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Erratum: Rapid measurement of blood propofol levels: A proof of concept study (Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing (2006) vol. 206 (109-115) 10.1007/s10877-006-9014-3)

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Quantification of plasma propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) in the context of clinical anaesthesia is challenging because of the need for offline blood sample processing using specialised laboratory equipment and techniques. In this study we sought to refine a simple procedure using solid phase extraction and colorimetric analysis into a benchtop protocol for accurate blood propofol measurement. The colorimetric method based on the reaction of phenols (e.g. propofol) with Gibbs reagent was first tested in 10% methanol samples (n = 50) containing 0.5–6.0 µg/mL propofol. Subsequently, whole blood samples (n = 15) were spiked to known propofol concentrations and processed using reverse phase solid phase extraction (SPE) and colorimetric analysis. The standard deviation of the difference between known and measured propofol concentrations in the methanol samples was 0.11 µg/mL, with limits of agreement of − 0.21 to 0.22 µg/mL. For the blood-processed samples, the standard deviation of the difference between known and measured propofol concentrations was 0.09 µg/mL, with limits of agreement − 0.18 to 0.17 µg/mL. Quantification of plasma propofol with an error of less than 0.2 µg/mL is achievable with a simple and inexpensive benchtop method.
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What is known and objective: Sampling volumes of blood from neonates is necessarily limited. However, most of the published propofol analysis assays require a relatively large blood sample volume (typically ≥0.5 mL). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and validate a sensitive method requiring a smaller sample volume (0.2 mL) to fulfill clinically relevant research requirements. Methods: Following simple protein precipitation and centrifugation, the supernatant was injected into the HPLC-fluorescence system and separated with a reverse phase column. Propofol and the internal standard (thymol) were detected and quantified using fluorescence at excitation and emission wavelengths of 270 nm and 310 nm, respectively. The method was validated with reference to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance for industry. Accuracy (CV, %) and precision (RSD, %) were evaluated at three quality control concentration levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5 µg/mL). Results and discussion: Calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.005-20 µg/mL. Intra- and interday accuracy (-4.4%-13.6%) and precision (0.2%-5.8%) for propofol were below 15%. The calculated LOD (limit of detection) and LLOQ (lower limit of quantification) were 0.0021 µg/mL and 0.0069 µg/mL, respectively. Propofol samples were stable for 4 months at -20°C after the sample preparation. This method was applied for analyzing blood samples from 41 neonates that received propofol, as part of a dose-finding study. The measured median (range) concentration was 0.14 (0.03-1.11) µg/mL, which was in the range of the calibration curve. The calculated median (range) propofol half-life of the gamma elimination phase was 10.4 (4.7-26.7) hours. What is new and conclusion: A minimal volume (0.2 mL) of blood from neonates is required for the determination of propofol with this method. The method can be used to support the quantification of propofol drug concentrations for pharmacokinetic studies in the neonatal population.
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Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) monitor the integrity of the spinal cord during spine surgery. Propofol-based anesthesia is favored in order to enhance TcMEP quality. During intraoperative hemorrhage, TcMEP amplitudes may be reduced. The serum concentration of propofol may increase during hemorrhage. No study has determined whether changes in TcMEPs due to hemorrhage are related to changes in propofol blood levels. We monitored TcMEPs, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac output (CO) and hemoglobin in pigs (n = 6) undergoing controlled progressive hemorrhage during a standardized anesthetic with infusions of propofol, ketamine, and fentanyl. We recorded TcMEPs from the rectus femoris (RF) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles bilaterally. A pulmonary artery catheter was placed to measure CO. Progressive hemorrhage of 10% blood volume increments was done until TcMEP amplitude decreased by >60% from baseline. Serum propofol levels were also measured following removal of each 10% blood volume increment. TcMEP responses were elicited every 3 min using constant stimulation parameters. We removed between 20 and 50% of total blood volume in order to achieve the >60% reduction in TcMEP amplitude. MAP and CO decreased significantly from baseline. At maximum hemorrhage, TcMEP amplitude decreased in the RF and TA by an average of 73 and 62% respectively from baseline (P < 0.01). Serum propofol levels varied greatly among animals at baseline (range 410–1720 ng/mL) and increased in each animal during hemorrhage. The mean propofol concentration rose from 1190 ± 530 to 2483 ± 968 ng/mL (P < 0.01). The increased propofol concentration correlated with decreased CO. Multivariate analysis using hierarchical linear models indicated that the decline of TcMEP amplitude was primarily associated with rising propofol concentrations, but was also independently affected by reduced CO. We believe that the decrease in blood volume and CO during hemorrhage increased the serum concentration of propofol by reducing the volume of distribution and/or rate of hepatic metabolism of the drug. Despite wide acceptance of propofol as the preferred anesthetic when using TcMEPs, intravenous anesthetics are vulnerable to altered pharmacokinetics during conditions of hemorrhage and could contribute to false-positive TcMEP changes.
Article
Here we present a validated rapid detection system for propofol, an anaesthetic with a narrow therapeutic window, in whole blood. This method utilises an on-line molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction, rather than the traditional C18 solid-phase extraction, coupled to fluorescence optical fibre detection. The linearity was assessed from 0.10-15 μg mL(-1) of propofol in whole blood, and the coefficients were greater than 0.995. The absolute recoveries of propofol were 95.81, 97.56 and 97.93% at three different concentrations. The inter-batch precision ranged from 4.3% to 8.1%, and the accuracy value ranged from 102.5% to 104.4%. The developed method was successfully applied to measure propofol concentrations in simulated whole blood samples. The entire analysis procedure lasted only 5 minutes, and the results showed no statistical difference between the new on-line method and a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. The new on-line method, however, is faster and more convenient for the clinical real-time detection of propofol than previously reported methods.
Article
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) were compared for their capacity to metabolite identification, sensitivity, and speed of analysis for propofol and its metabolites in urine samples. Acidic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization procedures were applied for GC/MS analysis. The LC/MS analysis used a simple sample pretreatment based on centrifugation and dilution. Propofol and four metabolites were successfully analyzed by GC/MS following TMS derivatization. One compound, di-isopropanolphenol was tentatively characterized as a new metabolite observed for the first time in human urine. The TMS derivatization greatly improved the chromatographic properties and detection sensitivity, especially for hydroxylated metabolites. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) of propofol were about 325 and 0.51 ng/mL for the GC/MS scan mode and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, respectively. In addition, five conjugated propofol metabolites were successfully analyzed by LC-MS/MS in negative ion mode. The detection sensitivity for these conjugated metabolites could be greatly enhanced by the addition of triethylamine to the mobile phase without any loss of LC resolution capacity. The LLOQs of propofol-glucuronide (PG) were about 1.17 and 2.01 ng/mL for the LC-MS-selected ion monitoring (SIM) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, respectively. Both GC/MS and LC/MS methods sensitively detected nine metabolites of propofol and could be used to provide complementary data for the reasonable propofol metabolism study. Urinary excretion profiles for propofol and its metabolites following administration to human were suggested based on the total ion chromatograms obtained by GC/MS and LC/MS methods, respectively.
Article
We report laboratory and clinical evaluations of a blood propofol concentration analyser. Laboratory experiments used volunteer blood spiked with known propofol concentrations over the clinically relevant concentrations from 0.5 to 16 μg.ml(-1) to assess linearity and the influence of haematocrit and concurrent drug administration. Analyser concentrations demonstrated excellent linearity (R(2) = 0.999). Blood spiked with commonly used drugs showed no significant variation compared to unspiked controls. Propofol measurements were largely independent of haemoglobin concentration. A 6% decay in propofol concentration was observed at the highest prepared concentration. Clinical performance of the analyser was assessed using 80 arterial blood samples from 72 patients receiving propofol infusions during cardiac surgery. Samples were processed using the propofol analyser, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) used as a gold-standard comparator. These data demonstrated excellent agreement between the propofol analyser and HPLC with a bias of 0.13 μg.ml(-1) and precision of -0.16 to 0.42 μg.ml(-1).
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The authors evaluated an analyser for the determination of propofol concentrations in whole blood. The Pelorus 1000 (Sphere Medical) measures propofol concentrations in around 5 min without the requirement for sample preparation. The performance of the analyser was characterised with respect to linearity, precision in control solutions and whole blood and method comparison to an HPLC based reference method. In addition, the effects of substances considered to potentially affect the assay method were investigated. The analyser was found to be linear up to 12 μg/ml (R 2 = 0.9993), with a lower limit of quantification of 0.75 μg/ml. Total within device imprecision in control solutions was 0.11 μg/ml at 5.32 μg/ml and 0.17 μg/ml at 10.3 μg/ml. Within run precision in whole blood was 0.04 μg/ml at 2.84 μg/ml and 0.08 μg/ml at 6.68 μg/ml and for the reference method was 0.06 μg/ml and 0.12 μg/ml respectively. In comparison to the reference method, the overall bias of the Pelorus 1000 system over the range is estimated to be 0.15 μg/ml (95% confidence interval −0.11–0.41 μg/ml). The only cross interference of note is to a highly elevated level of conjugated bilirubin, while low haematocrit levels lead to a 0.13 μg/ml under reading with respect to the HPLC reference. The system fulfils the requirements for measurement of propofol concentrations in whole blood samples with precision and accuracy suitable for elucidating propofol pharmacokinetics at clinically relevant concentrations. With no requirement for sample preparation and a fast time to results, the analyser opens up the possibility of studies to measure and respond to blood propofol concentrations in patients in close to real time.
Article
An intravenous line is needed to administer anaesthesia, particularly when total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) is performed. A disadvantage of TIVA is that the intravenous concentration of anaesthetics cannot be easily measured compared with volatile anaesthetics. If a three-way stopcock is accidentally unscrewed, TIVA drugs cannot reach the patient's veins, thus resulting in inadequate anaesthesia levels, possibly resulting in awareness. We therefore measured the required torque to open five different brands of three-way stopcocks in an attempt to make an intravenous-line including all elements safer. The torque required to open one, two or three three-way stopcocks being connected in a perpendicular manner was measured with a biaxial servo hydraulic material testing machine. The force required to open three-way stopcocks connected with an intravenous catheter ranged in five different stopcock models from 5.03+/-0.75 to 2.21+/-0.51 N respectively; with two three-way stopcocks from 2.68+/-0.42 to 1.31+/-0.59 N, respectively, and with three three-way stopcocks from 1.29+/-0.27 to 0.82+/-0.05 N, respectively. Turning a three-way stopcock to become loose with possibly leaking drugs requires minimal amounts of force and decreases significantly if not connected in-line.
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