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Health-Promoting Properties of Eucommia ulmoides : A Review

Authors:
  • Institute of Subtropical Agriculture Chinese Academy of Sciences

Abstract

Eucommia ulmoides (EU) (also known as “Du Zhong” in Chinese language) is a plant containing various kinds of chemical constituents such as lignans, iridoids, phenolics, steroids, flavonoids, and other compounds. These constituents of EU possess various medicinal properties and have been used in Chinese Traditional Medicine (TCM) as a folk drink and functional food for several thousand years. EU has several pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiaging, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Hence, it has been widely used solely or in combination with other compounds to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, sexual dysfunction, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and neurological diseases. This review paper summarizes the various active ingredients contained in EU and their health-promoting properties, thus serving as a reference material for the application of EU.
Review Article
Health-Promoting Properties of Eucommia ulmoides:AReview
Tarique Hussain,1,2 Bi’e Tan,1,3 Gang Liu,2Oso Abimbola Oladele,4Najma Rahu,5
M. C. Tossou,1,2 and Yulong Yin1
1Observation and Experiment Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central China,
Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center for Healthy Livestock and Poultry Production,
Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan 410125, China
2University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10008, China
3Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients, Changsha, Hunan 410000, China
4Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Federal University of Agriculture,
Abeokuta 110101, Nigeria
5Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University,
Tando Jam, Sindh 70050, Pakistan
Correspondence should be addressed to Bi’e Tan; bietan@isa.ac.cn
Received  November ; Accepted  January 
Academic Editor: Il-Moo Chang
Copyright ©  Tarique Hussain et a l. is is an open access article distributed under the CreativeC ommons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Eucommia ulmoides (EU) (also known as “Du Zhong” in Chinese language) is a plant containing various kinds of chemical
constituents such as lignans, iridoids, phenolics, steroids, avonoids, and other compounds. ese constituents of EU possess
various medicinal properties and have been used in Chinese Traditional Medicine (TCM) as a folk drink and functional food
for several thousand years. EU has several pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inammatory, antiallergic,
antimicrobial, anticancer, antiaging, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Hence, it has been widely used solely or
in combination with other compounds to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, sexual dysfunction, cancer, metabolic
syndrome, and neurological diseases. is review paper summarizes the various active ingredients contained in EU and their health-
promoting properties, thus serving as a reference material for the application of EU.
1. Introduction
Eucommia ulmoides (EU) (commonly called “Du Zhong” in
Chinese language) belong to the family of Eucommiaceae,
a genus of the small tree native to Central China [].
is plant is widely cultivated in China on a large scale
because of its medicinal importance. About  compounds
have been isolated from EU which include lignans, iridoids,
phenolics, steroids, and other compounds. Complementary
herbs formula of this plant (such as delicious tea) has
shown some medicinal properties. e leaf of EU has higher
activity related to cortex, ower, and fruit [, ]. e leaves
of EU have been reported to enhance bones strength and
body muscles [], thus leading to longevity and promoting
fertility in humans []. Delicious tea formula made from
the leaf of EU was reported to reduce fattiness and enhance
energy metabolism. Flavonoid compounds (such as rutin,
chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and caeic acid) have been
reported to exhibit antioxidants activity in the leaves of EU
[].
Although there has been enough literature on phyto-
chemical properties of EU, few studies however existed on
the pharmacological properties of the various compounds
extracted from the barks, seeds, stems, and leaves of EU.is
review paper will elucidate detailed information regarding
dierent compounds extracted from the various parts (barks,
seeds, stem, and leaf) of EU and the prospective uses of these
compounds in health-promoting properties with scientic
lines of evidence and thus provide a reference material for the
application of EU.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 5202908, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5202908
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
2. Chemical Composition of
Eucommia ulmoides
Various compounds isolated from dierent parts of EU are
shown in Table .
2.1. Lignans and Iridoids. Lignans and their derivatives
are the key components of EU []. To date,  lignans
(such as bisepoxylignans, monoepoxylignans, neolignans,
andsesquilignans)havebeenisolatedfrombark,leaves,
and seeds of EU. Iridoid glycoside, a class of secondary
metabolites, is the second main component of EU. Iridoids
are typically found in plants known as glycosides. Twenty-
four iridoids have been isolated and identied from EU
(Table ).ese isolated compounds include geniposidic
acid, aucubin, and asperuloside which have been reported
to have wide pharmacological properties [–]. Two new
compounds of iridoids, Eucommides-A and -C, have recently
been isolated. ese two natural compounds are considered
as conjugates of iridoid and amino acids. However, the
mechanism underlying their activity is not available [].
2.2. Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic compounds which are
derivedfromthefoodshavebeenreportedtohavepositive
impactonhumanhealth[,].Aboutphenoliccom-
pounds have been isolated and identied from EU []. Total
content of phenolic compounds (in gallic acid equivalents
of all the extracts) was analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu
phenol reagent. Eects of seasonal variation on the contents
of some compounds and antioxidants have been reported.
Within the same year, higher contents of phenolics and
avonoidswerediscoveredintheleavesofEUinAugust
and May, respectively. Rutin, quercetin, geniposidic acid, and
aucubin existed in higher concentration in May or June [].
Moreover,higheractivityof,-diphenyl--picrylhydrazyl
(DPPH) radical scavenging activity and metal ion chelating
ability were found in the leaves of EU harvested in August.
Increased content of food antioxidants was also reported in
May when compared to other periods of the year []. e
leaf of EU has been found to be a rich source of aminoacids,
vitamins, minerals, and avonoids such as quercetin, rutin,
and geniposidic acid [, ]. A total of  avonoids have been
isolated from Eucommia plants []. Rutin and quercetin are
the most important avonoids []. Flavonoids are important
compounds which are common in nature and are considered
as secondary metabolites and function as chemical messen-
gers, physiological regulators, and cell cycle inhibitors.
2.3. Steroids and Terpenoids. Six steroids and ve terpenoids
have been extracted and categorized from EU. ese
include 𝛽-sitosterol, daucosterol, ulmoprenol, betalin,
betulic acid, ursolic acid, eucommidiol, rehmaglutin C, and
,𝛼,,𝛼-tetrahydro--hydroxymethyl-cyclopenta[c]pyran-
-carboxylic methyl ester which was specically isolated
fromthebarkofEU[].Loliolidehasalsobeenisolated
from the leaves [].
2.4. Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides from EU for  days
at the concentrations of – mg/kg were reported to
exhibit protective eects on kidneys as observed by malon-
aldehyde and glutathione levels aer renal perfusions [].
Histological examination also showed evidence of antiox-
idative properties. Extracts from the bark of EU using %
ethanol also showed protective eects against cadmium at
– mg/kg []. Histological examination also showed
that EU in combination with Panax pseudoginseng at %
and % weight, respectively, for six weeks at a dose rate of
.–. mg/kg exerted light protective eects on glomerular
ltration rate []. Two new polysaccharides have been sepa-
rated from EU, which are eucomman A and B [].
2.5. Other Ingredients and Chemicals. Amino acids, microele-
ments, vitamins, and fatty acids have also been isolated
from EU [, –]. Sun et al. also discovered new com-
pounds such as n-octacosanoic acid, and tetracosanoic-,-
dihydroxypropylester from EU [].
Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from the seed of
EU showed dierent concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty
acids such as linoleic acid, linolenic acid (.% of total
fatty acids, TFAs), and linolelaidic acid (.% of TFAs).
Meanwhile, the main monounsaturated fatty acid isolated
from the seed was found to be isoleic acid (.% of TFAs).
Dominant saturated fatty acids isolated include palmitic acid
and stearic acid which represent .% and .% of TFAs,
respectively [].
3. Health-Promoting Compounds of
Eucommia ulmoides
3.1. Protective Eects on Cardiovascular System. In Chinese
traditional medicines, Eucommia is considered as a major
herbal tonic for cardiac patients. Eucommia bark extract is an
active component used for antihypertensive formulations. It
has been conrmed in many human as well as animal models
as a vasorelaxant. Lignan from EU when administered to rats
of the Okamoto strain (SHR) at the dose rate of  mg/kg
for  weeks resulted in improved vascular remodeling and
reduced mean arterial blood pressure. EU minimizes blood
pressure at the dose of –mg/kg. However, in high
fructose fed diet, it develops insulin resistance and hyper-
tension [–]. Supplementation of  and  mg of EU
for  weeks and thrice daily for  weeks showed minimal
reduction in blood pressure and reduction in systolic and
diastolic blood pressure []. Antihypertensive eect on the
parasympathetic nervous system has been reported following
the application of EU []. EU also serves as a vasorelaxative
agent depending on nitric oxide and assumed to be linked
with potassium channels []. EU has beta blocking potential
which at .% w/v reduces isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis
from . to . times the buer control []. EU has been
demonstrated to prevent hypertensive remodeling which is
associated with aldose reductase inhibition []. e appli-
cation of lignans from EU under condition of hypertension
due to vascular remodeling was reported to serve as a new
therapeutic agent [].
EU also showed antihyperlipidemic properties by sup-
pressing hepatic fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis [].
In hyperlipidemic hamsters, dietary supplementation with
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
T : Compounds isolated from various parts of Eucommia ulmoides.
Category Compounds References
Bark of Eucommia ulmoides
Lignans
(+)--Hydroxypinoresinol-󸀠,󸀠󸀠-di-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
(+)--Hydroxypinoresinol-󸀠-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
(+)--Hydroxypinoresinol-󸀠󸀠-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
(+)-Epipinoresinol []
(+)-l-Hydroxypinoresinol []
(+)-Medioresinol []
(+)-Medioresinol-di-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
(+)-Pinoresinol []
(+)-Pinoresinol-󸀠-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
(+)-Pinoresinol-di-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
(+)-Pinoresinol--O-𝛽-D-glucopyranosyl(–)-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
(+)-Syringaresinol []
(+)-Syringaresinol-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
Eucommin A (+)-medioresinol-󸀠-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
Liriodendrin (+)-syringaresinol-di-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
Phenolics
Astragalin [, ]
Isoquercetin [, ]
Quercetin []
Quercetin--O-galactoside (hyperin) []
Quercetin--O-xyloglucoside []
Rutin [–]
Wogonside []
()-Epieateehin []
(±)-reo-guaiacyl glycerol []
Caeic acid []
Catechin []
Chlorogenic acid [, ]
Coniferol []
Erythro-guaiacylglycerol-𝛽-coniferyl aldehyde ether []
Eucophenoside []
Methyl chlorogenate []
Protocatechuic acid []
reo-guaiacylglycerol-𝛽-coniferyl aldehyde ether []
Vanillic acid []
Iridoids
Deoxyeucommiol []
Eucommiol-II []
Eucommiside-I []
Genipin []
Geniposide []
Geniposidic acid [, ]
Monoepoxylignans
()-Olivil-󸀠,󸀠󸀠-di-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
(+)-Cycloolivil []
(+)-Olivil []
(+)-Olivil-󸀠-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside [, ]
(+)-Olivil-󸀠󸀠-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
Neolignans
Citrusin B []
Dehydrodiconiferylalcohol-,𝛾󸀠-di-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
Dihydroxydehydrodiconiferyl alcohol []
Erythro-dihydroxydehydrodiconiferyl alcohol []
reo-dihydroxydehydrodiconiferyl alcohol []
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
T  : C ont inued .
Category Compounds References
Sesquilignans
()-HedyotolC-󸀠,󸀠󸀠󸀠-di-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
Syringylglycerol-𝛽-syringaresinol ether-󸀠󸀠-󸀠󸀠󸀠-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
Syringylglycerol-𝛽-syringaresinol ether-󸀠󸀠-󸀠󸀠󸀠-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside []
Steroid and terpenoid
,𝛼,,𝛼-Tetrahydro--hydroxymethyl-cyclopenta[c]pyran--carboxylicmethyl ester []
Betalin []
Betulic acid []
Daucosterol []
Eucommidiol []
Rehmaglutin C []
Ursolic acid []
Others
(𝛼R)-𝛼,,󸀠,󸀠-Tetrahydroxydihydrochalcone []
(𝛼R)-𝛼-O-𝛽-D-Glucopyranosyl-,󸀠,󸀠-trihydroxydihyd []
,󸀠,󸀠-Trihydroxychalcone []
Eucomman A []
Eucomman B []
n-Oetaeosanoic acid []
Quercetin--O-𝛼-L-arabinopyranosyl-(-)-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside [, ]
Tetraeosanoie-,-dihydroxypropyl ester []
Leaves of Eucommia ulmoides
Phenolics
Astragalin [, ]
Hirsutin []
Isoquercetin [, ]
Kaempferol []
Kaempferol--O-󸀠󸀠-acetyl-glucoside []
Kaempferol--O-rutinoside []
Quercetin--O-𝛼-L-arabinopyranosyl-(-)-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside [, , ]
Rutin [, ]
Ajugoside []
Asperuloside []
Asperulosidic acid []
Aueubin or aueuboside []
Deacetyl asperulosidic acid []
Eucommiol []
Eucommioside []
Eucomoside A []
Eucomoside B []
Eucomoside C []
Geniposidic acid [, ]
Harpagide acetate []
Reptoside []
Scandoside--O-acetate []
Ulmoside [, ]
-(,-Dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid []
(-Hydroxyphenyl-propionic acid) []
,-Dihydrobenzonic acid []
Caeic acid [, ]
Chlorogenic acid methylester []
Eatechol []
Isochlorogenic acid A []
Isochlorogenic acid C []
p-trans-Coumaric acid []
Pyrogallol []
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
T  : C ont inued .
Category Compounds References
Monoepoxylignans (+)-Olivil-󸀠-O-𝛽-D-glucopyranoside [, ]
Steroid and terpenoid Loliolide []
Ulmoidol []
Others Ethyl glucopyranoside []
Seeds of Eucommia ulmoides
Iridoids
Ulmoidoside A []
Ulmoidoside B []
Ulmoidoside C []
Ulmoidoside D []
Phenolics Dihydrocaeic acid []
Stems of Eucommia ulmoides
Phenolics
Coniferin []
Koaburaside []
Syringin []
leafextractofEUatthedoseof.g/gforweeks
reduced the concentrations of triglycerides, total choles-
terol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and free
acids in plasma and hepatic lipids compared to control group
(fed  g, coconut oil, .% cholesterol, w/w) []. In a similar
manner,  mg or  mg intraduodenal injection of EU leaf
extract reduced plasma triglyceride levels [].
3.2. Antioxidant Eects. Antioxidant compounds from
Eucommia plant reduced the level of free radicals [, ]
and improved the disease condition caused by oxidative
stress [, ]. Strong antioxidant properties of EU have been
established under in vivo and in vitro studies[,].Extracts
from EU reduced the level of hydrogen peroxide which
expresses some caspase proteins by MCTE cells up to half
concentration from . to  𝜇g/mL []. Extract of EU was
reported to increase the actions of erythrocyte, superoxide
dismutase, and catalase and glutathione peroxidase and
reduce the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and lipid
peroxide in erythrocytes, liver, and kidney []. Studies on
diabetic rats indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) can
be enhanced by Eucommia bark. Eucommia also increases the
level of other antioxidant enzymes in the blood to neutralize
free radicals [].
Phenolics and avonoids of medicinal herbs contributed
signicantly to oxidative activities in EU [, –]. Pheno-
lics and avonoids safely react with free radicals by donating
a hydrogen atom or an electron and terminate chain reaction
beforethevitalorgansaredamaged[].Antioxidantprop-
erties from leaves of the EU roasted cortex and seeds were
analyzed by calculating radical scavenging activity of ,-
diphenyl--picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant
power and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity in a 𝛽-
carotene/linoleic acid system. Results indicated that leaf of
the extract showed maximum DPPH radical scavenging
activity with reducing rate and inhibition rate of .%,
followed by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (.%) and
the roasted cortex extract (.%). However, the seed extract
had the lowest activity of .%. In ferric reducing antioxidant
power assays, the order of ferric reducing activities of EU
extracts from leaf, seed, and roasted cortex was compared
with positive control. In the 𝛽-carotene/linoleic acid emul-
sion system, the leaf extract showed better antioxidant capac-
ity (.%) than the roasted cortex extract (.%) or seed
extract (.%) [].
In addition, aucubin compounds of EU have been
demonstrated to exhibit photoprotective eects against
oxidative stress. Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation produces free
radicals in the skin which induce the synthesis of metallopro-
teinases (MMPs) causing photoaging in the skin, wrinkling,
and discoloration which are prone to cancer. Aucubin played
a vital role in defense mechanism against free radicals caused
by UV irradiation [].
3.3. Antibacterial, Antiviral, and Anti-Inammatory Activity.
EU have been reported to inhibit the growth of bacteria
and reduce the secretion of proinammatory cytokines in
few studies. Ethanol extracts of EU at the dose rate of .
and . mg/mL of % (v/v) were reported to exhibit some
antibacterial (against Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylo-
coccus aureus) and antifungal (against Aspergillus fumigatus)
eects [–, –]. Furthermore, it has been reported that
the same concentration of . mg/mL EU extracts reduces
the secretion of proinammatory cytokines including tumor
necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-𝛼), interleukin- (IL-), and IL-
𝛽by human monocytic (THP-) cells pretreated with heat-
killed P. a c n e s . Aqueous extract of EU signicantly decreased
cyclooxygenase- (COX-) enzyme with IC50 = . mg/mL,
although the eects were lowered compared with nonsteroid
anti-inammatory drugs []. Cortex of EU at the concentra-
tion of . and . mg/mL decreased production of (TNF-𝛼,
IL-, and COX-) prostaglandin E and nitric oxide [].
Suppression of HIV infection has also been reported with
daily intake of EU extracts or its alkaline extracts in tea
formula. Alkaline extract of EU leaf in combination with
%uronicacid,%reducingsugars,and%neutral
sugars reduced HIV-induced cytopathicity (HTLV-III) with
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
extremely low cytotoxicity in infected MT- cells (EC50)[].
Lv et al. also demonstrated that the samples from EU Oliver
had potent inhibitory activity against the HIV gp six-helix
bundle formation [].
3.4. Antiobesity Eects. Previous studies have shown that EU
has antiobesity and antimetabolic syndrome properties [, ,
, , ]. It has been demonstrated that both Eucommia
leaf extract (ELE) and Eucommia green leaf powder (EGLP)
markedly suppressed body weight and white adipose tissue
(WAT) in female ICR mice fed high-fat diets (HFD). e
antiobesity eect of Eucommia green leaf extract (EGLE)
has been linked to various compounds such as geniposidic
acid, asperuloside, and chlorogenic acid which was isolated
from the extract []. Application of water extract from the
leaf of EU at the rate of % diet was reported to reduce
fat accumulation rate in osteoporotic mice [] although
application of – mg/kg EU leaf extract beyond 
weeks showed no eect on fat accumulation in fructose
overfed rats [].
Antiobesity and antimetabolic syndrome activity in rat
fed with a % high-fat diet could be maintained through
secretion and regulation of adipocytokines that depend on
the accumulation of visceral fat to improve insulin resistance
or hyperlipidemia []. Administration of EU extracts at the
concentration of – mg/kg intake has been reported
to enhance gene expressions for fat oxidation []. Adminis-
tration of the extract was conrmed to increase fat oxidation
in liver [, , –]. is increased fat oxidation in liver
following administration of EU extract was attributed to the
rate limiting stages of 𝛽-oxidation (CPTA, ACOX, and
ACADVL), 𝛼-oxidation, and 𝜔-oxidation (CYPA) [].
3.5. Neuroprotective Eects. e stem bark extract of EU
exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties in vitro
( 𝜇g/mL) IC50 and neuroprotective eects against beta-
amyloid proteins []. It also inhibits –% of cytotoxicity
and ecacy of oxidative biomarkers when applied at a con-
centration of . 𝜇g/mL []. Stem barkextract of EU showed
higher protection activity against memory dysfunctions at
the dose of – mg/kg with intracerebral injection of beta-
amyloid proteins in rats [].
3.6. Metabolic Modulation and Bones. Eucommia cortex
extract can be used in the control of osteoporosis. is is
because Eucommia extract is actively involved in mechanisms
which initiate osteoblast, enhance osteogenesis, decrease
osteoclast, and thus prevent osteolysis []. Total glycosides
from Eucommia ulmoides seed (TGEUS) have been shown
to improve bone density and femur strength in rats [].
Daily administration of TGEUS at the rate of mg/kg
body weight/day to normal and Dawley rats was reported
to signicantly increase bone mineral density and showed
improvements in microarchitecture structure of the femur
bone [].
Eucommia cortex extract was reported to induce the
release of growth hormone (GH) responsible for bone matu-
ration and bone remodeling. Products of alcoholic extraction
from Eucommia bark were reported to be very potent in the
release of growth hormone secretagogue. Increasing signals
of estrogen receptor alpha has been shown to increase the
growth of bone []. An exception to this eect was noticed
in ovariectomized rats which showed no eect on the growth
of bone [, ]. In menopausal research model, % diet
of the EU was observed to minimize the bone loss in
ovariectomized rats []. Eucommia cortex fed at the dosage
of – mg/kg showed reduced bone mass which is not
signicantly dierent from group fed with estradiol drug [].
Antioxidant properties of Eucommia leaf extract were also
reported to contribute positively to the promotion of bone
growth by improving cell integrity during oxidative stress
whenappliedatareduceddosage(.𝜇g/mL) []. ere-
fore, Eucommia extract can be established as a therapeutic
agent under conditions of osteoporosis [].
3.7. Phytoestrogenic Properties. EU was reported to exhibit
phytoestrogenic and androgenic properties []. Eucommia
bark contains isoavonoids, with estrogen like properties,
which bind to human estrogen receptors. None of these
isoavonoids has male hormone like eect that interacts
with human androgen receptor. Eucommia bark has been
reported to show bimodal phytoandrogenic and hormone
enhancing eects []. Androgen receptors play a key role
in male as well as in female physiology such as skeletal
muscle development, bone density, and sex drive [, ].
Ethanol extracts of Eucommia bark were reported to attach
in a weak manner to activated androgen receptors with high
anity and produce testosterone at the rate of –ng/mL in
mammalian COS- cells []. Oral induction of the ethanol
extract showed no increase in prostatic weights at the dose of
– mg. However, % increases in prostatic weights were
observed by increasing the dosage up to  𝜇ginjection
[]. Application of EU at a concentration of  ng/mL
enhanced the signals of estradiol in a manner similar to
androgen receptors []. However, the promoting eect of
EU on the cortisol and progesterone receptors was not
observed [].
In vivo animal studies conducted using oral administra-
tion of EU extracts potentiated androgenic and hormonal
eects. A form of tripartite synergism between sex steroid
receptors, sex hormones, and lipidic augmenters isolated
from EU was found by Ong and Tan []. It has been shown
that the activities of sex hormone in the body are optimized
with the application of EU [].
3.8. Hepatoprotective Eects. Study was conducted on dier-
ent doses of Eucommia ulmoides and carbon tetrachloride on
Sprague Dawley male rats to investigate the protective eects
of EU in response to CCl4induced acute liver lipid accumu-
lation. Results demonstrated that Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
cortex extracts (EUCE) signicantly decreased the hepatic
lipid accumulation induced by CCl4.EUenhanceslysosomal
enzyme activity relieving protein folding requirement which
turns into attenuation of ER stress. ApoB secretion was
improved by eects of ER stress; along this, it regulates
biotransformation of CCl4and its resultant inhibition of ROS
accumulation [].
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
4. Future Perspective and Conclusion
is review paper discusses health-promoting properties of
EU on cardiovascular system and antioxidant, antibacterial,
antiviral, anti-inammatory, antiobesity, and neuroprotective
eects and metabolic modulation on bones and phytoestro-
genic properties. ese health-promoting properties have
attracted much interest in the extraction and functional
development of active ingredients of EU.In further studies,
molecular mechanisms underlying certain health-promoting
properties of EU need to be explored.
Conflict of Interests
e authors declare that there is no conict of interests.
Acknowledgments
is work was supported by the National Natural Science
Foundation of China (nos. , , , and
), the Science and Technology Department of Hunan
province (JC), and the State Key Laboratory of
Animal Nutrition (DAF). e authors are also
thankful to CAS-TWAS President’s Fellowship and UCAS
nancial and infrastructure support.
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... Eucommia ulmoides (EU) is a traditional medicinal herb in eastern Asia (1,2,3,4,5) . It was said that more than 40 compounds such as iridoids, phenolics and steroids exist in E. ...
... ulmoides, among them a major bioactive compound called chlorogenic acid endows it with precious medicinal value (2,6) . Over the recent years, several researches reported that E. ulmoides extract has the effects of anti-hypertensive (7,8) , anti-obesity (9,10) , anti-bacteria (11) , anti-inflammation (12,13) , antioxidation (14,15,16) , and neuroprotection (16,17) . ...
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A 30-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate effects of dietary eucommia ulmoides leaf extract (ELE) on growth performance, activities of digestive enzymes, antioxidant capacity, immunity, expression of inflammatory factors and feeding-related genes of large yellow croaker larvae. Five micro-diets were formulated with supplementation of 0g Kg ⁻¹ (the control), 5g Kg ⁻¹ (0.5%), 10g Kg ⁻¹ (1.0%), and 20g Kg ⁻¹ (2.0%) of ELE, respectively. Results showed that the best growth performance was found in larvae fed the diet with 1.0% ELE. Furthermore, ELE supplementation significantly increased the npy expression at 1.0% dosage, while increased ghrelin in larvae at 0.5% dosages. The activity of leucine aminopeptidase in larvae fed the diet with 1.0% ELE was significantly higher than the control, while alkaline phosphatase was significantly up-regulated in larvae fed the diet with 2.0% ELE. A clear increase in total antioxidant capacity in larvae fed the diet with 1.0% ELE was observed, whereas catalase activity was significantly higher in 1.0% and 2.0% ELE supplementation compared to the control. Larvae fed the diet with 1.0% ELE had a significantly higher activities of lysozyme, total nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide content than the control. Moreover, transcriptional levels of cox-2 , il-1β and il-6 were remarkably down-regulated by supplementation of 0.5-1.0% ELE. This study demonstrated that the supplementation of 1.0% ELE in diet could increase the growth performance of large yellow croaker larvae probably by promoting expression of feeding-related genes, enhancing antioxidant capacity and immunity, and inhibiting expression of inflammatory factors.
... Previous study has shown that Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (Du Zhong) contains isoflavonoids, which have been reported to exhibit phytoestrogenic and androgenic properties that may be related to the optimization of sex hormone activity in the maternal body (Hussain et al., 2016). The main active ingredients of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. ...
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Introduction: Tocolytic treatment is beneficial to pregnant women with a risk of premature labor or miscarriage. However, previous reports have shown that progestogen might not be effective and ritodrine may increase the risk of maternal vascular-related diseases. Chinese herbal products (CHP) are used as alternative therapies for pregnant women. The goal was to evaluate the efficacy of combined tocolytic therapy and CHP therapy in pregnancy outcomes for pregnant women in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on the National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 47,153 pregnant women treated with tocolytics aged 18–50 years from 2001 to 2015 were selected from two million random samples. According to the medical use of tocolytics and CHP, we divided the users into two groups: western medicine (WM) only (n = 40,961) and WM/CHP (n = 6,192) groups. A propensity score (PS)-matched cohort (6,192 pairs) was established based on baseline confounders. All participants were followed up to perinatal outcomes. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effects of CHP use on the odds of miscarriage and preterm birth. Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for premature birth in the WM/CHP group (n = 411, 6.64%) was significantly lower than in the WM group (n = 471, 7,61%) (0,86, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74–0.99). Further subgroup analysis based on the usage of formulae that activate blood and remove stasis or purgative formulae, the adjusted OR of preterm birth of those using these formulae was significantly lower in the WM/CHP group (n = 215, 6.32%) than that in the WM group (n = 265, 7.77%) (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65–0.96). Conclusion: We found that the combination of CHP and tocolytics can be beneficial to pregnant women in the prevention of premature birth. Further research is required to investigate causal relationships.
... The essential amino acid content in ELE is high, of which leucine is the highest, followed by valine (5). In addition, iridoids, phenols, and flavonoids are abundant in ELE, which reduces blood lipids (17,18) and improves diabetes (19) and antioxidation (7). In recent years, Eucommia ulmoides is considered to be a very useful feed additive in healthy livestock and poultry breeding. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of dietary Eucommia ulmoides leaf extract (ELE) supplements on carcass traits and lipid metabolism in growing–finishing pigs. A total of 144 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets with an average initial weight of 10.11 ± 0.03 kg were randomly allotted to four treatment groups, each with six replicates and six piglets per replicate. Each group of pigs was fed a basal diet or a diet supplemented with increasing levels of ELE (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3%). The results showed that adding ELE had no negative effect on the growth performance of pigs. Dietary supplements of 0.1% ELE significantly increased carcass weight ( p < 0.01), dressing percentage ( p < 0.01), carcass length ( p < 0.05), and eye muscle area ( p < 0.05). Compared with the control group, a 0.2% ELE supplement significantly increased ( p < 0.01) the levels of adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase activity in the serum. Histological examination showed that ELE inhibited fat deposition in the backfat tissue. Lipid metabolism-related biochemical indices and mRNA expression levels were improved after supplementing diets with ELE. Moreover, all three levels of ELE dramatically upregulated ( p < 0.05) the protein levels of p-AMPK-α and p-ACC. In summary, adding ELE to pig diets could improve the carcass traits of growing–finishing pigs and exert a lipid-lowering effect by activating the AMPK-ACC pathway and regulating mRNA expression levels related to lipid metabolism. Supplementing the diet with 0.1–0.2% ELE is the optimal range to reduce fat deposition in pig backfat tissue.
... Clinical practice has confirmed that ZGBSF is an effective prescription for treating OP. Recent system pharmacology works have shown that Eucommiae Cortex, Dipsaci Radix and Epimedium, several main components in ZGBSF, could promote osteogenic differentiation and ameliorate bone loss due to their antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties (15)(16)(17). However, the underlying integrated pharmacological mechanisms of ZGBSF on OP remain largely elusive. ...
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Osteoporosis (OP) is a common skeletal disease, characterized by decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. As a novel Chinese medicine formula, Zhuanggu Busui formula (ZGBSF) has been proved to be an effective prescription for treating OP in clinic, however, the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain obscure. In this study, we explored the pharmacological mechanisms of ZGBSF against OP via network pharmacology analysis coupled with in vivo experimental validation. The results of the network pharmacology analysis showed that a total of 86 active ingredients and 164 targets of ZGBSF associated with OP were retrieved from the corresponding databases, forming an ingredient-target-disease network. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network manifested that 22 core targets, including Caspase-3, BCL2L1, TP53, Akt1, etc , were hub targets. Moreover, functional enrichment analyses revealed that PI3K-Akt and apoptosis signalings were significantly enriched by multiple targets and served as the targets for in vivo experimental study validation. The results of animal experiments revealed that ZGBSF not only reversed the high expression of Caspase-3, Bax, Prap, and low expression of Bcl-2 in osteoblasts of the OP mouse model but also contributed to the phosphorylation of Akt1 and expression of PI3K, thereby promoting osteogenesis and ameliorating the progression of OP. In conclusion, this study systematically and intuitively illustrated that the possible pharmacological mechanisms of ZGBSF against OP through multiple ingredients, targets, and signalings, and especially the inhibition of the apoptosis and the activation of PI3K-Akt signaling.
... Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium has the functions of invigorating the spleen and regulating the stomach. e whole prescription can reinforce qi, strengthen the spleen, calm the liver, and reinforce the kidney [23][24][25][26][27][28]. Recent research has reported that Atractylodes macrocephala and Poria cocos can enhance human immunity [29,30]. ...
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Background: To observe the clinical effect of Pinggan Yiqi Yangshen recipe combined with labetalol hydrochloride and magnesium sulfate in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Methods: A total of 126 patients with PIH diagnosed in our hospital from January 2016 to May 2018 were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group, with 63 cases in each group. The control group was treated with labetalol combined with magnesium sulfate. On the basis of the control group, the experimental group was treated with Pinggan Yiqi Yangshen recipe. Clinical efficacy, blood pressure, renal function, and biochemical indexes were compared between the two groups. Moreover, pregnancy outcomes and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. Results: After treatment, the total effective rate in the experimental group was higher than in the control group. Blood pressure and mean arterial pressure in the experimental group were more significantly downregulated than the control group. Renal function indexes and biochemical indexes in the experimental group were more significant than those in the control group. The incidence of cesarean section, preterm birth, and abnormal fetal heart rate in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. There was no difference in the incidence of fetal distress, postpartum hemorrhage, neonatal asphyxia, and adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusion: Pinggan Yiqi Yangshen recipe combined with labetalol hydrochloride and magnesium sulfate can effectively reduce the blood pressure of patients with PIH, help patients to return to normal levels of biochemical indexes and renal function indexes, and improve pregnancy outcomes with high safety, which is worthy of further promotion and application in clinical practice.
... Antibiotics have been banned or strictly restricted in various countries for its accumulation in flesh and drug resistance, thus herbal plants are becoming effective alternatives for antibiotics (Beltrán et al., 2018). As a traditional herb widely used in East Asia, Eucommia ulmoides (EU) has many functions in human including enhancing bones strength, antioxidant capacity, immunity and reducing body fattiness (Hussain et al., 2016). In recent years, EU has been reported as feed additive in rabbit , pig (Peng et al., 2019;Lee et al., 2009), chicken Lv et al., 2007) and fish (Sun et al., 2017a;Wang et al., 2018a;Zhang et al., 2019a). ...
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The study investigated the effects of dietary Eucommia ulmoides extracts on growth, flesh quality and collagen-related genes expression of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Eucommia ulmoides bark extract (EBE) and Eucommia ulmoides leaf extract (ELE) were individually supplemented into basal diet (control) at an inclusion of 4 g/kg, and then the three diets were fed to grass carp (59.7 ± 0.3 g) for 60 days. The results indicated that dietary ELE significantly increased weight gain (+4.22%), and decreased feed conversion ratio (-4.05%) (P < 0.05), while EBE did not significantly affect the growth performance of grass carp. Compared to the control, dietary ELE significantly increased apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein and intestinal digestive enzyme activity (P < 0.05), and the contents of calcium, total collagen, heat-insoluble collagen and free amino acids level (including delicious amino acids) in flesh were also significantly increased (P < 0.05). In both extracts groups, the flesh centrifugal loss, steaming loss, drip loss24h, protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde were significantly lower, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in flesh were found among the three groups, but docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenic acid (DHA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3/n-6 ratio in flesh were significantly increased by dietary EBE and ELE (P < 0.05). In collagen-related genes expression, the ELE supplementation significantly promoted the expression of collagen type Ⅰ (COL1A1, COL1A2), proline hydroxylase, lysine oxidasein in muscle, while the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary ELE improved the growth, muscle antioxidant capacity and flesh quality of grass carp.
Article
Eucommia ulmoides leaves are widely developed as food and medicines in China and Japan. Its main components have anti‐inflammatory properties against gastric ulcers. The purpose of this study was to assess the protective role of an extract derived from the active components of Eucommia ulmoides leaves (EUL 50) against a gastric ulcer and analyze the underlying antiulcer mechanism. The main components of EUL 50 were identified using an ultra‐performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method. Network pharmacology and molecular docking were performed to predict the possible mechanism of action of EUL 50 in the treatment of gastric ulcers. The rats received EUL 50 intragastric administration twice a day for 3 days. Hydrochloric acid/ethanol (HCl/EtOH) was utilized to induce gastric ulcers, followed by histopathological and histochemical evaluation of the ulcer tissues and determination of the main oxidative stress parameters and inflammatory cytokines. The expression of PI3K/Akt/NF‐κB pathway‐related proteins was measured. Neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, and so on were identified as the major components of EUL 50 by UPLC. The prediction results identified the PI3K/Akt/NF‐κB signaling pathway as the main possible protective mechanism against gastric ulcers. Furthermore, in a dose‐dependent manner, EUL 50 reduced gastric tissue damage. In addition, the high dose of EUL 50 administration resulted in remarkable reductions in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF‐α), interleukin 6 (IL‐6), and interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β) by 22.64%, 42.61%, 57.78%, and 56.51%, respectively, and suppression of the phosphorylation of Akt, p65, IKKα, and IκBα by 60.87%, 67.65, 74.58%, and 59.57%, respectively, and increased the antioxidant enzyme activity. EUL 50 is rich in flavonoids and organic acids that can act on the PI3K/Akt/NF‐κB signaling pathway; as a result, oxidative stress and inflammation are considerably reduced, and gastric ulcers caused by HCl/EtOH are reduced. As a medicinal and food substance, Eucommia ulmoides leaves are widely used in the development of health products. EUL 50, a moderately polar part of E. ulmoides leaves, was obtained by extraction and enrichment and was found to have a better protective effect against HCl/EtOH‐induced gastric ulcers. This finding can enrich the traditional application of E. ulmoides leaves and provide a basis for their health product development.
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Thee global consumption of plant-based cosmetics has shown spectacular growth in recent years because of rising consumer awareness regarding the long-term health benefits of natural ingredients. As the global demand for herbal cosmetics increases, there are ample opportunities for Sri Lanka as a tropical Asian country to expand its productions and global exports along with its unique biodiversity and inherited traditional knowledge. erefore, the present review attempts to give an overview of the widely used medicinal plants in the global herbal cosmetic industry and strengths, challenges, and possible solutions for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using electronic search (using Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, TEEAL, and Scopus) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, industrial reports, market surveys, and library search for local books on ethnobotany. Important plant-derived ingredients used in the global herbal cosmetic industry are essential oils, colorants, oils, fats, and waxes. e traditional usage of 108 medicinal plant species (belonging to 58 families) in cosmetic treatments was identified from the local books of Sri Lanka. Of these, 49 plant species were reported as new ingredients for the herbal cosmetic industry. However, the lack of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys to identify the cosmetic potential plants, insufficient or absence of continuous supply of raw materials for production in line with the existing demand, the lack of quality control of raw materials and finished cosmetic products, improper systematic cultivation systems for medicinal plants, poor postharvest practices, and the lack of innovations are major challenges encountered in Sri Lanka for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry. In conclusion, addressing these vital knowledge gaps is a timely requirement of the country for the sustainable development of the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, assembling of the multidisciplinary cooperation of botanists, chemists, toxicologists, researchers, and biologists is crucial to analyze the interesting functional properties, efficacy, and effectiveness of documented medicinal plants with cosmetic potential.
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*e global consumption of plant-based cosmetics has shown spectacular growth in recent years because of rising consumer awareness regarding the long-term health benefits of natural ingredients. As the global demand for herbal cosmetics increases, there are ample opportunities for Sri Lanka as a tropical Asian country to expand its productions and global exports along with its unique biodiversity and inherited traditional knowledge. *erefore, the present review attempts to give an overview of the widely used medicinal plants in the global herbal cosmetic industry and strengths, challenges, and possible solutions for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry of Sri Lanka. Information was collected using electronic search (using Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, TEEAL, and Scopus) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, industrial reports, market surveys, and library search for local books on ethnobotany. Important plant-derived ingredients used in the global herbal cosmetic industry are essential oils, colorants, oils, fats, and waxes. *e traditional usage of 108 medicinal plant species (belonging to 58 families) in cosmetic treatments was identified from the local books of Sri Lanka. Of these, 49 plant species were reported as new ingredients for the herbal cosmetic industry. However, the lack of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological surveys to identify the cosmetic potential plants, insufficient or absence of continuous supply of raw materials for production in line with the existing demand, the lack of quality control of raw materials and finished cosmetic products, improper systematic cultivation systems for medicinal plants, poor postharvest practices, and the lack of innovations are major challenges encountered in Sri Lanka for the development of the herbal cosmetic industry. In conclusion, addressing these vital knowledge gaps is a timely requirement of the country for the sustainable development of the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, assembling of the multi�disciplinary cooperation of botanists, chemists, toxicologists, researchers, and biologists is crucial to analyze the interesting functional properties, efficacy, and effectiveness of documented medicinal plants with cosmetic potential.
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