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Background: This study aimed to quantify the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), analyze its associated risk factors and explore on how LBP affects job satisfaction among 120 school teachers in Malaysia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected teachers from four secondary schools in Putrajaya from February to March 2015. The level of LBP was assessed using a standardized Nordic Questionnaire, while Teachers’ Satisfaction Scale was used to determine teacher satisfaction level. The response rate for this study was 100% (120/120). Results: The prevalence of LBP among respondents was 72.9%. Gender (P=0.016), prolonged sitting (0.015), walking up and down stairs (0.012), and lifting loads with hands (0.030) were significantly associated with LBP among respondents after controlling for other factors including age, marital status and other work tasks. The strongest predictor of LBP among teachers was walking up and down stairs (OR = 9.45) indicating that respondents who reported having to walk up and down stairs frequently were 9 times more likely to have low back pain compared to those who did not. Conclusion: Prioritization of prevention and control measures should focus more on promoting healthier ergonomic movement among teachers rather than providing knowledge and awareness on low back pain and job satisfaction level among teachers.
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Iran J Public Health, Vol. 45, Suppl. Issue No. 1, Feb 2016, pp.85-92 Original Article
85 Available at: http://ijph.tums.ac.ir
Work Task and Job Satisfaction Predicting Low Back Pain
among Secondary School Teachers in Putrajaya
Nur Farahwahida MOHD ANUAR
1, *Irniza RASDI
1, Suhainizam M. SALILUDDIN
2,
Emilia ZAINAL ABIDIN
2
1. Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
2. Dept. of Community Health, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding Author: Email: irniza@upm.edu.my
(Received 20 Nov 2015; accepted 16 Jan 2016)
Introduction
Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) is a global issue
and is considered as one of the most common and
expensive occupational health problem (1). MSDs
can be divided into eight body parts, which are one
or both thighs, one or both hands, one or both
legs, shoulder, elbow, neck, upper back pain and
LBP. Almost half of the adult population suffers
from low back pain, which lasts for more than two
days in a year (2). Those who have low back pain
were observed to develop other psychological, so-
cial and physical health problems (3). MSDs
among workers increase financial loss due to work
absences, medical treatment, early retirement and
poor work performances (4-6).
School teachers have been indicated in previous
studies to report high prevalence of MSDs (7).
This prevalence ranges between 39% and 95% (8).
MSDs is also reported as one of the main causes of
poor health among retired school teachers (4).
Some researchers believed that several work fac-
tors were significant in predicting musculoskeletal
disorders among school teachers such as lifting of
heavy load, prolonged sitting, improper posture,
walking up and down stairs, writing on board and
Abstract
Background: : This study aimed to quantify the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), analyze its associated risk factors
and explore on how LBP affects job satisfaction among 120 school teachers in Malaysia.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected teachers from four secondary schools in
Putrajaya from February to March 2015. The level of LBP was assessed using a standardized Nordic Questionnaire,
while Teachers’ Satisfaction Scale was used to determine teacher satisfaction level. The response rate for this study was
100% (120/120).
Results: The prevalence of LBP among respondents was 72.9%. Gender (P=0.016), prolonged sitting (0.015), walking
up and down stairs (0.012), and lifting loads with hands (0.030) were significantly associated with LBP among respon-
dents after controlling for other factors including age, marital status and other work tasks. The strongest predictor of
LBP among teachers was walking up and down stairs (OR = 9.45) indicating that respondents who reported having to
walk up and down stairs frequently were 9 times more likely to have low back pain compared to those who did not.
Conclusion: Prioritization of prevention and control measures should focus more on promoting healthier ergonomic
movement among teachers rather than providing knowledge and awareness on low back pain and job satisfaction level
among teachers.
Keywords: Low back pain, Secondary school teachers, Putrajaya, Occupational health
Mohd Anuar et al.: Work Task and Job Satisfaction Predicting Low Back Pain
Available at: http://ijph.tums.ac.ir 86
prolonged computer use (9-11). Other significant
factors were gender, age, psychological framework
of teachers including anxiety and low job satisfac-
tion as well as psychosocial work factors such as
lack of social support and high psychologically
work demand (9-13).
Teachers form the majority of the government
workforce in Malaysia, thus their health and per-
formance are vital for the overall productivity of
the Malaysian government education service.
Good teachers’ performance encourages the pro-
duction of good students as well as increases the
education standard among Malaysian schoolchild-
ren. Although many studies have dealt with
MSDs among occupational groups in other coun-
tries, data on the exact nature and prevalence of
this important health problem is limited in Malay-
sia especially among teachers. A previous study on
low back pain was conducted only among primary
school teachers (9). Identifying the potential causes
of MSDs among school teachers is therefore im-
portant to assist in improving productivity among
teachers. Knowledge on the prevalence of LBP
and associated risk factors are important basic in-
formation that can provide practical guidance for
minimizing teachers’ exposure and in preventing
LBP among them.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of
LBP among secondary school teachers in Putrajaya
and its potential factors; a) socio-demographic fac-
tors b) teachers’ work factors c) teachers’ satisfac-
tion d) knowledge and awareness on LBP. Find-
ings of this study may help in identifying the main
factors for MSDs among school teachers which
may enhance the current preventive measures, if
available, to be more efficient and cost effective.
Prevention strategies against LBP can only be suc-
cessful if its contributory and associated risk fac-
tors are identified and better understood.
Methods
Study Location and Study Population
The selected locations were secondary schools in
Wilayah Persekutuan, Putrajaya. In Putrajaya from
February to March 2015, there were 11 secondary
schools of which two were boarding and religious
schools (14). Four schools in Putrajaya were se-
lected randomly from a list obtained from the Min-
istry of Education’s website. Thirty teachers were
selected randomly from the teachers’ name list ob-
tained for each selected school. One hundred and
twenty secondary school teachers participated in
this study with the inclusion criteria of full
time/permanent posts and minimum of one-year
teaching experience. This study location was cho-
sen because of the school facilities available, prox-
imity to town and their location in an urban area.
Urban schools normally have large number of pu-
pils. As a result, there is an increase in job demand
with extra responsibility and additional workload
among the teachers. The study population was sec-
ondary school teachers who have suffered and
who have not suffered LBP throughout their job
career from four secondary schools in Putrajaya.
Study Instrument and Data Collection Proce-
dure
A combination of self-adapted and modified stan-
dardized questionnaires was used for the research.
Two versions of the questionnaires in English and
Bahasa Malaysia were used. The questionnaires
consist of five parts with 39 questions. The ques-
tionnaires were collected after one week from the
date of the questionnaires given to the respond-
ents.
Part one of the questionnaire was on the respond-
ent’s demographic factors, which include age, gen-
der, marital status, height and weight to calculate
body mass index (BMI) of the respondents. Part
two of the questionnaire assesses teachers’ work
factors, which were based on the findings from
previous studies covering lifting loads, prolonged
standing and sitting, walking up and down stairs,
writing on white/black boards, and association
with the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) (9).
Direct observation of the teachers in school was
also made as a basis for identifying their work fac-
tors in LBPs. The Dutch Musculoskeletal Ques-
tionnaire (DMQ) was used for additional items
(15). Work tasks of teachers were measured using a
dichotomous scale (No/Yes) during an average
working day. Work was categorized into tasks in-
cluding lifting loads with hand, prolonged standing
Iran J Public Health, Vol. 45, Suppl. Issue No. 1, Feb 2016, pp.85-92
87 Available at: http://ijph.tums.ac.ir
(≤ 2 hours per day), sitting (≥ 4 hours per day),
walking up and down stairs and writing on boards.
Additional related questions, such as types of loads
they carry, reasons for prolonged standing and sit-
ting, frequency of walking up/ down stairs and
writing on boards were also asked. Teacher’s expe-
rience and job responsibility as were also assessed.
Questions on musculoskeletal pain were con-
structed according to a modified Nordic question-
naire in part three of the questionnaire (16). Nor-
dic is a group that developed standardized ques-
tionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal
symptoms. Standardized Nordic Questionnaire
consists of 2 types of questionnaires which are the
General Questionnaire and Specific Questionnaire.
The General Questionnaire consists of a diagram
in which the human body (viewed from the back)
is divided into nine anatomical regions, while the
Specific Questionnaire concentrates on anatomical
areas in which the muscular-skeletal symptoms are
most common (low back, neck and shoulder
symptoms).The main advantage in using these
questionnaires is that they analyze the severity of
the symptoms, their effect on activities at work
and during leisure time, total duration of symp-
toms and sick-leave during the preceding 12
months. In this study, the Specific Questionnaire
(Low Back Pain symptoms) was used and was ac-
companied by analytical diagrams depicting the
specific sites. Part four of the questionnaire as-
sesses the respondents’ knowledge on LBP as one
of the occupational hazards, as well as the sources
of information (fellow friends, seminar/trainings
and magazine/newspapers or articles). Other re-
lated questions asked were knowledge on LBP care
such as seeking treatment from specialist.
In the last part of the questionnaire, standardized
Teachers’ Satisfaction Scale (TSS) was used for the
assessment of the teachers’ overall satisfaction with
their profession (17). The section consists of five
items asking the teacher how he/she feels about
her/his level of job satisfaction in various ways by
changing the wordings to fit the teaching profes-
sion (18). For example, an item of the LSS is “In
most ways my life is close to my ideal. This item is
modified to “In most ways, being a teacher is close
to my ideal. For each item, the teachers respond
on a 5-point scale with the endpoints 1 = strongly
disagree to 5 = strongly agree. This questionnaire
was validated and translated previously to Malay
Language (17).
Quality Control and Data Analysis
Pre- testing of the questionnaire was conducted
on a group of respondents from other secondary
schools who are similar in characteristics to the re-
search population to observe their ability in under-
standing and answering the questionnaire. A relia-
bility test was performed using Statistical Package
for Social Sciences (SPSS) and the calculated
Cronbach alpha value was 0.75, which was consid-
ered acceptable for reliability testing (19). The data
analysis was done by using SPSS Version 21.0.
Chi-square test and correlation test were used in
the statistical analysis.
Ethical Consideration
The Ethical Committee for Research involving
Human Subjects of Universiti Putra Malaysia ap-
proved this study. The respondents were given
consent letters and a document describing the pro-
cedure of the study and its objectives. All the in-
formation and identity of respondents in this study
are kept confidential.
Results
The response rate for this study was 100%. Out of
120 sampled, 120 questionnaires and signed con-
sent forms were returned to the researcher. In
terms of socio demographic distribution, Table 1
shows that 8 (6.7%) were aged between 19-29
years old, 33 (27.5%) were aged between 30-39
years old, 49 (40.8%) were aged between 40-49
years old, and 30 (25.0%) were aged 50 years old
and above. Most of the respondents were females
(n = 108 (90%)) among them, 10 (8.30%) were
single, 110 (91.70%) were married. The Body Mass
Index (BMI) of most of the respondents was in the
obese category (n = 40 (33.83%)) which was more
than 28.0 kg/m2, followed by overweight (n = 38
(31.7%)) and normal (n = 42 (35.0%)). In sum-
mary, most of the respondents were aged between
40-49 years old, females, married and have normal
BMI.
Mohd Anuar et al.: Work Task and Job Satisfaction Predicting Low Back Pain
Available at: http://ijph.tums.ac.ir 88
Table 1: Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents (n = 120)
Socio-Demographic Characteristics
Frequency (n)
Percentage
(%)
Mean ( SD)
Age
8
6.7
42.32 ± 7.95
33
27.5
49
40.8
30
25.0
Gender
12
10.0
108
90.0
Marital Status
10
8.30
110
91.7
Body Mass Index
(kg/m2) {(BMI)
42
35.0
26.18 ± 5.42
38
31.7
40
33.3
Prevalence of low back pain
Majority of the respondents (79.2%) experienced
low back pain or discomfort throughout their ca-
reer. Also 68 (56.7%) of the respondents suffered
from low back pain in the past 12 months. From
120 respondents, 42 (35.0%) of them suffered
from low back pain in the past 7 days. The num-
ber of respondents who suffered from low back
pain on the day of the study was 26 (21.7%), while
94 (78.3%) of respondents did not have such
problem.
Consequences of low back pain
The effects of having low back pain in the past
twelve months was asked in the questionnaire.
Out of 120 respondents, 6 (5.0%) of the respon-
dents have been admitted to hospital because of
their low back pain problems. However, only 1
person (0.8%) had to change jobs or duties due to
the problem. In the previous twelve months, 56
(46.7%) of the respondents reduced their daily ac-
tivities at home or away from home because of
the problems they face due to LBP. Twenty-eight
respondents (23.3%) took medicine to solve and
relieve their low back pain problem. Approximate-
ly 19 (15.8%) of respondents took medical leave
to rest due to low back pain.
Related Work Tasks among Respondents
Fourty-four percent of the respondents have
been teaching for less than 15 years, while 55.8%
have been teaching for more than 15 years. Most
of the respondents are subject coordinators
(92.5%), while 50.8% were classroom teachers,
and 45.0% of the respondents were both class-
room teacher and subject coordinator. With refer-
ence to teachers’ work tasks, 70.0% from 120
respondents stated that they lift loads with their
hands during work, 37.5% of them claimed to sit-
ting more than 4 hours per day, and 92.5% of res-
pondents stated that they stand for more than 2
hours per day during work. They sit for long dura-
tion to mark exam papers, students’ exercise and
complete their teaching plan. Prolonged standing
is involved while writing on white and black
board, monitoring students’ work and perfor-
mance at their desks and in teaching activities.
Around 93% of respondents claimed that they
have to walk up and down stairs at their
workplace 2 to 5 times per day and 95.0% of the
respondents reported that they always write on
white/ black board 2 to 5 times per day.
Knowledge and Awareness on Low Back Pain
Findings of this study indicated that 44 (36.7%)
of the respondents did not received any informa-
tion that LBP is one of the occupational hazards.
Hence, 108 (90.0%) respondents suggest that in-
Iran J Public Health, Vol. 45, Suppl. Issue No. 1, Feb 2016, pp.85-92
89 Available at: http://ijph.tums.ac.ir
formation about LBP as one of occupational ha-
zards should be disseminated among teachers.
Among them, 48 (40.0%) would like the informa-
tion on LBP to be made available in the mass me-
dia like television or radio. Thirty-six (30.0%) res-
pondents want the information to be disseminated
in seminars or extra training conducted for teach-
ers. While, 23 (19.2%) want it in the form of bro-
chures or pamphlet. However, only 33 (27.5%) of
them have received information about proper
LBP care and 106 (88.3%) of respondents think
that information about LBP care should be distri-
buted among school teachers. 38 (31.7%) of the
respondents want the information about proper
LBP to be taught in the form of seminars for
teachers, 37 (30.8%) in the media such as televi-
sion and radio, and 36 (30.0) of the respondents
want the information distributed in the form of
pamphlets.
Teacher Satisfaction Level
The mean score of the teachers’ satisfaction scale
(TSS) among the respondents is 22.13 with a
standard deviation of 2.5. Maximum and mini-
mum values of teacher satisfaction scale were 25
and 13. The scale consists of five items asking the
teachers how he/she feels about job satisfaction
in various ways. Results of this study indicate that
most of those respondents achieved high maxi-
mum score of teachers’ satisfaction with the range
from 22 to 25, thus indicating that they were high-
ly satisfied with their profession.
Bivariate Relationship between Independent
Variables and Low Back Pain (LBP) among
Secondary School Teachers in Putrajaya
Bivariate analyses were conducted between all in-
dependent variables and low back pain. Results on
significant relationships are shown in Table 2.
Findings indicated that the socio-demographic
variables on marital status and gender were signifi-
cantly associated with low back pain among re-
spondents. Four work tasks; namely lifting loads
with hands, prolonged sitting, prolonged standing
and walking up and down stairs were found to be
significantly associated with low back pain 2 =
4.87 to 9.02)
Table 2: Bivariate analyses between dependent variables and low-back pain among respondents
(N = *P-value <0.05)
Variables
Yes
No
χ2
P
- value
OR (95% CI)
n (%)
n (%)
Marital Status
Single
7 (70.0)
3 (30.0)
0.556
0.456*
1.714 (0.410-7.170)
Married
88 (80.0)
22 (20.0)
Gender
Male
6 (50.0)
6 (50.0)
6.877
0.009*
4.684 (1.362-16.110)
Female
89 (82.4)
19 (17.6)
Lifting loads with Hands
Yes
71 (84.5)
13 (15.5)
4.872
0.027*
2.731 (1.098-6.790)
No
24 (66.7)
12 (33.3)
Prolonged Sitting (> 4
hours)
Yes
42 (93.3)
0 (6.7)
8.761
0.003*
5.811 (1.628-20.743)
No
53 (70.7)
22 (29.3)
Prolonged Standing (>2
hours)
Yes
91 (82.0)
20 (18.0)
7.112
0.008*
5.688 (1.401-23.088)
No
4(44.4)
5(55.6)
Walking up and down stairs
Yes
92 (82.1)
20 (17.9)
9.023
0.003*
7.667 (1.692-34.734)
No
3 (37.5)
5 (62.5)
Mohd Anuar et al.: Work Task and Job Satisfaction Predicting Low Back Pain
Available at: http://ijph.tums.ac.ir 90
Multivariate Analysis between Independent
Variables and Low Back Pain among Re-
spondents
Direct logistic regression was performed to assess
the impact of selected independent variables on
low back pain among respondents. The model
contains seven independent variables; age, gender,
marital status and the four types of teaching work
tasks (lifting loads with hands, prolonged sitting,
prolonged standing and walking up and down
stairs). The full model containing all predictors
were statistically significant, χ2 (7, N = 120) =
30.07, P < 0.001, indicating that the model was
able to distinguish between respondents who have
and did not have low back pain. The model as a
whole explained 22.2 34.6% of the variance in
low back pain and correctly classified 95.8% of
cases. Findings indicate that the significant predic-
tors of low back pain were gender, prolonged sit-
ting, walking up and down stairs and lofting loads
with hand. The strongest predictor for low back
pain was walking up and down stairs (OR = 9.45)
indicating that respondents who reported having
to walk-up and down stairs frequently were 9
times more likely to have low back pain compared
to those who did not have to, controlling for all
other factors in the model. See Table 3.
Table 3: Logistic Regression predicting low back pain among respondents (N = 120)
B
S.E.
Wald
df
P
Odds
Ratio
95% C.I. for
EXP(B)
Lower
Upper
Age (yr)
-0.045
0.038
1.385
1
0.239
0.956
0.887
1.030
Marital status
1.090
0.911
1.432
1
0.231
2.974
0.499
17.722
Gender
1.805
0.750
5.799
1
0.016*
6.080
1.399
26.419
Prolonged Sitting (> 4 hours)
1.737
0.712
5.950
1
0.015*
5.679
1.407
22.925
Prolonged Standing (> 2 hours)
0.794
0.897
0.784
1
0.376
2.213
0.381
12.840
Walking Up and Down Stairs
2.247
0.899
6.249
1
0.012*
9.459
1.625
55.072
Lifting Loads With Hand
1.231
0.566
4.728
1
0.030*
3.424
1.129
10.386
Constant
-3.237
1.922
2.837
1
0.092
0.039
*P < 0.05
Discussion
The first aim of this study was to determine the
prevalence of low back pain among secondary
school teachers in Putrajaya. The prevalence of
low back pain in this study was 79.2%. The preva-
lence of self-reported LBP among teachers found
in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong and
Brazil ranged between 39% and 95% (1). Based
on the findings in this study, it was found that the
prevalence of low back pain among secondary
school teachers in Putrajaya could be considered
as particularly high. This study also showed a
higher prevalence of low-back pain compared to
the study conducted in Ethiopia (53.8) (20), Bots-
wana (55.7%) (1) and China (45.6%) (8). One of
the possible reasons causing the difference in the
prevalence could be the facility provided for the
teachers at their institution or social and economic
differences between Malaysia and the countries
mentioned, the way in which work was organized
may contribute to the differences observed in
comparison to this study.
Findings of this study showed that four independ-
ent variables were significantly associated with the
prevalence of low back pain among respondents,
which were gender, prolonged sitting, walking up
and down stairs, and lifting loads with hands. Data
from the Ministry of Education stated that female
teachers constitute the majority of school teachers
in Malaysia (69.1%) and their participation in this
study (90.0%) is in agreement with the provided
statistics (9). In this study, female teachers showed
a significantly higher prevalence of low back pain
(82.4%) than men (50.0%). Female teachers were
four times more likely to experience low back pain
Iran J Public Health, Vol. 45, Suppl. Issue No. 1, Feb 2016, pp.85-92
91 Available at: http://ijph.tums.ac.ir
(OR 95% CI = 4.684 (1.362-16.110). A study on
low back pain among secondary school teachers in
Klang Valley, Malaysia also showed similar result
(48.1%) of a higher prevalence among women (9)
Work activities, which involve heavy lifting, pro-
longed sitting, and prolonged standing, contribute
to the development of musculoskeletal disorders
(21, 22). Activities of sustained sitting of frequent
reading, marking assignment, and standing up
teaching in class are unsafe acts and favour the de-
velopment of neck/shoulder pain, low back pain
and upper limb pain found in teachers (9, 5, 21).
Studies have also confirmed that sitting for more
than 3 hours daily could be a risk factor for low
back pain (23-25).
Conclusion
The prevalence of LBP among respondents was
considered high and a few factors such as gender,
prolonged sitting, walking up and down stairs and
lifting loads with hands were identified as the sig-
nificant factors predicting low back pain among
respondents. Other independent variables includ-
ing job satisfaction, and knowledge and awareness
about low back pain were not found to be signifi-
cant. Therefore, findings of this study suggest that
prioritization of prevention and control measures
should focus more on promoting healthier ergo-
nomic movement among teachers. Currently, pro-
cedures and guidelines on good ergonomic move-
ments for industrial workers involved with manual
handlings are readily available but not for teachers.
Detailed and specific guidelines on good ergo-
nomic movement for teachers are worth develop-
ing to minimize the prevalence and effects of low
back pain among them. Future intervention stu-
dies on how to reduce back pain among teachers
is therefore warranted. Future studies investigating
the prevalence of low back pain among teachers
need to consider a larger sample of randomly se-
lect subjects to increase the power of the study. In
addition, inclusion of more instrumental measure-
ments will provide a more convincing result to
strengthen further the argument that low back
pain is of great concern among the teaching popu-
lation.
Ethical considerations
Ethical issues (Including plagiarism, informed
consent, misconduct, data fabrication and/or fal-
sification, double publication and/or submission,
redundancy, etc.) have been completely observed
by the authors.
Acknowledgements
The authors declare that there is no conflict of in-
terests.
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... Diferente a investigación muestra la prevalencia de dolor en zona lumbar en un 72.9% es decir la más alta de la revisión. Razón que justifica que la ocupación de los profesores a nivel mundial requiere de intervención, seguimiento y control por parte de las administradoras o instituciones responsables de la gestión de los riesgos laborales, en compañía de sus empleadores (Anuar et al., 2016). ...
... Alghwiri y Marchetti (2018), Martin, Sancho-Sánchez, Artigas y Bermejo (2020); Kumar, Naik y Bhodaji (2016); Temesgen, Belay, Gelaw, Janakiraman y Animut (2019), en sus investigaciones se evidencia un 76.8% de prevalencia del dolor de espalda en la población objeto de estudio. Cabe resaltar que los objetivos de los 12 artículos revisados fueron aplicados a profesores que realizaban su actividad laboral de manera presencial.Frente a los factores de riesgo laborales asociados a la actividad de los educadores, se afirma que las posturas inadecuadas durante la jornada laboral ocasionan dolor lumbar, cervical (cuello) y/o espalda(Anuar et al., 2016; Mohammadi, 2017;Temesgen et al., 2019). Levantar libros, cuadernos y útiles escolares, como también subir o bajar escaleras durante la jornada laboral son factores que indican la presencia del dolor en la zona lumbar.(Anuar ...
... ma que las posturas inadecuadas durante la jornada laboral ocasionan dolor lumbar, cervical (cuello) y/o espalda(Anuar et al., 2016; Mohammadi, 2017;Temesgen et al., 2019). Levantar libros, cuadernos y útiles escolares, como también subir o bajar escaleras durante la jornada laboral son factores que indican la presencia del dolor en la zona lumbar.(Anuar et al., 2016;Elias et al., 2019). ...
Article
educar y formar al hombre en, valores y principios. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer los riesgos laborales que generan dolor lumbar, cervical y/o espalda en los profesores de diferentes niveles de formación asociados al trabajo en casa por causa de la pandemia COVID-19. Para realizar esta revisión documental, se utilizó un estudio descriptivo – hermenéutico desarrollado bajo los parámetros establecidos en la guía PRISMA. La búsqueda permitió conocer los riesgos laborales asociados al trabajo de los profesores de manera presencial. Dados los resultados obtenidos, se logró realizar un análisis de las condiciones actuales de los educadores en relación con el trabajo en casa dada la pandemia producida por el Sars-CoV2. Teniendo en cuenta la revisión sistemática, los profesores tienen probabilidad del 52% de padecer dolor lumbar, cervical y/o espalda. En conclusión, no existen estudios que abarquen de manera directa los TME asociados al trabajo en casa de los profesores.
... Various factors such as demographic factors (age, sex, body mass index) [12,13], physical factors (duration of employment, inappropriate physical posture at work, excessive computer use, sitting and prolonged standing, excessive bending of the neck forward or backward, unprincipled exercise, lack of adequate rest time) [1,2,5,8,14,15]. Psychological factors (high workload, general health, work-related stress, poor mood, lack of co-worker support, marital and family relationships, job dissatisfaction, monotonous work, organizational characteristics and financial and social aspects) in the prevalence of pain the neck plays a role in teachers [16][17][18]. According to studies, most of the stated causes of job-related neck pain in teachers are behavioral causes [2,19]. ...
... This model is evaluated by understanding factors such as perceived intensity and sensitivity, perceived benefits and barriers, and self-efficacy. According to it, a persons' behavior changes when he understands the level of danger that threatens him (perceived sensitivity and severity) and also has a proper assessment of health barriers and behaviors (perceived barriers and benefits ) [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. According to the efficiency of the health belief model in different studies for prevent dangerous behaviors and promote healthy behaviors, because so far, this model has not been used to promote neck health-promoting behaviors in Iranian teachers, the aim of this study was to assessment the effect of the educational intervention program based on health belief model in adopting neck pain prevention behaviors in junior high school teachers in the 19th district of Tehran. ...
Article
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Background Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders as one of the most common occupational health problems among the working population in both developed and developing countries is an important necessity and priority. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) to increase awareness, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy in adopting neck health-promoting behaviors in school teachers . Methods The present study was a quasi-experimental of the randomized clinical trial that was conducted for 6 months (December 2020 to July 2021). Participants were 146 junior high school teachers were selected from 26 schools through random sampling and divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection instrument was the self-design questionnaire and was completed in three points of time (before, immediately, and 3 months after the intervention). The data were analyzed by software version 24 SPSS. Results The results showed that awareness, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, and self-efficacy in adopting neck health-promoting behaviors in the intervention group increased in two points of time (immediately after the intervention and 3 months of follow-up) ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Designing and implementing an educational intervention based on HBM could affect in adopting neck health-promoting behaviors among teachers. Trial registration IRCT20210301050542N1, 16/03/2021 first registration has been approved in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials at (16/03/2021).
... It has been documented that the teaching profession have many job demands and therefore LBP develops over time and is caused by either the work demands or by the working environment (23) .This might explain the considerable 15 prevalence observed in the present study. However, lower rates have been reported in similar studies carried out in India where the overall prevalence of LBP was 23% (24) ,Iran (21.8%) (12) and Japan,where the total prevalence of LBP was 20.4% in male teachers (25) .On the other hand, higher rates were observed in Turkey, where 60.3% of teachers had work-related pain; low back pain was the commonest (74.9%) (26) ,Rural Kenya where prevalence of low back pain among teachers was 64.98% (13) ,in Putrajaya (Malaysia), prevalence of low back pain among teachers was 72.9% (14) ,in Manila (Philippines), the prevalence of low back pain among teachers was 53% . (15) ,and Botswana, where the prevalence of LBP among teachers over 12 months was 55.7% (11) .Difference in the prevalence of LBP between various studies could be explained by using different tools to assess LBP; in the present study we depended on a direct one question, which could be not accurate, so we used additionally the Oswestry Disability index questionnaire to assess the disability produced by LBP among male teachers. ...
Article
Background:School teachers are at high risk of low back pain as a result of their work nature, which include long standing, prolonged sitting, bending their posture and preparing for lessons. Objectives:To estimate the prevalence and identify the associated factors of low back pain among male school teachers. Subjects And Methods:A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between October of 2021 and March of 2022 among secondary and high male school teachers working at Al-madinah Al- munawara city, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected by using the self-administered valid Arabic version of Oswestry Disability index questionnaire. Results:The study included 362 teachers. The age of 41.7% of them ranged between 41 and 50 years. The prevalence of low back pain among male teachers was 35.1%. Teachers aged between 51 and 60 years, those who sleep on the average <6 hours/day, more experienced teachers, those who work on the average <10 hours/week, and did not work standing most of the time were more likely to have LBP compared to others. Disability due to low back pain was moderate or severe among 14.1% and 2.8% of male school teachers, respectively. Conclusion:LBP is a relatively common problem among male teachers with a considerable proportion of them had moderate or severe disability.
... Individual factors included age, sex, Body Mass Index (BMI) and vitamin D deficiency checking homework and preparing lessons, excessive computer use, and prolonged continues sitting and standing, excessive flexion of the torso, squatting, excessive bending of the neck forward or backward, keeping the hands above shoulder level for a long time, lack of adequate rest time during working hours [15][16][17][18] . Moreover, psychological factors can be mentioned as high anxiety levels, high work load, poor mental status, lack of attention and support from colleagues, marital and family relationships, job dissatisfaction, weak interpersonal relationships, monotonous and repetitive work, organizational characteristics, financial and social aspects which are involved in occurrence of neck pain [19][20][21][22][23] . It has been revealed that understanding teachers' experience of the causes and factors affecting occupation neck pain and its impact on life can be effective in reducing and preventing occupation neck pain [24] . ...
... Based on studies conducted in several countries, the country that recorded the highest MSD among regular teachers was Egypt, having the highest prevalence (76%), followed by Thailand (73.7%), Brazil (73.5%), and Malaysia (72.9%) ( Table 1) [16][17][18][19]. In addition, a study in Africa involving 1747 teachers reported that 55.7% of them suffered from lower back pain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is a major health problem, which can lead to an enormous burden to the institution as well as chronic disability to the individual. Teachers are at risk of developing MSD due to the exposure to various ergonomic risk factors. Teachers of special education, for example, are expected to perform extra duty such as lifting and moving students, feeding food, changing diapers, and helping them in ambulation. Although there is an adequate amount of scientific research on MSD's prevalence and its risk factors among regular teachers, only few studies have focused on special education teachers. This review aimed to address these gaps by describing the evidence from various papers on the prevalence of MSD among regular and special education teachers and the related risk factors. The papers have been gathered using electronic databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Springer. The prevalence of MSD among regular teachers ranges from 48.7% to 73.7%, while the prevalence ranges from 38.7% to 94% in special education teachers. Risk factors, such as individual (age, duration of teaching, working hours, and work burden), physical (teaching activities, affected body areas), and psychological factors (stress, anxiety, fear), were identified. From the review, it is recommended to implement ergonomically designed workplaces, comprehensive ergonomic training, psychological approaches, and functional training among teachers at risk.
... Kindergarten teachers' experience of psychological work hazards at the workplace had a significant link with their age and qualifications (Echo et al., 2019). Mohd Anuar et al. (2016) found that gender significantly correlated with psychological work hazards among teachers in Putrajaya. ...
Article
Full-text available
Because of the multicultural nature of Nigerian schools, most employees, particularly teachers, are exposed to one or more psychological hazards at work. In Nigeria, psychosocial work hazards are frequent, but no research has been done to see how lecturers' demographics affect their psychosocial work hazards. As a result, the impact of marital status and qualification on the psychological work hazards of plant science and science education lecturers was investigated in this study. The study used a quantitative research approach and an ex-post fact research design with a sample of 87 teachers from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The researchers adapted a 28-item questionnaire on work deviant behaviour to collect data for the study. The questionnaire items have internal consistency reliability of 0.76. Mean and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. The study's findings demonstrated that lecturers' marital status and qualifications had no bearing on their psychological work hazards. This suggests that the marital status and qualification of lecturers are not significant factors in their psychosocial work hazards. As a result, it was recommended that university authorities be equitable in their handling of psychosocial work hazards of lectures, taking into account their marital status and qualification.
... Kindergarten teachers' age and qualifications have a significant impact on the psychosocial hazards they face at work (Čecho et al., 2019). After controlling for other characteristics like age, marital status, and other job activities, gender was shown to be substantially linked with psychosocial work hazards among teachers in Putrajaya (Mohd Anuar et al., 2016). Increased age, male gender, father's unemployment, low school ranking, not living with both biological parents, perceived family disharmony, low self-esteem, and depression were all linked to a higher risk of psychosocial job hazards (Lee et al., 2021). ...
Article
Most workers, especially teachers experience one form of psychosocial work hazards or the other. In the Nigerian context, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial work hazards and no study has been conducted to ascertain the influence of teachers' demographics on their psychosocial work hazards. This study explored the influence of primary school teachers' demographics on their psychosocial work hazards using the structural equation modeling approach. Drawing from the tenets of Job-Demand-Control-Support theory, a correlational survey research design was used, using a sample of 254 primary school teachers, and the study was based on a quantitative research approach. The study's data were gathered utilizing a 28-item questionnaire adapted from the 30-item Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire developed by Kristensen and coworkers in 2005. The internal consistency reliability index of the questionnaire items was 0.74. The data were analyzed using a combination of frequency, percentage, chi-square test of independent samples, hierarchical multiple regression analysis, and structural equation modeling. It was revealed that demographic characteristics of teachers correlated with their psychosocial work hazards. However, it was found that only the age and location of the teachers had significant (p < .05) relationships with their psychosocial work hazards. The age and location of the teachers are significant determinants of their psychosocial work hazards. This our findings call for more research on the subject matter as some recent studies have documented that other demographics of teachers had significant relationships with psychosocial work hazards. It was therefore recommended that teachers' demographics should be considered as important factors in the recruitment of teachers.
... Some literature emphasizes teachers' leadership [30]. Other research directions are mainly about the teacher-rated school climate [31], working conditions, school organizational culture, the teacher's learning environment [32], the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) [33], the quality of mathematics textbooks [34], social services and the facilities of faculties and departments [35,36], leadership styles of academic deans [37], language teachers' identities [38], and the racial composition [39]. Furthermore, some researchers have found triggers for teacher career satisfaction. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has unexpectedly affected the educational process worldwide, forcing teachers and students to transfer to an online teaching and learning format. Compared with the traditional face-to-face teaching methods, teachers’ professional role, career satisfaction level, and digital literacy have been challenged in the COVID-19 health crisis. To conduct a systematic review, we use critical appraisal tools from the University of the West of England Framework We removed the irrelevant and lower-quality results to refine the results and scored each selected paper to get high-quality studies with STARLITE. The number of finally included studies is 21. We used the PICO mnemonic to structure the four components of a clinical question, i.e., the relevant patients or population groups, the intervention (exposure or diagnostic procedure) of interest, as well as against whom the intervention is being compared and considered appropriate (outcomes). We formulated five research questions regarding teachers’ professional role, satisfaction, digital literacy, higher educational practice, and sustainable education. The study found that teachers’ professional roles changed complicatedly. Moreover, they were assigned more tasks during the online teaching process, which also implicated a decline in teachers’ satisfaction. After the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to conduct a blended teaching model in educational institutes. Teachers should have adequate digital literacy to meet the new needs of the currently innovative educational model in the future. In addition, the study reveals that teachers’ digital literacy level, career satisfaction, and professional role are significantly correlated. We measured to what degree the three factors affected the online teaching and learning process. Ultimately, the study may provide some suggestions for methodological and educational strategies.
Article
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Back pain (BP) is one of the most debilitating conditions inflicting grief, discomfort, and disability to its bearer. Teachers are more at risk of having low back. As teaching requires such activities like long standing and sitting as occupational demand so making this profession more prone to develop low back pain. Objectives: To check the prevalence and intensity of low back pain in the teachers of universities in Lahore.Methods: This study was based on cross-sectional research. Total 261 participants were included in the study with systematic random sampling technique, and collection of the data is done by using an authentic scale “Owestery Disability Scale”. SPSS version 21.0 was used and frequency charts and bar charts are used. Results: Low back pain prevalence in university teachers is 56% and 44% participants were having no pain. Most of the teachers having pain were in age range of 31 to 40 years, 52.5% were females and 47.5% were male. Most of the participants who were having low back pain experienced mild pain which constitute about 86% of total respondents with low back pain. Moderate pain was experienced by 24% participants. Only 6% teachers from the sample size felt severe pain. Conclusion: There was a significant prevalence of low back pain in teachers of universities in Lahore. The intensity of pain varied from mild to severe and most of the teachers experienced mild low back pain.
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Background: Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders as one of the most common occupational health problems among the working population in both developed and developing countries is an important necessity and priority. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) to increase awareness, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy in adopting neck health-promoting behaviors in school teachers. Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental of the randomized clinical trial that was conducted for 6 months (December 2020 to July 2021). Participants were 146 junior high school teachers were selected from 26 schools through random sampling and divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection instrument was the self-design questionnaire and was completed in three points of time (before, immediately, and 3 months after the intervention). The data were analyzed by software version 24 SPSS. Results: The results showed that awareness, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, and self-efficacy in adopting neck health-promoting behaviors in the intervention group increased in two points of time (immediately after the intervention and 3 months of follow-up) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Designing and implementing an educational intervention based on HBM could affect in adopting neck health-promoting behaviors among teachers. Clinical Trial Code: IRCT20210301050542N1, 16/03/2021. first registration has been approved in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials at (16/03/2021).
Article
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The article describes the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain according to sociodemographic and occupational variables among elementary school teachers. A cross-sectional study included all 4,496 school teachers of the municipal elementary education network of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. There was a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in lower limbs (41. 1%), upper limbs (23. 7%) and back (41. 1%). The overall prevalence of musculoskeletal pain related to any of the three body segments was 55%. Musculoskeletal pain was more prevalent in the three body segments investigated: among women, the elderly, those with high-level school education, married, with three or more children, and who had worked over fourteen years as teachers. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was associated with the following occupational variables: working over five years at the school, high level of physical exertion, not having a paid activity other than teaching, and reporting heat in the classroom. The findings draw attention toward the need to adopt public policies to improve the working conditions of teachers.
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Background: Low back pain prevalence is somewhat higher in the wealthier countries (42% vs. 35%). But, the epidemiological information regarding the prevalence and associated risk factors of low back pain among universities, colleges and school teachers in Ethiopia are unknown. Thus the aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of low back pain among universities, colleges and school teachers in Ethiopia, particularly in Gondar town. Methods: To assess prevalence of low back pain and associated factors among primary and secondary school, and higher institution (college and university) teachers in Gondar town, an institution based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted. A total of 662 teachers were included in the study. Teachers in the town were selected by stratified random sampling from their institutions in which they work. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to identify factors associated with low back pain. Results: Of 602 teachers, 346 (57.5%) experienced low back pain (LBP) throughout their job career. The twelve month prevalence of LBP among teachers was 324 (53.8%). Doing regular physical exercise [AOR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.34, 0.82], provisions of office at working institution [AOR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.33, 0.81] and satisfaction with working environment and culture [AOR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.36, 0.86] were among factors significantly associated with low back pain. Conclusion: This study showed high prevalence of low back pain among teachers. Doing regular physical exercise, provisions of office at working institution and satisfaction with working environment and culture, were among the most contributing factors in reducing low back pain. Therefore, doing regular physical activity, avoiding their smoking habit, Getting enough time for sleep and avoiding worries reduces the risk of low back pain among teachers.
Article
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Introduction Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) have been recognized as a considerable problem in the teaching profession and various risk factors have also been documented. The aim of this review was to review and discuss MSD risk factors among teachers. Discussion Individual factors such as female gender, age and teaching experience have been positively correlated with MSD in a number of studies. Poor posture, inappropriate furniture, lifting and carrying have also been associated with a high prevalence of MSD. Psychosocial factors such as poor colleagues and supervisor support, low job satisfaction and high job stress are known to be associated with MSD. On the other hand, regular physical exercise has been shown to be a protective factor in some studies. Conclusion Given the high burden of MSD documented in the teaching profession, further studies are now required to develop and implement effective intervention strategies to help reduce, and ultimately prevent, these conditions.
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Background School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) and low back pain (LBP). Epidemiological data on NSP and LBP in Chinese teachers are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for NSP and LBP among primary, secondary and high school teachers. Methods In a cross-sectional study of teachers from 7 schools, information on participant demographics, work characteristics, occupational factors and musculoskeletal symptoms and pain were collected. Results Among 893 teachers, the prevalence of NSP and LBP was 48.7% and 45.6% respectively. There was significant association between the level and prevalence of NSP and LBP among teachers in different schools. The prevalence of NSP among female teachers was much higher than that for males. Self-reported NSP was associated with physical exercise (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.86), prolonged standing (1.74, 1.03 to 2.95), sitting (1.76, 1.23 to 2.52) and static posture (2.25, 1.56 to 3.24), and uncomfortable back support (1.77, 1.23 to 2.55). LBP was more consistently associated with twisting posture (1.93, 1.30 to 2.87), uncomfortable back support (1.62, 1.13 to 2.32) and prolonged sitting (1.42, 1.00 to 2.02) and static posture (1.60, 1.11 to 2.31). Conclusions NSP and LBP are common among teachers. There were strong associations with different individual, ergonomic, and occupational factors.
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal pain (WRMSP) and depression and the quality of life (QOL) among teachers in Samsun, Turkey. Among 605~participants 99.30% (n=602) completed the survey. A face-to-face questionnaire was given to the participiants in order to evaluate the QOL (Short Form 36, SF-36), the presence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI) and the presence of pain (Visual Analogue Scale). Among the participants (n=602), 290 were women (48%) and 312 were men (52%). Three hundred sixty three (60.3%) of the participants reported that they had work-related pain. Most of the participants had WRMSP in low back (74.9%), shoulder (55.9%), neck (47.9%), back (42.7%), knee (30.9%) regions. There was a significant difference for BDI and the subscales of SF-36 test, except the emotional role limitation, mental health and energy between the participiants with WRMSP (Group 1) and the participiants without WRMSP (Group 2). BDI scores were significantly higher in the Group 1. The subscale scores of SF-36 were significantly lower in the Group 1. There was a negative correlation between SF-36 and BDI scores; indicating that teachers who have more depressive symptoms have also a lower QOL. Pain in neck, shoulder, back and low back regions are frequently seen in teachers. Depression is common and its presence reduces the QOL of teachers. Modifications of ergonomics in working conditions may reduce the frequency of these complications. The habit of carrying heavy loads, awkward back postures, longterm repetitive physical activities, psychosocial stressors and longterm standing must be reduced.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
The present study proposes a teaching satisfaction measure and examines the validity of its scores. The measure is based on the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Scores on the five-item Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS) were validated on a sample of 202 primary and secondary school teachers and favorable psychometric properties were found. As hypothesized, teaching satisfaction as measured by the TSS correlated positively with self-esteem but negatively with psychological distress and teaching stress. The TSS scores had good incremental validity for psychological distress and teaching stress beyond earlier Job Satisfaction Scales. The TSS offers a simple, direct, reliable, and valid assessment of teaching satisfaction. Future development of the TSS is discussed.