Mack et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
The future of human society has to take into account on the one hand, the natural requirements of the society as a whole, and, on the other hand, the influences generated by economic, social, informational factors but also in relation to the environment. Therefore, the future is seen and described in relation to the need to create the conditions for achieving sustainable development goals. The unpredictable evolution and uncertainties of recent years explain the need to include in the decisions of organizations, responsibly applied approaches. In order to achieve and maintain a balance between the interests of various actors on a global scale, it is necessary to practice responsible management, which deals with both the management of current critical issues worldwide, but also in relation to the need to ensure living conditions and the prosperity of future generations. Thus, as an adequate response of companies and organizations of various types to these complex challenges is integrated as a defining element of business strategies a principle of responsible management called social responsibility. This means that, through the elaborated decisions, these companies have to find a way of treatment balanced between the fulfillment of their own financial objectives and the social obligation of the contributions of these entities to the sustainable development of the economy in which they operate. This results, in fact, in the large-scale development and implementation of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). On the other hand, the functioning of all companies in the realities of the present times, characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity & ambiguity (VUCA) requires significant efforts and resources on their part, so that, by collecting an important and comprehensive volume of data, there is the possibility of generating reliable forecasts.
... Those who think that the world is unexpected and that circumstances change quickly argue that current methods for dealing with complexity and ambiguity are becoming outdated. Some people term the scenario "VUCA" environment (Bennett and Lemoine 2014a, b;Mack et al. 2015), which has four elements: volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. The new normal is a more or less unstable condition at the border of anarchy, as the acronym moves away from the notion of stability and equilibrium (Yarger 2006). ...
... "Sustainable development" is closely linked, for instance, with green supply chains (Maditati et al. 2018), renewable energy (Ahmad et al. 2016;Dewan et al. 2019), recycling (Mwanza and Mbohwa 2017), circular economy (Ghosh 2019;Bali Swain and Sweet 2021), reverse logistics (Govindan et al. 2015c), closed-loop supply chains (Tsai et al. 2021a), and many others (Ezziyyani 2019;Inghels 2020;Kumar et al. 2020;Kwatra et al. 2020;Christensen et al. 2021;Dincer and Ozturk 2021;Shioji et al. 2021;Jagannathan 2021;Lemke 2021;Rayman-Bacchus and Walsh 2021;Juraschek 2022) which all are evaluated for exploration purposes and search strings. Also, machine learning , deep learning (Wang et al. 2019;Ferrag and Maglaras 2020), big data (Zhang et al. 2020a), data science (Ramesh et al. 2019), planning (Bakhtavar et al. 2020), optimization (Al-falahi et al. 2017Liu et al. 2020), and many others (Turban 1988;Niwa 1990;Zhou et al. 2019;Marquis et al. 2020;Hutchinson 2021;Park et al. 2021;Toorajipour et al. 2021;Borges et al. 2021;Vlačić et al. 2021;Riahi et al. 2021) are all part of "Artificial Intelligence" and "VUCA" consists of volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (Mack et al. 2015). ...
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Sustainable development emergent subfields have been rapidly evolving, and their popularity increased in recent years. Sustainable development is a broad concept having numerous sub-concepts including, but not limited to, circular economy, sustainability, renewable energy, green supply chain, reverse logistics, and waste management. This polymorphism makes decision-making in this field to be an abstruse task. In this perplexing circumstance, the presence of VUCA conditions makes decision-making even more challenging. By taking advantage of artificial intelligence tools and approaches, this paper aims to study with a concentration on sustainable development-related decision-making under VUCA phenomena elements using bibliometric and network analyses which can propose numerous novel insights into the most recent research trends in this area by analyzing the most influential and cited research articles, keywords, author collaboration network, institutions, and countries that finally provides results not previously fully comprehended or assessed by other studies on this topic. In this study, an extensive systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis are conducted using 534 research articles out of more than 3600. From the content analysis part, four clusters have been found. The decision parameters, presumptions, and research goal(s) for each model are pointed out too. The findings contribute to both conceptual and practical managerial aspects and provide a powerful roadmap for future research directions in this field, such as how real-life multidimensionality can be considered in sustainable development-related decision-making, or what are the effects of the VUCA in sustainable development considering the circular economy and waste management intersection.
... The modern industrial environment is characterized by increasing flexibility in production demands and a high degree of customization. Due to globalization and short product life cycles, the competitive pressure is more critical than ever (Mack et al., 2016). In response to these challenges, the term "Industrie 4.0" was introduced by the Communication Promoters Group of the Industry-Science Research Alliance describing the broad use of information and communication technology in the industrial production environment (Schuh, Anderl, et al., 2017). ...
Book
The paradigm shift from mass production to on-demand, personalized, customer-driven, and knowledge-based production reshapes manufacturing. Smart manufacturing leads to an automated world that relies more on information and communication technologies (ICTs) and sophisticated information-technology-intensive processes, enhancing flexibility. Furthermore, as automation and digital supply chain management become the norm across enterprise systems, advanced manufacturing becomes increasingly linked at a global level. Manufacturing companies are under pressure to achieve the goals of high competitiveness and profitability in a globalized and volatile environment. To address these challenges, engineers have to develop and implement new design and operation methodologies for production networks taking also into account mass personalization and market uncertainty. In the era of digitalization, the integration of cloud-based approaches can elevate enterprise performance. Therefore, to meet these challenges, new technologies such as cyber- physical systems (CPS), artificial intelligence (AI), augmented reality (AR), big data analytics, the Internet of things (IoT), and the industrial Internet of things (IIoT) must be integrated. The book consists of 12 chapters, written by leading researchers in the field of manufacturing. Chapter 1 presents the peculiarities of the integration of key Industry 4.0 technologies toward the design, planning, and operation of global production networks and the integration of the customer to the design phase of the products, services, and systems. In Chapter 2 recent and future trends of how emerging technologies support the transformations in reconfigurable supply chains and production systems are presented. Chapter 3 is devoted to present the implications for the design and management of global production networks (GPNs) induced by the mass production paradigm (MPP). Chapter 4 aims to identify and highlight the implications in the design and planning of manufacturing networks in the mass personalization environment and Chapter 5 presents the state of the art on adaptive scheduling and developments in smart scheduling within Industry 4.0 paradigm. Chapter 6 presents how modern digital manufacturing technologies may be utilized for reducing and eventually taming the complexity in production systems and networks. Chapter 7 provides an overview of innovative smart scheduling and predictive maintenance (PdM) techniques under smart manufacturing production environments. Chapter 8 reviews the landscape of the industrial Internet of things (IIoT). Chapter 9 presents a generic framework for industrial big data utilization in industrial environments and big data application areas and Chapter 10 aims to map major architectures and applications of digital twins for Industry 4.0. Chapter 11 reviews and presents machine learning (ML) technologies and artificial intelligence (AI) in manufacturing systems. Finally, Chapter 12 demonstrates the real-world applicability of blockchain potential using industrial case studies.
... Change and Ambiguity (VUCA) in manufacturing environments motivate orientating this 85 article towards autonomous distributed control for the sake of increased flexibility, reactivity 86 and ultimately, resilience (Mack et al., 2015). 87 ...
Article
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In Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems (CPMS), numerous distributed control architectures were suggested to make different production entities active with respect to decision-making and control processes, so that they can process information, interact, and make control decisions in an autonomous and adaptive way. Nevertheless, developing Product-Driven Control (PDC) mechanisms that enable Smart Products (SPs) to make control decisions to cope with disturbances is still a complex, open-ended, and challenging problem. This article suggests a PDC approach that enables SPs to learn how to make control decisions to react to disturbances and maintain continuity of operations. The control mechanism involves an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) augmented with Expert rules to cope with the limitations of standard AHP in dealing with dynamic problems. The mechanism is applied to a dispatching problem in an industrial scale assembly process. A multi-agent discrete event simulation model is used to create a set of normal and disturbed production scenarios. SP agents use context indicators and performance assessment to activate Expert rules and update AHP preferences and scales before making dispatching control decisions to react to disturbances. Data analytics tools are developed to help manufacturing system Experts define and fine-tune rules, based on rule firing statistics and corresponding context indicators and performance assessment acquired from simulation. Experimentations and results show competitive performance and highlight interesting research directions.
... Recent decades have seen a further shift in the working conditions of the social world. Whereas the 'modern' world was constructed and perceived as offering a relatively stable living environment, it is today described as VUCA: volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (Johansen 2012;Mack et al. 2016). With the end of the Cold War, this global change has altered individual lives as well as organizations. ...
Chapter
This chapter, ‘National and District Support for Women Aspiring to Careers in School Leadership in Ethiopia’, is by Turuwark Zalalam Warkineh, Tizita Lemma Melka and Jill Sperandio. These authors focused on the experiences of women leaders as they are struggling to make a career in administrative districts and school principalship in Ethiopia. This chapter is based on rich qualitative experiences of twenty-one women currently employed in one district and also serving in some elementary schools. The authors bring attention to structural barriers of patriarchy and gender stereotypes at play against women as they navigate careers in educational leadership and working against traditional stereotypes of the role of women in society. Their analysis highlights why women continue to be under-represented in all levels of educational leadership in Ethiopia, despite policy efforts. The authors end with helpful recommendations on what needs to be done to advance women already serving in educational leadership and those in the pipeline who aspire to serve as school principals. They draw implications for leadership development and bring attention to the need to provide guidelines for pre-leadership training for women at national level and to establish forums for women educational leaders at district level. A more poignant suggestion is made regarding the need for explicit commitment to gender equality through gender training of male officials and principals to change their attitudes and mindsets about their treatment and perceptions of women and their place in society.
... Abdelgawad and Fayek (2010) add another criterion namely controllability which is a time-based characteristic of the organizational ability to effectively influence risk sources before they lead to the occurrence of the risk event or controllability of the effect of a given risk event (Costantini et al. 2021;Heckmann et al. 2015). In the environment that increasingly is subjected to VUCA-Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, Ambiguity, (Bennett and Lemoine 2014;Mack et al. 2015), new and more powerful methods for dealing with project risk, especially involving the scale of mega projects, and the desire to create 'Green' outcomes, are required. ...
Article
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Megaprojects and specifically ‘green’ construction of residential megaprojects can contain significant risks of failure. To design proper risk mitigation strategies, after identifying key risk factors, the next step is to conduct assessments that would facilitate the process of risk element prioritization. Risk assessment comprises the establishment of factor interrelation and discerning the indicators of importance. This research proposes a novel version of an integrated prioritization method and analyzes twelve all-inclusive key supply chain oriented risk factors identified in a previous study. Through a comprehensive literature review three criteria, impact, probability, and manageability are selected. Also, a fourth criterion namely influence rate is included in the model, based on the driving powers that can also be derived from the Interpretive Structural Modeling’s (ISM) assessment. Fundamentally, the calculations hinge on the Analytic Network Process (ANP) method which provides an assessment of the alternatives’ weights based on pairwise comparisons concerning the criteria specified. To enhance the accuracy of the perceptive judgments of the expert panelists, a bell-shaped fuzzy function is used to convert the verbal statements to crisp values. In addition, Row Sensitivity Analysis is administered to check the stability of the results and provide predictive scenarios. To validate the model, a case study, located in Iran, was conducted, where an expert panel consisting of four individuals made the pair-wise comparisons through an ANP questionnaire. Results indicate priority and sensitivity of the alternatives concerning criteria, for the case under study.
... While the term VUCA was coined by the US Army, it has now gone beyond the military and into the commercial sector. According to (Mack O, 2016), VUCA refers to the environment as it is and as it grows. To put it another way, VUCA is a term used to describe change and the necessity to adapt to it. ...
Article
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As the Covid-19 pandemic expands, businesses will need to discover new methods to cope with it. Lack of consumer access to food is the most serious danger to food security. In building effective strategies, policymakers and business leaders can benefit from exchanging expertise and learning from successful organizations. The goal of this study is to determine how micro businesses in Malaysia's food service sector responded to the epidemic, as well as the industry's future. The author began by doing a narrative literature review to investigate the paper's subject. The author created a review matrix in Microsoft Excel to critically evaluate the publications. Study objectives, techniques, samples, sample size, location, variables, outcomes, and future research are all included in the matrix. Although the pandemic has had a significant impact on businesses in a variety of ways due to a variety of social, cultural, economic, and environmental factors, policymakers and business leaders can benefit from experience sharing and learning from successful businesses in developing innovative and effective strategies to mitigate the pandemic's negative impact on business operations. Food safety and environmental well-being, as well as digital payment and marketing, were identified as potential solutions for the industry's future resilience.
... Both analyzes evaluated the production of documents and academic impact, for the entire period (1977-2021) and for two different sub-periods (1977-2007; 2008-2021). The sub-periods were constructed applying as the threshold the beginning of the great financial crisis (GFC), the year in which the VUCA approach began to be generalized [26] in engineering and management studies, according to a persistent vector that is based on four dimensions: Volatility (V), Uncertainty (U), Complexity (C) and Ambiguity (A). ...
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The publication opportunities in science require knowing the existing gaps in the academic debate. In recent decades, scholars specializing in fuzzy theory and applied methodologies have experienced an unprecedented evolution of the field. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have shaped the way socio-technical transitions use fuzzy methodologies to solve environmental problems. This study conducts a systematic literature review of articles published in the Journal Citations Report on these specific fields. The Web of Science (Core Collection) was used and a database was assembled (N = 1956) that allowed the evaluation of the evolution of the research agenda and detecting high-impact publication opportunities. A model of analysis of successful strategies in academic influence is proposed. The model is tested with a configurational methodology through fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). The conditions used are: number of authors, underlying interest of the researchers, standardized citations per year, age of the articles and link of the research with sustainability. The results are solid and inform five paths that ensure the success of academic publications in high-impact journals. The robustness of the model allows its extrapolation to other fields of research. The contribution of this article allows knowledge of the academic conversation and its research opportunities. In addition, it clarifies the different paths that guarantee high impact research articles. This article offers important recommendations for academics and journal editors, allowing them to guide and advise academic production in the scholarly debate of the future.
... We contend that such formats respond to the need for higher education approaches that prepare students for today's volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous world (cf. Mack et al. 2016), and thus also address the objectives articulated in the 2018 "Future of Jobs" report: ...
Book
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Dieses Buch beschäftigt sich mit Kooperation, Governance und Wertschöpfung in der Relationalen Ökonomie. Es stellt Josef Wielands gegenwärtigen Forschungsfokus in den Kontext des Schaffens seiner langjährigen Weggefährtinnen und Weggefährten und behandelt das Theorieangebot der Relational Economics aus verschiendenen Perspektiven. Die versammelten Beiträge diskutieren die Potenziale einer Relationalen Ökonomie für die Analyse wirtschaftlicher Sachverhalte und geben Anknüpfungspunkte für zukünftige, interdisziplinäre Forschung.
... Для прийняття ефективних управлінських рішень в сфері маркетингової діяльності необхідно враховувати такі характеристики сучасного світу, як мінливість (volatility), невизначеність (uncertainty), складність (complexity) та неоднозначність (ambiguity) (VUCA світ). Особливості VUCA світу відображені у таких роботах, як [1][2][3][4][5]. Підтвердженням його особливостей є вплив COVID- ...
Conference Paper
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VUCA Головною метою маркетингової діяльності організації в сучасних умовах є задоволення потреб споживачів кращими, ніж у конкурентів способами, та отримання на цій основі комерційного успіху організації. Однак змінюється світ, змінюються потреби та поведінка споживачів, змінюються зовнішні умови, які впливають на маркетингову діяльність та управління нею. Щоб бути конкурентоспроможними у сучасному світі та ефективно управляти маркетинговою діяльністю потрібно розуміти його особливості. Для прийняття ефективних управлінських рішень в сфері маркетингової діяльності необхідно враховувати такі характеристики сучасного світу, як мінливість (volatility), невизначеність (uncertainty), складність (complexity) та неоднозначність (ambiguity) (VUCA світ). Особливості VUCA світу відображені у таких роботах, як [1-5]. Підтвердженням його особливостей є вплив COVID
... A principal in Mercer's global mobility business said that although shortterm assignments are often highly beneficial, HR must be aware of the challenges such assignments bring: 'The increased diversification of assignment types adds complexity, which can result in potential compliance and policy challenges for HR and mobility directors' (Rossier-Renaud, 2015, p. 1). Students must understand the agility required in today's world to function as an employee or to assist others to function in those contexts (Mack, Khare, Kraemer, & Burgartz, 2015). ...
Chapter
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The chapter explores the change in educational philosophies application through the rapid adaptation of simulations and technologies
... The modern industrial environment is characterized by increasing flexibility in production demands and a high degree of customization. Due to globalization and short product life cycles, the competitive pressure is more critical than ever (Mack et al., 2016). In response to these challenges, the term "Industrie 4.0" was introduced by the Communication Promoters Group of the Industry-Science Research Alliance describing the broad use of information and communication technology in the industrial production environment (Schuh, Anderl, et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
The industrial Internet of things (IIoT) key technologies advance flexibility, personalization, and cost savings in industrial processes. Smart manufacturing and Industry 4.0 integrate the physical and decision-making aspects of manufacturing processes into autonomous and decentralized systems. Cloud manufacturing is emerging with scheduling issues between process design dynamics, and machine setup. Furthermore, as information and communication technologies (ICTs) have integrated into the cyber-physical systems (CPSs), adaptive scheduling and rescheduling have turned into the cornerstones of smart manufacturing. The cyber-physical production systems (CPPs) link the information technology (IT) systems to establish communication networks. This chapter addresses the state of the art of the ICTs that are the drivers of data-driven innovations and presents the industrial applications that bridge the gap among the industry and academia creating a bifold knowledge and experience network. Finally, the shift toward digitalization intensifies the need for digital skills. Lastly, the problems and future research directions toward the new generation of the production staff are discussed.
... Так, у роботах [1][2][3][4][5][6] відображається вплив VUCA на ведення бізнесу в різних сферах діяльності, в тому числі і на транспортно-логістичну систему [7,8]. Зміни в системі управління організаціями та персоналом розглядаються в роботах [9][10][11][12]. Важливість інновацій у сфері логістики та електронної комерції, а також зміни в поведінці споживачів в умовах діджиталізації і швидкого розвитку електронної комерції розглянуто в роботах [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. ...
Article
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TheVUCA world, stands for volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity of ongoing events, affects the development of business, consumer behaviour and requires a flexible response to its challenges. This is possible through the digitalisation and implementation of innovations in all spheres of the society. The transport and logistics system has a special role in these conditions, the activity of which determines the efficiency of many types of business and its relations with consumers. This system also needs digital innovations in various spheres of its operations. Therefore, the aim of this article is to identify the main trends in digital innovations affecting the development of transport and logistics system in the VUCA world conditions, which should be considered by transport and logistics organisations in their work. Taking into account the significant role of transport and logistics in today's environment, and some changes in consumer behaviour in the era of digitalisation, the following trends in the development of digital innovation are highlighted: the growing role of analytics based on Bigdata; the transition to a greater use of cloud technology, which allow the organisations to store data, share files, communicate with teams and cooperate with stakeholders; the formation of a flexible management system of transport and logistics processes; the formation of modern supply chains based on digital technologies; and the formation of an effective “last mile” delivery system in e-commerce. Also the wide use of digital marketing was studied, including such elements as: content visualisation and personalisation, use of native advertising, chat-bots, application of live broadcasting, transition to useful content, online reputation management as an important component of organisations in the era of social networks.Thus, the main trends of digital innovations that affect the development of organisations of the transport and logistics system in VUCA world conditions, highlighted in the article, enable a rapid and flexible response to the changes in the world, business, and consumer behaviour.
... The Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industries, whose workforce is comprised of a high proportion of project management practitioners, continue to navigate these impacts , Nassereddine et al. 2021. The delays, shortages, and shutdowns caused by the transboundary pandemic (Assaad and El-adaway 2021) have added further disruptions to industries already operating in a highly volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) environment (Mack et al. 2016), marked by increased digitization and new technologies, and project management skills shortages (PMI 2017). ...
... The concept should therefore be seen as a potential for organisations that are aware of the importance of stakeholder relations. The building and nurturing of good environment relationships, based on engagement and dialogue, is crucial, as such relations not only allow for effective risk management, especially in the today's rapidly changing business environment, aptly described as the VUCA times (Mack et al., 2015), but also support the development of organisations, not only allowing their survival, but even achievement of competitive advantage. ...
... The increased internal and external hyper-connectivity of organisations lead to more chaotic behaviour of their internal and external context [12,13,30,26,33]. ...
Conference Paper
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The current VUCA worlds demands from organisations to be resilient and sometimes even antifragile. The domain focusing on staying relevant is that of risk management. Information security is a sub-domain of risk management where the threats and response to the threats are very well documented. Within the sub-domain of information security there is an ever going rat-race between the people that want to exploit the threat and the people reacting to the thread by for example mitigating the thread. In this research we want to look into the role of the learning organisation in the resilient behaviour of the organisation. Why the learning organ-isation? Since there are scholars that argue that human resilience is the key to organisational resilience.
Article
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Considering the end of the penalty of deprivation of liberty and its resocializing function, passage through a prison and/or penitentiary establishment can only imply a restriction in the free mobility of persons, for which reason the State must guarantee all persons deprived of liberty the effective enjoyment of rights that are not limited by the criminal penalty (Tortora, 2010). The effective enjoyment of human rights by persons deprived of their liberty has been affected by different circumstances inherent to the environment in which they are deprived of their liberty and to the assistance policies implemented within the prison. The Constitutional Court has declared the unconstitutional situation in the Colombian prison and jail system. The first declaration took place in 1998 through Ruling T-153, the second in 2013 through Ruling T-388 when it verified that these situations of violation of the human rights of persons deprived of liberty had not been overcome, and finally, in 2015 the court ratified the state of affairs unconstitutional through Ruling T-762. Among the various factors or processes that the prison and jail system in Colombia is experiencing, and which have contributed to this declaration of unconstitutionality, is the level of overcrowding in the various national facilities, which directly affects the quality and quantity of services provided to the prison population. Persons deprived of their liberty as a result of the judicial decision or determination begin to experience a series of effects on their life project, their support networks, their physical and emotional health, their privacy, and their free mobility, among others (Zullini, 2014). To this end, they have been referred to as “prisionalization effects” and efforts have been made to counteract them through the implementation of family care, health, food and life project programmes, among others. These programmes are implemented in prisons and jails and are aimed at the entire prison population, regardless of their legal status (Villamil, 2017). Based on these three elements or debates, this symposium aims to answer the question of whether it is possible to talk about welfare in prison.
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Mittelständische Unternehmen gelten in vielen Ländern als das Rückgrat der Wirtschaft. Insbesondere in Deutschland und Österreich zählen hierbei viele Unternehmen des Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus zu den Hidden Champions und sind Weltmarktführer in den von ihnen bearbeiteten Märkten. Diese Unternehmen galten lange Zeit als Garant für Wachstum und Erfolg, geraten jedoch aufgrund der sich immer radikaler verändernden Rahmenbedingungen zunehmend unter Druck. Wesentliche Treiber sind hierbei insbesondere die voranschreitende Globalisierung und Digitalisierung, der demografische Wandel, zunehmender Nationalismus und der damit einhergehende Protektionismus sowie vielfältige ökologische Herausforderungen. Das Unternehmensumfeld wurde somit in den letzten Jahren für viele Unternehmen zunehmend volatiler, unsicherer, komplexer sowie ambivalenter und damit „VUCA“. Diese Situation verschärfte sich im Jahr 2020 bedingt durch die Covid-19-Krise innerhalb kürzester Zeit um ein Vielfaches und griff die Substanz vieler Unternehmen massiv an. Will ein Unternehmen in einer derartigen Situation seinen Fortbestand sichern oder sogar ausbauen, muss es in vielen Bereichen seine bisherigen Strategien und Vorgehensweisen überdenken und zum Teil radikal anpassen. Einem VUCA-Umfeld muss mit veränderten Strategieplanungsprozessen und einer klaren Vision, einer breiten Informationsbasis und fundiertem Verständnis der Situation sowie angepassten und klaren Unternehmensstrukturen entgegengetreten werden. Agilität gilt dabei in vielen Fällen als der Schlüssel zum Erfolg, um in einer VUCA-Welt bestehen zu können. Fanden agile Organisationsformen und Vorgehensmodelle ursprünglich vor allem in Software-Unternehmen Anwendung, finden diese mittlerweile auch in anderen Branchen Verbreitung. Grundlage vieler agiler Ansätze ist dabei das Agile Manifest, welches im Jahr 2001 von führenden Vertretern und Autoren der bis dahin existierenden flexiblen Entwicklungsmethoden verfasst wurde und vier elementare Grundsätze enthält, die insbesondere die am Projekt beteiligten Personen, deren Interaktion mit anderen sowie deren Fähigkeit zur Anpassung und Selbstorganisation in den Mittelpunkt stellen. Des Weiteren beinhaltet das Manifest zwölf Prinzipien, die insbesondere die praktische Anwendung der definierten Werte gewährleisten und damit in weiterer Folge in einer Vielzahl von agilen Ansätzen und Methoden berücksichtigt wurden.
Article
For some years now, agility has been on the rise in companies and organizations. While the initial focus was on the application of agile working methods, the complete agile transformation of organizations and the establishment of an agile mindset is increasingly coming into the focus. So, it is time for psychology to look at what this longing for agility is all about psychologically. That’s why we conducted a psychological study with in-depth interviews and came across interesting findings on a “psychology of agile”.
Article
Context: In the context of business organizations, every process in which the product is immersed has a cost and time associated with it. The area of maintenance planning and scheduling is no exception;however, it is an aspect in which few companies specialize, tending to be outsourced. In this sense, the application of combinatorial models is a tool with a high potential to improve the overall performance of the organization through the understanding of the integral maintenance process. Method: A two-phase (maintenance and routing) dynamic algorithm is proposed which considers a set of clients distributed in a maintenance network (distance), where each of the technicians start from the same central node (depot), which, in turn, is the endpoint of each assigned route. The objective is to minimize the total cost associated with the development of preventive and corrective maintenance of all machines to be evaluated.With this purpose, the formulation of the mathematical problem for each of the phases and its interrelation method is proposed. Then, performance measures are expressed to evaluate the achieved objectives. Results: The results satisfy a consistent alternative for the resolution of problems of the NP-Hard type,which generates a high level of complexity to the model. That is, it proposes a tool for solving problems of these characteristics in low computational response times and with appealing results. Conclusions: The combined maintenance and routing model using a dynamic algorithm addresses the maintenance and routing problem satisfactorily. The model shows good results with respect to the comparison optimization model in percentage gaps of performance measures lower than 5 %. As for the computational time required, a reduction of up to 98% was achieved, which makes it an ideal alternative for highly complex scenarios. Finally, achieving a higher level of characterization, employing multiobjective decision criteria and a greater number of constraints to the problem, is proposed in future research.
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A key process in the work of post-heroic leaders is leading change. This chapter summarizes the essential learnings from the science of leading organizational change. Three of the most widely known myths about change leadership are challenged using expert research. The chapter also provides examples of post-heroic leadership in action. Interviews with post-heroic leaders demonstrate how they approach development in their organizations and how they facilitate change processes. An emphasis is put on engaging and involving in order to develop a sense of psychological ownership and safety, as well as on feedback and communication.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced completely new dimensions into an already uncertain world and has revealed important shortcomings in current forms of leadership. We are currently living in the time of paradoxes; caught between the local and the global, the common and the individual. These paradoxes cause increased volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity, and signal the need for a structural change in how we approach leadership. I argue that it is the post-heroic leaders who will be able to tackle the wicked problems of the future that are here to stay long after the pandemic is forgotten.
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The increasingly complex and turbulent 21st century work environment poses challenges for businesses that can threaten their long-term sustainability. Given the rapid developments in technology, increasing rates of employee turnover, skills shortages, and changing expectations from Generation Z, the youngest generation now entering the workforce, organizations are recognizing the importance of developing a career resilient workforce. Individual employees' career resilience frames their capacity to respond when faced with career challenges, allowing them to continue functioning effectively, adapt in a flexible manner, and to successfully deliver work outcomes. To sustain a resilient workforce, managers must actively plan, develop, and deploy human resource management initiatives aimed at instilling career resilience in the youngest workplace entrants. By strategically designing generationally-appropriate management practices to maximize Generation Z talent, organizations can bolster their business sustainability to remain competitive in the changing economy.
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Objective of the study: The objectives of this study were to describe the strategy and the innovation results from an idea generation program (IGP) of a Brazilian bank.Methodology: The study is predominantly descriptive; the method is the in-depth case study, and the data analysis was performed through content analysis.Originality/Relevance: The IGP's implementation stage is critical due to the need for financial resources, people, and time. An IGP can generate not only incremental technological innovations but also boost the innovation culture. Innovations developed from an IGP can be effective in facing competition from fintechs and digital transformation.Main results: The IGP's strategy is well-founded, as the result of 14 years of experience. However, there is still no clear strategy for measuring the impact of the implemented innovations. The IGP boosted both incremental technological (product, services, and process) and innovation culture. It has generated financial and non-financial results, and it predominantly follows the eastern model, recognizing employees’ ideas with non-financial rewards.Theoretical/methodological contributions: An IGP is designable in three main stages: ideation, in which all employees can participate, giving ideas for solving the problems indicated by the boards; selection, when a selection board chooses the ideas with the most significant potential for implementation and generating results; and implementation, when the selected ideas are transformed into innovations.Social /management contributions: A bank’s idea generation program is effective to boost technological innovation and innovation culture, which allow to face the fintechs and other essential players in the financial market, as well as to promote internal engagement and manage digital transformation, and deal with the VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity) scenario.
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Nowadays, social marketing is a key tool for accepting, promoting, encouraging, changing, modifying, discouraging, rejecting, or abandoning ideas, values, attitudes, conducts, or behaviors. Although it was initially used by public and non-profit organizations, currently businesses are also implementing social marketing. Since it can affect people’s quality of life (QOL), it is applied in different areas, such as public health and welfare, education, governance, or environment issues. Simultaneously, the quality of life approach would provide new insights to marketing strategies and better understanding of the audiences, as well as improving organizations’ strategies, programs’ effectiveness and results (financial, social and environmental). In this theoretical chapter, some definitions and core concepts about social marketing approaches and strategies from quality of life perspective are considered. The main steps of a social marketing program are also explained. Ethical and cultural issues that influence social marketing are also referred to.
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Das Angebot externer, kommerzieller Public-Affairs-Dienstleister und -Berater ist in den letzten Jahren stark gewachsen und hat sich ausdifferenziert: Agenturen, Einzelberater, Think-Tanks, Unternehmensberatungen, Anwaltskanzleien, etc. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über den Dienstleistungsmarkt. Er geht der Frage nach, ob und inwieweit die dort angebotene Expertise zu einer Professionalisierung des Berufsfeldes Public Affairs beigetragen hat. Dazu werden Befunde von Berufsfeldstudien gesichtet und bewertet, die die Interaktionsbeziehungen zwischen Klienten und Dienstleistern beschreiben. Die dort identifizierten Funktionen, Typen und Rollen weisen auf ein eher ambivalentes Bild des Professionalisierungsstandes hin.
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Individuelle Förderung zur Reduktion von Bildungsungleichheit und passgenauen Unterstützung aller Schüler*innen ist ein Bildungstrend, der insbesondere seit PISA (2000) vermehrt Einzug in die deutschen Schulen fand. Die Pandemie stellte bisherige Maßnahmen zur individuellen Förderung, wie auch das generelle Lehren und Lernen, auf die Probe. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie Lehrpersonen in der Pandemie Maßnahmen zur individuellen Förderung der Schüler*innen umsetzten. Die hierzu durchgeführten Interviews mit Lehrpersonen und Schulleitungen wurden auf den drei zentralen Handlungsebenen Lernumgebung, Lernbegleitung und -reflexion sowie Beziehungsgestaltung (auch mit den Eltern) analysiert. Zudem wird aufgezeigt, welche Chancen für eine Anwendung der individuellen Förderung genutzt wurden, und welche Herausforderungen sich ergaben.
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Mitarbeitende sollten ihr Wissen ständig erweitern und neue Kompetenzen entwickeln. Diese Notwendigkeit steigt mit fortschreitendem Wandel in der Arbeitswelt. Sie sollen sich an diesen anpassen und mit ihm umzugehen lernen. Ziel der Personalentwicklung der Zukunft ist es, dass Mitarbeitende Angebote freiwillig und selbstständig nutzen, um dies zu erreichen. Mitarbeitende sollten dazu befähigt werden, Verantwortung für die eigene Weiterentwicklung und -bildung zu übernehmen. Lebenslanges Lernen wird immer wichtiger und stellt eine Schlüsselkompetenz der Zukunft dar. Wichtige Elemente des lebenslangen Lernens am Arbeitsplatz sind vier Dimensionen, die in einer gegenseitigen Verbindung stehen und sowohl die Mitarbeitenden selbst, deren Führungskräfte sowie die Personalentwicklung bzw. das Human Resource Management betreffen: Reflexion, selbstständiges Lernen, Zukunftskompetenzen entwickeln und Netzwerken. Die Verantwortung für die Sicherung der eigenen Beschäftigungsfähigkeit liegt bei den Mitarbeitenden selbst – sie sollen selbstständig und eigenverantwortlich lernen. Durch die Veränderungen und den Fortschritt wird das Erlernen neuer Fähigkeiten für alle Arbeitnehmenden zwingend erforderlich, Schlüsselkompetenzen, „Future Skills“, entscheiden in den kommenden Jahren über den Erfolg des Unternehmens und sichern die Beschäftigungsfähigkeit der Mitarbeitenden. Sie sollten folglich lernen, sich selbst einschätzen zu können, um zu wissen, in welchen Bereichen ihre Stärken, aber auch ihre Entwicklungsbereiche liegen, um daran arbeiten zu können – Mitarbeitende sollten sich selbst reflektieren. Netzwerke, ob persönlich, beruflich oder aus einem bestimmten Interesse heraus, können helfen, das eigene Verhalten, Wissen und Schlüsselfähigkeiten zu reflektieren. So kann neues Wissen erworben und kollaborativ am Aufbau neuer Kompetenzen gearbeitet werden.
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When it comes to pay, transparency doesn’t necessarily make for happier employees. Neither do conditional rewards such as bonus agreements and payments. Not only do they not help, they often tend to stir up serious trouble. Why executives still stick to them and what actually generates satisfaction and motivation is looked at in this article. A fact finding trip at SUPER RTL.
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Purpose: This study aims at justifying the affiliation of the massive transformative purpose as an important item in the aggregate of the proclaimed corporate culture elements. For this reason the bundle of shades in the meaning for the massive transformative purpose will be explored, bearing in mind the main researcher’s interest in outlining the cultural facet of the construct the attributes of which should be further categorized as official and unofficial ones. Methodology: Literature review and critical analysis of academic publications and blogs of business leaders and consultants in the sphere of the exponential organizations are performed in order to identify important shades in the meaning of the massive transformative purpose. The latter are summarized and categorized as basic nuances and new elaboration streams by the application of the mind-map method. Secondary data analysis and an ethnographic research method are used to identify the cultural facets of the construct, based on its shades of meaning. Findings: A set of interconnected nuances in the meaning of the massive transformative purpose is grounded through the performed review and critical analysis of books, scientific articles and blogs. The aforementioned nuances are logically and hierarchically arranged by two useful mind-maps. The outlined cultural facet of the massive transformative purpose is structured into two parts: (1) the first one, containing the core shades of meaning of the construct, and (2) the second one, encompassing the identified new elaboration streams for the construct. Thus, it became possible to propose two new definitions for the massive transformative purpose, embodying the aforementioned parts. In this way, the massive transformative purpose is directly determined as an element of the proclaimed corporate culture, used to formulate and communicate officially the leadership intents of future business development.
As the recent COVID-19 pandemic crisis has shown, global supply chains and value adding networks are vulnerable to changes on the economic, business, technological, and social environment. Therefore, there is a need of facilitating and transforming supply chains in a more efficient, resilient, and sustainable way. The aim of this paper is to analyze the importance and the impact of digital technologies to the transformation of supply chain management, through an examination of potential use cases and implementation strategies and under a methodological framework related to the supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model, which is connected to the principles of lean thinking.
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In this chapter, the authors provide insights into the views of experts with regard to changes in the global automotive industry during VUCA times. They present findings from a qualitative, international study in the automotive industry, based on 30 qualitative interviews conducted with experts in the field. Findings show that crucial areas of leading employees and organizations in VUCA times refer to driving organizational change and applying specific leadership values, developing organizations towards social enterprises, based on faith, passion, meaning, and purpose in the context of ethical, action-driven leadership. The chapter provides a conclusion and recommendations for future research in both organizational and leadership practice.
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The particular healthcare technologies business is presently dealing with increasing hurdles when it comes to cost plus perimeter stress, marketplace questions, improved item difficulty plus tighter corporate compliance internationally. nontraditional gamers from all other sectors like the large technicians possess encroached the particular health care area and today showing to become a solid danger towards the medtech business plus possibly providers like private hospitals. Electronic interruption made the existence experienced within the medtech market as well as the company types of "traditional" medtech participants because quickly getting outdated. This particular grew to become feasible because of the bothersome character associated with Business Trend four. zero (IR4), that allows systems in addition to marketplaces to mix quickly and frequently within an unexpected way. Market four. zero (IR4) includes a variety of robotics, info discussing and even digesting improvements that will change the present manufacturing atmosphere plus lengthen typically the frontiers of recent together with revolutionary production options. Brand new types of health-related options plus health care shipping is going to be permitted due to brand new technology that will convert the particular health care scenery. Currently, this particular industry will be centered simply by numerous online companies which could present the risk towards the medtech sector, and so on designs happen to be recognized consist of industrial sectors via background. This particular papers talks about Roger's concept associated with development durchmischung like a system with regard to medtech gamers in addition to general public government bodies to help the within adopting I4 company strategy, style revolutionary options inside the health care world and also conquering typically the resistance from modify inside the business.
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Recognizing the multifaceted nature of firm growth, the search for a sustainable growth paradigm for small and medium-sized enterprises is prominent in academic debate. Despite the government's many assistance programs, small and medium enterprises are struggling to survive in the long run. Interestingly , sustainability reinforced by spirituality is viewed as a new strategic imperative and long-term objective for businesses. Recently, the adoption and usage of advanced technology have also enabled new capabilities, such as the ability to focus on fast-changing business opportunities. Thus, the study attempts to conceptualize an effective growth direction founded on the business perspectives of sustainability , advanced technology, and spirituality. A systematic analysis of literature has been executed to analyze the sustainable growth configuration triggered by recent business perspectives, in which over 369 publications are read and reviewed by the authors. It has also established the reliability and validity of literature analysis. Also, a short form of qualitative investigation has been used to support the con-ceptualization of the study. The outcomes of the study successfully established a new growth paradigm-the SHG (Smart Holistic Growth). Here, the strategic convergence of social, economic, environmental, technological, and spiritual performance has the potential to enable SMEs to survive in the long term. Each of these growth antecedents work interdependently with each other to strengthen the firms' strategic objectives. On this note, the outcomes of the study can enhance business differentiation and competitiveness to endure environmental uncertainties. Also, this may be useful to promote the responsible use of advanced technology, which is key to creating active and informed citizens in the public sphere. This study is a unique attempt to extend the current understanding of the sustained form of growth of SMEs considering the integration of the mentioned business perspectives.
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Um ambiente complexo exige uma perspectiva de que ameaças e oportunidades estão interconectadas (Kail, 2010), tornando difícil a definição de encadeamento de causa e efeito (Mack & Khare, 2016). Diante desse cenário, as pessoas estão constantemente vulneráveis e expostas a riscos (Salman e Hassan, 2020). Segundo Duncan (1972), indivíduos percebem um maior nível de incertezas quando estão em situações ou ambientes de alta complexidade e dinamismo. Böhle (2011) afirma que, ao longo dos últimos séculos, os humanos desenvolveram uma crença de que são capazes de cooperar, e até mesmo superar as incertezas, por meio de planejamento e controle.
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Trotz des strategischen Stellwerts scheitern Segmentierungen häufig an der fehlenden nachhaltigen operativen Umsetzbarkeit u.a. im Vertrieb. Der Beitrag stellt den in der Praxis erprobten Value-to-Value-Segmentierungsansatz vor, der die zwei Wertperspektiven des Customer-Value-Managements (Kunden- und Unternehmensperspektive) vereinigt.
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If a firm lowers its price, will it sell more?. © 2018 selection and editorial matter, Andreas Hinterhuber and Stephan M. Liozu; individual chapters, the contributors.
Article
Price wars are a fact of life, whether we're talking about the fast-paced world of knowledge products, the marketing of Internet appliances, or the staid, traditional sales of aluminum castings. If you're a manager and you're not in battle currently, you probably will be soon, so it's never too early to prepare. The authors describe the causes and characteristics of price wars and explain how companies can fight them, flee them-or even start them. The authors say the best defense in a pricing battle isn't to simply match price cut for price cut; they emphasize other options for protecting market share. For instance, companies can compete on quality instead of price; they can alert customers to the risks and negative consequences of choosing a low-priced option. Companies can reveal their strategic intentions and capabilities; just the threat of a major price action might hold rivals' pricing moves in check. And, finally, companies can seek support from interested third parties-governments, customers, and vendors, for instance-to help avert a price war. If a company chooses to compete on price, the authors suggest using complex pricing actions, cutting prices in certain channels, or introducing new products or flanking brands-each of which lets companies selectively target only those segments of the market that are under competitive threat. A simple tit-for-tat price move should be the last resort-and managers should act swiftly and decisively so competitors will know that any revenue gains will be short-lived.
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* Why do our headaches persist after taking a one-cent aspirin but disappear when we take a 50-cent aspirin? * Why does recalling the Ten Commandments reduce our tendency to lie, even when we couldn't possibly be caught? * Why do we splurge on a lavish meal but cut coupons to save 25 cents on a can of soup? * Why do we go back for second helpings at the unlimited buffet, even when our stomachs are already full? * And how did we ever start spending $4.15 on a cup of coffee when, just a few years ago, we used to pay less than a dollar? When it comes to making decisions in our lives, we think we're in control. We think we're making smart, rational choices. But are we? In a series of illuminating, often surprising experiments, MIT behavioral economist Dan Ariely refutes the common assumption that we behave in fundamentally rational ways. Blending everyday experience with groundbreaking research, Ariely explains how expectations, emotions, social norms, and other invisible, seemingly illogical forces skew our reasoning abilities. Not only do we make astonishingly simple mistakes every day, but we make the same types of mistakes, Ariely discovers. We consistently overpay, underestimate, and procrastinate. We fail to understand the profound effects of our emotions on what we want, and we overvalue what we already own. Yet these misguided behaviors are neither random nor senseless. They're systematic and predictable--making us predictably irrational. From drinking coffee to losing weight, from buying a car to choosing a romantic partner, Ariely explains how to break through these systematic patterns of thought to make better decisions. Predictably Irrational will change the way we interact with the world--one small decision at a time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(cover)
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This article identifies major milestones in the science of Pricing and Revenue Management. It starts with the first successes in travel and transportation, and it follows the progression of the discipline in those realms. It explores breakthroughs as the concepts evolved beyond airlines and other industries with perishable products. It examines the impact on traditional Pricing and Revenue Management thinking, as the adaptation of these concepts to diverse industries has necessitated strategic and tactical innovations to optimally manage discount, promotions, bulk and negotiated deals as well as customer retention. Finally, it suggests future milestones as the science continues to grow and evolve.
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Most executives know how pricing influences the demand for a product, but few of them realize how it affects the consumption of a product. In fact, most companies don't even believe they can have an effect on whether customers use products they have already paid for. In this article, the authors argue that the relationship between pricing and consumption lies at the core of customer strategy. The extent to which a customer uses a product during a certain time period often determines whether he or she will buy the product again. So pricing tactics that encourage people to use the products they've paid for help companies build long-term relationships with customers. The link between pricing and consumption is clear: People are more likely to consume a product when they are aware of its cost. But for many executives, the idea that they should draw consumers' attention to the price that was paid for a product or service is counterintuitive. Companies have long sought to mask the costs of their goods and services in order to boost sales. And rightly so--if a company fails to make the initial sale, it won't have to worry about consumption. So to promote sales, health club managers encourage members to get the payment out of the way early; HMOs encourage automatic payroll deductions; and cruise lines bundle small, specific costs into a single, all-inclusive fee. The problem is, by masking how much a buyer has spent on a given product, these pricing tactics decrease the likelihood that the buyer will actually use it. This article offers some new approaches to pricing--how and when to charge for goods and services--that may boost consumption.
Conjointanalytische Praferenzmessungen zur Prognose von Preisreaktionen
  • K Backhaus
  • L Brzoska
Backhaus, K., Brzoska, L. (2004): "Conjointanalytische Praferenzmessungen zur Prognose von Preisreaktionen", DBW 64 (1), pp 39 -57.
Do you have a long-term pricing strategy
  • W L Baker
  • M V Marn
  • C C Zawada
Baker, W.L., Marn, M.V., Zawada, C.C. (2010): "Do you have a long-term pricing strategy?" McKinsey Quarterly, October 2010; http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/ marketing_sales/do_you_have_a_long-term_pricing_strategy.
Die erste richtige Nachfragekurve in der Marketingforschung
  • F Bilstein
Bilstein, F. (2000): "Die erste richtige Nachfragekurve in der Marketingforschung", Absatzwirtschaft, No. 11, pp. 62-68.
Value-to-Value-Segmentierung im praktischen Einsatz
  • M Kalt
  • R Bongaerts
  • A Krämer
Kalt, M., Bongaerts, R., Krämer, A. (2013): "Value-to-Value-Segmentierung im praktischen Einsatz",Planung und Analyse, 40 (6), pp. 21-24.
Erfolgsfaktor Pricing"-7 Eckpunkte bei der Bestimmung des optimalen Preises
  • A Krämer
Krämer, A: "Erfolgsfaktor Pricing"-7 Eckpunkte bei der Bestimmung des optimalen Preises. BiTS Unternehmertag, Iserlohn, 13. March 2014.
Preisdifferenzierung und Erlösmanagement im Bahnfernverkehr -Eine länderübergreifende Analyse zu den Potenzialen für Nachfragesteigerungen durch differenzierte Preisgestaltung
  • A Krämer
  • M Jung
  • G Wilger
Krämer, A., Jung, M. & Wilger, G. (2014): "Preisdifferenzierung und Erlösmanagement im Bahnfernverkehr -Eine länderübergreifende Analyse zu den Potenzialen für Nachfragesteigerungen durch differenzierte Preisgestaltung", ZEVrail, 138 (10), pp. 428 -434.
Zwischen Preiswettbewerb und Preiskampf -Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Nachfrageboom und Preiserosion bei Reisen mit Fernlinienbussen
  • A Krämer
  • M Jung
Krämer, A., Jung, M. (2014): "Zwischen Preiswettbewerb und Preiskampf -Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Nachfrageboom und Preiserosion bei Reisen mit Fernlinienbussen", Internationales Verkehrswesen, 66 (4), to be published in Oct 2014.
Simon, Kucher & Partners: Discount is out
SKP (2013): "Simon, Kucher & Partners: Discount is out", Download 6.12.2013: http://www.simonkucher.com/de/news/discount-ist-out.
Das neue Preissystem der Bahn -Rahmenbedingungen, Zielsetzung, Konzeption und Einführung
  • A Brunotte
  • A Kramer
Brunotte, A. / Kramer A. (2003): "Das neue Preissystem der Bahn -Rahmenbedingungen, Zielsetzung, Konzeption und Einführung", in: Herrmann, A. (ed.), Handbuch Preismanagement. Wiesbaden 2003.
Peak-Pricing oder Yield-Management? Zur Anwendbarkeit eines Erlösmanagement-Systems bei der Deutschen Bahn
  • A Kramer
  • H J Luhm
Kramer, A. / Luhm, H.J. (2003): "Peak-Pricing oder Yield-Management? Zur Anwendbarkeit eines Erlösmanagement-Systems bei der Deutschen Bahn", Internationales Verkehrswesen, 54 (1+2), pp. 19-23.