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The Fukushima Accident

Chapter

The Fukushima Accident

Abstract

I recount the accident to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant starting on 11 March 2011 and continuing. I highlight some system-safety aspects, and compare with an idealised 8-step process for assessing and ensuring engineeredsystem safety to see where it went wrong. Nuclear accidents such as this have political and social consequences in a way in which even the worst commercial aircraft accident does not. I suggest some questions about engineered-system safety which the polity must answer somehow
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... powerplant) undergoes partial/complete collapse due to tsunami, meltdown or sabotage etc. A disaster of this magnitude could potentially affect a much larger population and for a prolonged period of time (Ladkin, 2012;Steinhauser et al., 2014). Knowing that it is virtually impractical nor economical to prevent all disasters or to design a fully disaster-resistant infrastructure have led researcher to seek other solutions as means to minimize disaster-related damages. ...
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There is growing inertia to integrating modern technologies in disaster management, civil or structural engineering application. One such technology is that associated with data intelligent analytics, also known as machine learning commonly is artificial intelligence (AI). With the hope of highlighting positive integration of AI, this chapter presents development of AI techniques capable of tracing response of construction materials and civil infrastructure at elemental and systemal levels once exposed to extreme loadings. This chapter develops an AI-powered decision-making tool that can aid engineers and relevant decision-making authorities in predicting expected magnitude of damage in infrastructure once subjected to fire, wind and flooding. All developed tools implicitly take into consideration event-dependent phenomena (i.e., creep, spalling) and hence do not necessitate input of material properties nor dedicated computing platforms.
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The high-temperature steam oxidation behaviors of the four lean-Cr (7-10 wt.% Cr) FeCrAl alloys containing minor elements and the Fe13Cr4.5Al alloy without minor elements (as a reference) were systematically investigated at 1100 ℃. The cross-sectional microstructure of the products after oxidation was investigated with FIB + TEM. The results show that the oxidation kinetics of these alloys except for 7Cr alloys obeyed the sub-parabolic rate law. The ability to form a protective alumina scale was worsened by the reduction of Cr content. The content of Cr should be higher than 7 wt.% to promote alumina scale formation at 1100 ℃.
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This paper presents the implementation of a Phoenix Risk Monitor (RM) for the Light Water Reactor-15 (LVR-15), a nuclear research reactor installed in the Czech Republic. The aim of the work was to introduce dynamic capabilities in the previously developed Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model. The paper includes a description of the main characteristics of the PSA of LVR-15 and a particular focus is assigned to the developed risk monitor interface, obtained starting from scratch, and to the methodology adopted in its implementation. The interface is conceived to visualize in a meaningful way the safety level of the reactor, suggesting possible interventions to the operator to improve it whenever needed. The risk monitor has been tested with reference to specific conditions of interest, considering, in particular, the effect of external events on the safety status of the reactor, also including the specific weather conditions occurring on a seasonal basis on the reactor site.
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De Moivre's first work on probability, "De Mensura Sortis seu, de Probabilitate Eventuum in Ludis a Casu Fortuito Pendentibus", is translated into English. A commentary gives a sketch of the historical background, a summary of the contents of "De Mensura Sortis" in modern notation and terminology and some remarks on the priority dispute between Montmort and de Moivre. /// Le traité "De Mensura Sortis" par A. de Moivre est traduit en anglais. Dans une commentaire on présente le fondement historique, un résumé en notation et terminologie moderne et quelques remarques de la dispute entre Montmort et de Moivre.
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Fukushima: some observations. Presentation at the Eleventh Bieleschweig Workshop
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A de Moivre: ‘de mensura sortis’ or ‘on the measurement of chance’. Reprinted version of 1711, with an introduction and commentary
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Fukushima, the tsunami hazard, and engineering practice
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Japanese nuclear plant’s safety analysts brushed off risk of tsunami
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Fukushima plant site was originally a hill safe from tsunami
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Nuclear ‘station blackout
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Japan trade min: possible to achieve ‘cold shutdown’ of Fukushima Daiichi by year-end
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The explosive truth behind Fukushima's meltdown. The Independent newspaper
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