Article

Comparative morphology on the egg chorion characters of some Noctuidae (Lepidoptera)

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Abstract

A comparative morphological analysis is provided for 70 species belonging to 59 genera of 13 subfamilies of Noctuidae from Ukraine. Diagnostic characters of the eggs for some species are identified. A comparison with representatives from other families of Noctuoidea is conducted. Some characters typical for separate species and general characters typical for most species are discussed.

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... For some insect groups (e.g. Lepidoptera) the axis of rotational symmetry is sometimes referred to in the literature as height [19][20][21] . For published images with a scale bar, we measured both the straight and curved length of the egg (for those eggs that are curved), but for all analyses and figures, we used the straight length of the egg to maximize consistency with published records. ...
... To resolve ambiguous cases, and when measuring egg features from images, we defined width as the widest diameter (mm), measured perpendicular to the axis of rotational symmetry of the egg. For some insect groups this axis is referred to in the literature as diameter 19 or breadth 22 . For eggs described in published records as having a length, width, and breadth or depth (i.e., the egg is a flattened ellipsoid 23 ), we considered width as the wider of the two diameters, and breadth as the diameter perpendicular to both width and length. ...
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Offspring size is a fundamental trait in disparate biological fields of study. This trait can be measured as the size of plant seeds, animal eggs, or live young, and it influences ecological interactions, organism fitness, maternal investment, and embryonic development. Although multiple evolutionary processes have been predicted to drive the evolution of offspring size, the phylogenetic distribution of this trait remains poorly understood, due to the difficulty of reliably collecting and comparing offspring size data from many species. Here we present a dataset of 10,449 morphological descriptions of insect eggs, with records for 6,706 unique insect species and representatives from every extant hexapod order. The dataset includes eggs whose volumes span more than eight orders of magnitude. We created this dataset by partially automating the extraction of egg traits from the primary literature. In the process, we overcame challenges associated with large-scale phenotyping by designing and employing custom bioinformatic solutions to common problems. We matched the taxa in this dataset to the currently accepted scientific names in taxonomic and genetic databases, which will facilitate the use of these data for testing pressing evolutionary hypotheses in offspring size evolution. Machine-accessible metadata file describing the reported data (ISA-Tab format)
... Detailed knowledge of external morphology of immature stages is widely recognized as an important tool in studies dealing with the evolution and systematics of Lepidoptera , Hernández-Mejía et al. 2015, Salik et al. 2015, Dolinskaya 2016, Neves & Paluch 2016, Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016. Therefore, the objective of this study is to describe and illustrate the external morphology of the egg and first instar of P. obtusaria based on light and scanning electron microscopy, providing the first morphological observations of immature stages of a Neotropical species of Pero. ...
... Lepidoptera(Duarte et al. 2005, Brito et al. 2013, Vargas et al. 2015, Dolinskaya 2016, only a few SEM studies have been performed for eggs, larvae or pupae of Neotropical Geometridae(Beéche et al. 1987, Ibarra- Vidal & Parra 1993, Parra & Ibarra-Vidal 2002, Bocaz & Parra 2005, Vargas et al. 2010, King & Parra 2011, Vargas & Parra 2013 ...
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The external morphology of the egg and first instar of the little-known Neotropical geometrid moth Pero obtusaria Prout, 1928 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae: Azelinini) is described and illustrated based on light and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first morphological study dealing with immature stages of a Neotropical species of the highly diverse New World moth genus Pero.
... The fine structure of eggs is an important taxonomic character for Lepidoptera because of its species-specificity (Arbogast et al. 1980;Salkeld 1984). The most important features are related to the micropylar area (Dolinskaya 2016(Dolinskaya , 2019Kolesnichenko & Sidorov 2021). There are few data about egg morphology for most Psychidae species. ...
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The egg chorion morphologies of Dahlica triquetrella (Hübner, 1813) and Dahlica lichenella (Linnaeus, 1761) are described. These two species well differ from each other by diameter of the micropyle, by number of micropyle pores, and by diameter of the micropyle rosette.
... Since the advent of the scanning electron micrograph microscope (SEM), researchers have been capturing SEM images of egg chorions, revealing an enormous diversity of textural forms. They have found that some are largely smooth [58,59], some have ridges that span the full length of the egg [60,61], some have features that are at the scale of follicular epithelium cells [62], and others have fine-scale structures that are much smaller than the width of such cells [63,64]. Stick insects have evolved some of the most diverse and elaborate external eggshell structures [31]. ...
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The insect egg is the single-celled developmental stage, a resource investment in the next generation, an unusually large and complex cell type, and the protective vessel for embryonic development. In this review, I describe the morphological diversity of insect eggs and then identify recent advances in understanding the patterns of their evolution, the cellular mechanisms underlying their development, and notable aspects of their ecology. I also suggest areas for particularly promising future research on insect egg morphology; these topics touch upon such diverse areas as tissue morphogenesis, life history evolution, organismal scaling, cellular secretion, and oviposition ecology.
... The physical structure of the egg influences coloration Lepidoptera egg color patterns are mainly determined by the physical structure of the egg and various pigments distributed in different layers of the egg and vary depending on developmental stages. The eggshell (chorion), exhibiting complex and diverse physical structures among species, is the main determinant for the egg color [9]. When the eggshell is opaque, the egg generally presents the original eggshell color and remains unchanged during the whole embryonic stage. ...
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Insect colors and color patterns have fascinated biologists for centuries. While extensive research has focused on the adult colors of Drosophila and butterflies, our understanding of how colors are generated and diversified in embryonic and larval stages remains limited, especially, the genetics behind the protective coloration of the immobile embryonic and larval stages. Lepidoptera, one of the most widespread and speciesrich insect orders, are extremely helpful uncovering those mechanisms due to their remarkable diverse colors in eggs and caterpillars within or among species, and these colors usually are variable in different developmental stages or in response to different environments. Here we review the recent progress on coloration of lepidopteran eggs and caterpillars, focusing on the genetic basis, developmental mechanisms, ecology, and evolution underlying the remarkable color diversity.
... The egg morphology has been investigated in several noctuid moths with illustrated descriptions (Peterson 1961(Peterson , 1964Hudson 1973;Lu et al., 1995;Zhou et al., 1995;Skudlik et al., 2005;Zenker et al., 2007;Dolinskaya & Geryak 2010;Korycinska 2012;Rolim et al., 2013;Dolinskaya 2016;Blanco et al., 2019). Previous studies have demonstrated the egg ultramorphology of Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera littoralis from Eurasia (Korycinska 2012), and Spodoptera cosmiodes, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera albula from South America (Rolim et al., 2013) with the help of SEM techniques. ...
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Spodoptera depravata (Butler) is an important lawn pest in northeastern Asian countries, and its larvae mainly target the leaves of Gramineae crops. However, the morphological traits of egg and larva of this species have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined the external morphology and ultrastructure of egg and larva of S. depravata using light and scanning electron microscopy. The egg is subspherical and covered with abundant female hair silk (modified scales). The upper exochorion sculpture consists of a dense network of irregular contiguous polygonal cells, with 2–3 micropyles at the top. Three types of sensilla were observed on larval antenna and maxilla: sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica and sensilla styloconica. The larva, eruciform, bears three pairs of thoracic legs, and five pairs of prolegs on abdominal segment III to VI and X (anal prolegs), respectively. The crochets of prolegs are arranged in uniordinal mesal penellipse, and protected by membranous stripes. Besides, the head and body chaetotaxy of S. depravata were illustrated and described in details. This study also briefly discussed the application of morphological traits of eggs and larvae to classification and systematic studies on Spodoptera species.
... Dell'Erba et al. (2005) inspeccionaron la mayoría de los géneros de las Heliconiini (Nymphalidae) de una porción del sur de Brasil; Llorente-Bousquets y Castro-Gerardino (2007, 2008) comenzaron a examinar la arquitectura coriónica de las Dismorphiinae (Pieridae), con base en técnicas de tinción. Más recientemente, en la familia Noctuidae, también con MEB, Dolinskaya (2010Dolinskaya ( , 2011Dolinskaya ( , 2016, Dolinskaya y Geryak (2010) y Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko (2013) detallaron el corion de varias especies de las subfamilias Hadeninae, Xyleninae y Noctuinae. En Pyrgus Hübner (Hesperiidae) es importante el trabajo de Hernández-Roldán et al. (2012), e igualmente el de Munguira et al. (2015) para Lycaenidae de la Península Ibérica; ambos mostraron la gran variedad de caracteres útiles a nivel de especie, en especial si se logra reunir el material zoológico representativo en tales comparaciones taxonómicas. ...
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We examined and described the structure of the chorion of Leucidia brephos with the methylene blue staining technique and with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their morphological comparison includes illustrations or pictures of other chorions of the subfamily Coliadinae. Leucidia brephos' chorion has a rather generalized macro-grid within the group, in addition to an elongated shape and base with more polygonal cross-linking, which makes it plesiomorphic. The micro-grid, along with the axes and the ribs forms a relief structure in three different planes, which are quite particular. The sides of the micro-grid are of different thickness and the number of irregular polygons between the ribs is reduced, almost always less than 10. This new knowledge confirm the presence of the micro-grid in the Coliadinae, explaining its absence in some species as a secondary loss. And, together with the data previously obtained in Dismorphiinae, Coliadinae and Pierinae allow us to summarize the macro-grid tendencies on Pieridae: The tendency to form quadrangular polygons, the simplification of the axes and ribs, and the disappearance of irregular and multiple polygons toward the poles. © 2018 Southwestern Entomological Society. All rights reserved.
... Macrolepidoptera eggs are of two types. Th ese lying or bilateral symmetric eggs are typical for Geometridae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Lasiocampidae etc. and upright or radial symmetric eggs are typical for Notodontidae, Noctuidae, Erebidae, Nolidae, Rhopalocera and other (Döring, 1955;Hinton, 1981;Salkeld, 1984;Dolinskaya, 1990Dolinskaya, , 2014Dolinskaya, , 2016Young, 2006;Nieves-Uribe et al., 2015, 2016 andothers). ...
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Key to the Species of Ukrainian Notodontid Moths (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae) on the Egg Characters. Dolinskaya, I. V. — A key for identifi cation of 39 species from 20 genera of Ukrainian notodontid moths based on the the eggs is provided. Reliable diagnostic characters, which do not disappear with the injury of eggs or eggs preserved for a long time in alcohol were used. Th e characters as egg shape, egg and chorion colour, shape of gnawed holes in eggs before setting out of caterpillars, the type of oviposition and the chorionic sculpture are applied. Clear characters that are typical for the live eggs, which vary in the process of egg development are revealed. Th ese are characters of egg colour and pattern. In the key such characters are kept by stable signs that do not disappear aft er eggs traumatizing. Th e key is illustrated in details with photographs made using a digital camera and scanning electron microscope.
... Numerosas referencias sobre el tópico pueden consultarse en los trabajos de Llorente-Bousquets y Castro-Gerardino (2007, Hernández-Mejía et al. (2013, 2014ab, 2015, y Nieves-Uribe et al. (2015, 2016abc), por citar algunos de los trabajos más recientes; estos últimos enfatizan descripciones en tres subfamilias de Pieridae y en Biblidinae (Nymphalidae). En las familias Noctuidae, Hesperiidae, Nymphalidae, Riodinidae, y Lycaenidae se ha empleado con éxito el uso del microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB), para escudriñar a detalle la arquitectura coriónica (Downey y Allyn 1980, 1981, 1984García-Barros y Martin 1995;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya , 2016Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012;Munguira et al. 2015). No obstante, la técnica de tinción coriónica con azul de metileno, también ha revelado gran variedad de caracteres de importancia en la sistemática de las Pieridae y las Biblidinae, de acuerdo con los trabajos antes citados. ...
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Resumen Se estudia e ilustra la estructura coriónica de cuatro especies de dos géneros de la subfamilia Coliadinae: Colias (C. dimera, C. erate, y C. eurytheme) y Zerene (Z. c. cesonia). Se reexaminan y comparan descripciones previas de C. dimera, C. eurytheme y Z. c. cesonia, con nuevos materiales provenientes de México y Colombia. Además, por primera vez se describe el corion de C. erate y la microrretícula en tres de las cuatro especies; que se pensaba ausente en ambos géneros, por su carencia en C. dimera. Con el uso del microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB), se efectuaron tomas fotográficas de cuatro regiones coriónicas (micropilar, perimicropilar o apical, ecuador, y base); éstas se describen, ilustran, y comparan tabularmente. Las tomas en el MEB permiten analizar y resolver que C. dimera presenta caracteres de géneros menos derivados dentro de los Coliadinae, mientras que en C. eurytheme se expresan caracteres encontrados en géneros más derivados. Sin embargo, caracteres reticulares del área basal, cantidad de ejes y su doble grosor respecto a las costillas colocan a C. dimera como una especie derivada dentro del grupo. Ambas condiciones exponen a C. dimera siendo una especie con un mosaico de caracteres coriónicos ancestrales y derivados.
... Numerosas referencias sobre el tópico pueden consultarse en los trabajos de Llorente-Bousquets y Castro-Gerardino (2007, Hernández-Mejía et al. (2013, 2014ab, 2015, y Nieves-Uribe et al. (2015, 2016abc), por citar algunos de los trabajos más recientes; estos últimos enfatizan descripciones en tres subfamilias de Pieridae y en Biblidinae (Nymphalidae). En las familias Noctuidae, Hesperiidae, Nymphalidae, Riodinidae, y Lycaenidae se ha empleado con éxito el uso del microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB), para escudriñar a detalle la arquitectura coriónica (Downey y Allyn 1980, 1981, 1984García-Barros y Martin 1995;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya , 2016Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012;Munguira et al. 2015). No obstante, la técnica de tinción coriónica con azul de metileno, también ha revelado gran variedad de caracteres de importancia en la sistemática de las Pieridae y las Biblidinae, de acuerdo con los trabajos antes citados. ...
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On the basis of comparative-morphological analysis of 43 genera and 92 species of Palaearctic Notodontidae, as well as the study of the eggs of outgroup species, complexes of characters that are diagnostic, taxonomic or phylogenetic are singled out. It is shown that the egg characteristics are of great taxonomic value at species and generic levels. Some characters are useful for grouping genera. In general, a complex of characters should be used, because different species or genera often share the same characters. Possible apomorphic and plesiomorphic states of the different characters are discussed in relation to the different taxa. The results of this study are discussed with reference to recently published classifications of Notodontidae. As a result of the studies, the keys for identification to the eggs of 43 genera and 92 species of notodontid moths from the Palaearctic region are presented. Reliable diagnostic characters that do not disappear with the injury of eggs or with eggs preserved in alcohol were used. Characters including egg shape, egg and chorion colour, the shape of gnawed holes in eggs when caterpillars hatched, chorionic sculpture, the type of oviposition, foodplants, and geographic distribution of the genera and species were applied. Occasionally, characters that are typical for live eggs, which vary during development, were used. These are characters of egg colour and pattern. The keys are illustrated with photographs made using a digital camera and a scanning electron microscope.
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The Chorionic Sculpture of the Eggs of Some Noctuinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine Descriptions and scanning electron microphotographs of the eggs of 10 species from 7 genera of the subfamily Noctuinae occurring in Ukraine are provided. The diagnostic characters of the genera and species are selected.
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Egg Morphology of Some Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Dolinskaya, I.V.— Th e eggs of 10 species Noc-tuidae from 6 subfamilies (Acronictinae, Metoponiinae, Cuculliinae, Heliothinae, Condicinae and Bryophilinae) occurring in Ukraine are examined, described, and illustrated with SEM. Th e diagnostic characters of examined species are carried out. K e y w o r d s: Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, egg, description, diagnostic characters, scanning electron micros-copy, Ukraine. Морфология яиц некоторых совок (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Долинская И. В. — С помощью сканирующего электронного микроскопа изучены, описаны и проиллюстрированы яйца 10видов совок из 6 подсемейств (Acronictinae, Metoponiinae, Cuculliinae, Heliothinae, Condicinae и Bryophilinae), встречающихся в Украине. Выделены диагностические признаки для исследованных видов. К л ю ч е в ы е с л о в а: Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, яйцо, описание, диагностические признаки, скани-рующая электронная микроскопия, Украина.
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The Chorionic Sculpture of the Eggs of Some Xyleninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) Eggs of sixteen species of fifteen genera of the subfamily Xyleninae occurring in Ukraine are described and illustrated with scanning electron microphotographs. The diagnostic characters of the genera and species are se-lected.
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Spherical eggs of Spodoptera exiqua are laid as groups covered with numerous fibres or threads. The egg is surrounded by two shells: the vitelline envelope and the chorion. The vitelline envelope is thin, electron dense and adheres closely to the oolemma. The chorion consists of the exochorion and the endochorion. The endochorion shows a medium electron density and is composed of the thin inner layer and the thicker outer layer that forms numerous ridges. Both these layers are joined by vertical columns. The gas-filled space is formed between them and it connects with the surface of the chorion through thin aeropylar canals. Its exochorion is formed by two layers. The surface is covered with polygons made of the follicular cells imprints. There is a single micropylar opening in the anterior pole.
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Biology of Insect Eggs is a three-volume account of the biology of insect eggs and covers topics ranging from oviposition and respiratory systems to the respiratory efficiency of egg plastrons. Hydropyles and water relations are also discussed, along with colleterial glands, enemies of insect eggs, and devices used by insects to defend their eggs against enemies. The first volume of this book begins with an overview of a number of controversial points related to insect eggs, such as size of eggs, the kinds of metamorphosis, apolysis and ecdysis, and arrangement of orders of insects. The second volume contains chapters that deal with the structure of the female reproductive system; vitellogenesis; and the development of the micropylar complex. It also provides an account of the eggs of each order of insects, including Ephemeroptera, Orthoptera, and Cheleutoptera as well as Phthiraptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera. The third volume is the index to subjects, species, and the bibliography which contains more than 4,000 entries.
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Presented, with notes, are 124 plates of SEM illustrations of noctuid eggs representing 14 subfamilies of the Noctuidae: one species of Agaristinae, four species of Pantheinae, six species of Acronictinae, 34 species of Noctuinae, 26 species of Hadeninae, 10 species of Cuculliinae, 14 species of Amphipyrinae, three species of Acontiinae, two species of Euteliinae, two species of Plusiinae, 11 species of Catocalinae, one species of Hypeninae, one species of Rivulinae, and nine species of Herminiinae.
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A comparative study of the external chorion morphology of West-Palaearctic satyrine butterflies is attempted, based on descriptions of 38 species and a survey of previously published data. The correlations between selected characters, the results of phylogenetic analysis based on egg characters, and their congruence with the current taxonomy of these butterflies, are tested, in order to estimate the potential use of egg characters in systematic studies. A relatively high number of characters may be derived from the outer chorion morphology, although decisions on homology may require detailed knowledge of the fine structure of chorion. There is evidence for correlation between some quantitative traits, like egg size and number of micropyles, which might in turn depend on adult size. Egg morphology can sometimes be interpreted in terms of ecological adaptations, and hence provides information that should be used in systematics. Evidence from satyrine butterflies suggests that the external chorionic features are highly homoplasious, and probably more useful at low than at high taxonomic levels within Satyrinae.
Zur Morphologie der Schmetterlingseier
  • E Döring
Döring, E. (1955) Zur Morphologie der Schmetterlingseier. Berlin, Akademie-Verlag, 154 pp.
Check list of the Quadrifid Noctuoidea of Europe
  • M Fibiger
  • J L Yela
  • A Zilli
  • Z Varga
  • Z Ronkay
  • L Ronkay
Fibiger, M., Yela, J.L., Zilli, A., Varga, Z., Ronkay, Z. & Ronkay, L. (2011) Check list of the Quadrifid Noctuoidea of Europe, In: Witt. Th. J. & Ronkay, L. (Eds.), Noctuidae Europaea. Soro, Entomological Press, pp. 23-44.