Article

The Machine That Changed the World

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This has led to a number of publications concerning the application of such QIM to surgical care [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Lean methodology and Six Sigma are examples of QIM that have successfully improved performance in healthcare [13,14]. The fundamental approach to these QIM involves identifying the care pathway to be improved, defining the correct outcome metrics, and performing a baseline measurement, followed by process analysis, identifying inefficiencies and subsequently implementing improvements in the care pathway. ...
... The Toyota Production System is a complete quality improvement system that aims at the complete elimination of waste and the continuous pursuit of the most efficient processes [14]. Lean is a philosophy, of which the Toyota Production System is an example, that consists of five principles (value, value stream, flow, pull and perfection) and methods that create optimal value for patients and organisations by reducing waste, optimising resource utility, and improving efficiency on a continuous basis [13,14]. Tools used in Lean include Kaizen, process mapping, value stream mapping, and poka-yoke. ...
... Six Sigma is a more data-driven team-elaborated QIM focused on removing errors. Lean and Six Sigma are often combined to strive for operational excellence [13]. The approach of Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control (DMAIC) is often used in Lean Six Sigma. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Healthcare is required to be effectively organised to ensure that growing, aging and medically more complex populations have timely access to high-quality, affordable care. Cardiac surgery is no exception to this, especially due to the competition for and demand on hospital resources, such as operating rooms and intensive care capacity. This is challenged more since the COVID-19 pandemic led to postponed care and prolonged waiting lists. In other sectors, Quality Improvement Methodologies (QIM) derived from the manufacturing industry have proven effective in enabling more efficient utilisation of existing capacity and resources and in improving the quality of care. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the ability of such QIM to improve care in cardiac surgery. Methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Clarivate Analytics/Web of Science Core Collection and Wiley/the Cochrane Library according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis methodology. Results: Ten articles were identified. The following QIM were used: Lean, Toyota Production System, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma, Root Cause Analysis, Kaizen and Plan-Do-Study-Act. All reported one or more relevant improvements in patient-related (e.g., infection rates, ventilation time, mortality, adverse events, glycaemic control) and process-related outcomes (e.g., shorter waiting times, shorter transfer time and productivity). Elements to enhance the success included: multidisciplinary team engagement, a patient-oriented, data-driven approach, a sense of urgency and a focus on sustainability. Conclusions: In all ten papers describing the application of QIM initiatives to cardiac surgery, positive results, of varying magnitude, were reported. While the consistency of the available data is encouraging, the limited quantity and heterogenous quality of the evidence base highlights that more rigorous evaluation, including how best to employ manufacturing industry-derived QIM in cardiac surgery is warranted.
... After World War II, TPS was developed at Toyota Motor Corporation by Eiji Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno (Womack et al. 1990) using two technical concepts: jidoka and just-intime (JIT). Jidoka is referred to as "automation with a human touch" or autonomation. ...
... The term "lean production" was first coined from TPS by Krafcik (1988) from IMVP. This term was popularized by the book from IMVP "The Machine that Changed the World" (Womack et al. 1990) and "Lean Thinking" (Womack and Jones 1996). The TPS approach was referred to as lean because it uses fewer resources compared with mass production (half the human effort, half the manufacturing space, half the investment in equipment, half the engineering hours in new product development, less than half the inventory, etc.) (Womack et al. 1990). ...
... This term was popularized by the book from IMVP "The Machine that Changed the World" (Womack et al. 1990) and "Lean Thinking" (Womack and Jones 1996). The TPS approach was referred to as lean because it uses fewer resources compared with mass production (half the human effort, half the manufacturing space, half the investment in equipment, half the engineering hours in new product development, less than half the inventory, etc.) (Womack et al. 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to investigate the effects of the soft Respect for People pillar of the original Toyota Way proposed by Fujio Cho and its elements (respect, and teamwork) on the hard Continuous Improvement pillar and its elements (challenge, kaizen, genchi-genbutsu). Structural equation modelling was employed to test hypotheses at three levels (pillar to pillar, element to pillar, and element to element) from data gathered from 216 automotive parts manufacturers. It was found that Respect for People and its elements had significant positive impacts on Continuous Improvement and its elements, except for the insignificant effect of respect on kaizen. This is one of the first research projects to examine the influences of soft dimensions on hard dimensions of the Toyota Way. It confirms the merging of soft factors into the lean manufacturing framework as a socio-technical system for more efficient and sustainable technical improvements.
... Construction industry are finding ways to optimize productivity and performance. Many industries had utilized the idea of 'Lean theory' proposed by Womack, Jones, Roos (1990) in their book, "The machine that changed the world". The need for collaboration of Contractor, Designer and Client can improve project construction (Sammy, 2015). ...
... The importance of Lean began when there was a Performance gap between Toyota and other automobile companies (Womack et al., 1990). In order to check if Lean was successfully implemented, a statistical analysis was done between productivity and Percent Plan Complete (PPC). ...
... The current approach of transforming the organization towards implementing lean is not successful (Arbulu and Zabelle, 2006). Many organizations return back to old traditional methods after implementing lean James Womack (1990). He assumes that this is mainly because the management is reluctant to transform considering it a waste of time and efforts. ...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to understand what the Toyota Production System has contributed to the manufacturing industry and how its Lean philosophy can be a viable advantage to the Construction sector.
... The idea for this method came from three Toyota engineers (Ahmad, et al., 2018;Andrei, et al., 2019), Kichiro Toyota, Eiji Toyoda and Taichi Ohno in the 1940s (Womack, et al., 1990;Stellman & Greene, 2017;Moonden, 2011). "Kanban has five basic principles: visualize workflow, limit workflow, measure and manage workflow, make process policies explicit, and use models to identify improvements and opportunities" . ...
... Agile methodologies are an iterative model (Vresk, 2020). In 2010 Forrester (Womack, et al., 1990), reported results of their Global Developer Technographics Survey, which revealed that 35% of respondents used an agile, 21% an iterative, and 13% a waterfall development process, while 31% did not use a formal process methodology (Mahnič, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study aimed to investigate the relationship between teaching management, lecturer-students relationship climate, lecturer-students interaction, and individual learning of art master students at the university. A quantitative approach was the method used in the research. The correlational research design was used. The first and second-year master's students of an art university were selected to be used in the study. An online questionnaire was used to gather the primary data. The study found that 56.2% of the variance of individual learning is explained by teaching management. It is found a high positive correlation between lecturer-students relationship climate and individual learning variables (r = .552). The study also found that 56.4% of the variance of individual learning is explained by lecturerstudents interaction. The findings of the study enhanced theoretical and practical understanding as teaching management, lecturer-students relationship climate, and lecturer-students interaction are important variables that impact individual learning.
... influential industry-specific studies (Lamming, 1993;Womack, Jones, and Roos, 1990). As a result, different and sometimes unrelated terminologies have been used by researchers to treat the issue. ...
... The demand from customers for products to be delivered 'consistently faster, exactly on time and with no damage' (Mentzer et al., 2001, p. 2) would have forced firms to build closer relations with their suppliers and manage more effective ways to coordinate the flow of products and services. As discussed by Chen and Paulraj (2004), however, the development of the supply chain concept occurred in a complex and multifaceted manner, with the direct influence of several fields, such as the quality revolution (Dale, Lascelles, & Lloyd, 1994), the notions of materials management and integrated logistics (Carter & Price, 1993;Forrester, 1961), industrial markets and networks (Ford, 1990;Jarillo, 1993), the notion of increased focus (Porter, 1987;Snow, Miles, & Coleman, 1992) and influential industry-specific studies (Lamming, 1993;Womack, Jones, & Roos, 1990). As a result, different and sometimes unrelated terminologies have been used by researchers to treat the issue. ...
Thesis
The association of firms to crimes, condemnable management practices, operational difficulties and / or fails carried out by their partners suggests that negative events occurred in a firm (i.e. source firm) hold the potential to negatively affect others. As firms’ direct and indirect relationships with their partners become less obvious, supply chain risks (March and Shapira, 1987) must be reconsidered to account for this contemporary and possibly hazardous prospect. In addressing this issue, the present dissertation investigates the impacts of negative corporate events to supply chain partners. Throughout three individual but interconnected articles, empirical evidence suggest that beyond the interruption of physical flows, unfavorable circumstances may not be restricted to firms originating them, spreading across their networks. More specifically, based on the premises of the Efficient Market Hypothesis (Fama, Fisher, Jensen and Roll, 1969; Fama, 1970; Jensen, 1978), the utilization of the event study method (Fama, 1970; Brown and Warner, 1980) allowed the demonstration of negative reactions from investors of supply chain partners upon the disclosure of adverse news. In referring to these outcomes, the concept of supply chain contamination is here defined as “the dissemination of negative events through supply chains, negatively affecting not only the market value of customers and suppliers (possibly that of customers of customers and suppliers of suppliers and so on), as well as potentially other dimensions such as corporate reputations, for instance” (Fracarolli Nunes, 2018: 581).Initial theorization of this process is also proposed. The mechanics leading a company to be affected by events originated out of its organizational borders is portrayed in the concept of the inertial effect, illustrated in the image of “the waves caused by a stone that hits the water previously rested” (Fracarolli Nunes and Lee Park, 2016: 292). Within the reasoning of unintended or unanticipated consequences (Merton, 1936), the occurrence of supply chain contamination through the inertial effect is considered a collateral effect. From the intersection of the literatures on supply chain management and the Stakeholder Theory, a new conceptual model is developed. Building on the idea that stakeholders stand for any individual, entity or group that shall either affect or be affected by the operations of a company (Freeman, 1984), the empirical demonstration that investors of a supply chain partner must be affected (i.e. collateral effect) by negative events occurred in or caused by a source firm (i.e. supply chain contamination through the inertial effect), allows the proposition of the concept of incidental stakeholders, here defined as “stakeholders of stakeholders, which, as such, may not be aware of their links with other companies, or even not consciously willing to take the risks associated with such a subsidiary connection” (Fracarolli Nunes, 2019: 4). In this sense, the investigation of 30 cases classified in 5 distinct categories (environmental disaster, corporate social and environmental irresponsibilities, operational failure, corporate fraud and corruption) is expected to offer new perspectives on the structural risks associated to supply chains. Along with the theoretical discussions, practical utilizations are approached, as well as avenues for future inquiries.
... The Sociotechnical Systems Design movement was part of a wider trend of business reengineering(Hammer 1990;Hammer and Champy 1993) and 'continuous improvement' of work processes and the organisation(Womack et al. 1991).Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
Article
Full-text available
Humanistic management emphasises the importance of respecting humanity in and through meaningful work within organisations. In this paper we introduce a Levinasian approach to organising. Levinas argues that the Other appeals to us and allows us to take responsibility towards the Other – i.c. an employee, a customer, a supplier, etcetera. In this article our focus is on employees. By taking the Other as a starting point of his reflections, Levinas helps to transform the organisation and management of work and humans in business organisations. Based on the concept of alterity and becoming susceptible to the appeal that comes to us through what Levinas refers to as the ‘face of the Other’, we argue that the philosopher calls for ‘an agapeic turn’ to management and organisation. This turn means that the focus on the well-being of the employee – and the needs, interests, ideas, and expectations as perceived by him or her – should be at the core of organising. As a result, this paper calls for an increased focus on self-determination and self-organisation to allow the Other both voice and control over her or his behaviour, actions and contributions to the outputs and outcomes of one’s organisational unit. Through our focus on a Levinas approach, we concretize and deepen the traditional understanding of agape, making it more relevant to our functioning in a business setting. As a result, agape is introduced as an analytical concept that guides the structuring and the effectuation of human interaction in and through organisations.
... Se puede considerar que Lean se refiere al proceso de adopción del Sistema Toyota (TPS) en compañías fuera de Toyota (Karlsson y Ahlstrom, 1996). El concepto de Lean ha evolucionado en el tiempo (Hines et al., 2004), se relaciona con varios nombres como TPS (Ohno, 1988), producción esbelta (Krafcik, 1988), manufactura esbelta (Womack, Jones y Roos, 1990), pensamiento esbelto Lean Thinking (Womack y Jones, 1996), The Toyota way (Liker, 2004), Manufactura de clase mundial (WCM) (Schonberger, 1996) y el Modelo Shingo (2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Lean management adoption implies profound changes on the organizational culture and the sociotechnical system at the manufacture maquiladora plants that implement it. Soft practices are part of said sociotechnical system and are critical elements for the cultural change required to improve the operational performance, however they have received little attention from academics and professionals. Through a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive investigation, the integral and partial adoption of soft practices of lean management at the manufacture maquiladora industry (MMI) in Mexico is studied. The results show that most of the MMIs have made a partial adoption of these practices
... − Cada proveedor inicia el proceso de fabricación de piezas con procesos iterativos de diseño de piezas, fabricación y pruebas de prototipos tanto por el proveedor, como por el ensamblador, con el fin de realizar ajustes en el diseño [24]. ...
Article
El presente artículo tiene como objetivo describir el impacto generado en el diseño y rediseño de procesos productivos tanto en la planta de ensamble de vehículos, en este caso RENAULT-Sofasa, como sus proveedores locales, por el desarrollo de un nuevo vehículo enfocado en el mercado latinoamericano, permitiendo de esta manera la consolidación de una innovación en producto y en procesos. El diseño del vehículo busca cumplir las exigencias en seguridad y calidad que demandan los usuarios finales, por lo que los procesos productivos tanto en la ensambladora como en los proveedores de partes tuvieron que ser transformados. Dentro del desarrollo metodológico se describe la incorporación de robots y automatizaciones de procesos para optimizar el ensamble, asegurando la calidad, mejorando las condiciones de seguridad y ergonomía para los colaboradores de la fábrica ensambladora entre otros aspectos que modificaron significativamente el proceso productivo en la planta. En el caso de los proveedores de piezas, se realizaron procesos de soporte, transferencia de tecnología y asesoría directa de RENAULT-Sofasa y se aseguró la adquisición de capacidades que garantizaran la calidad de piezas para el nuevo vehículo. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el desarrollo de piezas en los proveedores locales y los nuevos procesos en la ensambladora son efectivos para producir un vehículo de alta calidad. El artículo aporta a la comunidad en ingeniería colombiana sobre los desarrollos propios que se han completado en el país y la posibilidad en seguir contribuyendo para ser aplicado en la industria automotriz.
... (Lander & Liker, 2007). Lean Management (LM), as a term, was first used in the book "The Machine That Changed the World" by Womack and Jones (2007), as TPS became synonymous with Lean Production in the West. The overall aim of Lean Management is the elimination of waste in all value-added activities as perceived by the customer, in order to increase sales of the end product/service and decrease costs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Almost all organizations aim to enhance and develop their organizational culture and sustain continuous improvement as an essential factor in organizational growth. However, many organizations have tried to embed continuous improvement and innovation in their cultures and emulate certain practices proven successful in specific industries and organizations, without even doubting that such routines might not match their organizational culture and their operations for many reasons. Therefore, the effect of such efforts was hard to sustain as they failed to preserve the flow of continuous improvement through the culture and mindset of its people. Hence, organizations were disappointed and didn't even get close to their aspired improvement because they were merely applying improvement tools without creating the underlying necessary culture to be ready to effectively utilize such tools; tools were imposed systematically and without causing any change on the deepest cultural, psychological, and mindset level of employees. Unfortunately, organizations eventually blame the approach itself and try to find another method. This article aims to investigate the methodology and practice of Toyota Kata and its effect on the continuous development of organizations.
... Economic history knows positive and negative examples, such a prominent one is the multifaceted transformation and development of Toyota repeatedly analysed and described in the management literature (e.g. [Liker, Meier, 2005;Ohno, 1988;Womack, Jones, Roos, 2007]). ...
Book
Full-text available
This study is a new look at the title issue, which is rarely taken up in non-serial publications, while intensive changes in public and economic life and in management, both practical and in its theory, indicate the need for a new look at the strategic approach to the computerisation of organisations. The fundamental reason is the systematically increasing volatility of the environment, which creates new challenges for any strategy, whether general (business of economic entities or statutory of administrative entities or non-profit organisations), domain or functional. The study guides the reader through the complex processes of preparation of the basic strategy, understood as a strategy of organisation development aimed at taking into account the conditions of developing digital civilisation, and then through the processes of preparation of the IT strategy and the strategic plan for implementation of IT strategy, consistent with this basic strategy. It also takes into account the social responsibility requirements of the organisation.
... The approach allows the manufacturing of a wide range of models but maintaining a high degree of quality and productivity. The term "lean production" was first introduced by Womack [4] in his book, The Machine that Change the World. ...
Conference Paper
The concepts of lean and reflective production are some of the alternatives which rose after the decline of mass production. The concept of lean production was first introduced by the Toyota Motor Corporation and is also known as Toyota Production Systems. The concepts puts a heavy emphasis on productivity and has been highly criticised for not being sensitive to employee's health and well-being. Reflective production which is known as the Uddevala concept was first introduced by Volvo at its Uddevalla plant in Sweden to improve work satisfaction through a humane production system and good ergonomics with the objective of increasing productivity. Is the concept of reflective production a better alternative in the effort to increase productivity while providing better ergonomics compared to lean production? In this paper, both concepts are discussed and compared.
... After assisting TNC with a symposium based on innovation, Hal Macomber started consulting with TNC in the mid-1990s and challenged TNC's Design Manager, Mike Daley, to "do something more than just be a foot soldier" (Daley 2022a and2022b). With that challenge, Hal gave Mike a copy of The Machine that Changed the World (Womack et al. 1990) and instructed him to read it in terms of: (1) What are the authors' claims, and are they grounded? (2) What can you see in this book that is like the AEC industry? ...
... Wdrożenie systemu Kanban w przedsiębiorstwie przynosi wiele widocznych i wymiernych korzyści, do których należą m.in.: redukcja zapasów, niosąca ze sobą dyspozycję większymi środkami pieniężnymi, mniejsze koszty magazynowania i przestrzeni, uwidocznienie istniejących wąskich gardeł, skrócenie czasu realizacji zamówień poprzez przyspieszenie przepływu materiałów, wzrost produktywności, skrócenie do minimum czasu magazynowania oraz zwiększenie rotacji zapasami poprzez zwiększenie częstotliwości odnawiania zapasów, redukcja błędów jakościowych, zapewnienie kompletności dostaw do supermarketu, poprawy szybkości w odnowieniu zapasów (głównie poprzez jednoczesne zastosowanie koncepcji przepływu jednej sztuki), ograniczenie nadprodukcji, ustalenie zasad współpracy z klientem supermarketu poprzez jego zrównoważone planowanie (Heijunka), optymalizacja konstrukcji wyrobów w celu uwspólnienia części dla różnych wyrobów (Lean Designing) 71 . 69 Rother M., Shook J., op. ...
Book
Full-text available
Niniejsza książka powstała w oparciu o doświadczenia wdrożeniowe LeanQ Team i samej autorki zdoby-wane na przestrzeni dziesięciu lat we współpracy z kilkuset firmami. Książka ta jest podręcznikiem dla poczatkujących, ale wierzę, że i doświadczeni praktycy znajdą w niej kilka inspiracji. Pisząc tę książkę starałam się odpowiedzieć na potrzeby tych, którzy zauważyli, że są na rynku konkurencyjne firmy, które uzyskują lepsze efekty, taniej oferują produkty, bo stosują Lean i chcieli by się dowiedzieć co to jest „ten Lean”. Kiedy bierzesz do ręki książkę o tytule „Narzędzia…” nie zapominaj, że narzędzia te muszą być elementem spójnej całości – szerszej wizji przyszłości przedsiębiorstwa – Twojego lub tego w którym pracujesz. Wy-korzystywanie i wdrażanie narzędzi dla nich samych, w celu powiedzenia „Mam! Używam!” nie jest Lean i nie da Ci efektów, które obserwujesz u innych. To dokładnie tak jakbyś kupił sobie wiertarkę i cieszył się jej posiadaniem, a nawet radował się nawierconymi dziurami w ścianach, ale… zapomniał na tych ścianach czegoś powiesić, czegoś co tak naprawdę było celem zakupienia wiertarki i podziurawienia ścian. Moja praktyka pokazuje, że firmy, które wykorzystują narzędzia lean świadomie, tj. wiedzą jakie konkretne efekty chcą uzyskać poprzez ich zastosowanie uzyskują dużo lepsze wyniki „z posiadania wiertarki” od tych, którym nakazano wdrażanie Lean i których rozlicza się z doskonałego stosowania narzędzi. Oznacza to, że zanim zdecydujesz się użyć, któregokolwiek z narzędzi ustal konkretny i mierzalny cel, który chcesz osiągnąć. Po zdefiniowaniu celu rozpoznaj sytuację w obszarze, który chcesz usprawnić – stan istniejący i jego problemy (źródłowe!) pomogą Ci w określeniu listy narzędzi, których powinieneś użyć do jego usprawnienia. Z tego powodu w poszczególnych rozdziałach starałam się pokazać jakie rezultaty można osiągnąć i na jakie problemy może odpowiedzieć każde z opisanych narzędzi. Czytając tę książkę, pamiętaj również, że to nie wszystkie narzędzia, którymi dysponuje Lean oraz, które mogą być w Twojej dyspozycji – wiertarką nie dasz rady wbić każdego gwoździa ;). Daję Ci do ręki garść inspiracji, ale nie zatrzymuj się w poszukiwaniach i ciągłym doskonaleniu swojego warsztatu pracy!
... Among them, the philosophy of lean is the most utilized and followed (Jasti and Kodali, 2015;Buer et al., 2018). Lean manufacturing philosophy has been explained as a combination of multiple operations and practices deployed to eliminate non-value-added activities and all kinds of wastes, including human motion, inventory, process duplication, and so on (Womack et al., 1990). In lean philosophy, the organization aims to enhance their productivity and efficiency, performance, sales, customer value, and satisfaction (Yang et al., 2011) through implementing best practices of lean; organizations tend to attain the leanness at a certain level (Genc and De Giovanni 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Amid rising market competitiveness, Industry Revolution (IR) 4.0 oriented technological integration is considered an imperative driver of sustainable organizational performances and green supply chain management. This study explores the role of IR 4.0 powered process technology innovation in enhancing Leanness, Green Supply Chain Management, and Organizational Performance (including operational, economic, and environmental) during COVID-19. For this purpose, a novel conceptual framework was developed, and Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLSM) was employed on primary data of 314 respondents collected from Chinese manufacturing industries. Moreover, Multi-Group Analysis was also implemented to compare firms’ willingness to implement IR 4.0 technologies powered process innovation. The results exhibit that Green IR 4.0 powered process technology innovation improves firm’s leanness and stimulates environmental, optional, and economic performances. Similar findings are endorsed through the green supply chain management channel. Manifestly, COVID-19 instigated firms to adopt IR 4.0-based technological processes for efficient supply chain management. Based on these results, organizations are recommended to integrate IR 4.0 induced technology innovation to spur manufacturing firms’ eco-economic and operational performance.
... Lean term firstly known in 1990 by Womack and Jones in the book "The Machine That Changed The World" when they were talking about the success of Toyota with the Toyota Production System (TPS) which is developed in the 1950s (Pascal, 2015;J. P. Womack, Jones, & Roos, 1990). The most significant theory of Lean is the non-value-added perspective via eliminating wastes, operational enhancement, and continuous improvement (Dey, Malesios, De, Chowdhury, & Abdelaziz, 2019;Ohno, 1988;Saini & Singh, 2020). The strength of Lean is reduce manufacturing cost through elimination all types of waste and guide a company ...
Article
Full-text available
The application of Lean thinking to energy management is the methodology based on the application of the Lean values and the principles of wastes elimination of Lean system. One is then challenging and questioning why a process is using the amount of energy that it does and why it is using energy during non-production hours. One strives to continuously improve and reduce the energy used by implementing improvement ideas. Todays, the pressure of competition in the energy sector is very high. A enterprise that wants to make a difference should continuously run optimization from the production lines. The objective of this study is to measure the impact of Lean tools on energy consumption and energy efficiency improvement. Through a case study, authors point out changes in production and energy efficiency before and after implementing improvement (Kaizen) projects. Besides, this paper illustrate the framework of Lean tools application into energy sector as a guideline for energy efficiency management in industrial enterprises. JEL Classifications: E23, L23, L6, M11, Q01, Q4
... If there is one technique from industry that appears to be focused on basing education on a factory model, then on the surface lean thinking may appear to be exactly that, derived as it is from the lean manufacturing processes developed in the Japanese car industry after the Second World War (Womack, Jones, Roos & Carpenter, 1990). It is certainly the case that some aspects of lean thinking focus very much on the efficient creation of products. ...
Chapter
The relationships between education and industry are many and varied. These relationships can be very direct, for example where students do some of their learning in the workplace, or practitioners engage with schools and universities by bringing their knowledge of the workplace into the classroom. There are, however, many more creative relationships that involve concepts and ideas from industry being adopted and repurposed in new ways for the educational context. We begin this chapter with an overview of the more traditional relationships between education and industry, including areas such as internships and externships, before exploring a range of ideas that have come from repurposing ideas from industry for the very different context of the classroom. These include agile methods from the software industry, lean thinking from the motor industry, creative community spaces for product development, design thinking, crowdsourcing, entrepreneurship, and industry-based models of leading change. We outline several ways in which these ideas from industry can inspire new kinds of student learning, not just to prepare them for the contemporary workplace but to provide them with essential higher-level skills that can help them to prepare for an unpredictable future.KeywordsAgile methodsLean thinkingDesign thinkingMakerspacesCrowdsourcingEntrepreneurshipLeadership
... Se puede considerar que Lean se refiere al proceso de adopción del Sistema Toyota (TPS) en compañías fuera de Toyota (Karlsson y Ahlstrom, 1996). El concepto de Lean ha evolucionado en el tiempo (Hines et al, 2004), se relaciona con varios nombres como TPS (Ohno, 1988), producción esbelta (Krafcik, 1988), manufactura esbelta (Womack, Jones, y Roos, 1990), pensamiento esbelto Lean inking (Womack y Jones, 1996), e Totoya way (Liker, 2004) y el Modelo Shingo (2021). Actualmente, existen dos enfoques que generan consenso en la literatura. ...
Article
Full-text available
e adequate adoption of the Lean production system helps to boostoperational performance. is adoption implies an organizational culture change, whichin turn requires a socio-technical system appropriate to achieve it. e literature suggeststhat the integral adoption of the technical system of Lean is better than a partial adoptionof it. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding such Lean practices, and, as aresult, the technical practices of TPS serve as a reference to address this problem. egeneral objective of this empirical investigation was to evaluate the partial and integralimplementation degree of Lean technical system practices in the maquiladora industryin Mexico. e results indicate that practices related to JIT are usually less implemented.e partial adoption of the technical system practices is more frequent than their integraladoption. Finally, the proportion of PMM that have undergone a partial adoption oftechnical practices is greater than that of those that have done it in an integral way witha high implementation degree of each practice under examination.
... The last ten years has been featured by mergers, alliances , acquisitions and shut-downs in this field of industry, in regular trials to have cost benefits scale through staging amalgamations and different forms of mergers targeted to get incremental product scope beyond multiplying the uncertainties. Rules of inadequate manufacturing (Womack, Jones, & Ross, 2007) have been highly affected in making progressively effective growth and production procedure, yet many auto-mate businesses are still fighting to survive. In specific terms, tiny constructors with core products cannot fight with the massive level attempts of their enormous opposition and are therefore in furious want to create their solutions of the deadlocks. ...
Book
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to analyze the determinants of product innovation and its impact on the financial performance of the organizations. Specifically, the study examines the impact of intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, product-process innovation, marketing support of the product, quality, Dependability/ Delivery, Technology selection, Flexibility on the financial performance of the automobile companies. The models of product innovation provided the theoretical framework for the research. The model of product-process innovation provides the basis for further research. The first concept explains the link between organizations surroundings and its innovation targets (Utterback JM 1974, 1975) (Miller & Friesen, 1982) (Milling, 1996) whereas the second concept explains the connection between firm’s performance level i.e. innovative performance, financial performance, organizational performance and marketing performance and its innovation types i.e. product innovation, process innovation, organizational innovation and marketing innovation (Abernathy & Townseed, 1975) (Abernathy & Utterback, June/July 1978) (Gunday, et al., 2011). From these concepts evolved this study i.e. to evaluate the impact of product innovation on the financial performance of the organizations.
... For example, the rising complexity of manufacturing operations requires the workforce to continually adapt to new processes, machines, and technologies [2]. In production systems, concepts such as automation, digitalization, and lean management are important pillars to address many of manufacturing organizations' challenges [3]. However, because manufacturing is more than a sum of repetitive tasks that can simply be taken over by robots [4], [5], people need to remain in charge not only of developing products but also of troubleshooting, error diagnosis, and executing complex tasks such as repair and rework ( Figure 1) [1], [6]. ...
Conference Paper
While technology is an important catalyst in manufacturing, people are expected to remain integral contributors on future shop floors. For example, it is not always effective to assign tasks such as error diagnosis and repair to autonomous systems. Even more, where total automation is not the preferred option, augmentation technology and Operator Assistance Systems (OAS) provide opportunities to realize the best combinations of people and technological capabilities. However, there is a limited understanding of how to systematically integrate OAS into production systems from a human-centric, value-driven perspective. This is crucial in so far as the successful adoption of OAS often depends on the way it was co-developed and deployed. This paper explores how to integrate OAS into a complex repair process that involves up to 162 diagnosis items. This is realised by applying the Augmented Workforce Canvas-a framework for guiding human-technology integration-as part of a case study in the repair center for display panels of an electronics manufacturer. A result of the study is that OAS can decrease technicians' perceived stress level during the error diagnosis.
... This paper expands our understanding of how lean production can be implemented by changing existing and establishing new organizational routines. Research has comprehensively shown that lean production requires an interplay between lean operations and continuous improvement (CI) (Cua et al., 2001;Flynn et al., 1995a;Imai, 1986;Karlsson and Ahlstr€ om, 1996;Liker, 2004;Ono, 1988;Ward, 2003, 2007;Sugimori et al., 1977;Womack et al., 1991). It is less clear how this interplay unfolds over time. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Building on the routine dynamics literature, this paper aims to expand our philosophical, practical and infrastructural understanding of implementing lean production. The authors provide a process view on the interplay between lean operating routines and continuous improvement (CI) routines and the roles of different actors in initiating and establishing these routines. Design/methodology/approach Using data from interviews, observations and document analysis, retrospective comparative analyses of three embedded case studies on lean implementations provide a process understanding of enacting and patterning lean operating and CI routines in manufacturing SMEs. Findings Incorporating the “who” and “how” next to the “what” of practices and routines helps explain that rather than being implemented in isolation or even in conjunction with each other, sustainable lean practices and routines come about through team leader and employee enactment of the CI practices and routines. Neglecting these patterns aligned with unsustainable implementations. Research limitations/implications The proposed process model provides a valuable way to integrate variance and process streams of literature to better understand lean production implementations. Practical implications The process model helps manufacturing managers, policy makers, consultants and educators to reconsider their approach to implementing lean production or teaching how to do so. Originality/value Nuancing the existing lean implementation literature, the proposed process model shows that CI routines do not stem from implementing lean operating routines. Rather, the model highlights the importance of active engagement of actors at multiple organizational levels and strong connections between and across levels to change routines and work practices for implementing lean production.
... At the shop floor level, the strategies proposed in the literature are the following: the improvements focused on the Capacity Constraint Resource (CCR) [4]; the distributive strategy allocates the efforts to all workstations on the production line [5]; a hybrid strategy that is a combination of the two previous strategies [6]. Some examples of improvement areas are the following: processing time, variability of the processing time, set-up time, mean time between failures, mean time to repair, and demand variability. ...
Article
Full-text available
Workload Control is used in manufacturing systems to obtain more predictable throughput times and accurate delivery dates. The models proposed in the literature are typically focused on machines with fixed processing time. This study, therefore, uses simulation to investigate the performance of the Workload Control method with a controllable processing time of the machines. This research proposes four models to support the decisions on the time to reconfigure the machines and the number of machines reconfigured. The time decision follows two strategies as periodic and continuous, while the machines reconfigured can be all or two considering the workload. The combinations of these strategies lead to four models that are tested in different conditions of reconfiguration times and the number of bottlenecks. The results suggest as the proposed models allow to improve delivery time performance and a more uniform distribution of workload among the machines of the manufacturing systems.
... As such, as Industry 2.0 was spurred, firms gained an edge by organizing, simplifying, and integrating factory flows using just-in-time and lean production [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, manufacturing companies have been improving quality and productivity, reducing costs, and producing customized products according to Industry 4.0. The global value chain (GVC) is also being reorganized and manufacturing companies are recovering the connectivity of value chains based on, e.g., the regional value chain (RVC) and reshoring. With the advent of Industry 4.0, many manufacturing companies are introducing smart factories. A new type of manufacturing execution system (MES), a core system of smart factories, is necessary, owing to the new technologies and the increase in collaboration between companies. Here, we present the framework, development, and application processes of a “cloud-based collaborative MES System” to support the value chain of “order-design-production-delivery” for the manufacture of personalized sportswear products in the fashion industry in Korea. To this end, first, nine future MES deployment directions and frameworks are presented. Second, we present the UML modeling, conceptual framework, and functional framework for MES system development, considering six future MES establishment directions such as cloud and collaboration. Third, the application and effect of the designed and developed cloud-based collaborative MES system are analyzed for design, fabric, printing, and sewing companies that play a role in each stage of the sportswear value chain.
... The pull production logic is a key pillar of the lean manufacturing system introduced in the mid-1990s by the seminal work of Jones, Roos and Womack (1990), and has been widely described in operations management literature (Danese, Manfe, & Romano, 2018;Tortorella, Miorando, & Marodin, 2017). There seems, however, to be a gap in terms of concrete examples of implementing the pull logic as a replacement for push logic, particularly concerning descriptions of the difficulties and gains that such a change causes for the entire chain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context there is little empirical evidence of the relationship between the implementation of lean techniques (such as the pull system) and their real effect on supply chain performance. Objective the purpose of this paper is to describe the process of implementing the pull production logic in the supply chain, reporting the historical evolution of indicators, such as inventory levels and lead times over 23 months of intervention. Methods an action research project was carried out describing chain intervention steps in 2017-2019, divided into phases as follows: planning, data collection, implementation of the action, analysis and evaluation of the results. Results the main contribution was to demonstrate that the production shift from push to pull had a positive impact on lead time, inventory, and planning routines indicators. Inventory levels were reduced by more than 30% and lead times were down approximately 40%. In addition, sales forecast assertiveness increased. Conclusion this paper may provide a reference for organizations that want to make similar changes in their supply chains and significantly change the planning routine of their suppliers and distributors by implementing the pull logic. Keywords: lean production; pull system; push system
... It is a process to establishing, monitoring, and achieving the individuals and organizational goals (Brudan, 2010). It increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the operations of an organization and also increased the satisfaction of customer that raised the productivity level of the firms (Menden, 1981;Womack et al 1990). In 80's the performance measures were used for the accounting system, customer requirement, continuous improvement and time cycle (Ghalayini et al., 1996). ...
Article
Performance Management System (PMS) comforts performance enhancement, implementation, and achievement of objectives and management of organizational structure. Organizations extract more benefits through multidimensional PMS. A little research work exists regarding the influence of PMS on performance of service organizations. This research focuses on banking sector of Punjab. It is anticipated to be among a few pioneer studies with respect to identification of major mechanisms of PMS, and influence of organizational structure on implementation of PMS. Additionally, this study trials the influence of PMS on organizational performance with respect to the country of origin and assesses the impact of PMS on employees' performance. Based on the regression analysis we conclude that most influencing variable for performance related outcome of PMS is top management support and multidimensional performance measures is for staff related outcome of PMS. Results will be helpful to improve the performance of banking sector that adds value to the customer. It will also help the organizations to apply PMS according to their organizational structure and can yield the outcomes of effective implementation.
... Taking lessons learned from Japan, and especially Toyota in the 1980s and 1990s, automakers from other core countries have made their operations and supply chains "leaner" over many years (Womack et al, 1990). Parts and materials that cannot be put to immediate use are considered waste and tagged for reduction or elimination. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In this report, I characterize global value chains (GVCs) in the automotive industry, examine recent trends in vehicle sales, production, and trade on a global level and in Latin America, and discuss how Latin American countries might upgrade their positions in the industry. I also consider several emerging technology trends, since I can say with some certainty that the global automotive industry sits at the doorstep of several interwoven megatrends that are likely to significantly reshape GVCs, although the speed of these changes is still unknown.
Article
Full-text available
Grado de implementación de las prácticas del sistema técnico de administración esbelta en la industria maquiladora de manufactura de México Lean management technical system practices implementation degree in the manufacturing maquiladora industry of Mexico Resumen La adopción adecuada de la administración esbelta ofrece grandes beneficios a las compañías pues implica un cambio de filosofía de administración y de cultura organizacional, además conlleva la implementación de un sistema socio-técnico coherente con sus principios. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar el grado de implementación de 13 prácticas del sistema técnico de administración esbelta en la industria maquiladora de manufactura en México; ello, con respecto al tipo de industria, tamaño de planta y tiempo de adopción de las mismas. Tales prácticas técnicas fueron seleccionadas a partir de la casa del sistema de producción Toyota. Los resultados indican que, a partir de una muestra de 222 plantas de manufactura de industrias como la eléctrica/electrónica, automotriz, aeroespacial, médica, entre otras, y las pruebas estadísticas de muestras independientes de Krustal Wallis y Mann Whitney, que el grado de implementación de las prácticas del sistema técnico de administración esbelta no presentan diferencias estadísticamente significativas por industria. No obstante, sí existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas con respecto al tamaño de planta y al tiempo de adopción de dichas prácticas. Palabras clave: Administración esbelta, sistema de producción Toyota, industria maquiladora. Abstract The adequate adoption of lean management offers great benefits to the companies that implement it; it implies a change in management philosophy and organizational culture, besides the implementation of a socio-technical system that is coherent with its principles. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the implementation degree of 13 technical-system practices of lean management related to the industrial sector, plant size, and time of adoption in the manufacturing-maquiladora industry in Mexico. Such lean management technical practices were selected based on the Toyota Production System House. The results based on a sample of 222 manufacturing plants of electrical/electronic, automotive, aerospace, medical, and other sectors, as well as the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney independent sample tests, indicate that there is no statistical difference in implementation degree between industries. Nevertheless, there is a statistical difference in implementation degree between plant size and time of adoption.
Article
Full-text available
The importance of standardizing processes is one of the basic principles of "Lean" practices, it reduces the workload for the Construction Industry. It is important, particularly because of its artisanal process in Mexico. We can ask ourselves, how to adapt the standard with Visual Lean Management of a steel reinforcement work process that is used in Housing in the Construction Industry in Mexico? This attempt is still in its infancy, that is, the vast majority of the processes are not standardized. The studied process is based on the Mexican competency standard ECO-351-Manufacture of structural elements with reinforcing steel, as a spearhead to standardize the processes, of the concepts in general of the construction, to close the entire work cycle of the work, this article aims to highlight the importance and promote standardization, always seeking continuous improvement of the process by the user, but with a visual management approach (VM), so that production workers understand it faster and easier ; it was carried out through the cycle of continuous improvement of Deming (PDCA).
Technical Report
Full-text available
According to Pampanelli et al. (2013), people's involvement is the foundation for lean thinking. Kaizen is a practice that incorporates people and allows them to contribute their ideas and thoughts to improve processes and goods. To remain competitive, businesses must adapt to concepts or practices that enable continuous improvement. The improvements must focus on eliminating Muda, Mura, and Muri. The aim is to continually improve the process standard using the philosophy of Lean, especially with Continuous Improvement (Kaizen). The employees must be trained in lean thinking, and if there is a problem or deviation, they must act immediately (Ohno, 1988; Womack and Jones, 2003; Tsigkas, 2013; LMJ, 2014).
Chapter
The development for sustainable smallholder farming is not a transparent and replicable procedure because the agricultural sector focuses primarily on productivity with minimum attention on lean management as a sustainability strategy. Currently, the requirement of achieving a 70% increase in production often ignores the complementary factor of reducing wastage and loss to achieve sustainable food security and nutrition. This paper examines integrating lean management concepts in smallholder farming as a catalyst for sustainable agriculture, food, and nutrition security. Several sources indicate that approximately 500 million smallholder farms worldwide cultivate on under 2 ha farm size without adequate land tenure. These farms are primarily in difficult soil conditions and environmentally risk-prone areas, reducing their resilience to changes in weather conditions. Although smallholders comprise 84% of all farms with approximately 30% of global food production, the participants and their dependents constitute almost 75% of the underprivileged, hungry, and undernourished people worldwide. These conditions are exacerbated by smallholder farms experiencing more post-harvest loss due to inadequate market and access to cold storage facilities. Additionally, smallholders have limited adaptive capacity in coping with changing environments due to inadequate scientific knowledge, low income, small farm size, limited technical assistance, and marketing opportunities. Despite these challenges, smallholders are touted as potentially the backbone to implement the United Nations’ Goal #2 for Sustainable Development in achieving zero-hunger by at least 2030. This research presents Ro-Crops Agrotec, a 1.5-ha agroecology family farm in central Trinidad, as a case study with over 26 years of successfully integrating strategic lean management. The management of Ro-Crops demonstrates that sustainable agriculture and food security are achievable through strategic planning, farm management, and innovative waste removal without the measures becoming an obsession. While lean management is associated initially with auto manufacturing, the concept is equally essential in agriculture due to losses in production, post-harvest, and food processing. At the retailing and consumer stages, the annual global wastage consists of almost one-third of consumer food, estimated at approximately 1.3 billion tons. Lean management reduces waste, maximizes efficiency, and increases economic value due to productivity, quality, and flexibility as the primary performance indicators. The lean concepts help in effectively reducing wastage by developing standardised processes and continuously improving the operations.
Article
Full-text available
Hospitais são organizações complexas cujo funcionamento demanda tanto atividades técnicas quanto também administrativas. A razão de ser do hospital é garantir a qualidade no atendimento aos pacientes. Uma forma viável de se atingir este objetivo é o uso correto da Filosofia Lean Healthcare, a qual é derivada das técnicas do Sistema Toyota de Produção. O presente estudo tem por objetivo evidenciar o Lean Healthcare e suas características por meio de um modelo conceitual construído a partir da literatura científica. O estudo consiste numa pesquisa de cunho explicativo e descritivo com abordagem qualitativa. Além disso, utilizou-se para embasamento do artigo a pesquisa bibliográfica. Os resultados apontam que o sucesso do Lean Healthcare está fortemente associado com a participação das pessoas, a criação de uma cultura organizacional voltada para a melhoria contínua. Além disso, a utilização correta das ferramentas de Lean também foram vistas como fator condicionante para o êxito na prática desta filosofia. Estas situações somadas com as atitudes dos colaboradores voltadas para a melhoria contínua representam as entradas necessárias para que o processo do Lean Healthcare funcione adequadamente. Consoante o modelo conceitual proposto, isto irá gerar a melhoria dos processos do hospital, o encontro de soluções pertinentes aos problemas do hospital, a criação de valor para os pacientes em cada tarefa realizada e o uso producente dos recursos. Assim, os resultados gerados nesta perspectiva são a redução dos desperdícios, a melhoria nos serviços prestados, a redução de custos e, por conseguinte, o incremento nos resultados do hospital.
Book
Full-text available
This first edition of Purchasing and Supply Chain Management: Strategies and Realities has been produced in response to market demand. I have developed and reinforced the concept of purchasing and supply chain management as a dynamic and managerial process, and have added material that reflects the current more general view of purchasing and supply chain management as a strategic function. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States of America, subsequent impacts, and other orldwide tragic events resulting from the war on terror have created a need to revisit how we achieve effective purchasing and supply chain management. Post 9/11 has had no ffect? On September 11, 2001, terrorists left their mark of murder and took the ives of any citizens. With the passing of months and years, it is the natural human desire to resume a quiet life and to put that day behind us, as if waking from a dark dream. The hope that danger has passed is comforting, is understanding, and is false. The attacks that followed on Bali, Jakarta, Casablanca, Bombay, Mombassa, Najaf, Jerusalem, Riyadh, Baghdad, and Istanbul, for example (and indeed London in July 2005), were not dreams. They are part of the global campaign by terrorist networks to intimidate and demoralize all who pose them (Bush, 2003).
Thesis
Full-text available
The need to sustain military operations lead to the military originally funding the concept of logistics. Building massive depots is how the military supply chain traditionally has been managed. Society, the taxpayers, are no-longer willing to sustain inefficient methods of military logistics. This study intends to investigate how can Lean Methods can be implemented into the Danish Defence Spare Parts Supply Chain in order to improve the performance of the supply chain in a cost-efficient manner. Information for this study was gathered through primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected via a questionnaire providing information about the Danish Defence Spare Parts Supply Chain, supported by follow-up interviews. The secondary research was a literature review, reviewing peer-reviewed journals, books, reports, and case studies. The findings from the literature review showed that key to Lean is to establish value as perceived by the customers, and for public sector organisations to establish who the customers are. It was found that Lean must be lived at all levels of the organisation and that support from top management is essential for a successful Lean change process, also measurements of performance is essential to Lean development. In the public sector fail rates are high, as Lean in the public sector often is solely focused on Lean tools, lacks support from leadership and is associated with negative impacts on the staff. This project proposes a framework for use of Lean methods in the Danish Defence supply chain. The framework, taking the current state and realities into consideration, can be employed into real life in the Danish Defence. Further research should be expanded to collect primary data wider and over a longer period in order to add depth and validity to the research allowing to develop relevant models and framework for implementation of Lean methods into military contexts.
Chapter
Since the early nineteenth century, the economies of countries have moved from a structure based predominantly on agricultural production to the production of products, and since the mid-twentieth century to economies in which services have an increasing weight in the GDP (World Bank in World Development Indicators: Structure of output; Chesbrough Open services innovation, Jossey-Bass, Wiley, 2011): for example, in the USA, the service sector represented 76.9% in 2019 (World Bank in World Development Indicators: Structure of output, 2019).This trend is common to all countries, only the intensity of the transition varies.
Chapter
Lean Manufacturing has been applied in numerous sectors around the world for years and has shown its efficiency to both the company and the customer. This approach, which is based on continuous improvement, attempts to minimize product cycle time, enhance quality, lower costs, meet delivery deadlines and improve flexibility (Sharma and Lata 2018) by eliminating or reducing various wastes in the manufacturing process (Gbededo 2018). Lean shipbuilding was originally used in the shipbuilding sector in Japan between 1956 and 1995. Due to the implementation of lean principles, the company’s productivity increased by 150% (Thomas 2001). Despite its success, the use of lean in shipbuilding has been limited regarding its specificity (Sigmud 2007). Lean manufacturing has been used in Tunisia for some years and has proven to be effective in the automotive and aerospace industries. Shipbuilding is different from automotive production, but if manufacturing can improve so dramatically using Lean, why can’t shipbuilding? How can a shipbuilding industry have quick results after implementing lean? The purpose of this paper is to provide answers to those questions. It studies the application of lean in a Tunisian shipbuilding company case. KeywordsLean manufacturingShipbuildingKaizenStandardizationSOP
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to identify the extent of applying lean supply practices in the Garments manufacturing companies in Jordan, five variables were selected to be studied since the researcher believes that, they represent the lean supply concept, these variables are, Supplier feedback, Just in time delivery by suppliers, Supplier development, Customer involvement and Facilitation of just in time production, a survey questionnaire was distributed for that purpose to those who occupy managerial positions in those companies, the study revealed that the Garments Manufacturing Companies in Jordan adoption to the lean supply practices is considerably high at all aspects, except for supplier development which was given average rating.
Article
This paper draws on the theory of mastermind narration developed by M.J. Clarke in the context of prestige television dramas with highly complex non-linear narratives and inconsistent characters (Clarke, 2012) and Jason Mittell’s (2015) concept of ‘forensic fandom’ to offer a reading of the Kingdom Hearts (Square Enix, 2002-) franchise in light of postmodern practices of textual consumption characteristic of current fandoms, such as those explored by Henry Jenkins (2006) and Matt Hills (2002), but also addressing Japanese theorists Hiroki Azuma (2009) and Eiji Ōtsuka’s (2010) work around the notion of the Otaku. I argue that the series’ significant deviation from Disney’s traditional approach to narrative (Wasko, 2001) indicates a desire for the corporation to explore radical new forms of textual production, and to negotiate emerging fan consumption practices within the safe environment of a controlled and licensed text. Just as cultural theorists like Clarke and Anne Allison (2006) argue that a textual product can often contain traces that reflect its wider conditions of production, I propose that the Kingdom Hearts franchise can be read allegorically as an extended experiment by Disney into new forms of collaborative storytelling. I attempt to demonstrate this by concluding with an exploration of the metareflexive depiction of the fan practice of cosplay.
Chapter
Vocational education has a centuries-old tradition. With its timeless form of vocational work, with mastery and with the master’s apprenticeship, crafts have created a basic form of vocational education (chap. 3). Above all, the forms of the applied arts represent a high quality of shaping competence. This could not develop without a highly developed professional action knowledge. In chap. 3 we illustrate that this insight still applies to modern crafts.
Chapter
The guiding idea of modern vocational education: the ability to shape the world of work, was founded by the “work and technology” research in the mid-1980s (cf. Sachverständigenkommission Arbeit und Technik, 1988, Chap. III, 4.).
Chapter
As organizations are moving towards a circular economy to enable a transition to more sustainable business practices, there is a need for knowledge on how companies can leverage the capabilities of the entire organization to reach this goal. In this paper, we present some preliminary but promising results from a single company that has adapted the use of Hoshin Kanri—a strategic management method often associated with lean which seeks to engage the whole organization in breakthrough improvements in Safety, Quality, Delivery, and Cost. The case company has over the last year experimented with including Sustainability (the term the company uses internally) targets in their Hoshin, to develop circular capabilities within the organization. We present a literature study on Circular Economy, Sustainability, Kaizen and Hoshin Kanri, which formed the basis for Action Learning Research interventions. We then compare the results from these interventions with the findings from the review. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results and point to further research.
Chapter
For years, manufacturing companies have been working with developing and implementing lean thinking to continuously improve the management of their operations. Since lean thinking provides tools and approaches to solve problems enterprise-wide, there is an ambition among lean companies to use the lessons learned while applying lean, to develop and implement a more circular economy approach to their operations. However, extant research combining lean and circular economy concern mostly the business model level and there is a lack of research on how to bring circular economy thinking to the operations. Even though both lean thinking and circular economy emphasize the importance of designing products that can be manufactured in an efficient way, using as few resources as possible, and without waste, the extant literature combining these concepts refers mainly to the processes concerning the product’s end of life. This paper deploys the ‘by design’ aspect of circularity through the lens of lean product development, a key element within the lean thinking concept.KeywordsCircular economyLean product development
Article
Operations managers often manage in times of change that exert pressure on values and methods usually developed during more stable eras. With increasing global volatility, companies open and close plants because of demand shifts, cost and reshoring considerations, and government‐induced and market forces. Impacts of plant closures on local communities, employees, suppliers, and other stakeholders have been documented, but plant closure processes have not been extensively studied. This paper describes an engaged research study of Toyota Australia's manufacturing closure processes. We apply psychological contract theory, particularly of contract breach, to examine the “respectful” approach Toyota used to close its assembly operation in Melbourne. We examined the role that stakeholder theory plays in describing managerial motivations. Toyota allocated resources beyond typical expectations to prepare its workforce for their post‐Toyota careers and lives. During the 4‐year transition process, employee performance, and engagement improved, supporting propositions that reserves of employee goodwill can come into play when a psychological contract breach occurs. Further, leadership actions can moderate the negative impacts predicted by that theory, beyond outcomes that more transactional views would predict. Our study offers an elaborated model of psychological contract breach that future researchers can apply to plant closures and related operational contexts. When a psychological contract breach or major change such as a plant closure occurs, existent goodwill in the workforce toward the company may mitigate against the potential diminution of motivation, morale, productivity, and quality. Building a reserve of goodwill therefore creates future value for the firm. Best practice in effecting a respectful plant closure includes initiatives that provide upskilling and reskilling to the “leaving” workers; such initiatives minimize deleterious impacts on workers and the community. Operations managers should play close attention to ways that their statements and actions shape the psychological contract that exists in the minds of workers, and consider how future actions may violate or reinforce the contract.
Chapter
This chapter aims to highlight the digital technologies that are designed to complement the operation of lean manufacturing. Firstly, Industry 4.0 has been explained that helps to complement Lean Manufacturing to gain continuous improvement, better customer satisfaction and improved operational efficiency. The results of combining digital technologies with Lean Manufacturing yield the concept of “Lean Industry 4.0”. Secondly, blockchain occurs as a disruptive innovation to resolve the problems of lack of an integrated lean management system across the supply chain network, which is also discussed. Thirdly, the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system is analyzed, and its ability to offer high levels of accurate, real-time information, decrease time-consuming activities and labor cost while increasing product visibility and operational speed is covered. Fourthly, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and robotics are also discussed with the ability to deal with complexity, increase productivity and efficiency with the automatic system, and decrease production costs. Finally, other non-common yet useful tools are mentioned to give a comprehensive view of the application of digital technologies with Lean Manufacturing, including automated guided vehicles (AGVs), virtual stimulation (VS), and cybersecurity. To consolidate our findings, two case studies are presented to give realistic viewpoints of digital technology adoption from two giant firms in the textile and apparel industry, namely Uniqlo and H&M. The findings of a survey based on Vietnam’s fashion and textile industries on the use of technology such as RFID is also included in this chapter.KeywordsIndustry 4.0BlockchainRFIDArtificial intelligenceRoboticsAutomated guided vehicles
Article
Surprisingly, a concept as popular as agility has appeared carelessly in research streams. The literature abounds with studies where authors present their work without adequately defining the concept and leaving its interpretation to the reader. The agility construct also shows up with scales and measurements borrowed from other studies without any justification and adjustment regarding the study's scope, content, and boundary. To analyze the coherence of the notion of agility, we review the scholarly work of the past three decades and examine the literature for theory-based use of the concept. Our work provides sense-making of the concept of agility and its place in five different theoretical perspectives. Using various techniques, we review some 476 articles to assess agility's conceptual and evolutionary advancement. We conclude with several avenues for future research.
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the synergies and trade-offs between lean management practices and digital transformation promoted via Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies in current manufacturing shop floors. We used a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to examine possible interactions in a sample of 568 European manufacturing plants from the European Manufacturing Survey. Our results show that various causal pathways exist between lean practices and I4.0 technologies that contribute to improving industrial performance, highlighting the influence of vertical and horizontal data integration (VHDI) even ahead of other more extended applications, such as robotics. Furthermore, our results reveal that the combination of I4.0 technologies analyzed (VHDI, advanced robotics, and additive manufacturing) can lead to sufficient conditions for improving plant performance. From a management point of view, our findings underline the need to avoid myopic attitudes toward I4.0 opportunities. Lean programs should be designed with technological issues in mind, as digital features can establish powerful mechanisms that develop and reinforce the contributions of operational routines to manufacturing strengths in the face of new market requirements. In addition, managers must take into account the implications of the new situation: continuous learning and workforce training will be essential for workers to adapt to the requirements that digital transformation of shop floors has brought about.
Article
Full-text available
В статье рассматривается работа ученого топономиста Х.Хасанова и его значение для каждого учителя и читателя книги, интересующийся топонимикой и историей краеведения, который сможет получить для себя необходимую ценную и интересную информацию.
Chapter
Within regulation analytical framework, there are no reason for any convergence of all economies toward a canonical and superior form of capitalism. There are many theoretical and historically observed mix of market, firm, state and community logics. The primacy of political coalition in the design and architecture of institutional forms is another source of diversity across nations. Furthermore, two key processes govern the evolution of capitalisms, respectively endometabolism and hybridization. Creative destruction is not only the outcome of competition, but of these other processes. The diversity of past and present capitalisms is a major stylized fact and display contrasted mix of short run flexibility, dynamic efficiency and social justice objectives. China is a good example of adaptability of capitalist relations to a quite different society. Contrary to a common intuition, internationalization has polarized contrasted trajectories across the four continents.KeywordsDiversity of capitalismsChinese capitalismEndometabolismHybridizationLatin AmericaEuropeAsian capitalismsSoviet Regime
Chapter
Along with labor division deepening, many intermediate level entities have emerged and fill the gap between macro and micro levels. Productive models significantly differentiate various capitalisms. Many sectors are governed by ad hoc institutional devices. Social innovation systems do channel research and development direction and intensity. The production of skills is another distinctive factor in competitiveness. National welfare systems are an important novelty of contemporary capitalisms. Each development mode displays a specific inequality regime. Last but not least how do ecological constraints shape the development modes? The interrelation between all these domains brings an unprecedented complexity in policy making in contemporary capitalisms.KeywordsInstitutional arrangementsProductive modelsSocial innovation systemsSkills regimesNational welfares systemsInequality regimesEnvironment institutional devices
Article
Design optimisation of a multidisciplinary project in engineering involves the decomposition of a system into disciplines and the subsequent association of their contributions. This work was aimed at presenting the most common decomposition and association techniques currently used in multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO). Amongst the decomposition techniques this work includes hierarchical and non-hierarchical approaches as well as the most popular numerical procedures. The association techniques include: one-level methods (e.g. all-at-once optimisation and simultaneous analysis and design), multilevel methods (e.g. concurrent subspace optimisation and collaborative optimisation) and robust design. This work also incorporates an illustrative numerical example.
GM Wields the Ax: 74,000 Jobs Being Slashed, 21 Plant Closings by 1995
  • Gardner