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This paper examines the trio, man, drum and music as God's direct and indirect creations and their collective significance in music healing using experiences from Nigeria. In this connection, it studies their independent attributes and discusses them within the general framework of indigenous beliefs in non-western music healing traditions. The opinions held in this study are derived from a review of literature and field investigations. The researchers discovered that for music healing to thrive in modern societies, there should be an interaction between the ancient and the modern in terms of philosophy and practice. Hence, the factors which make indigenous music healing efficacious require a genuine scrutiny. This stride will obviously be helpful to all interested in music healing.
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(Re) investigating Man, Drum and Music in Healing
Charles O. Aluede and Eunice U. Ibekwe*
Department of Theatre & Media Arts, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria
E-mail: coaluede@yahoo.com
*Department of Music, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
E-mail: eunyamaka@yahoo.com
KEYWORDS Initiatory Illness, Guardian Angel, Placebo, Music Healing and Trinity
ABSTRACT This paper examines the trio, man, drum and music as God’s direct and indirect creations and their
collective significance in music healing using experiences from Nigeria. In this connection, it studies their independent
attributes and discusses them within the general framework of indigenous beliefs in non-western music healing
traditions. The opinions held in this study are derived from a review of literature and field investigations. The
researchers discovered that for music healing to thrive in modern societies, there should be an interaction between
the ancient and the modern in terms of philosophy and practice. Hence, the factors which make indigenous music
healing efficacious require a genuine scrutiny. This stride will obviously be helpful to all interested in music healing.
INTRODUCTION
For nearly two decades now, interest in music
healing has developed and advanced with great
rapidity. With the dawn of each day, explorations
are made for possible areas where the art of music
healing has had impetus from. This search has
led to the query of an arm of number symbolism.
To Christians and non-Christians alike, the
mathematical alphabet three (3) is of great
significance. Among most Christians, their
thoughts revolve around God the Father, God
the Son and God the Holy Spirit which is often
referred to as Holy Trinity. In the Vedic culture,
three-fold miseries are often mentioned, they are:
Adhibhautika misery – misery caused by other
living beings, Adhidaivika misery – misery
caused by nature, and Adhyatinika misery –
misery caused by ones own body and mind
(Swami Praphupada 2004).
Discussing the indigenous Yoruba psychia-
try, Prince (1969) identified three groups of
disease classification according to their aetiol-
ogy, as natural, preternatural and supernatural.
To him, natural causes of mental disease could
also include hereditary factors, preternatural
causes caused by jealousies in communities,
witchcraft in magical practices of sorcery and
supernatural include ancestral connections in
mental ill health. This again takes us to three
major beliefs of illness causation.
In some Nigerian ethnic groups including the
Esan of Edo State in Nigerian, emphasis is on
odd numbers like three or five and so on. Among
this people, three or five tubers of yams or three
or five kola nuts are widely favoured, two or four
are usually unacceptable gifts for visitors. Ex-
actly how old this practice is obviously outside
the purview of this study, but its thrust is to exa-
mine through preliminary investigation a collec-
tive trinity shared in a tripartite unity of man,
drum and music so as to be able to make relevant
remarks on their collective healing properties. To
enhance our general view of this study, the at-
tributes of man, drum and music will be discussed
with particular reference to healing.
MAN IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT
The concept of man is a very difficult issue to
address in philosophy. Descartes sees man as
purely spiritual – soul that is independent of the
body and that which can exist separately from
the body which he considered as an extension
(Akintona 2004). There have been copious lit-
eratures on the scientific origin of man and his
evolution. These literatures have been backed
up with evolutionary theories. Unreasonable they
may sound in religious circles; they still remain
subjects of so much interest for scientists, social
scientists and philosophers. However, life has
never been created out of matter. Swami Prabhu-
pada (2006) queries scientists thus “if life origi-
nated from chemicals and if your science is so
advanced, then why can’t you create life bio-
chemically in your laboratories”. He observes
further that the issue of life, death and posses-
sion of spiritual attributes is the duty of God.
Hence, he said:
No one wants to die, but scientists cannot
stop death. They speak superficially about
death because they cannot give any relief from
© Kamla-Raj 2011Ethno Med, 5(2): 125-131 (2011)
it. We do not wish to die, we do not wish to
become old, and we do not wish to become
deceased. But what help can the scientists
offer? They cannot do anything about it (Swami
Prabhupada 2006).
By these queries, it could be seen that God is
the real hand in man’s creation and continued
existence. Hence, it becomes reasonable for man
to be sociable because he lacks self-sufficient
power. He has to interact to make to make pos-
sible the division of labour and exchange of com-
modities, which are necessary for the satisfac-
tion of his material needs. These include adequate
food, shelter, protection and established institu-
tions such as the family, school church and the
state (Aina 2004). The observations of Aina are
important in this discourse. Man’s lack of self-
sufficient power in spiritual, self-protection and
family matters kindles his search and respect for
God. In African cosmology, God is generally ac-
claimed to be the creator of the entire universe
and all its creatures. Aside God, there is a cycli-
cal chain of communication between the living
and the dead which are referred to as ancestors.
To Fisher (1999),
Continued communication with the “living
dead” is extremely important to traditional
Africans. These are ancestors who have died
recently enough for some people still to re-
member them personally. Food and drinks are
set out or poured for them, acknowledging that
they are still in a sense living and engaged with
the people’s lives. Failure to keep in touch with
the ancestors is a dangerous oversight which
may bring misfortune to the family.
This view above is further corroborated by
Opoku in an interview conducted by Fisher (1999)
when he described a scenario in Ghana thus:
Our ancestors are our saints. Christian
missionaries who came here wanted us to pray
to their saints, their dead people. But what about
our saints… if you are grateful to your ancestors,
then you have blessings from your grandmother,
your grandfather, who brought you forth. Why
neglect them because they are dead or call them
evil people - non Africans came in and said we
should not obey our ancestors, should not call
upon them at all, because they are evil people.
This has been a mental bondage, a terrible thing.
Just as it is in India where one makes enqui-
ries into issues like “Why is one person rich and
another poor, one an exploiter and another, the
exploited, one a victim and another the victim-
izer? (Swami Praphupada 2005). In most Nigerian
communities, individuals also make personal en-
quiries into their careers.
Being a Healer in Nigeria: Some Insights
Many Nigerian healers claim that they were
chosen by God because of certain circumstances
that surround their conception and birth. Some
of such circumstances are that their mothers
suffered secondary barrenness before they were
conceived, or that they were conceived for longer
periods than nine months, or that prophets had
announced their birth through in particular
family or that they were born with dread locks
and extraordinary abilities for dreaming accurate
dreams about events or incidents which are yet
to occur at a young age. Most of those belong-
ing to this group of divinely selected healers,
suffer one kind of affliction or the other indivi-
dually and they see their affliction as a call to
service. For instance in many African religious
societies the healer or the medicine man is often
a former patient and this is also the case among
the Mashawe in Malawi (Chilivumbo 1972). The
idea of initiatory sickness or illness surrounds
the special selection of master healers (Hart 1990;
Kongo 1997; Friedson 1997). In supporting this
view, Nzewi (2002) opines that:
In some African cultures a person who will
eventually become a healer is supernaturally
selected through signs such as sickness. The
signs, which often result in strange behaviour
of physiological ill health, manifest irrespective
of age and gender. When diagnosed, proposing
or capacitating the person to become a healer
could entail the medical- musical theatre of
opening the inner eyes to perceive beyond the
commonly visible) or the reception extra-
ordinary communications (Nzewi 2000).
Nzewi stresses further that when such signs
are apparent on a person, induction ceremonies
are held to further empower him to be able to
diagnose sicknesses and use them through
super-ordinary sensitization. Initiatory sickness
is a common phenomenon in Nigerian societies.
Some of the ailments they suffer are severe head-
ache, unexplained weakness, fainting, hearing
voices, seeing strange things, discussing with
invisible forces, which others around do not see,
eating odd kinds of food and refusing to have a
CHARLES O. ALUEDE AND EUNICE U. IBEKWE
126
bath for days or weeks, not being able to remain
in any profession or do tangible things of eco-
nomic value as an adult. While in this state, they
make occasionally accurate predictions or state-
ments even when the persons are thought of as
being mentally sick. In seeking relief from their
ailments, they often get double portions of be-
ing healed and becoming healers, seers and
priests. Picturing a similar situation among the
Binis of Midwestern Nigeria, Bradbury’s obser-
vation (1973) is informative. He said:
It is believed that before a person is born, he
goes and kneels before his Creator, Osenobua,
and tells him what he wishes to be in the world-
whether [as] a farmer or a trader, a warrior or
a carver, whether a thief or a chief .... And asks
for all the things material or spiritual which
will enable him to carry through his chosen
role successfully (Bradbury 1973).
He concluded that deviation from these pre-
destined arrangements before God and one’s
guardian angel – Ehi could usher in ill luck for an
individual. It is believed that when individuals
go against their predestined plans, they also
begin to experience unusual difficulties, which
may lead to serious problems in the physical
world. This view is similarly supported by Hart
(1990) when he reported that: In Mexico, a young
boy is bitten by a snake and he is paralysed for
months. His grandfather, a Shaman, predicts that
if he lives, he will become a great Shaman.
The Mexican could have been bitten because
of digressions from original intention. Among
most Nigerians, The divine ordination of a
profession is still highly respected hence one
finds families of morbid anatomists, musicians,
healers, wine tapers etc. There is a general
belief that individuals decide and define their
professions in the spirit world before God
moments close to their birth. Deviation from the
original plan results into trouble. While grap-
pling with such troubles, the causality of their
problems is investigated and the patients are
advised to retrace their steps so that they may
be cured and become prosperous in their pre-
destined field. To end this section the issues
raised above are further reinforced in the words
of Gartoulla when he posited that: To solve
human needs and problems the gods have
several alternatives. One of the most important
alternatives is to empower a few chosen persons
through dreams to help cure sickness and
diseases (Gartoulla 1998).
THE DRUM IN NIGERIA
Much work has been done in Nigeria on mu-
sical instruments by some Nigerian and non-Ni-
gerian musicologists alike. Prominent among
them are the contributions of Beier (1954),
Akpabot (1971), Ojo (1973), and Bankole et al.
(1975) to mention just a few. In these works the
extra musical functions of the selected instru-
ments were also treated. Arising from this grow-
ing literature, it is evident that musical instru-
ments are not just artificial sound producing
materials for the accompaniment of songs or en-
tertainment tools alone but have other functions
especially in healing rituals. The identification
of the tree to be cut, the construction and con-
secration of the drum before use are rituals knit-
ted.
It is generally agreed that drums among all
African peoples have anthropomorphic features.
This understanding pervades the works of
Sowande (1972), Bebey (1975), Hart (1990), Finn
(1992), Koetting (1992) and Aluede (2006). To
them certain African instruments are gods, dei-
ties and spirits. This is of course why drums are
named after various deities. Beyond christening
drums after deities, the woods used for drum
construction and consecration processes are
significant.
Bebey (1975) posits that the drum is in cer-
tain circumstances equated with a man in Africa,
and so women are encouraged to treat it with
much respect and reverence they give to their
husbands. Consequently, women are not allowed
to touch or beat the drums because women are
not expected to beat their husbands.
There is a central reason why drums are re-
spected in Africa and all over the world. Roger
(1988) asserts that in Tibet, trumpets and drums
are made from human bones and skulls. This view
is further supported by Hart (1990) when he says
specifically of Tibetan musical instrument that
“the most distinctive Damarus are made from
human skulls”. In relation to this, Sowande (1972)
says that
Among the Yorubas of Nigeria (and
presumably in other areas of Africa also), the
very first step in making a drum is the ceremony
which placates the spirit inhabiting the tree
which is to be cut down for the wood from
which the drum – frame will be subsequently
carved.
He elaborates on this issue further when he
(RE) INVESTIGATING MAN, DRUM AND MUSIC IN HEALING 127
describes some special features of the drums
thus:
…every drum has it’s “altar” carved on the
drum-frame. Here is the actual spot at which
the drummer communes with his patron-deity
of drumming. The drummer who neglects his
regular communion with his patron deity will
find either that his drum goes to pieces or he
will be constantly out of employment (Sowande
1972).
The Yoruba people are not alone in this
practice. Supporting this same view, Koetting
(1992) remarks that:
There is more to musical instruments in
Africa than just how they look and how they
are played. Many people in Africa including
Kasena, understand the material objects have
spirits or souls, that is, they are more than just
material objects… when a Kasena craftsman
makes a calabash drum, for example, he does
not just begin to play. Certain things must be
done for the spirit of the drum to ensure that the
drum will speak properly (Koetting 1992).
The Yoruba of Nigeria and Kasena of Ghana
are not alone in this direction. In Esan, cowries,
native chalk and white cloth are presented at the
base of the tree they want to use for construc-
tion. The essence of this ritual is to make the
spirit of the tree accompany the wood which will
be made into drum frame. Though not a general
practice in the whole of Esan, it is done by those
in special societies and cults. In some cases where
devotees do not construct their musical instru-
ments by themselves, after the purchase, the in-
struments are further consecrated. In Iyayi soci-
ety of the Esan, for example, the senior priest
leads others after purifying themselves with
alligator pepper, to consecrate the instruments
with alligator pepper to purge them of their im-
purities they have acquired from the market. Af-
ter this preliminary purification, the instruments
are further blessed and anointed with palm ker-
nel oil and palm oil. Immediately after this exer-
cise, the instruments automatically assume the
status of sacred musical instruments and are
treated as such.
In Africa, there are records of drum construc-
tion and consecration procedures. It is these
exercises that give African drums their status of
human equivalence. From available records in
Ghana, the sacrificial drums of the Ashanti are
covered with the membrane of human skin and
decorated with human skulls. Similarly, in East
Africa, it is said that coronation drums were only
played by sticks made from human tibias. How
old these practices are and where exactly it first
started remains an unattainable goal and outside
the purview of this paper. However, this practice
may have been in existence ever since the origin
of African nation. The quotation below confirms
this view.
In South Pacific, I’ve read the drum maker
climbs the tree that is to furnish the wood for
the drum and does not come down until the
drum is finished. … In parts of west Africa, the
selected tree is fed on egg while the drum, maker
delivers this prayers: I’m coming to cut you
down and carve you up! Do not let the iron cut
me. Do not let me suffer in health (Hart 1980).
Relying on his observations, Hart remarks
further that for the Shaman, the drum is not so
much a musical instrument as a vehicle for
transportation most frequently in Siberia, it is
characterized as a horse that the Shaman rides to
the world tree, though it can also be a boat (with
the drumstick becoming an oar) or a bow (with
the drumstick doubling as the arrow (Hart
1990:171). From the ongoing discussion, it has
become unnecessary to further stress that drums
are believed to have inherent powers in them by
their nature of construction and consecration.
The Nature of Music and Its Attributes
In this segment, the origin of music will be
discussed. This will lead us into some important
attributes of music and its relevance. Music has
never at any time been seen to be an invention of
man. Reck (1992) says in Hindu mythology,
music was originally reserved for the Gods alone,
but they took pity on the struggle of human
beings and so brought music to them in order to
relieve their sufferings. If one may ask what
constitutes suffering? And how can music help
in attenuating these? The answers may be found
in the following views.
The existence of illness in the body may be
called a shadow of the true illness which is held
by man in his mind (Hzrat Inayat Khan 1973 and
1978). He says that by the power of music, the
mind may become exalted so that it rises above
the thought of illness; then the illness is forgot-
ten. In a similar vein, McClennan says that:
The exoteric philosophy and practice of
music is our legacy and heritage perhaps the
oldest and most sacred of our musical traditions.
CHARLES O. ALUEDE AND EUNICE U. IBEKWE
128
Born of an awareness that in some way music-
making helped us to feel bolder and less afraid,
music was a vehicle through which we
expressed the interconnectedness of our
universe (McClennan 1988).
Although the healing effects of music is
attested to by most peoples of the world as an
age old tradition, there are palpable concerns of
scholars which is captured in the preceding
words.
Are we not over stretching the potency of
music? Can music do all these that are being
ascribed to it? If music is used along side any
oral item like anointing oil as used in most
Pentecostal churches, can’t the oil be seen as
material medica? If music accompanies any
healing ritual, how do we measure the level of
contribution of the music used or the ritual in
healing? Put differently, can’t what is thought
of as material medica be placebo? (Aluede
2009).
Such comments allude to the fact that music
healing still assumes an imprecise status in some
areas. Greatly disturbed by this development,
Friedson (1996) complains that “Ethnographers
have not given musical experience a correspond-
ingly prominent place in their research. Music is
usually treated as an epiphenomenona, some-
thing that accompanies other more important
ritual activities”. Much light was thrown into this
somewhat misty climate when Danielou attests
to the many uses of music as a vehicle to immate-
rial world and as a calmative for the sake of brev-
ity. In his words, he says,
Music can be a powerful instrument of
psychological action, a means of communi-
cation with the supernatural…. there is music
which is orientated towards a ritual or magic
action, towards a psycho physiological action
creating states of trance or else towards the
creation of an emotional climate acting either
as a calmative or a stimulant; this kind of music
is based on elements that are utterly different
from those of decorative music ( Danielou 1972).
In support of the opinions above, Hindley
(1982) says, bed wetter among the Akan of
Ghana are cured of the disorder when they are
treated with songs for bed wetter devoid of any
other ancillaries. McClellan (1988) and Swami
Prabhupada (1991) observe that nowhere in the
world is the practice of music as a spiritual disci-
pline more highly developed than in India where
Mantra Yoga and Nada Yoga - two forms of
meditation are practised. The Indians believe
that two types of music are used for spiritual
purposes; one leads to a state of trance while the
other leads to a meditative state. The music that
leads to the state of trance is used for spiritual
and healing purposes. In Hindu belief, chanting
can be done in two ways: real chanting which is
called kirtana and singing the mantras, which if
sung devotedly makes the singer achieve physi-
cal and spiritual purity which in other words are
physical and emotional healing (Prabhupada
1991).
Man, Drum and Music: What is the
Connection?
The coming into being of any society pre-
supposes admittance of some values: moral or
constitutional. Each society specifies its moral
conventions and moral values, which differ from
society to society. The kind of political ideology
obtained in society is derived from the set of
values put in place. There is no individual good
that can be pursued with out the influence of the
dictates of the larger society. Hence, the society
plays a predominant role in the making and
unmaking of the individual (Akintona 2004)
To be able to fully appreciate what is to be
discussed in this segment, the Figure 1 is very
vital. In the figure, it is contended that God is the
creator of man who in turn makes the drum and
God himself is the creator of music. This triangle
of man, drum and music is further encircled by
God’s creative energy. The circle is representa-
tive of the world and its creatures as God’s handi-
work.
(RE) INVESTIGATING MAN, DRUM AND MUSIC IN HEALING 129
God
Man
Drum Music
Fig. 1.
Giving a personal experience Olatunji in an
interview conducted by Hart (1990) says:
For many years I have thought about the
healing power of the drum, and the philosophy
I have come to is that the drum is a kind of
trinity. The body of the drum, which comes from
the tree, contains the living spirit of the three.
Great care is taken to make sure that the wood
of the drum is alive. And the same is true of the
skin; whether it is a tanned hide of a goat or a
Buffalo, it also contains a spirit that is still
alive. And they join those two spirits with that
of the person playing the drum, the result is an
irresistible force, a trinity, a balance that gives
the drum its healing power.
This trinity is the precursor of another broad
trinity of which man has with music and the drum.
It may be superfluous to say that each member
of this trio is energy charged and that they have
vibrations. Ernst Berendt’s opinion cited by Hart
(1990); is of much necessity in this regard. He
opined that the entire world is sound, and he
proposed that:
a. Since the one sure thing we can say about
matter is that it is vibrating and
b. Since all vibrations are theoretically sound,
then
c. It is not unreasonable to suggest that the
universe is music and should be perceived
as such. In a similar development, McClen-
nan (1988) examined the use of tones in
healing process. He remarked that the study
cannot be perfectly carried out without a
leaning to exoteric concepts. He remarked
that:
….Humans and indeed all manifested beings
come into the world with the aid of an actual
frequency, maintain a frequency through out
life and exit from this life by a means of
frequency…the whole cosmos and each being
within the cosmos is maintained through the
principles of resonance (McClennan 1988).
Although the scientific investigation of the
effect of frequency on human body and psyche
is relatively new, it has been a subject of much
concern to the traditional peoples of Nigeria hence
its use in Bori, Olokun and Iyayi to mention but a
few. In both formal and informal settings, man
makes music consciously and unconsciously.
From taking an evening walk, bathing in the
house, working on the fields or in the office to
making music during healing rites, music re-
mains the hub or pivot of an African’s life. In the
opinion of Callahan (1989), “Health is a state
of complete physical, mental, and social well-
being and not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity”. To achieve this physical, mental and
social well-being, collective human activity is a
sine qua non and the recipe is found in musical
activities. This assertion is authenticated by
Cottrell when she said that
A principle that music utilizes in affecting
patients is the principle if diversion. This method
of utilizing music and sound is helpful in taking
the attention away from an unpleasant and
unwanted situation. An example of diversionary
music is playing of bright, happy, energizing
music when the listener feels down in the dumps.
Music in this sense can be used in a therapeutic
situation to reduce anxiety and pain,
transporting the listener to another reality
temporarily during the healing process
(Cottrell 2000).
To use music for therapeutic purposes in an
ethnomedical sense requires much caution,
Gartoulla (1998) warns that
The treatment of a disease depends upon
what is held to be the cause of that disease. If
an educated man believes that the cause of
disease is naturalistic, he contacts empirical
medications from various sources such as drug
peddlers, drug retailers, grocers, community
leaders, doctors etc. In a similar fashion, if a
man believes the cause of a disease to be the
wrath of gods, influence of an evil spirit, sorcery
or breach of taboos, he consults appropriate
agencies for treatment by witchcraft and magic,
charms, amulets, or even sometimes uses
ethnomedicine where they are held to possess
magical properties.
Indigenous Nigerian cultures have strong
consciousness of the therapeutic imperative of
the musical arts that methodically target all ages
in a society. In many of her ethnic groups, music
is held to be of so much significance and its role
in healing is well-attested to in their music
healing traditions all over. Through a review of
selected literature as shown in this study, one
could see that the trio which man forms with the
drum and music in traditional healing rites are
symbolic. So many healing equations can be
arrived at in this trinity and some of them are:
1. Singing + drumming + dancing = an im-
proved audience (general group healing).
This could be seen as prophylactic treat-
ment.
CHARLES O. ALUEDE AND EUNICE U. IBEKWE
130
2. Singing positive healing texts to self + drum-
ming + dancing = an improved man (indivi-
dual healing).
3. Intense drumming+singing+hand clapping
= Healing (a strong weapon against fear of
loneliness, bereavement and fears asso-
ciated with aging).
CONCLUSION
In this paper, an attempt has been made to
identify man as God’s creature, the drum as a
human effort and music as God’s invention. Af-
ter this identification, the study investigated in
detail their independent attributes and how they
aid in collective music healing. It is an admitted
fact that in a paper so short, musical trinity and
their essence in music healing equation cannot
be effectively dealt with as a matter of finality.
However, in this study, it is brought to the knowl-
edge of scholars interested in music healing that
beyond music, the music healer, and the musical
instruments used in music healing rites are in
themselves healing forces and so researches and
researchers should explore these areas for the
total healthfulness of man. If this presentation is
able to engender further discourse on this criti-
cal issue of our time, then it may have achieved
its purpose.
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(RE) INVESTIGATING MAN, DRUM AND MUSIC IN HEALING 131
... Music intervention (MI) is mind-body therapy and has been utilised for various purposes [10], including pain management after surgery. MI is thought to provide mental distraction that modifies painful stimulus in the spinal cord, as well as competes with pain transmission to the brain via the spinal cord [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aimed to explore the cultural elements of music in relation to pain management among women who have undergone mastectomy. Method An exploratory qualitative study with in-depth interviews. Using the purposive sampling technique, 20 participants were recruited for the study. The interviews were conducted face to face at the surgical out-patient clinic and female surgical ward. Data collection continued until data saturation was reached. The inductive approach was used to analyse the data, and the concepts were organised into themes. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines (COREQ) were used to report this study. Results The participants were between 28 and 83 years old and mostly diagnosed with stage III breast cancer. Three main themes emerged from the data analysis, including pain experienced after mastectomy, culture and music, and the perception of music for postoperative pain management after mastectomy. Conclusion In this study, the knowledge of participants and the utilisation of music for pain management remains inadequate, but the participants perceived that music could be useful for pain control after mastectomy when the language and religion of the patient and the meaningfulness of the music were considered when introducing and selecting the music. This study will help open and extend the conversation about the utilisation and cultural elements of music that can be used clinically for pain management after mastectomy.
... MT is a mind-body therapy that has been utilised for various purposes [10], including pain management after surgery. MT is thought to provide mental distraction that modi es painful stimulus in the spinal cord, as well as competes with pain transmission to the brain via the spinal cord [11]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose This study aimed to explore the cultural elements of music in relation to pain management among women who have undergone mastectomy. Method An exploratory qualitative study with in-depth interviews. Using the purposive sampling technique, 20 participants were recruited for the study. The interviews were conducted face to face at the surgical out-patient clinic and female surgical ward. Data collection continued until data saturation was reached. The inductive approach was used to analyse the data, and the concepts were organized into themes. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines (COREQ) were used to report this study. Results The participants were between 28 and 83 years old and mostly diagnosed with Stage III breast cancer. Three main themes emerged from the data analysis, including pain experienced after mastectomy, culture and music, and the perception of music for postoperative pain management after mastectomy. Conclusion Knowledge and the utilisation of music as a therapy for pain management remains inadequate, but the participants perceived that music could be useful for pain control after mastectomy when the language and religion of the patient and the meaningfulness of the music were considered when introducing and selecting the music. This study will help open and extend the conversation about the utilisation and cultural elements of music that can be used clinically for pain management after mastectomy.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on music therapy and wellness. The study relied on a blend of anthropological and ethnological, historical and literary techniques in eliciting its data. Consequently, it takes a historical look at how certain prehistoric constructs have provided the scientific basis for modern medical practices, and argues further that learning from the past, and agreeing to work together in the present, would without doubt initiate a breakthrough in healthcare delivery in the Nigerian future.
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This paper reviewed the anthropomorphic attributes of musical instruments in Africa. It proceeded to discuss the concepts and historical origin. In the course of this research, the instrumental resources, and ritual consecration of the instruments were seen to be strong factors for their attributes. The paper concludes by revealing the use of the anthropomorphism in the traditional Esan society.
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5th ed Bibliogr. s. 676-686