Article

Corporate accelerators: Building bridges between corporations and startups

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Abstract

Today's startups are a major source of innovation, as they employ emerging technologies to invent products and reinvent business models. Corporations that embrace an open innovation strategy increasingly look to startups as a source of external innovation. Corporate accelerators offer a potent approach to nurturing innovations from entrepreneurial ventures. However, the vast differences between corporations and startups make collaboration a challenge. Corporate accelerators need to be designed effectively to add value for startups and create innovation benefits for the company. Based on information obtained during interviews with managers and participants of corporate accelerators (n=40), managers receive a framework and strategies for designing corporate accelerators. To leverage startups’ innovation and to make corporate accelerators an effective part of a firm's overall innovation strategy, managers need to systematically and thoughtfully consider the design dimensions of proposition, process, people, and place.

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... As the underlying strategic objectives and types of CAs differ significantly, there has been strong scholarly interest in identifying the design elements of CAs and their manifestations in practice [14,17,20]. The names (e.g. ...
... First, the startups can turn into paying customers after the completion of the program [21]. Moreover, startups can become suppliers, customers, or partners of the incumbent [17,22]. Gutmann et al. [10] provide another perspective suggesting that one outcome of CAs can be customers of the organizing firm benefitting from the enrichment of product offerings through integrated startup solutions. ...
... Thus, providing implications or lists of success factors has provoked considerable attention in the field of CA research (e.g., [15,22]). In general, among the authors who have provided different perspectives on success factors, some patterns could be derived from factors that have been mentioned across multiple publications (e.g., [10,14,17,20]. In that sense, success factors for CAs can be classified into seven distinct categories: (1) the ability to measure success, (2) the value proposition towards startups, (3) the competence to search and select complementing and high-potential startups, (4) the fixed timeframe of CAs, (5) the facilitation and realization of the collaboration between the CA, corporate actors and the startups, (6) C-level commitment, and (7) the definition of clear objectives. ...
... Therefore, companies need to become aware of potential threats and opportunities, they need to have the right information to make good decisions on a consistent basis and they have to execute with speed and determination. Arguably, companies cannot do these things by themselves, so they resort to external actors to assist them in their innovation and transformation efforts (Kohler, 2016;Tushman, and O'Reilly III, 2004). To do so, companies set up incubators and accelerators, create and manage Corporate Venture Capital arms, foster open innovation initiatives and enter into agreements with Strategic Partners or go a step further by creating Joint Ventures (Gutmann, 2019). ...
... Like incubators, they try to "insource external innovation" and accelerate corporate innovation by working with start-ups (Kanbach, and Stubner, 2016). Some corporate accelerators -such as Eni's Energizer or Shell Gamechanger-go a step further and use these programs to create a more innovative corporate culture and even attract talent (Kohler, 2016). In accelerators, start-ups get office-space, funding, mentorship, access to knowledge, support and resources -commercial, technological, legal, etc.-from the corporation, with the aim of turbocharging their growth (Sahakitpinyo, 2020). ...
... Despite their popularity, numerous studies suggest that in-house corporate incubators, accelerators, corporate venture capital arms and open innovation initiatives have achieved disappointing results (Cuatrecasas, 2019; Eagar et al., 2019;Kohler, 2016;Narsalay et al., 2015;Weiblen, and Chesbrough, 2015). The reasons are multiple, such as limited impact on growth -relevant for a start-up but irrelevant for a large corporation-, long time to scale up, inadequate resourcing, cultural mismatch and poor fit with any existing business in the corporate organization (Eagar et al., 2019). ...
Article
Digital technologies have had a tremendous impact on the world and have forced companies to adapt their business models, strategies and management practices. There is a scarcity of research about digital transformation in the energy sector, so this paper aims to analyze this phenomenon in the Oil & Gas sector through a comparative case analysis of eight market leading European Oil & Gas companies. To ensure an adequate methodological approach, the authors have applied Eisenhardt's framework to build theories from case study research. This article relies on multiple data collection methods. 26 interviews with 18 senior executives from the sample energy firms and two global consulting firms were completed in two separate phases. To complement these interviews, information and data were collected from a range of public sources, such as newspapers, video interviews, business magazines and analyst reports, as well as public information from the eight companies under analysis, such as annual and financial reports, company presentations, regulatory filings and announcements and company news. Our research highlights several transformational moves in the firms under study that bring substantial new capabilities and allow them to achieve market-leading positions in new and digitally native business areas -although modest in size. The sample firms mainly opt for combinations of small transformational strategies to achieve their large transformation goals. However, in many organizations, digital and business transformation initiatives suffer from poor governance and are typically just a collection of unconnected activities, piecemeal strategies and pilot projects. Developing a coherent transformation strategy, with the right structure and governance, remains a challenge for most organizations. This paper, leveraging the collective learnings from the eight companies studied, aims to help decision-makers with a conceptual guideline to select the most appropriate strategic tools when undergoing a transformation, based on four dimensions that are of high relevance across multiple strategic environments.
... One prominent entrepreneurial innovation method to validate solutions to immediate customer problems through an iterative, design science -based learning heuristic is the Lean Startup method (Blank, 2006;Blank & Dorf, 2012;Ries, 2011;Romme, 2003). Originally conceived to speed up business model validation and scaling by new ventures, this heuristic has been subsequently extended to the commercialization of science (Blank, 2013;Leatherbee & Katila, 2021) and, more recently, introduced in large organizations (Blank & Newell, 2017;Ries, 2017) through corporate accelerators (Kohler, 2016;Shankar & Shepherd, 2018;Weiblen & Chesbrough, 2015). Design science -based iterative approaches to innovation emphasize a close yet narrow focus on customer needs to validate immediate and incremental solutions designed for highly specific customer groups (Felin, Gambardella, Stern, & Zenger, 2019), as opposed to more radical, systemic, and architectural solutions that address complex problem contexts that involve multiple, heterogeneous stakeholders and time horizons (Pérez-Nordtvedt, Payne, Short, & Kedia, 2008). ...
... It provides a wide-lens perspective to find potential market domains for the intended innovation before zooming in to the business model design and subsequent experiments to test minimal viable products (MVPs) based on customer feedback. Although originally conceived in the context of new ventures, the lean start-up approach has since been widely diffused in academia, start-up accelerators, and corporates alike (Blank, 2013;Cohen, Fehder, Hochberg, & Murray, 2019;Kohler, 2016). ...
... Coinciding with the global diffusion of the lean entrepreneurship practice (Blank, 2013;Blank & Dorf, 2012;Ries, 2011), as well as the proliferation of start-up seed accelerators (Cohen et al., 2019;Pauwels, Clarysse, Wright, & Van Hove, 2016) designed to accelerate learning and mitigate bounded rationality in new ventures (Cohen, Bingham, & Hallen, 2018), the corporate accelerator has emerged across industries and has become increasingly popular (Heinemann, 2015;Kohler, 2016). Between 2012 and 2015, more than 105 corporate accelerators (CAs) were launched globally by firms across multiple industries and nearly a quarter of the 500 biggest global companies now have such programs (Bonzom & Netessine, 2016;Ream & Schatsky). ...
Conference Paper
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Using an action-research case study of a prominent telecom incumbent that established a moonshot factory, whose one of three missions was to explore distant and uncertain transformational bets to re-think digitally-enabled massive mental healthcare provision, we uncover and ad-dress the epistemological limitations of the lean startup heuristic in addressing such ‘wicked problems’ and related bets, involving heterogeneous, multiple stakeholders, operating at different time scales. We derived a novel epistemologically grounded and design-led framework for entrepreneurial renewal through corporate moonshot design and acceleration, i.e., wicked acceleration that might be applicable in different industrial contexts. In so doing, we extend the design science-based lean startup heuristic and contribute to the streams on design and entrepreneurship, experimentation vs. transformation, and corporate innovation acceleration to address wicked challenges.
... Digging into the partnerships' "universe", several papers focus on the problem of asymmetrical partnerships. The complementary nature between business models of startups and/or SMEs and big companies, if properly leveraged, may represent an important source of innovative opportunities for both entities (Kohler, 2016). To create an effective asymmetric innovation partnership, a fundamental element is the strategic partner's attitude (Harryson, 2008). ...
... This can favour mutual learning, knowledge exchange, effective communication, and effective shared decisionmaking during the collaboration and, above all, a high expectation of reciprocity (Allmendinger and Berger, 2020) and commitment (Christensen et al., 2005;Hu et al., 2015). Undoubtedly, asymmetry partnerships require formal contracts that determine the terms of collaboration and eliminate the possibility of opportunistic behaviours (Christesen et al., 2005;Kohler, 2016;Van der Borgh et al., 2012), especially from big companies that have a consolidated base of resources and knowledge which allows for appropriation spillovers (Pellegrini et al., 2019). Since creating efficient partnerships is central for this cluster, the selecting and entering activities have particular relevance. ...
... Simultaneously, entrepreneurs/leaders of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are trying to increase their visibility, while big companies seek to generate innovation. Corporate accelerators can also be a solution (Kohler, 2016); they are able to combine the economy of scale and scope of large companies and the entrepreneurial spirit of SMEs. ...
Article
Purpose Since the first definition of open innovation (OI), the indivisible relationship between this concept and entrepreneurship was undeniable. However, the exact mechanisms by which an entrepreneurial approach may benefit OI processes and vice versa are not yet fully understood. The study aims to offer an accurate map of the knowledge evolution of the OI–entrepreneurship relationship and interesting gaps to be filled in the future. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a bibliometric analysis, coupled with a systematic literature review performed over a data set of 106 peer-reviewed articles published from 2005 to 2020 to identify thematic clusters. Findings The results show five thematic clusters: entrepreneurial opportunities, organisational opportunities, strategic partnership opportunities, institutional opportunities and digital opportunities for OI. Investigating each of them, the authors created a framework that highlights future avenues for further developing the topic. Originality/value This study is the first of its kind to systematise, analyse and critically interpret the literature concerned with the topic of the OI–entrepreneurship.
... First, many forms of startup assistance programmes exist (Hausberg and Korreck, 2020). Besides corporate accelerators, corporate incubators, corporate venture capital, or venture studios all aim to support startup growth and development (Cohen et al., 2019b;Kohler, 2016;Mian et al., 2016;Qin et al., 2019). Yet, practice defies easy classification. ...
... Research on corporate accelerators is still nascent and lacks sufficient empirically and conceptually grounded exploration (Richter et al., 2018). Scholars have added great value by depicting corporate accelerator heterogeneity in terms of objectives and defining characteristics as well as distinguishing them from other forms of entrepreneurial ecosystem actors (Cohen and Hochberg, 2014;Kohler, 2016). However, given the rapid evolvement of the corporate accelerator phenomenon, existing taxonomies have limited timeliness. ...
... They used those elements to distinguish accelerators from other forms of startup assistance, such as incubators and angel investors. With a similar research goal, but specifically focusing on corporate accelerators, Kohler (2016) presents characteristics that separate corporate accelerators from incubators, hackathons or corporate venturing. He emphasises that a formalised corporate accelerator can make collaborations more efficient and cost-effective. ...
... The study could pave the way for more accurate allocation of venture capital investments and better return on investment in corporate accelerator activities. Though there is lots of research in corporate strategy and innovation strategy (e.g., Kuratko and Hoskinson, 2018), personality psychology (e.g., Larsen et al., 2005) and more or less in entrepreneurship psychology (e.g., Pekkala Kerr et al., 2018), and corporate accelerators (e.g., Kohler 2016) to the author's knowledge, there are sparsely previous studies conducted that apply personality psychological models in start-up founder's personality attributes. This study aims to incorporate these different fields into a framework and fill some of this research gap. ...
... That being said, there are hybrid versions found in the recent studies, including internal and external employees (Schuh et al., 2017). What is different in corporate accelerators compared to corporate incubators is that they work on a limited duration timeframe and utilize a "batch" approach to creating new businesses (Kohler, 2016). The timeframe of a corporate accelerators batch is usually three to four months (Cohen, 2013). ...
... According to Kohler (2016) "corporate accelerators are company-supported programs of limited duration that support cohorts of start-ups during the new venture process via mentoring, education, and company-specific resources". Corporate accelerators offer similar services as incubators (Pauwels et al., 2016), but their programs are shorter in duration, and they take a comparatively lower equity stake in the start-up than incubators (Bauer et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
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This thesis explores the space of prediction of start-up success through founder personality traits, specifically in corporate accelerator setting. The goal of this thesis was to find out whether there are meaningful parameters that can reliably quantify founder personality characteristics, and whether differences can be found between the general population and successful start-up founder sample group. The thesis answers these questions from a multidisciplinary viewpoint, incorporating management and strategy theories, as well as personality psychology and other psychological viewpoints. The key findings were that there are personality parameters that can be reliably measured from start-up founders. Additionally, there are significant differences between general population and sample group’s results in said parameters. The conclusion is that a prediction model of start-up success based on founder personality parameters is feasible to be developed. This is an important finding within corporate venturing and can be further developed into different applications.
... We can now see the emergence of countless new business models [Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2002;Osterwalder et al., 2010]. Old and declining industries are being replaced by new ones based largely on digital technologies, very often provided by young and innovative startups [Aernoudt, 2004;Kohler, 2016]. Further market innovations are transforming existing industries and established business models on an unprecedented scale and at an extraordinary pace. ...
... Two articles cited 125 times were published therein. This translates into 62.50 citations per article [Kohler, 2016;Moschner et al., 2019]. One article was published in the American scientific journal Innovation Policy and The Economy and was cited 68 times [Hochberg, 2016]. ...
... The vast majority are multiauthored works. There are 15 publications that have a single author [Hilton, 2012;Hochberg, 2016;Kohler, 2016;Jung, 2018;Bustamante, 2019;Glinik, 2019aGlinik, , 2019bGutmann, 2019;Kohlert, 2019;Kunes, 2019;Poandl, 2019;Ismail, 2020;Gür, 2021;Ramiel, 2021;Shenkoya, 2021]. Table 4 shows all authors who published articles on startup accelerators with the number of citations. ...
Article
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Accelerators have been becoming increasingly popular among young entrepreneurs interested in developing products, attracting investors, or establishing relations with industry represented by large companies. The focus of the studies is to conduct literature review due to the small number of scientific articles are available on this topic. The article aims to show the current state of knowledge about startup accelerators and the support they provide. It outlines what added value accelerators offer in their programs for young innovative companies. To achieve the stated aim, the authors combine a systematic literature review with a bibliometric analysis. The results of this research will be helpful in better matching the developed project with existing accelerator programs on the market. It can contribute to a better understanding of the principles governing the programs, program expectations of the accelerator and its partners with respect to the proposed solutions (corporations, business angels, and venture capital funds).
... When providing a joint solution with a startup, the company becomes a distribution partner. The startup can in this way benefit from the corporation's network rather than having to build up its own (Kohler, 2016). Startups could also benefit from market knowledge and experience of the company, and get help establishing economies of scale (Mocker et al., 2015). ...
... The following table shows the five types of collaboration according to Kohler (2016). ...
... Types of collaboration according toKohler 2016 ...
Conference Paper
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The omnipresence of small and medium-sized enterprises at the international level has aroused the interest of several research authors to study to what extent these small structures influence and affect the economies at the national level of each country on different levels. On the economic level, the issue of small and medium-sized enterprises is often highlighted in relation to their ability to create stable and permanent jobs. Also, these companies are analyzed in times of crisis and volatility in order to test their resilience. Faced with these multiples analyzes and different readings, we propose to review, in a general and progressive manner, the main themes and facets related to the study of the role of SMEs in the light of recent developments following the publications of international organizations responsible for economic and works of certain academic authors. Keywords: Small and medium-sized enterprises, Role of SMEs, SMEs challenges, National economies. Full text at: https://www.esd-conference.com/upload/book_of_proceedings/Book_of_Proceedings_esdTangier2022_Online.pdf
... O compartilhamento acontece geralmente quando há interesses mútuos, ou seja, quando há necessidade de receber algo em troca (Ipe, 2003). Apesar de terem características distintas, grandes empresas e startups podem ser complementares, visto que uma tem o que é limitado em outra (Kohler, 2016). Pelo exposto, presume-se que o compartilhamento de informações e conhecimento favorece a cooperação entre parceiros, estimulando novas ideias/tecnologias e projetos colaborativos. ...
... Autores destacam que programas de aceleração, competição e incubação propiciam acesso ao mercado às startups. Aceleradoras combinam startups empreendedoras com grandes empresas, que buscam apoiar o desenvolvimento e a aceleração de startups por meio de capacitação, serviços de apoio, inclusive abre oportunidades de acesso a mercados (Kohler, 2016). Já programas de competição oferecem mentorias, inserem startups em competições, além da oportunidade de estabelecer contatos com empresas, empreendedores e investidores, de modo que grandes empresas conseguem identificar inovações externas potencialmente benéficas para seus negócios (Urbaniec & Zur, 2020). ...
... Na premissa de que características organizacionais (quantidade de relacionamentos e participação em programas de aceleração, competição ou incubação) podem afetar a inovação aberta (Laursen & Salter, 2006;Sá & Lee, 2012;Kohler, 2016;Urbaniec & Zur, 2020), variáveis de controle foram inseridas no questionário. A quantidade de relacionamentos, operacionalizada como variável contínua, foi aferida questionando-se: "Quantas parcerias aproximadamente sua organização possui?". ...
Article
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Objetivo: Este artigo analisa a influência da capacidade de rede e do compartilhamento de informações e de conhecimento na inovação aberta em startups relacionadas com grandes empresas. Método: Uma survey foi realizada com gestores de startups ranqueadas na plataforma 100 Open Startups. A população da pesquisa compreende 324 startups e a amostra as 144 respostas válidas. Para a análise dos dados aplicou-se a modelagem de equações estruturais pelos mínimos quadrados parciais. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram influência direta e significativa entre compartilhamento de informações e inovação aberta, assim como entre compartilhamento de conhecimento e inovação aberta. Embora não se tenha encontrado influência direta da capacidade de rede na inovação aberta, foi observada mediação do compartilhamento de informações e conhecimento nessa relação, o que indica que a capacidade de rede pode ser um importante antecedente e impactar de maneira indireta no desempenho da inovação aberta. Conclui-se que as variáveis investigadas são importantes propulsores do desempenho da inovação aberta, de modo a reduzir riscos e trazer benefícios às startups nas relações interorganizacionais. Contribuições: Os resultados contribuem com a literatura ao revelar o efeito mediador do compartilhamento de informações e conhecimento na relação entre capacidade de rede e desempenho da inovação aberta, um avanço no entendimento sobre recursos compartilhados. Também trazem implicações práticas e sociais, na medida em que fornecem informações sobre relacionamentos interorganizacionais. Espera-se que os achados auxiliem os gestores na condução do relacionamento, com o propósito de reduzir assimetrias entre os envolvidos e direcionar para uma relação benéfica de ambas as partes.
... The core idea of the startup is to create a sustainable business model based on emerging technology by using an entrepreneurial approach (Emami & Dimov, 2017;Kohler, 2016). This fact drives the regions to compete for innovations and motivates them to invest in this sphere. ...
... Hence, the corporations are equivalently involved in supporting startups as a source of external innovation and, as a rule, have business units responsible for the developing innovation environment (Kohler, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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There is a recognized value in supporting entrepreneurs to develop regional growth. University business incubators (UBIs), one of the main actors in the entrepreneurial ecosystem, play a significant role in this regard. A growing body of evidence suggests that the new knowledge generated in universities positively influences innovations by promoting ideas to the market. The historiography of the UBI model largely neglects the role of the balance between science, social impact, and business objectives. The principal objectives of this article are to investigate the trends in UBI research and to generate the main themes related to its phenomena. A combined qualitative (descriptive analysis) and quantitative (thematic analysis) methodological approach is used to answer the research questions. The study identifies the distribution of publications by year, the methods applied, and the journals that published articles about UBIs. The principal findings are eight themes that form the basis of the proposed conceptual framework. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how UBI managers can balance the objectives of supporting startups, social impact, and working for the sake of science. ABSTRACT There is a recognized value of entrepreneurs supporting as a process that develops the region's growth. University Business Incubators (UBI)-being one of the main actors in the entrepreneurial ecosystem-play a significant role in this process. A growing body of evidence suggests the new knowledge generated in the university positively influences innovations by promoting ideas to the market. The historiography of the UBI model largely neglects the role of balance between science, social impact, and business objectives. The principal objectives of this article are to investigate the trends in UBI research and generate the main themes related to phenomena. A combined qualitative (descriptive analysis) and quantitative (thematic analysis) methodological approach are used to answer the research questions. This study identified the distribution of the publications by year, the methods applied, and the journals that published the articles about UBI. The principal findings of this research are the generated eight themes that formed the basis of the proposed conceptual framework. The results can contribute to a better understanding of how UBI managers can balance the objectives of supporting startups, social impact, and working for the sake of science.
... However, how do we articulate it from a sustainable development logic? First of all, we must understand the SDGs in three comprehensive groups for their implementation: the social ones (1,11,16,7,3,4,5,2), the ones referring to the biosphere (15,14,6,13) and economic (8,9,10,12). In addition, objective 17 "Partnerships to achieve the objectives" is seen as the key articulator to achieve the results. ...
... Sin embargo, ¿cómo lo articulamos desde una lógica de desarrollo sostenible? Ante todo, debemos comprender los ODS en tres grupos comprensivos para su implementación: los sociales (1,11,16,7,3,4,5,2), los referidos a la biósfera (15,14,6,13) y los económicos (8,9,10,12). Visualizando, además, el objetivo 17 de "Alianzas para lograr los objetivos" como el articulador clave para alcanzar los resultados. ...
Conference Paper
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Conferencia Internacional InnovaT: Enseñanza innovadora en la Educación Superior Project No. 598758-EPP-1-2018-1-AT-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP. Año 2022 Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar la sistematización de experiencias recogidas en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje dirigido a estudiantes universitarios de primer año de la carrera de Ingeniería de la Universidad de Piura, durante el ciclo 2021-II, en el curso de Historia y Cultura, donde uno de los criterios de evaluación previstos es la realización de un trabajo de investigación. Considerando que las clases se vienen desarrollando de manera virtual, debido a la pandemia por Covid-19, decidimos aprovechar la abundante información brindada por organismos internacionales en internet, la cual, sumada a la riqueza del curso de Historia, el enfoque curricular universitario y las herramientas tecnológicas, nos abrieron posibilidades para involucrar al estudiante en una visión holística de la problemática global y el enfoque ciudadano, a través de la investigación. Ante una realidad nueva y retadora, el enfoque del curso también debía serlo. De ese modo, conscientes de lo reducido del tiempo que significaban 15 semanas de clase, con Se adaptó algunos elementos de la metodología ABProblemas, con una fuerte base de investigación bibliográfica; y, si bien debido a las restricciones por la pandemia no se llegó a implementar las propuestas sobre la realidad; encontramos una gran riqueza en el desarrollo del proceso investigativo, así como en el análisis de conclusiones y sugerencias para una posterior implementación.
... The findings of this study revealed that shipping companies are actively collaborating with other firms that have the necessary technology knowledge and that they seek to enhance digital integration. Given the fact that innovation requires knowledge outside the company in almost all cases in contemporary society (Kohler, 2016), shipping companies may be required to continue to collaborate with outsiders to proceed with digitalization. However, the authors could not observe actions of the companies regarding collaboration with forwarders from the strategies, as Balci (2021a) pointed out except for OOCL. ...
... ONE's strategy also touched on joint research projects with other organizations. These findings might be because in contemporary society innovation requires knowledge outside the company in almost all cases, and start-ups can be a good source of that new knowledge(Kohler, 2016).Half of the companies refer to digital integration. Hapag-Lloyd aims to cause innovation across the entire supply chain and ONE plans to research systems which can gather all stakeholders into one platform through the use of BC. ...
Article
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The so-called “Fourth Industrial revolution”, also termed as “Industry 4.0” in the wider literature, is associated with several cutting-edge technologies. Indicative examples in this category are advanced applications like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data Analytics (BDA), Cloud Computing and Internet of Things (IoT), which are already influencing the maritime industry. It is indicative of the fact that there are several construction projects of autonomous ships, such as the Yara Birkeland and the Autonomous Spaceport Drone Ship (ASDS), which are heavily reliant on technologies associated with the Industry 4.0 concept. The maritime transport industry is already transitioning into a new operations paradigm, often termed as “shipping in the era of digitalization”. Shipping companies promote digitalization as the future of the maritime industry and their efforts to set up strategies are already in progress. Examining those visions and strategies in relation to digitalization would be beneficial to better understand the way towards which the maritime industry is heading. This paper is aiming to identify the characteristics of that pool of future plans via a qualitative review and with a particular focus on major maritime commercial actors, based on shipping companies' relevant action plans that were gathered online. A conclusion standing out is that major shipping companies have embraced digitalization to increase cost-efficiency, raise competitiveness and meet the needs of their customers.
... Some authors have produced complex models for the evaluation of independent business incubators, describing them as fueling exogenous growth (Mian, 1997;Bigliardi et al., 2006;Van Burg et al., 2008). Recent works report important relationships to firms, suggesting that incubators also trigger endogenous growth (Kohler, 2016;Shankar et al., 2018;Weiblen et al., 2015). As such, their performance may depend on the way corporations design and run them, as well as the factors (if any) that influence operations. ...
... (Shenhar et al., 2000) have suggested a distinction between two types of projects, operationally managed projects and strategically managed projects. First, we can summarize top management strategic drivers for corporate incubation into six categories drawn from literature (Kohler, 2016;Maniak et al., 2014): a) informing new market trends, b) managing talents, pushing for c) internal-internal strategic fits d) internal towards external strategic fits e) external towards internal strategic fits g) offering a protected test bed to hatch ventures. Second, operational venture teams are focused on getting the job done and meeting time and budget goals, while achieving business and market results and winning in the market place. ...
Conference Paper
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While incubation has long been found to foster innovation, corporate incubation offers new possibilities of interaction and cooperation among peers from within and outside the firm, as well as the firm-backed acceleration of new ventures. However, the surge in practical implementations contrasts with the restricted body of academic knowledge in the field. To close this gap, we examine whether and how the competitive setting of corporate incubation leads to both corporate endogenous and exogeneous innovation and growth. We explore the innovation capability management of a corporate incubator-Leonard-within VINCI, a global construction and concession company. We analyze a dataset collected during the incubation program spanning 18 months, tracing the evolution paths of 30 internal and external ventures through their incubation journey. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods is used to analyze the corporate incubator role on the firm strategy and performance. Findings suggest that corporate incubators can act as flexible innovation vehicles serving the firm top management in complementary ways. We propose a multidimensional framework for assessing the incubator performance that reflects the benefits for a range of strategic, managerial and operational stakeholders. Four distinct performance dimensions emerge: the (1) financial, (2) market, (3) ecosystem, and (4) foundational dimensions, whose importance varies through time and according to the nature and characteristics of the incubated ventures. We discuss how these dimensions coexist during a corporate venture's selection, incubation and growth, and identify future research directions.
... Algumas aceleradoras possuem competências tão latentes que fazem com que a empresa acelerada desenvolva habilidades específicas que, por muitas vezes, não são praticadas por seus gestores. Já outras aceleradoras são procuradas especificamente pelo seu diferencial, missão, visão e valores (Kohler, 2016). ...
... O elemento de (iv) mentoria está diretamente ligado a geração de aprendizado de estratégias de atuação e de propriedade intelectual de processos. Essas estratégias de propriedade intelectual são reconhecidas no mercado por licenças, formatações contratuais e processos consolidados e registrados legalmente para blindar a cópia mercadológica (Kohler, 2016). A mentoria também colabora com instruções em áreas Brazilian Journal of Development, Curitiba, v.8, n.8, p. 56832-56859, aug., 2022 financeiras, marketing, recursos humanos e relações públicas e comunicação . ...
Article
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Aceleradoras são estruturas físicas que proporcionam o desenvolvimento de habilidades e capacidades para startups. Este artigo explora o processo de aceleradoras agrupando-as em tipos de acordo com seus processos implementados. A revisão de literatura envolveu os cinco elementos principais das aceleradores: capital inicial e de financiamento, modelo de coorte de negócios, programas de desenvolvimento de capacidade, mentoria e localização e espaço físico. O percurso metodológico contou com uma abordagem qualitativa de pesquisa, com a técnica de análise de conteúdo, aplicando 10 entrevistas semiestruturadas em gestores de oito aceleradoras distintas. Como resultado, os gerentes consideram os estágios de aceleração insubstituíveis; entretanto, o modelo e a ordem podem ser adaptados de acordo as habilidades e capacidades da organização. Identificou-se que (i) o formato organizacional dos aceleradores influencia o processo de desenvolvimento das empresas; (ii) a existência de micro-empresas e ecossistemas de inovação influenciam na modulação dos estágios de aceleração; (iii) cada ecossistema de inovação fornece uma dinâmica específica entre os aceleradores do mercado. As contribuições da literatura que o artigo fornece são (a) a identificação de que a modulação de estágios é impulsionada por processos de ideação, prototipagem, validação e pivotagem; e (b) que o ecossistema de negócios e inovação é constituído de micro-ecossistemas, e cada tipo de aceleradora desenvolve habilidades e capacidades específicas de negócios adequadas para um determinado tipo de mercado de startups.
... Time inconsistency (Kim and Wagman, 2014) Open innovation (Kohler, 2016;Prexl et al., 2019;Pustovrh, Rangus and Drnovšek, 2020) Startup selection criteria; selection process (Yin and Luo, 2018) Dynamic socially situated cognition; expert information processing theory (Goswami, Mitchell and Bhagavatula, 2018) Entrepreneurship: Speed in entrepreneurship; time compression diseconomies; and entrepreneurial resource acquisition (Qin, Wright and Gao, 2019) Growth of new ventures, the operation of university accelerators, and the entrepreneurial ecosystem (Breznitz and Zhang, 2019) The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE); absorptive capacity. (Cuvero et al., 2019) Community capital framework; entrepreneurial clusters (Bliemel et al., 2019) Bounded rationality (Cohen, Bingham and Hallen, 2019) Interorganizational learning (Hallen, Cohen and Bingham, 2020) Signaling theory; gender role congruity theory (GRCT) (Yang, Kher and Newbert, 2020) High-growth entrepreneurship; business accelerators (González-Uribe and Reyes, 2021) Sociomaterial practice theory and literature on practice-based learning (Katila, Kuismin and Valtonen, 2020) Source: authors. ...
... Pauwels et al. (2016) identified three types of accelerators, ecosystem builder, deal-flow maker, and welfare stimulator. Kohler (2016) identified four types of hosts related to corporate accelerators: corporation, outside corporation, independent accelerator, and virtual accelerator. Moschner et al. (2019) identified four types of corporate accelerator models, in-house-accelerator, hybrid accelerator, powered by the accelerator, and consortium accelerator. ...
Conference Paper
Practical and theoretical interest in startups grown significantly in recent years, and this phenomenon brings accelerators as a suitable option for the development of these firms. Our study aims to analyze the research field's development on accelerators and present perspectives and opportunities for future research. We use a bibliometric analysis, a systematic literature review, and a content analysis to present the principal studies and references in the area and highlight that entrepreneurship and open innovation are frequently associated with accelerators. Accelerators can be viewed as organizations or as acceleration processes, meaning that acceleration can be used by firm to open innovate and accelerators will need to develop unique characteristics. Finally, we developed four research streams for future studies that have the potential of a better comprehension of the field.
... Innovation management literature further embraced open innovation approaches to foster collaboration with internal and external partners like universities, research institutes, companies from different industries, and start-ups as sources of inspiration and innovation (Chesbrough, 2003). Various agile and lean innovation formats like innovation labs, jam sessions, lean start-up camps, corporate incubators, and accelerators have evolved to spur innovation management agility and benefit from start-up thinking (Chesbrough, 2003;Fecher et al., 2020;Kohler, 2016). Companies have experimented with diverse approaches to managing innovation processes over the years (as shown in Table 1), starting with rather rudimentary approaches and building to more sophisticated and complex innovation management systems; AI, however, may take the idea-to-launch innovation process to the next even more advanced seventh stage (Haefner et al., 2021). ...
... Concerning skill development, we measured the investment in training for the existing staff and hiring of AI talent by adapting five items suggested by Ransbotham et al. (2019). Further, we modified two items from MIT SMR Connections (2019) to quantify the extent of AI development to improve innovation performance and summarized four items to measure the extent of collaboration with external partners in the innovation ecosystem such as companies, universities, start-ups or innovation hubs in the AI context (Fecher et al., 2020;Kohler, 2016;Nambisan and Baron, 2013). ...
Article
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The application of AI is expected to enable new opportunities for innovation management and reshape innovation practice in organizations. Our exploratory study among 150 AI-savvy innovation managers reveals four different clusters in terms of how organizations may use and implement AI in their innovation management ranging from (1) AI-Frontrunners, (2) AI-Practitioners, and (3) AI-Occasional innovators to (4) Non-AI innovators. The different groups vary not only in their strategy, organizational structure, and skill-building but also in their perceived potential, understanding of the required changes, encountered challenges, and organizational contexts. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the current state of AI-based innovation management, its impact on future innovation practice, and differences in organizations’ AI ambitions and chosen implementation approaches.
... Studies of open innovation have recently underscored the potential benefits for incumbent firms of working with small entrepreneurial firms (e.g., De Groote and Backmann, 2020; Jackson and Richter, 2017;Kohler, 2016;Richter et al., 2018;Weiblen and Chesbrough, 2015;Wikhamn, 2020), as mutual synergies can emerge through combining the large and small firms' complementary differences. Large firms can engage with small firms in many forms of collaboration, for example, through strategic alliances (Teng, 2007), corporate venturing (Narayanan et al., 2009), business incubators (Grimaldi and Grandi, 2005), corporate accelerators (Pauwels et al., 2016), and orchestrating broader innovation ecosystems (Rohrbeck et al., 2009). ...
Article
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There is increasing scholarly interest in how large corporations engage in open innovation with small entrepreneurial firms, with synergies potentially producing positive outcomes for both the involved parties and the surrounding ecosystem. “Lightweight models” of open innovation (LOIs) have recently been introduced, governed by trust and relationships rather than by equity ownership and transactional control. This paper introduces a design framework and an alignment model for LOIs, based on 19 inductively generated and highly interrelated design elements associated with five design themes. The study uses empirical data from 18 LOI initiatives in Sweden, and the framework explains important differences in their motives, value propositions, innovation localizations, involved participants, and forms of interactions. Applying a value perspective to open innovation highlights two different value logics, suggesting that LOI initiatives can approach value by emphasizing either value creation or value capture. These logics may greatly influence other important design elements of LOIs.
... There are several growth strategies, according to Kono (2016). These strategies are categorized by Kohler (2016) as intensive, integrative, and diversification strategies. ...
Article
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The wrong financial decisions can cripple a sound business strategy; thus, an organisaton's business strategy and financial decisions must work in tandem and effectively to achieve value and competitive advantage to exploit the inconsistencies in the market it operates. Hence, financial decisions and business strategy are crucial to attaining Organisational competitiveness. Therefore using the literature review method, this conceptual paper examined the roles of financial decisions and business strategy in achieving organisational competitiveness. Further, the article recommends research propositions based on empirical examination of the relationship and impact of financial decisions and strategy on organisational competitiveness and sustainable competitive advantage.
... More in detail, different scholars (Krajcik and Formanek, 2015) have proposed that the actors shaping the start-up ecosystem are start-uppers, policymakers, venture capitalists, and other capital investors, as well as incubators and accelerators, including UBAs. Start-up incubators are structures designed to stimulate and support the deployment and development of new business activities by offering physical resources, knowledge, logistics services, relations with large firms, active managerial assistance, access to privileged financing channels, and support in the use of technical services (Kohler, 2016;Kupp et al., 2017). ...
... Relying on the results, the strategies for effective acceleration and the factors facilitating the corporatestart-up collaboration are identified. It is also stated that an effective collaboration within the frames of company's innovative strategy has to include specified project dimensions: proposal, process, people and place (Kohler, 2016). ...
Article
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Purpose: The paper presents a review of the literature concerning start-up accelerators and a classification of related research untill August 2021. Approach/Methodology/Design: While elaborating the classification, the authors coded works according to the type of accelerator and implemented acceleration program. Furthermore, the paper identifies the countries, research bodies and authors who focus on research on the functioning of accelerators. The authors present how various accelerator forms operate and how they perform. Findings: The paper systematizes knowledge related to start-up accelerators available in the Scopus base and suggests directions for future research. Practical Implications: Recently a clear phenomenon is shown that is the development of a start-up ecosystem, in particular creation and professionalization of the new form of organisation that is a start-up accelerator. This entity acts as a bridge between start-ups and corporations and big enterprises, promoting success of both sides-conclusion of business contracts. More start-ups and corporations decide to collaborate with accelerators that, with their acceleration programs involving big companies, support them both. By monitoring the corporate-start-up collaboration, accelerators actively promote both parties, also in terms of generating necessary innovations to support, for instance, production, sales or service processes in big companies. An evergrowing number of accelerators and accelerator programs worldwide translates into more interest in research in this field. Originality/Value: Despite the increasing research trend related to start-up accelerators, no precise research classification has been available to date.
... There are several growth strategies, according to Kono (2016). These strategies are categorized by Kohler (2016) as intensive, integrative, and diversification strategies. ...
Article
Full-text available
The wrong financial decisions can cripple a sound business strategy; thus, an organisaton’s business strategy and financial decisions must work in tandem and effectively to achieve value and competitive advantage to exploit the inconsistencies in the market it operates. Hence, financial decisions and business strategy are crucial to attaining organisational competitiveness leading to sustainable competitive advantage. Therefore, using the literature review method, this conceptual paper examined the roles of financial decisions and business strategy in achieving organisational competitiveness and impacting on sustainable competitive advantage. Further, the article recommends research propositions based on empirical examination of the relationship and impact of financial decisions and strategy on organisational competitiveness and sustainable competitive advantage.
... More in detail, different scholars (Krajcik and Formanek, 2015) have proposed that the actors shaping the start-up ecosystem are start-uppers, policymakers, venture capitalists, and other capital investors, as well as incubators and accelerators, including UBAs. Start-up incubators are structures designed to stimulate and support the deployment and development of new business activities by offering physical resources, knowledge, logistics services, relations with large firms, active managerial assistance, access to privileged financing channels, and support in the use of technical services (Kohler, 2016;Kupp et al., 2017). ...
... The virtual programs are more defined in time (3-6 months), as well as being able to service more clients not being limited to physical space. Kohler (2016) described the significance of the accelerators within corporates and the main characteristics and how to design them. ...
Article
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Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability (2022) Vol. 18 Issue 2 pp. 92-124. With the creation of start-up biotech businesses being a very risky pursuit, with capital intensive projects, long product development lead times and regulatory hurdles to overcome, support for such businesses is essential. Business incubators have long been a method of improving start-up success and boosting the local economy. There are, however, many models and metrics for success and some suggestions that in some cases incubators simply keep alive companies that would otherwise not survive. Qualitative interviews were carried out with incubator managers, tenants and partners in the US and China to establish what could be improved in the incubation process, leading to several suggestions for improvements. We found that partnerships with corporate service providers are an underused resource which could provide both revenue for the incubators, network/services for the tenants and boost the local economy with collaborations with tenants enhancing knowledge transfer. Whilst some incubators gained tenants from other incubators or those who had been validated by gaining significant competitive funding, some early-stage incubators had little in the way of selection criteria past being in the local area or being affiliated with the university. We suggest it might also be useful to provide a filtered pipeline or funnel to the physical incubator using a virtual incubator first to allow a coherent team and strategy to be formed before a commitment to paying for physical space, which could increase the quality of tenants and help founders transition from a pure science base to include business skills.
... Coworking Companies might use ideas that come with the emergence of accelerators, fab labs, and coworking-spaces where freelancers, entrepreneurs, startups, and employees (even of different companies) share stimulating social and professional exchanges (Bergman & Mcmullen, 2020; Kohler, 2016). Companies employ coworking-spaces for facilitating not only internal interactions but also the those of their employees with talent or expertise outside their boundaries (Gabor & Lindsay, 2018;. ...
Thesis
Contemporary workplaces are undergoing enormous changes, including visible and invisible forms of transformation. The visible working environments of modern workplaces incorporate more playful interior design and open-plan office layouts and remove physical boundaries between organizations to accommodate the new workforce and working culture. This trend is especially manifested and fueled by the growing number of the workforce embracing coworking-spaces. A more invisible transformation in the workplace points to the ubiquitous adoption of digital technologies. Digital transformation induces the emergence of the digital workforce, redefines the workplace to be more flexible and connected, and modifies the ways and processes in which work is done. Both forms of transformation are interwoven with the concept of sharing, which creates platforms to share resources and promote connectivity. The extant literature on workplaces investigates the phenomena, discusses the ongoing changes, and presents the advantages of embracing these changes. However, the lack of an overview on the impacts and the mechanisms of the workplace evolution might blur the directions of future research and cloud organizations’ strategic decisions concerning workspace design, technology upgrades and talent acquisition. This thesis aims to shed light on the overall changes in today’s workplace and the underlying mechanisms by analyzing the impacts of the sharing economy, spatial settings, and digital transformation. The three parts in this thesis address each of the three mentioned topics, respectively. Part one includes two published research articles and examines how the sharing economy and the induced platforms modify value configurations in organizations, including the operating environment and guiding framework of workplaces. Part two digs into the workplace transformation concerning spatial settings, especially applying coworking-spaces as the research context. Three papers in part two employ distinct theoretical lenses to unravel the structures, processes, and mechanisms of coworking-spaces. Part three seeks to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of organizational changes from digital transformation through a systematic review of empirical studies on this topic. By doing so, this thesis contributes to the extant literature on contemporary workplaces by developing a more integrated view, incorporating the general sharing concept, changes in spatial settings, and digital transformation. The findings develop an understanding of changing modern workplaces and provide references for organizations to harness the opportunities.
... According to Kohler (2016), startups are currently inexhaustible sources of innovation as they use emerging technologies to create products and reinvent traditional businesses. Their capacity for innovation, speed and flexibility mean that these companies are excellent partners in the corporate environment (Moschner, Fink, Kurpjuwet, Wagner & Herstatt, 2019 Croll and Yoskovitz (2013), a startup's development cycle traverses five phases: the first, called "empathy," aims to identify the client's problem; the second, called "stickiness," seeks to build a prototype solution for the problem; the third, "virality," aims to validate the prototype created; the fourth, "revenue," seeks to monetize the solution and conquer the initial clients; and the fifth, "scale," aims for growth in the market and the acquisition of new consumers. ...
Article
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Purpose The study aimsto analyze the main elements associated with the evolution of Brazilian agtechs from the initial conception of the business model to becoming companies in the scale-up stage. Design/methodology/approach The exploratory research was conducted based on data collected through in-depth interviews. The answers were analyzed quantitatively using descending hierarchical classification (DHC) and correspondence factor analysis (CFA) and qualitatively using content analysis. Findings Five main elements were identified as responsible for the evolution of the companies up to their entering the scale-up phase: (1) governance, (2) decisions inherent to resource allocation, (3) monitoring of strategic, tactical and operational activities, (4) fostering human capital development and (5) business model validation. Each element presents a set of performance indicators that show the scalability of these companies. Practical implications The model developed can help companies that have not yet advanced from the conception of the business model to the scalability of different sectors, in addition to agribusiness. Social implications Proposal of a model that presents the main elements that impact on scalability and respective indicators that contributed to the scalability process of Brazilian agtechs. Originality/value This study contributed to advancing the knowledge on the organizational life cycle (OLC) of agricultural startups, particularly regarding the factors responsible for their scalability.
... Additionally, the choice of team is linked to costeffectiveness, this way, selecting the partnering with an existing accelerator (based on decision-making criteria) is a way to gain experience before investing in a separate unit (Kohler, 2016;Blank and Dorf, 2020). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the main criteria for selecting actors to compose these business platforms and addressing the co-creation of value and improve the performance of startups. Design/methodology/approach The methodology is based on the search for key factors for the selection of actors and the understanding of co-creation of value and the concept of startups. The content of this paper is substantiated on an extensive review of the literature related to the subjects’ value-cocreation and new startups, and the review is based on the articles found in the databases of Ebsco, Emerald, Science Direct, Scopus, Village and Web of Science. Findings This paper identifies the main key-factors found in the literature for selecting actors to co-create value in startups and organizes the findings in five categories: value creation, interaction, actor behavior, client and partnership. It also presents the possibility of future research that will be able to put the study in practice. Research limitations/implications The results of this research have not been tested empirically, which opens the door for future studies that can prove the effectiveness of the findings. It is also important to mention that there are few articles in the literature that directly address this topic, and some definitions of actor/co-creation of value/business model may also change. Practical implications The selection criteria of the actors listed are useful for service entrepreneurs and managers to assist in decision-making at the stage of choosing their partners for value co-creation in startups. Furthermore, it involves mitigating waste in startups and maximizing the economic gains of partners through value co-creation in startups. Originality/value This study is one of the first attempts to recognize the key factors for selecting actors to co-create value in startups, aiming at their success in the market.
... Particularly, living labs can foster frugal digital innovation based on open collaboration of different actors and stakeholders(Sahay et al. 2018). And although incumbent firms can benefit from collaborating with startups(Kohler 2016;Islam et al. 2017), research has not sufficiently explored such opportunities for healthcare service providers such as hospitals. ...
Thesis
Digital transformation (DT) has not only been a major challenge in recent years, it is also supposed to continue to enormously impact our society and economy in the forthcoming decade. On the one hand, digital technologies have emerged, diffusing and determining our private and professional lives. On the other hand, digital platforms have leveraged the potentials of digital technologies to provide new business models. These dynamics have a massive effect on individuals, companies, and entire ecosystems. Digital technologies and platforms have changed the way persons consume or interact with each other. Moreover, they offer companies new opportunities to conduct their business in terms of value creation (e.g., business processes), value proposition (e.g., business models), or customer interaction (e.g., communication channels), i.e., the three dimensions of DT. However, they also can become a threat for a company's competitiveness or even survival. Eventually, the emergence, diffusion, and employment of digital technologies and platforms bear the potential to transform entire markets and ecosystems. Against this background, IS research has explored and theorized the phenomena in the context of DT in the past decade, but not to its full extent. This is not surprising, given the complexity and pervasiveness of DT, which still requires far more research to further understand DT with its interdependencies in its entirety and in greater detail, particularly through the IS perspective at the confluence of technology, economy, and society. Consequently, the IS research discipline has determined and emphasized several relevant research gaps for exploring and understanding DT, including empirical data, theories as well as knowledge of the dynamic and transformative capabilities of digital technologies and platforms for both organizations and entire industries. Hence, this thesis aims to address these research gaps on the IS research agenda and consists of two streams. The first stream of this thesis includes four papers that investigate the impact of digital technologies on organizations. In particular, these papers study the effects of new technologies on firms (paper II.1) and their innovative capabilities (II.2), the nature and characteristics of data-driven business models (II.3), and current developments in research and practice regarding on-demand healthcare (II.4). Consequently, the papers provide novel insights on the dynamic capabilities of digital technologies along the three dimensions of DT. Furthermore, they offer companies some opportunities to systematically explore, employ, and evaluate digital technologies to modify or redesign their organizations or business models. The second stream comprises three papers that explore and theorize the impact of digital platforms on traditional companies, markets, and the economy and society at large. At this, paper III.1 examines the implications for the business of traditional insurance companies through the emergence and diffusion of multi-sided platforms, particularly in terms of value creation, value proposition, and customer interaction. Paper III.2 approaches the platform impact more holistically and investigates how the ongoing digital transformation and "platformization" in healthcare lastingly transform value creation in the healthcare market. Paper III.3 moves on from the level of single businesses or markets to the regulatory problems that result from the platform economy for economy and society, and proposes appropriate regulatory approaches for addressing these problems. Hence, these papers bring new insights on the table about the transformative capabilities of digital platforms for incumbent companies in particular and entire ecosystems in general. Altogether, this thesis contributes to the understanding of the impact of DT on organizations and markets through the conduction of multiple-case study analyses that are systematically reflected with the current state of the art in research. On this empirical basis, the thesis also provides conceptual models, taxonomies, and frameworks that help describing, explaining, or predicting the impact of digital technologies and digital platforms on companies, markets and the economy or society at large from an interdisciplinary viewpoint.
... В ряде отечественных исследований анализируется проблема внедрений инноваций в разных сферах [8, c. 42; 9, c. 87-91; 13, c. 280-281], их экономическая эффективность [3, с. 104; 7, c. 52-54, 11, c. 281], основы стратегического управления [5, c. 360] и инновациями, в частности, [6, c. 160; 10, c. 90], опыт, инструменты и механизмы внедрения инноваций [1, c. 44-47; 2, c. 261-262; 4, c. 15-16; 14, c. 1229]. В зарубежной научной литературе исследуется опыт применения механизмов корпоративных инноваций во многих странах и различных отраслях [16,17,18,19,23,25,26], стратегическая роль акселерационных программ [20,21,22,24] и аспекты применения сетевого подхода для развития инновационных корпоративных систем [15]. Тематика данной статьи была выбрана вследствие отсутствия в научных источниках системной информации о цифровых платформах, их типах, классификации и конкурентных преимуществах. ...
Article
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One of the strategic priorities for the development of large companies is the growth of innovation, as they provide companies with long-term competitive advantages. Working with third-party developers allows corporations to get the development they need at a relatively mature stage, when the main technical risks have already been removed. At the same time, corporations are not ready to finance early-stage developments, while venture investors in Russia mainly finance projects already at the revenue stage. In this regard, the main purpose of this article is to consider a possible mechanism for solving this problem using digital platforms based on distributed ledger technology in the part that relates to smart contracts, as well as a platform for semi-automatic examination of projects using the technology readiness assessment methodology. The creation of digital platforms is due not only to the growth of corporate interests, but also to the increased development of the global and regional trend — digitalization. The article presents and summarizes various digital platforms that can be used by companies to develop a funnel of innovative proposals, that is, industrial acceleration. For this purpose, the methods of analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction are used in the article. The key result of this article is the identified tools of digital platforms, which can reduce the systemic and non-systemic risks of strategic investment. The platform for accelerating projects based on distributed ledger technology makes it possible to achieve transparency of transactional operations by fixing the client path, and the platform for assessing the level of readiness and auditing projects based on the methodology for assessing technological readiness solves the problem of balancing the interests of different market actors and optimizes the process of building tactical tasks. These models of digital platforms can be practically implemented in the activities of various market actors and make it easier for them to determine strategic goals and select quantitative and qualitative tasks for their implementation. Further research may be devoted to the analysis of the best practices for the creation and development of such digital platforms, strategic typology, and the study of industry effects of the use of digital platforms.
... Start-ups are recognized for using emerging technologies to develop new products and business models, characterized as a benchmark in innovation (Kohler, 2016), playing a relevant role in the business environment (Montiel-Campos and Palma-Chorres, 2016). New start-ups' amounts increase rapidly every year, being financial, healthcare and artificial intelligence the main fields of activity (Szmigiera, 2021). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a competitiveness measurement system for start-ups considering multiple critical success factors. Design/methodology/approach The methodological approach uses concepts from key performance indicators (KPIs) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) based on the fuzzy AHP (FAHP) methodology to weight the criteria related to fundamental points of view (FPVs) and critical success factors (CSFs). Findings Data collection was performed with 21 specialists and 28 start-ups, which returned the weights and performance of CSFs and FPVs related to the start-ups’ competitiveness. The results show only one start-up had a highly competitive global performance. In addition, all start-ups showed low competitiveness related to industry 4.0 technologies. Originality/value The article collaborates with existing research as a starting point for discussions on the subject, considering that previous research did not address the measurement of the start-ups’ competitiveness level through multiple factors, as developed in this article. In addition, we provide decision-makers and other stakeholders in the start-up ecosystem with a robust measurement system to assess business competitiveness and diagnose the company’s situation.
... Large companies tend to suffer from organizational inertia that forces them to continue on a predetermined trajectory, restricting their ability to innovate radically and adapt to the needs of the digital age, and acquiring external knowledge may help overcome this issue (Hill & Rothaermel, 2003;Klus et al., 2019). Accelerators are a way for companies to explore new knowledge and ideas that can be used in their internal innovation efforts (Kohler, 2016). By engaging in collaboration with startups, incumbents may gain strategic knowledge of new markets and technologies, promote the emergence of innovations that complement theirs, and integrate new knowledge to spur corporate innovation (Pihlajamaa et al., 2017;Weiblen & Chesbrough, 2015). ...
Article
Driven by digitalization, the emergence of startups, and regulatory changes, the banking industry is undergoing a “fintech revolution” where the competitive advantages of incumbents are disrupted. In response, banks collaborate with startups by organizing accelerators and incubators to promote corporate innovation. A critical challenge is achieving a strategic fit with startups. In this research, a longitudinal case study of Nordea, the largest retail bank in the Nordics, was conducted. Three startup programs between 2015 and 2018 during a major fintech boom were investigated, and how the programs implement corporate sponsorship and enable corporate innovation was analyzed. We found that achieving a strategic fit was an iterative process fueled by the accumulation of technological and market knowledge from the startups, where Nordea adjusted its mode of startup collaboration according to the phase of the disruption to meet its evolving learning goals.
... When defining a start-up firm, we can meet various definitions in literature and practice. According to Duda (2013) and Kohler (2016), the start-up firm is a newly emerging company that puts the business subject to an innovative idea. It means that a start-up company delivers a new product or produces it on the latest technological procedures basis or provides services in a way that no one else knows. ...
... Start-ups are paramount to the development of any economy. [1][2] Previous scholars identified various roles of start-ups in the economy, including driving force for modern economic development, [3][4][5][6] source of technological creativity [7][8] and engines for innovation. Start-ups are supposed to grow more rapidly, [9][10] and deal more flexibly with difficulties than conventional businesses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite being received increasing attention from academic scholars, there have yet any review study on the topic of start-up success. This work fulfills this research gap by investigating 1554 start-up success documents collected from Scopus dataset between 1981 and 2019. Using bibliometric analysis, we reveal that the topic of start-up success only receives more attention from academic scholars since 2011 onwards. Regarding geographical distribution, the US, Germany, and the UK are the three countries contributing the highest number of start-up success related documents. Besides, it’s revealed that 305 (or 19.6%) start-up success documents were published in the top 20 journals. The co-author analysis found that the research groups of start-up success are still small and dispersed and there was a lack of continuity in the research. The science mapping identified six main topics of start-up success, including: (1) Business in General, (2) Start-up Ecosystem, (iii) Academic Start-up, (iv) Drivers of Start-up Success, (v) Resources for start-up, and (vi) Start-up Model. The study’s findings provide implications for stakeholders, including academic scholars, policymakers, start-up owners, entrepreneurs, and practitioners.
... Startups are technology-based nascent companies with highly innovative performance and potential (Weiblen and Chesbrough, 2015;Dullius and Schaeffer, 2016;Kohler, 2016). They are responsible for introducing disruptive innovations that can change markets and industries, playing "a key role in the innovation process by exploring and exploiting new ideas, market opportunities, and disruptive technologies" (Pisoni and Onetti, 2018, p. 26). ...
Article
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Circular Economy (CE) has emerged as a potential strategy for developing business practices based on sustainability concerns, especially in the fashion industry, which presents high environmental and social impacts. Startups are responsible for introducing innovations in business conduction toward CE. As a current theme, research on Business Model Innovation for Circular Economy (BMI4CE) has increased. However, empirical research in the fashion industry and startups is still scarce. This paper aimed to identify the key elements of startups' BMI4CEs, using the fashion industry as the context of the study. We conducted an exploratory and descriptive multiple case study composed of ten early-stage fashion startups from Europe, North America, and Asia. The findings suggest that environmental and economic sustainability dimensions receive priority in the analyzed BMI4CEs. On business type, we found differences between product-based and service-based Business Models (BMs). The Business Models Innovations (BMIs) were based mainly on CE principles of closed-loop and reducing material use and consumption. BMs focus on CE strategies of product reuse and extend resource time by lowering consumption and material use. Findings also demonstrate the role of emerging and digital technologies (e.g., blockchain and artificial intelligence) for BMI4CEs effectiveness. We developed five propositions and a theoretical framework from a triple bottom line perspective. This research highlights new theoretical perspectives under an investigation area still little explored in the literature. Results enable fashion startup managers to understand better the functioning of BMI4CEs and the critical elements needed for their effectiveness.
Article
Convergence at the level of science, technology, market or industry can increasingly be witnessed in a number of empirical settings. It is currently seen as one of the most important influence factors on and trigger for developing innovation strategies. This empirical relevance is mirrored by a surge in publications. Therefore, motivated by a highly dynamic but at the same time rather unstructured body of literature, this review offers a systematic and critical analyses of studies related to Technology and Innovation Management (TIM) research that address convergence from a processual perspective. Four major strands can be identified: (1) drivers and patterns of convergence, (2) anticipation of convergence, (3) strategic reactions to convergence, and (4) convergent products. A key finding of this review is that most contributions have been inward oriented, i.e. understanding the dynamics of convergence. A consequence of this inner focus is that the scientific discourse on convergence has to some degree unfolded independently from its theoretical underpinnings. To this end, this review provides a comprehensive framework of convergence research, including current challenges and emerging themes to address these challenges. The resulting research agenda serves as a starting point to inspire future studies of relevance for theory and conceptual development as well as managerial practice.
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Collaboration between corporations and sart-ups can dramatically accelerate respective actor’s innovation process. Previous research on this phenomenon has mostly considered the large company’s point of view on sart-up collaboration. There is therefore a research gap related to sart-ups’ objectives, processes and outcomes from corporate collaboration, as well as to the relation between these three categories of variables. The purpose of this study is to identify the critical factors for sart-ups in collaborating with corporations. The paper synthesizes and discusses the findings from 12 qualitative case studies of corporate-sart-up collaboration in Sweden, including different collaboration models and different industrial sectors. It contributes to fill the current knowledge gap in research focused on critical factors for sart-ups in collaborating with large companies for innovation. The study identified three important dimensions: antecedents, outcomes, and collaboration characteristics. For each dimension the main variables and relations among variables are identified. This framework can be useful primarily for sart-ups and could guide them in their decisions related to partnering with large firms. The framework is, however, also useful for other stakeholders involved in corporate-sart-up collaboration initiatives, such as large firms, intermediaries like external accelerators, and the government. This is one of the first studies that explicitly addresses the phenomenon of collaboration between sart-ups and large companies from a sart-up’s point of view. The study is not limited to a specific collaboration model such as for example ‘accelerators’, but includes different models used by large firms. Further, it identifies the factors that could guide sart-ups in analyzing opportunities offered by partnering with larger companies, and therefore could be important parts of their collaboration strategy.
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Situation faced: The prospects of digitalization in the automotive industry are enormous with emerging technology concepts, such as electrification, autonomous driving, connected mobile services, and new business models. However, digital innovation has proven difficult for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) due to complex organizational structures, corporate cultures, and technological inertia associated with the automotive industry. In a recent rating of the 50 firms that best combine new technology with effective business models, only 2 were automotive companies. The obstacles to digital innovation are related to closed innovation processes and to deficient collaboration forms with external development firms, i.e., startups.
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Despite significant business opportunities made possible through advancements in technology, readily available digital technologies are often overlooked and not used by new ventures. To address this knowledge gap, this paper looks at the relationships between readily available digital technologies and born-digital new venture capabilities. We use an affordance lens to explore conditions in which born-digital new ventures interact with digital technologies to actualize digital affordances that facilitate the development of important capabilities. First, using the existing literature, we present a research model and its key elements. Then, using data on new ventures in a Canadian university incubator, we conduct fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and develop seven configurational research propositions as pathways to develop information technology-enabled organizational capabilities in new ventures. Using this retroductive approach, this research builds a context-specific middle-range theory that explains complex interactions between readily available digital technologies and new venture characteristics, where resources are provided by incubators in dynamic environments, to facilitate the development of ITOCs in the new ventures. We close by describing the study’s theoretical and practical implications.
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Accelerators are the crucial foundations that influence development of the entrepreneurial ecosystem and new venture creations. Although about 10 years have passed since the establishment of the first accelerator in the United States, there are still many dark spots about the accelerator’s operations and services as well as their position and value in the entrepreneurial ecosystem. In this study, an attempt has been made to systematically review the articles published in the field of start-up accelerators to shed light on the dark spots. To this end, 51 articles and review articles published in the Q1 and Q2 journals of the Scopus citation database, were systematically and deeply studied. Parts of the main results of this research include the process of acceleration, the accelerator’s services, the investing framework of accelerators, the success and risk factors of accelerators, and eventually antecedents as well as consequences of an accelerator. Finally, inspired by the Porter's value chain model, the accelerator value chain is presented as the final model of this study.
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Gamification’s role to support usability and innovation in the manufacturing industry is in its infancy. The present study displays a multi-cited ethnographical approach of a design science research project conducted between a start-up gamification firm and a manufacturing company. The case shows how different gamification design methods are used when gamifying a novel human modelling system. Furthermore, the interference from method to the design is presented and compared with conceptual views of gamification design. The findings show the need for early technical due diligence in collaborations between newer and older firms as well as the need for more comprehensive gamification frameworks to support industry design of gamification in different contexts.
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RESUMO A pesquisa tem como objetivo apontar as diferenças e similitudes entre Corporate Venture Capital (CorpVC) e Aceleradores Corporativos (AC), mecanismos estes de colaboração entre empresas maduras e Startups. A pesquisa apontou que o fenômeno de Aceleradores Corporativos e de Corporate Venture Capital são práticas de inovação aberta, que podem ser semi-institucionalizadas em empresas que possuam a intenção de buscar inovação em ambientes externos. O fato de CorpVC e AC serem baseados em objetivos estratégicos, e não só financeiros, os diferenciam das outras modalidades de investimentos feitas diretamente em empresas, no entanto, percebeu-se que ambas as estratégias têm diferenças cruciais, que, se vistas anteriormente pela empresa madura, podem ser mais bem aplicadas, garantindo o índice de sucesso maior, baseado no propósito e objetivo da Corporação financiante.
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Mounting sustainability pressures challenge established firms to engage with sustainability innovations, which are often introduced by startups. Research on alliance learning has established the potential of learning from startups to advance corporate innovation. Here, scholars have outlined alliance learning processes and outcomes and have distinguished learning about and learning from alliance partners as two key learning types. The saliency of learning from the operational alliance process is stressed. To date, however, no study has investigated alliance learning processes and outcomes for sustainability innovations. This is despite the fact that sustainability research suggests learning processes in the sustainability context have a distinct nature. This study addresses this research gap by analyzing the sustainability-specific learning processes and outcomes of a large established meat firm's alliances with nine startups for sustainable plant, insect-based and cell-based protein solutions. We (1) identify three distinct characteristics of sustainability-related alliance learning processes and outcomes, and (2) specify the temporal occurrence and outcomes of learning types in alliance learning phases. In contrast to findings of prior research, our study reveals that learning about alliance partners is of key importance throughout the whole sustainability-oriented alliance learning process. In addition, the findings highlight that alliance learning outcomes may support an established firm's contribution to the sustainability transformation of mass markets.
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The incredible speed with which artificial intelligence (AI) is entering all sectors is forcing companies into a race to link their businesses with AI. This trend is also driving companies, strategists, pioneers, entrepreneurs and researchers to use AI to design new strategies, create new sources of business value and manage innovative forms of financing. This scenario accurately describes the current situation of start-ups. New firms are forced to connect with AI in order to develop, either because of its importance for their products or services or because funders use it to make investment or purchase decisions. Therefore, to define the impact of AI on the financing of start-ups, we must differentiate between two contexts: the financing of technological start-ups based on AI and the use of AI by investors and funders to support the most cutting-edge and profitable start-ups. This chapter begins with an introduction to start-ups, the diversification of financial activities and the coherence of these new models with existing theoretical business frameworks that explain outcomes. Subsequently, it investigates the theory on AI in start-ups, providing real examples of emerging companies that illustrate these two contexts. The chapter provides examples of AI-based start-ups that have already been financed and companies that use AI to support the development of start-ups through either financial investment or logistical support.
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The chapter aims at investigating the different implementation modes of open innovation (OI) adopted by companies when engaging with startups. In the last years, a significant body of literature has been published on OI-related issues. Research on OI is multidisciplinary and scattered among different fields of research. Based on this, the authors perform a comprehensive and systemized literature review to identify and describe the most critical issues to be considered when companies engage with startups. Specifically, they aim to identify the main barriers to corporate-startup collaboration and, in doing so, to provide a comprehensive framework able to shed new light on the proposed issue and to provide guidance to future research directions.
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Organizations are combining resources through acquisitions and alliances in record numbers. Since publication of our original study in 1991, research has confirmed that resource complementarity creates the potential for greater synergy from acquisitions and alliances, leading to higher long-term firm performance as an end result. The valuable, unique, and inimitable synergy that can be realized by integrating complementary resources provides an opportunity for the firm to create competitive advantages that can be sustained for a period of time. In addition, complementary resources present opportunities for enhanced learning as well as the development of new capabilities. However, we also suggest that the existence of complementary resources is a necessary but insufficient condition to achieve synergy. The resources must be effectively integrated and managed to realize the synergy.
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I AM NOT PERMITTED TO POST OR SHARE MIT COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL. PLEASE SEARCH ONLINE FOR OTHERS WHO MAY HAVE POSTED THIS ARTICLE. THANK YOU. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How can established organizations build successful new businesses on an ongoing basis? In their study of nearly 30 corporations as diverse as Google, DuPont and Cargill, the authors identified two dimensions under the direct control of management that consistently differentiated how compa1 nies approach corporate entrepreneurship. The first is organizational ownership: Will the primary ownership for the creation of new businesses be focused in a designated group, or will it be diffused across the organization? The second is resource authority: Will projects be funded from a dedicated corporate pool of money or in an ad hoc manner, perhaps through business-unit budgets? Together the two dimensions generate a matrix with four basic models of corporate entrepreneurship: the opportunist, the enabler, the advocate and the producer. In the opportunist model (example: Zimmer Holdings), the company has no deliberate approach to corporate entrepreneurship, and new businesses are built mainly from the grassroots efforts of a few "project champions." Enabler companies (example: Google) provide funding and senior executive attention to prospective projects. In the advocate model (example: DuPont), the company strongly evangelizes for corporate entrepreneurship, but business units provide the primary funding. Lastly, producer companies (example: Cargill) establish and support a full-service group with a mandate for corporate entrepreneurship. Each of the four models has a different objective, function and set of challenges. Whichever model is chosen, the crucial thing to remember is that corporate entrepreneurship needs to be nurtured and managed as a strategic, deliberate act.
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In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: What do accelerators do? Broadly speaking, they help ventures define and build their initial products, identify promising customer segments, and secure resources, including capital and employees. More specifically, accelerator programs are programs of limited-duration—lasting about three months—that help cohorts of startups with the new venture process. They usually provide a small amount of seed capital, plus working space. They also offer a plethora of networking opportunities, with both peer ventures and mentors, who might be successful entrepreneurs, program graduates, venture capitalists, angel investors, or even corporate executives. Finally, most programs end with a grand event, a “demo day” where ventures pitch to a large audience of qualified investors. You may think this all sounds familiar. After all, don’t incubators and angel investors help nascent ventures? Accelerators certainly are similar to incubators and angel investors. Like them, accelerators aim to help nascent ventures during the formation stage. Thus we might expect that many of the activities provided by accelerators would also be provided by angels and incubators. But accelerators differ in several ways. Perhaps the most fundamental difference is the limited duration of accelerator programs as compared to the continuous nature of incubators and angel investments. This one small difference leads to many other differences, as I discuss in more detail below. (See table 1 for a summary of the differences between incubators, angel investors, and accelerators.) Incubators and Angel Investors According to the National Business Incubation Association, incubators shelter vulnerable nascent businesses, allowing them to become stronger before becoming independent. According to the association’s website, 93 percent of all incubators are nonprofit organizations focused on economic development, and roughly a third are affiliated with a university. While no two incubators are exactly the same, in general, incubators receive rent and fees from tenant firms in exchange for office space and administrative support services. Several incubators also provide introductions to financiers, and connections to legal, technology transfer, and accounting consultants. When they are affiliated with a university, they may also provide services related to intellectual property; the university may also use them to transfer knowledge from faculty members to firms that are commercializing the university’s intellectual property. Click for larger view Table 1. Key Differences between Incubators, Investors, and Accelerators Some of what incubators provide to entrepreneurs, however, might not be consistent with what the nascent firms actually need. For example, ventures might develop in a way that allows them to survive inside of an incubator, but not outside of it, and thus in a manner that is not optimal for the market. Some firms may survive longer in an incubator than they would otherwise. Survival may seem attractive, but if the firm will inevitably fail, then the resources it is consuming might be better used by other, more fruitful endeavors. Moreover, if ventures are being shielded from market forces, they might be missing out on important feedback that could enable them to adapt. Early adaptation is critical for early-stage firms before they become more rigid with age, which occurs naturally. Angel investors also aim to help fledging ventures. Angels are individual investors, or groups of individual investors, who provide seed capital and varying amounts of advice to young firms. According to the Center for Venture Research, 28,590 entrepreneurial ventures received $9.7 billion in investment during the first quarter of 2013. Clearly, angel investors are an important part of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. Often, but not always, they are entrepreneurs who want to help the next generation of entrepreneurs. They also may be friends or family members who provide financial investment. Angel investors help their portfolio firms in a unstructured manner, often providing advice and introductions as needed. The lack of structure often translates into limited involvement and mentorship. Comparing Accelerators and Incubators Accelerators also help fledging nascent ventures. Philosophically, incubators tend to nurture nascent ventures by buffering them from the environment to give them room to grow. In contrast, whereas accelerators speed up market interactions in order to help nascent ventures adapt quickly and learn. Practically, accelerators and incubators differ in four key ways. Duration The limited duration of accelerators, usually three months, is the characteristic that most clearly defines accelerator programs...
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The general topic of this chapter is the relation of the society outside organizations to the internal life of organizations. Part of the specific topics have to do with the effect of society on organizations, and part of them concern the effects of organizational variables on the surrounding social environment. I intend to interpret the term “social structure” in the title in a very general sense, to include groups, institutions, laws, population characteristics, and sets of social relations that form the environment of the organization. That is, I interpret “social structure” to mean any variables which are stable characteristics of the society outside the organization. By an “organization” I mean a set of stable social relations deliberately created, with the explicit intention of continuously accomplishing some specific goals or purposes. These goals or purposes are generally functions performed for some larger structure. For example, armies have the goal of winning possible military engagements. The fulfillment of this goal is a function performed for the larger political structure, which has functional requirements of defense and conquest. I exclude from organizations many types of groups which have multiple purposes (or which perform multiple functions for larger systems, whether these are anyone's purposes or not), such as families, geographical communities, ethnic groups, or total societies. 1 also exclude social arrangements built up on the spur of the moment to achieve some specific short-run purpose. For instance, I will not consider a campaign committee for some political candidate as an “organization,” although a political party would definitely meet the criterion of continuous functioning and relatively specific purposes.
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In this paper, we focus on the potential innovative benefits to corporate venture capital (CVC), i.e. equity investments in entrepreneurial ventures by incumbent firms. We propose that corporate venture capital programs may be instrumental in harvesting innovations from entrepreneurial ventures and thus an important part of a firm's overall innovation strategy. We hypothesize that these programs are especially effective in weak intellectual property (IP) regimes and when the firm has sufficient absorptive capacity. We analyze a large panel of public firms over a 20-year period and find that increases in corporate venture capital investments are associated with subsequent increases in firm patenting.
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Business incubators such as Hotbank, CMGI, and Idealab! are a booming industry. Offering office space, funding, and basic services to start-ups, these organizations have become the hottest way to nurture and grow fledgling businesses. But are incubators a fleeting phenomenon born of an overheated stock market, or are they an important and lasting way of creating value and wealth in the new economy? The authors argue that one type of incubator, called a networked incubator, represents a fundamentally new and enduring organizational model uniquely suited to growing businesses in the Internet economy. It shares certain features with other incubators--mainly, it fosters a spirit of entrepreneurship and offers economies of scale. But its key distinguishing feature is its ability to give start-ups preferential access to a network of potential partners. Such incubators institutionalize their networking--they have systems in place to encourage networking, helping start-ups, for example, to meet with potential business allies. That doesn't mean incubatees get preferential treatment; it means only that they have built-in access to partnerships that might not have existed without the incubator. Even with this advantage, however, networked incubators can easily follow the road to ruin. To avoid failure, they must create a portfolio of companies and advisers that their incubatees can leverage. That can be done by strategically investing in portfolio firms and by enlisting a large set of business allies. It can also be done by establishing connections and relationships that are anchored more to the incubator than to particular individuals.
The startup owner's manual. Stamford
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Blank, S., & Dorf, B. (2012). The startup owner's manual. Stamford, CT: K&S Ranch.
Why internal ventures are different from external startupswhy- internal-ventures-are-different-from-external-startups
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Chesbrough, H. (2014, March 26). Why internal ventures are different from external startups. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://steveblank.com/2014/03/26/why- internal-ventures-are-different-from-external-startups/
Corporate accelerators are an oxymoron
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Crichton, D. (2014, August 25). Corporate accelerators are an oxymoron. TechCrunch. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://techcrunch.com/2014/08/25/corporate-acceleratorsare-an-oxymoron/
Incubation for growth: A review of the impact of business incubation on new ventures with high growth potential When do incumbents learn from entrepreneurial ventures? Corporate venture capital and investing firm innovation rates
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Dee, N., Gill, D., Livesey, T., & Minshall, T. (2011, September). Incubation for growth: A review of the impact of business incubation on new ventures with high growth potential. Nesta. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from https://www. nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/incubation_for_growth.pdf Dushnitsky, G., & Lenox, M. J. (2005). When do incumbents learn from entrepreneurial ventures? Corporate venture capital and investing firm innovation rates. Research Policy, 34(5), 615—639.
Corporates & startups: Hip, but not happening
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Horn, D. K. E. (2014). Corporates & startups: Hip, but not happening. KPMG. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www.kpmg.com/nl/en/issues-and-insights/articlespublications/pages/new-horizons.aspx
The startup factories Good incubation: The craft of supporting new social ventures Winning together: A guide to successful corporate-startup collaboration The hackathon enters the corporate mainstream. Financial Times
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Miller, P., & Bound, K. (2011, June 21). The startup factories. Nesta. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www. nesta.org.uk/publications/startup-factories Miller, P., & Stacey, J. (2014, April 2). Good incubation: The craft of supporting new social ventures. Nesta. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/ good-incubation Mocker, V. B. (2015, June 17). Winning together: A guide to successful corporate-startup collaboration. Nesta. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/ winning-together-guide-successful-corporate-startup- collaboration Newton, R. (2015, February 9). The hackathon enters the corporate mainstream. Financial Times. Available at http://www. ft.com
Six lessons for corporations building innovation accelerators. Innosight. Retrieved from http://www.innosight. com/innovation-resources/strategy-innovation/six-lessonsfor-corporations-building-innovation-accelerators Democratizing innovation
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Trotter, A. (2013). Six lessons for corporations building innovation accelerators. Innosight. Retrieved from http://www.innosight. com/innovation-resources/strategy-innovation/six-lessonsfor-corporations-building-innovation-accelerators.cfm von Hippel, E. (2005). Democratizing innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Why internal ventures are different from external startups
  • H Chesbrough
Chesbrough, H. (2014, March 26). Why internal ventures are different from external startups. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://steveblank.com/2014/03/26/whyinternal-ventures-are-different-from-external-startups/
Incubation for growth: A review of the impact of business incubation on new ventures with high growth potential
  • N Dee
  • D Gill
  • T Livesey
  • T Minshall
Dee, N., Gill, D., Livesey, T., & Minshall, T. (2011, September). Incubation for growth: A review of the impact of business incubation on new ventures with high growth potential. Nesta. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from https://www. nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/incubation_for_growth.pdf
Good incubation: The craft of supporting new social ventures
  • P Miller
  • J Stacey
Miller, P., & Stacey, J. (2014, April 2). Good incubation: The craft of supporting new social ventures. Nesta. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/ good-incubation
Winning together: A guide to successful corporate-startup collaboration
  • V B Mocker
Mocker, V. B. (2015, June 17). Winning together: A guide to successful corporate-startup collaboration. Nesta. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/ winning-together-guide-successful-corporate-startupcollaboration
The hackathon enters the corporate mainstream
  • R Newton
Newton, R. (2015, February 9). The hackathon enters the corporate mainstream. Financial Times. Available at http://www. ft.com