Nanoparticles have received significant attention from the scientific community because of their exceptionally large surface-area-to-volume ratios along with their extraordinary properties, in comparison to bulk materials of the same kind. These materials have unique thermal, optical, electrical, mechanical, electronic, and biological properties, which make them suitable candidates for many applications with significantly improved performance. Carbon black (CB) is a powdered form of elemental carbon that is produced by the partial combustion or thermal decomposition of solid, liquid, or gaseous hydrocarbons under a controlled environment. Its physical appearance is a spherical-shaped, finely divided pellet or powder form of amorphous carbon that has a high surface-area-to-volume ratio. It’s primarily used as a reinforcing agent in vehicle parts and rubbery automotive products (e.g., tires, tubes, tread, belts, hoses, miscellaneous) and non-automotive industrial applications (e.g., molded items, laser printing, and extruded products), which are employed in many countries, and consume approximately 90% of CB production. The remaining 10% of CB is divided among other special applications that include everyday products, such as coatings, plastics, lithium ion batteries, vehicles for large hydrogen storage, chemical sensors, super capacitors, and ultra-violet protection. Carbon black is mass-produced by controlled vapor-phase pyrolysis and the incomplete combustion of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons. This book chapter summarizes recent advances in the fabrication, characterization, properties, and applications of CB nanoparticles in various industries. The new plasma technology for the production of superior quality CB has been studied extensively and compared with other techniques.