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Reconceptualising 'masculinity' through men's contributions to domestic foodwork

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To cite this work: Meah, A. 2014. Reconceptualising 'masculinity' through men's contributions to domestic foodwork, P. Hopkins and A. Gorman-Murray (eds). Masculinities and Place. Farnham: Ashgate; pp 191-208.

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... When men have cooked at home, it has been said to be mostly for leisure (DeVault, 1991;Lupton, 1996) or taking care of specific tasks (Adler, 1981;Murcott, 1982;Ekström, 1990). However, quantitative (Kan et al., 2011) and qualitative research (eg Aarseth and Olsen, 2008;Szabo, 2013Szabo, , 2014Meah, 2014aMeah, , 2014bKlasson and Ulver, 2015;Neuman et al., 2015) indicate that this is changing, especially in Scandinavia. When men take care of foodwork and cooking, they also do it out of responsibilities for others (eg friends and family). ...
... When men take care of foodwork and cooking, they also do it out of responsibilities for others (eg friends and family). Thus, the boundaries between 'feminine' and 'masculine' domestic cooking is becoming increasingly blurred, as are the cultural meanings of domestic cooking as a gendered practice (see Aarseth, 2009;Meah, 2014aMeah, , 2014b. However, the social relations associated with meals are not merely a matter of (gendered) divisions of housework but also one of sociality. ...
... What these studies show is not only that several settings exist for men to engage in cooking with each other. They also demonstrate how homosocial cooking results in different forms of masculine practice, such as negotiated expressions of care, 'traditional' notions of being a good man or boy, expressions of friendship, sexuality and domestic responsibility (Mechling, 2005;Deutsch, 2005;Julier, 2013;Meah, 2014a). ...
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... "Quando hai molta fame e vuoi cucinare velocemente. Vai sul semplice e prepari i tortellini" La dicotomia spesso proposta, "far da mangiare/cucinare", è polarizzata dal punto di vista di genere(Meah 2016): il primo polo richiama i tentativi culinari degli intervistati e dei loro padri, finalizzati a saziare la fame e spesso auto-riferiti, il secondo l'attitudine femminile ad assecondare i desideri altrui. Lo spiega Dino, 23 anni: Quando io preparo da mangiare, preparo da mangiare solo per saziare la fame; quando mia mamma cucina, lo fa perché deve fare felice qualcuno e quindi cucinare è amore, è diverso da preparare da mangiare (Dino, 23 anni).Tale connotazione di genere del cucinare, quando inteso come attività rivolta agli altri, è enfatizzata dal commento di un altro intervistato, che si definisce come una "massaia", per la passione di preparare pietanze elaborate per amici e famigliari:Ioho questo spirito un po' da massaia, mi piace pensarmi come uno che cucina tante cose per i miei amici, per le persone a cui voglio bene (Ettore, 21 anni). ...
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The paper explores the interpretative repertoires with which adolescents and young men give sense to their everyday food practices, as well as they shape their masculinities. Through the use of photovoice, participatory technique that implies the subjective production of images, we illustrate the different positioning and distancing from the available repertoires about the social construction of food and gender. Adolescents and young men
... This allows DeVault to highlight all the "invisible" work presented in her data set typically performed by women. The concept of food work also describes food activities in everyday life (Meah, 2014;Neuman et al., 2017). ...
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... We have seen that different practice-based identities enact dif-ferent forms of hybridisation, with 'embracers' and 'minimalists' moving comfortably between online and offline spaces, whilst 'time-wasters' may resist moving offline. Demonstrating how hybridisation functions via mobile technologies not just theoretically, but as it pertains to practicebased identities, valuably extends work by Angela Meah (2014) in interrogating masculinities, identities and practices to understand how they combine (or resist combination) in the circulations of technology, people and spaces. These are circulations that look set to dominate social and sexual communications for years to come. ...
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... Meat's association with manliness in Western cultures is based on a long-established socially constructed gender identity, a norm and a way for society to exert pressure on men's food selection to communicate their masculinity. Being a complex food choice, the consumption of meat, and in particular red meat, endorses a pleiad of meanings and traits contributing to creating perceptions about men's masculine identity Fiddles, 1991;Rogers, 2008;Ruby & Heine, 2011;Rozin, Hormes, Faith, & Reconciling Not Eating Meat and Masculinity in the Marketing Discourse for New Food Alternatives Wansink, 2012;Rothgerber, 2013;Meah, 2014;Bogueva & Phau, 2016;. This is in contrast to the precarious feminine identity which gravitates around avoiding meat and preference for plant-based options (Prättälä, Paalanen, Grinberga, Helasoja, Kasmel, & Petkeviciene, 2007;Zhu, Brescoll, Newman, & Uhlmann, 2015;. ...
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Traditional hegemonic masculinity can be traced on the typical man’s plate where meat represents the centerpiece. Meat consumption dominates the current marketing discourse which builds on masculinity to reinforce the stereotyped gender-based diets. In light of scientific evidence about the detrimental impacts of meat consumption on human wellbeing and environmental health, this chapter argues that men are at the crossroads where the concept of masculinity is being redefined. Their social role is similarly changing with new expectations for more sustainable diets which call for plant-based food choices and possibly lab-grown meat. Some men are endorsing these imperatives while others continue to succumb to social inertia. A new marketing discourse is needed which reconciles masculinity with not eating meat and encourages a transition to alternative dietary choices that are better for personal health, allow improved use of the planet’s resources, and have less impact on climate change.
... In fact, an account of men's cooking as either a leisure activity or totally absent would be an immense oversimplification. For example, geographers have written about the domestic kitchen as a space of masculine transformation (Gorman-Murray, 2008Meah, 2014aMeah, , 2014bMeah & Jackson, 2013), and Aarseth (2009) went as far as suggesting that domestic cooking has in fact become degendered among middle-class Norwegians. Domestic cooking, she argued, should now be seen primarily as an expression of middle-class lifestyle projects rather than as a symbol of a gendered division of labor. ...
Thesis
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The general aim of this thesis is to use foodwork and cooking in Sweden as a way to better understand theoretical questions about men and masculinities. Paper I discusses how an increased public interest in elaborate cooking and gastronomy in Sweden, a country with a cultural idealization of gender equality, could explain why men in Sweden assume responsibilities for domestic cooking without feeling emasculated. Papers II, III and IV draw on interviews with 31 men from 22 to 88 years of age and with different levels of interest in food. Paper II shows how domestic foodwork and cooking are associated with ideas of Swedish progress in terms of gender equality and culinary skills. Paper III demonstrates further that domestic cooking is not only a responsibility which men assume, but also a way of being sociable with friends, partners and children. Thus, both papers II and III challenge the idea that men only cook at home if they enjoy it. The data rather indicate that domestic foodwork responsibilities are a cultural expectation of men in Sweden, ingrained in desirable masculine practices. Paper IV explores men’s responses to media representations of food. The interviewed men responded to these representations with indifference, pragmatism, irony, and at times even hostility. In general, the responses are based on gender and age-differentiated taste distinctions and notions of masculine and culinary excess. Paper V uses a mix of texts (81 online texts and two magazines) and observations from the food fairs GastroNord (2014 and 2016), Mitt kök-mässan (2014) and the chef competition Bocuse d’Or Europe (2014) complemented with pictures and videos. I argue that a Swedish culinary community that promotes Swedish culinary excellence is constructed by drawing on preestablished national (self-)images. This culinary community is constructed as open and tolerant, with ethical concerns for the environment and for nonhuman animals. Its culinary icons are represented by chefs in whites and the leading restaurants. In sum, this dissertation provides empirical and theoretical contributions to both food studies and gender studies that critically scrutinize men and masculinities. Food-issues are permeated by gender, both in people’s everyday life and in the gastronomic elite.
... Additionally, wealthier Zambian families might be more likely to privately support men sharing care work due to their unique access to satellite television. Watching international cookery programs and soap operas in which men perform care work might lead male viewers to enjoy such practices and cease to regard them as feminine-as was the case for some wealthier male teenage participants (and also found by Meah [2014] in the United Kingdom). ...
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Chapter
Traditional hegemonic masculinity can be traced on the typical man's plate where meat represents the centerpiece. Meat consumption dominates the current marketing discourse which builds on masculinity to reinforce the stereotyped gender-based diets. In light of scientific evidence about the detrimental impacts of meat consumption on human wellbeing and environmental health, this chapter argues that men are at the crossroads where the concept of masculinity is being redefined. Their social role is similarly changing with new expectations for more sustainable diets which call for plant-based food choices and possibly lab-grown meat. Some men are endorsing these imperatives while others continue to succumb to social inertia. A new marketing discourse is needed which reconciles masculinity with not eating meat and encourages a transition to alternative dietary choices that are better for personal health, allow improved use of the planet's resources, and have less impact on climate change.
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Although female labor force participation is rising across the world, men’s share of unpaid care work has not increased commensurately. Why has there been major change in one domain of gender relations yet marked continuity in another? This essay tries to answer this question by doing three, slightly unusual, things. It uses the same theoretical concepts (exposure and interests) to analyze change and continuity across different domains of gender relations. It examines long-term processes of social change through ethnographic (rather than social survey) data – from Zambia. Additionally, it explores commonalities in the Global North and South – thereby bringing together silos of knowledge. The argument is that flexibility in gender divisions of labor increases when there is a shift in both interests and exposure. This has occurred in the case of paid work: a decline in men’s incomes and job security has led many to regard women’s employment as advantageous. The resulting critical mass of women performing socially valued, masculine roles seems to have undermined gender ideologies, relating to competence and status – fostering a positive feedback loop. But few people are exposed to men sharing care work, as this mostly occurs in private spaces. Accordingly, many assume that such practices are neither common nor socially accepted. These norm perceptions furnish men with self-interested reasons to shun housework. These micro- and macro-level interactions perpetuate asymmetric flexibility in gender divisions of labor.
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Although female labor force participation is rising across the world, men's share of unpaid care work has not increased commensurately. Why has there been a major change in one domain of gender relations yet marked continuity in another? This article tries to answer this question by doing three slightly unusual things. It uses the same theoretical concepts (exposure and interests) to analyze change and continuity across different domains of gender relations. It examines long-term processes of social change through ethnographic (rather than social survey) data from Zambia. Additionally, it explores commonalities in the Global North and South?thereby bringing together silos of knowledge. The argument is that flexibility in gender divisions of labor increases when there is a shift in both interests and exposure. This has occurred in the case of paid work: A decline in men's incomes and job security has led many to regard women's employment as advantageous. The resulting critical mass of women performing socially valued, masculine roles seems to have undermined gender ideologies, relating to competence and status?fostering a positive feedback loop. Few people are exposed to men sharing care work, however, as this mostly occurs in private spaces. Accordingly, many assume that such practices are neither common nor socially accepted. These norm perceptions furnish men with self-interested reasons to shun housework. These micro- and macrolevel interactions perpetuate asymmetric flexibility in gender divisions of labor.
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Drawing on evidence from the Global North and South, this paper explores the power dynamics of domestic kitchens in different geographical contexts. Noting the gendered nature of domesticity, it contrasts those perspectives which regard women's primary responsibility for foodwork as inherently oppressive, with others which see kitchens and associated domestic spaces as sites of potential empowerment for women. The paper explores the complex, spatially-distributed, character of power surrounding domestic foodwork, decentring Anglo-American understandings of the relationship between gender, power and domestic space by foregrounding the experiences of a range of women from across the globe. The paper also examines the increasing role of men in domestic settings, particularly in the Global North, assessing the extent to which their engagement in cooking and other domestic practices may be challenging conventional understandings of the relationship between gender, power and space. Focusing on the spatial dynamics of the domestic kitchen, this paper advances a more nuanced understanding of the co-constitutive nature of the relationship between gender and power, including the instabilities and slippages that occur in the performance of various domestic foodwork tasks. The paper advocates future research on the boundaries of home, work and leisure, focusing on their significance in the constitution and transformation of male and female subjectivities.
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This article introduces and evaluates the go-along as a qualitative research tool. What sets this technique apart from traditional ethnographic methods such as participant observation and interviewing is its potential to access some of the transcendent and reflexive aspects of lived experience in situ. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in two urban neighborhoods, I examine five themes which go-alongs are particularly suited to explore: environmental perception, spatial practices, biographies, social architecture and social realms. I argue that by exposing the complex and subtle meanings of place in everyday experience and practices, the go-along method brings greater phenomenological sensibility to ethnography.
Article
There is growing interest in home and domesticity across geography and related disciplines. A key consideration of this work is the relationship between home, domesticity, and various identity categories, including gender, race, class, age, disability and sexuality. What is little developed, however, is knowledge of the shifting relationship(s) between masculinity and the home. In this paper, I critically review a small body of multi-disciplinary research on the intersections of masculinity and domesticity, offering some conceptual pointers for understanding and making further inquiries into the complex relationships between masculinity and the home. I argue that masculinity and domesticity are interrelational and co-constitutive. On this foundation I review literature on masculinity and the home across three interrelationships: hetero-masculine, bachelor and gay domesticities. This theoretically informed critical review thus provides conceptual insights both into the spatiality of masculine identity work and shifting meanings of home.
Article
Share house living arrangements are increasingly popular for young Australians as a result of a variety of economic and social changes such as the declining affordability of home ownership and delayed and decreasing marriage rates. Despite this rise, share housing is little researched. This paper considers the idea of ‘home’ as it exists in Inner Sydney's share houses, by examining the motivations underlying the decision to live in a share house as well as the relationships between housemates, in a sample of households. Share housing was utilised mainly as a response to social factors, such as the attraction of the lifestyle and something of a rite of passage, but was also shaped by economic considerations. Share housing was viewed by most people as transitional yet still meaningful. The vast majority considered their current dwelling to be ‘home’, mainly as a result of the intimacy of relationships between housemates, and the attainment of a sense of comfort and equality.
Article
Women, for centuries, have been the primary cooks and nurturers in most cultures. Men rarely represent family primary food providers. My interest in this study lies in what happens when men who are not food professionals develop into this role of primary cooks for a group of people; in this case, the men of an urban firehouse. Men in this scenario perform in roles typically ascribed to both men and women, and when a woman is involved, her presence is mitigated. I found that the men created a unique food system, and while each brought intact a value system and ethnic heritage to the table, these packages became negotiated, most powerfully in the kitchen and at meals. I was interested in how these men performed in roles that, in our mass consciousness and popular culture, we often ascribe to women. How do they shop, cook, and eat? How do they feel about what they are doing? How and why do they choose to cook? What issues do they face with regard to their identity as men, and how does this influence their food choices, cooking, and eating? Firehouse cooks perform domesticity by relying on multiple versions of masculinity at home and in the fire station.
Article
Heterosexuality is the dominant sexuality in modern Western culture. However, it is not defined merely by sexual acts in private space but is a process of power relations which operates in most everyday environments. In this paper, therefore, the author explores how lesbians perceive and experience everyday spaces. It is argued that lesbians can feel 'out of place' in environments such as the workplace or hotels, because these spaces are organised and appropriated by heterosexuals and so express and reproduce asymmetrical sociosexual relations. Consideration is also given to the way heterosexual hegemony is reproduced and expressed in space through antigay discrimination and violence. In the conclusion, the author explores the way in which fear of disclosure and antigay abuse inhibit the expression of lesbian and gay sexualities in everyday spaces and so feed the spatial supremacy of heterosexuality.
Article
Time-diary data from representative samples of American adults show that the number of overall hours of domestic labor (excluding child care and shopping) has continued to decline steadily and predictably since 1965. This finding is mainly due to dramatic declines among women (both in and out of the paid labor market), who have cut their housework hours almost in half since the 1960s: about half of women's 12-hour-per-week decline can be accounted for by compositional shifts—such as increased labor force participation, later marriage, and fewer children. In contrast, men's housework time has almost doubled during this period (to the point where men were responsible for a third of housework in the 1990s), and only about 15% of their five-hour-per-week increase can be attributed to compositional factors. Parallel results on gender differences in housework were obtained from the National Survey of Families and Households estimate data, even though these produce figures 50% higher than diary data. Regression results examining factors related to wives' and husbands' housework hours show more support for the time-availability and relative-resource models of household production than for the gender perspective, although there is some support for the latter perspective as well.
Article
Here, I explore the domestication of masculine identities that occurs within the British Army, and the transitions that take place upon re-entry into civilian life. Through oral accounts I highlight how men renegotiate their identity within the 'home' and within 'society' and seek to add to the debate on how we analyse a cultural repertoire of masculinities that are appropriate to particular places. In particular, I draw out: (1) how a domesticated body fit for purpose is created and maintained within the British Army; (2) how and with what effect an embodied routine and self-discipline is transferred into a home environment; and (3) the re-imaging of home life through the performance of these masculine identities.
Article
Since its founding in 1910, the Boy Scouts of America has socialized tens of millions of boys in what it means to be masculine, but a paradoxical aspect of this gender socialization has been the instruction of boys (ages 11 through 17) in cooking and serving meals to others and cleaning up the mess. This article examines Boy Scout handbooks, pamphlets, commercial publications, the material culture of campout cookery, photographic evidence, and ethnographic fieldwork with a troop of Boy Scouts in California, to discover how the Boy Scout experience manages to teach boys an ethic of caring for others while, at the same time, still constructing that caring as masculine and not feminine.
Article
Gender permeates all aspects of life, including foodlife, and can be examined using singular and multiple models of genderedness. Singular models of masculinity gender-type foods as masculine and feminine, suggesting that men and women “do gender" by consuming gender appropriate foods. Meat, especially red meat, is an archetypical masculine food. Men often emphasize meat, and women often minimize meat, in displaying gender as individuals. Dealing with gender in joint marital food choices requires negotiations about sharing masculine and feminine foods as partner foods in joint meals. Contemporary Western “proper meals” center around meat, creating masculine marital meals that reproduce wider patterns of male dominance. Meat is often a contested food in marriage, with food negotiations conflicting about whether, what types, when, and how much meat is consumed. Multiple models of masculinities suggest that marital meat consumption does not necessarily follow formulaic, hegemonic gender patterns. These plural masculinities offer various adjectival gender scripts that can be selectively invoked in negotiating meals shared between partners. Multiple cultural scripts for strong men, healthy men, wealthy men, sensitive men, and other conceptions of masculinities are employed in marital negotiations about “doing meat.” “Doing marriage” involves negotiating and managing masculinities and femininities in food choices that reflect, reproduce, and oppose a variety of gendered societal food scripts. Both singular and multiple models of masculinity offer insights about meat and marriage.
Article
Contemporary politics seems to be characterised by the competing claims of identity groups, and, with opposing groups drawing upon the rhetoric of truth and justice, it has become increasingly more difficult to adjudicate these claims. Recognising the limits of a politics based on established identities, Michel Foucault articulated a political project that sought to develop new forms of experience and subjectivity. In an age when men have been popularly described as coming from Mars and women from Venus, it seems unlikely that gender identities in the private sphere might offer an example for politics in the public sphere. Despite the view that women and men comprise opposing and conflicting identity groups, I propose that gendered domestic practices and subjectivities can be seen as being constantly negotiated and transformed. Using examples from several households, I argue that supposedly fixed and exclusive feminine and masculine subject positions can be made to seem precarious and tenuous, such that the possibility of generating new experiences and subjectivities is ever present. I suggest that this discursive strategy might be drawn upon to destabilise seemingly entrenched subject positions that form the basis of oppositional politics in the public sphere, and to generate new political subjectivities.
Article
The ‘cooking mystique’ has long regulated the presentation of masculinity and femininity within kitchen culture. However, recent sociological research reveals shifts in how household tasks are allocated within the home—especially in the kitchen. if so, are masculinities and femininities presented in popular discourse around cooking also changing? This article highlights historical transformations in how the ‘instructional’ genre presents the connection between ‘doing gender’ and ‘doing dinner.’ Analysis shows that production, social, and ideological conventions used by the popular Food Network still present cooking as gendered work. However, Food Network stars—from Bobby Flay to Rachel Ray—are shifting the cooking mystique in ways that both challenge and uphold a binary between genders. I argue that the Food Network is a strategic site to examine how gender is used to bridge tension between the ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultures of culinary arts, domestic labor, television, and consumption.
Article
This paper explores the representation of masculinity in Japanese television cooking shows. It does this for a number of reasons: first, because television is the most consumed medium in Japan today, present in every household and viewed, on average, 3.5 hours a day; second, because food is present on nearly every channel, in some form, on and in between virtually every program, all day, every day; third, because gender representations, especially masculinity, are a major component of these communications; fourth, because the version of masculinity that is communicated is a very narrowly constructed, univocal type. Following Ito (1996)26. Ito , K. 1996. Danseigaku Nyumon, (Introduction to Men's Studies) Tokyo: Sakuhinsha. View all references, this type is shown to be “masculine hegemony,” a construct with three essential elements: authority, power, and possession. Working through an array of on-screen data, I show that, regardless of the “kind” of male present in food shows, men invariably embody one or all of these masculine characteristics. Importantly, women also reinforce these qualities, either by facilitating manifestation or adopting these traits themselves. Few, if any, deviations from these depictions can be located, and when they are, they can be explained in terms of the corporate structure of television in contemporary Japan. A key observation is that, despite the prevalence of hegemonic masculinity, it is not played out through the iconic Japanese male, the salaried worker. In fact, in contrast with the pervading socio-economic reality in the “real world,” this male archetype is wholly absent inside the food-show screen.
Article
It is often assumed that culinary influence has been ‘top down’– that is, that haute cuisine and professional cooking by male chefs has influenced popular cooking, especially once literacy became commonplace, and particularly with the publication of cookery books directed at the middle–class ‘housewife’. Whilst it is certainly true that professional cooking has influenced domestic cooking as a ‘trickle–down’ effect, there is an area of serious neglect or oversight – namely, the denial or ignoring of the culinary influence in the other direction, that is, the influence of female domestic cooking on haute cuisine.
Article
Male-centred aspects of political behaviour have generally remained the explanatory and interpretive focuses in analyses of the social organization of African pastoralists. While recent work on African pastoralists has shed increasing light on the lives of women, I argue that key assumptions underlying anthropological models of male dominance in these societies have been insufficiently challenged. Drawing on recent approaches in gender and social organization that highlight the mutual constitution of domestic and political domains, I examine comparative material from two well-known pastoralist societies: the Samburu of northern Kenya and the Nuer of southern Sudan. In doing so, I suggest strong linkages between male-dominated ‘political spheres’ and areas of domestic life in which the role of women is more significant – particularly processes of domestic food distribution. In re-examining central facets of Samburu politics – which are best known through Paul Spencer’s seminal analysis of the gerontocratic aspects of Samburu political life – I suggest that the status and identities of Samburu men are in fundamental ways defined through their relationship to women as providers of food within Samburu households. Comparative material from the Nuer suggests, additionally, the strategic use of food by women in influencing male ‘political spheres’. In comparing these cases, I suggest a more general model through which domestic processes of food allocation as realms of female-centred social action may be seen to play a central role in the forms and processes of pastoral ‘political’ life.
Article
Amidst growing concern about both nutrition and food safety, anxiety about a loss of everyday cooking skills is a common part of public discourse. Within both the media and academia, it is widely perceived that there has been an erosion of the skills held by previous generations with the development of convenience foods and kitchen technologies cited as culpable in \'deskilling\' current and future generations. These discourses are paralleled in policy concerns, where the incidence of indigenous food-borne disease in the UK has led to the emergence of an understanding of consumer behaviour, within the food industry and among food scientists, based on assumptions about consumer \'ignorance\' and poor food hygiene knowledge and cooking skills. These assumptions are accompanied by perceptions of a loss of `common-sense´ understandings about the spoilage and storage characteristics of food, supposedly characteristic of earlier generations. The complexity of cooking skills immediately invites closer attention to discourses of their assumed decline. This paper draws upon early findings from a current qualitative research project which focuses on patterns of continuity and change in families\' domestic kitchen practices across three generations. Drawing mainly upon two family case studies, the data presented problematise assumptions that earlier generations were paragons of virtue in the context of both food hygiene and cooking. In taking a broader, life-course perspective, we highlight the absence of linearity in participants\' engagement with cooking as they move between different transitional points throughout the life-course.
Article
This remarkable book is the first ever sociological study of an operational army unit. The author, himself a former regular soldier, observed a group of raw recruits to the British Army during their basic training, accompanied a unit on an exercise in Canda and also went with it to the dangerous ’bandit country’ of South Armagh. John Hockey paints a memorable picture of the subsculture of private soldiers in today’s regular infantry, and he shows vividly how this conforms and conflicts with the formal demands of the military organisation. Anyone who wants to know more about the working of the army at grass-roots level will find this book essential reading.
Article
"A stimulating collection of essays in which leading theorists of regionalism join with talented younger scholars in remapping the field. Revisionary in every sense, Breaking Boundaries asks fresh questions about traditional stalwarts, 'regionalizes' figures hitherto examined under other rubrics, and introduces readers to new authors and texts."--Carolyn L. Karcher, author of The First Woman in the Republic: A Cultural Biography of Lydia Maria Child "This is an excellent anthology. It complicates our ideas about 'regionalism,' links nineteenth- and twentieth-century writers, places issues of race and ethnicity at the center, makes us rethink the academy's usual (and limiting) preoccupation with fiction as the only important genre, and effectively deconstructs the scholarly trivialization of local color writing as a 'minor' American tradition. This is a volume that is challenging, not nostalgic. It looks back but also at the present, asking us how our thinking about the 'local' shapes and affects major issues today, such as the environment, race relations, gender dynamics, and attitudes toward sexuality."--Elizabeth Ammons, author of Conflicting Stories: American Women Writers at the Turn of the Twentieth Century These lively essays reveal the generational continuum of women's regional literature, which has always offered a voice to women and their concerns. By exploring the multiplicity of connections between women and regional writing and the subversive potential of regional writing to put forth social criticisms and correctives, Breaking Boundaries charts some of the major ways in which this literary genre is of particular importance to today's writers. TABLE OF CONTENTS Part One - Reenvisioning Traditional Regionalism 1. Origins of American Literary Regionalism: Gender in Irving, Stowe, and Longstreet -- Marjorie Pryse 2. Theorizing Regionalism: Celia Thaxter's Among the Isles of Shoals -- Judith Fetterley 3. "Why, why do we not write our side?o Gender and Southern Self-representation in Grace King's Balcony Stories -- Lori Robison 4. Emplotting National History: Regionalism and Pauline Hopkins's Contending Forces -- Francesca Sawaya 5. Making the Strange(r) Familiar: Sarah Orne Jewett's "The Foreignero -- Cynthia J. Davis 6. Regionalist Bodies/Embodied Regions: Sarah Orne Jewett and Zitkala-Sa -- D.K. Meisenheimer, Jr. 7. "There was a part for her in the Indian lifeo: Mary Austin, Regionalism, and the Problems of Appropriation - Noreen Groover Lape Part Two - Expanding the Genre 8. Writing the Midwest: Meridel Le Sueur and the Making of a Radical Regional Tradition -- Julia Mickenberg 9. "Wherever I am livingo: The "Lady of the Limberlosto Resituates -- Barbara Ryan 10. In Pursuit of Regional and Cultural Identity: The Autobiographies of Agnes Morley Cleaveland and Fabiola Cabeza de Baca -- Becky Jo Gesteland McShane 11. "A mutual journeyo: Wilma Dykeman and Appalachian Regionalism -- Patricia M. Gantt 12. Sidestepping Environmental Justice: "Naturalo Landscapes and the Wilderness Plot -- Krista Comer 13. Not Just Any Land: Linda Hasselstrom at Home on the American Grasslands -- John T. Price
Article
This study explores how Finnish men from two occupational groups describe food in their everyday life. The concept of masculinity is used in interpreting men's food-related behaviours and beliefs. Data are drawn from semi-structured interviews in the 1990s with twenty carpenters and twenty engineers involved in the building trade. The paper presents analyses of the similarities and differences in how the men talked about meat; vegetables; beer and wine as parts of meals; food as energy, health and pleasure; and cooking. The results show variation both between and within occupational groups. The men did not stress the role of meat, but rather emphasised the role of vegetables. The carpenters tended to favour meat whereas the engineers had a more positive attitude to vegetables. Eating was described as an everyday routine needed to refuel the body and stay healthy. In addition, the engineers talked about the pleasures of eating. The men described cooking as optional or exceptional. The carpenters seemed to more actively embrace hegemonic masculinity and reject what is feminine than the engineers, who have reformulated their definition of masculinity to encompass concerns with health. This study suggests that both masculinity and occupational class play a role in male food-related practices and preferences.
Article
Most studies of social aspects of foods have focused on people in multi-person households, often from the perspective of women. Little is known about the food-related experiences of men who live alone. We therefore conducted a qualitative study with 12 men aged 27-47 who lived alone in Vancouver, Canada. Our goals were to explore their food-related ideals, and their perceptions of how those ideals relate to their actual food practices, the context of living alone, and masculine identities. Data were collected through food journals and semi-structured interviews. The men's ideals included being conscious and organized with respect to food so that they could regularly eat meals prepared at home from healthy ingredients. Eating with others was considered an ideal food context, where the meal became an "occasion", as opposed to "just eating". Participants believed that their eating habits often did not live up to these ideals because of lack of time and because the context of living alone was not conducive to eating well. However, they thought their habits were better than what they perceived to be the habits of a stereotypical bachelor who does not know how to cook and has a 'who cares' attitude towards food.
From modernized masculinity to degendered lifestyle projects: changes in men's narratives on domestic participation
  • H Aarseth
Aarseth, H. (2009), 'From modernized masculinity to degendered lifestyle projects: changes in men's narratives on domestic participation 1990-2005', Men and Masculinities, 11: 424-40.
The whereabouts of power: politics, government and space) Special Issue: The Political Challenge of Relational Space
  • J Allen
Allen, J. (2004), 'The whereabouts of power: politics, government and space', Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 86(1) Special Issue: The Political Challenge of Relational Space, 19-32.
The Transformation of Intimacy
  • A Giddens
Giddens, A. (1992), The Transformation of Intimacy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Oliver's Twist: leisure, labour and domestic masculinity in The Naked Chef
  • J Hollows
Hollows, J. (2003), 'Oliver's Twist: leisure, labour and domestic masculinity in The Naked Chef', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 6: 229-48.
Kitchen Secrets: the meaning of cooking in everyday life
  • F Short
Short, F. (2006), Kitchen Secrets: the meaning of cooking in everyday life. Oxford: Berg.
Family Fragments? Cambridge
  • C Smart
  • B Neale
Smart, C. and Neale, B. (1999), Family Fragments? Cambridge: Polity Press.