This work is the result of research of the mostly unused archives regarding the activities of Yugoslav communist military courts in Croatia at the end of World War Two and in the postwar period. This topic has not been researched much from the standpoint of history and other social sciences. Military courts were part of the repressive system of totalitarian communist rule fighting relentlessly against war enemies, but also people and organisations which could have in the future been ideological or political opponents to communism. Most of the persons tried in court were civilians convicted in short political trials mostly without evidence and sentenced to death with their property taken away from them. Yugoslav communist military courts thus belong to the group of revolutionary courts or courts martial.