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Critical review on pharmacological properties of Brahmi



Water hyssop and "Brahmi" are two words used for Bacopa monneri in the traditional system of medicine. Traditionally, it was used as a brain tonic to enhance learning & memory, and to provide relief in anxiety or epileptic disorders. The plant has also been used as a cardiac tonic, digestive aid and to improve respiratory function in cases of bronchoconstriction.Brahmi contains bacoside A & B, Brahmin as main alkaloid and others are nicotine, herpestine. Bacoside A, B are the major constituents present in Brahmi plant in the form of saponins other than this D- mannitol, hersaponin and potassium salts are also present. In this review we discuss primarily on pharmacological properties, chemical constituents and scientific researches supporting the not only traditional use of Ayurvedic claims regarding Brahmi plant but also other physiological conditions such as anti-inflammatory, cardio tonic and other pharmacological effects of BM preparations/extract
Published online in
ISSN: 0976-5921
International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine, 2013, 4(2), 92-99
Critical review on pharmacological properties of Brahmi
Review article
Yadav Kapil Deo1*, Reddy KRC2
1. Service Senior Resident, 2. Associate Professor,
Department of Rasa Shastra, Faculty of Ayurveda IMS, BHU, Varanasi.
Water hyssop and Brahmi are two words used for Bacopa monneri in the traditional
system of medicine. Traditionally, it was used as a brain tonic to enhance learning &
memory, and to provide relief in anxiety or epileptic disorders. The plant has also been used
as a cardiac tonic, digestive aid and to improve respiratory function in cases of
bronchoconstriction. Brahmi contains bacoside A & B, Brahmin as main alkaloid and others
are nicotine, herpestine. Bacoside A, B are the major constituents present in Brahmi plant in
the form of saponins other than this D- mannitol, hersaponin and potassium salts are also
present. In this review we discuss primarily on pharmacological properties, chemical
constituents and scientific researches supporting the not only traditional use of Ayurvedic
claims regarding Brahmi plant but also other physiological conditions such as anti-
inflammatory, cardio tonic and other pharmacological effects of BM preparations/extracts.
Key Words: Brahmi, Pharmacological properties, Chemical constituents
Brahmi is derived from word
Brahma the mythical creator of Hindu
pantheon and brain is the centre of creative
activity in human body, those compounds
that improve brain health is called Brahmi.
The first clear reference of Brahmi
regarding augmentation of memory is
found in Charak Samhita (1), where
Brahmi is prescribed as a cure for mental
disorder (retardation) leading to insanity.
The aetiology of the mental disorder
according to Charak is a combination of
anxiety, weak intellect and lack of
concentration. Another authentic Ayurveda
treatise i.e. Susruta Samhita has described
Brahmi as efficacious in loss of intellect
and memory. It is classified as a Medhya
Rasayan drugs used to improve memory
and intellect (Medhya), has been used by
Ayurvedic medical practitioners in India
for almost 3000 years. Plants have been
used in different formulations which are
used in various disorders in traditional
system of medicine and researchers
supports that some natural compound
present in it act as Nootropic activity (2).
Active ingredients of Brahmi known as
bacosides, which are responsible for
improving memory, related disorders, and
enhance efficiency of transmission of
nerve impulse there by strengthening
memory and cognition (3).The increasing
demand of herbal medicine in recent years
is observed which may be due to lesser
side effect in comparison to recent
synthetics drugs. To overcome this
solution pharmaceutical industry develops
in vitro system for production of medicinal
plants and their extracts (4).
*Corresponding Author:
Yadav Kapil Deo
Service Senior Resident,
Department of Rasa Shastra,
Faculty of Ayurveda IMS,
BHU, Varanasi.
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ISSN: 0976-5921
Yadav Kapil Deo, Critical review on pharmacological properties of Brahmi
Description of Plants
Bacopa monneri, a member of the
Scrophulariaceae family, is a small,
creeping herb with numerous branches,
small oblong leaves, and light purple
flowers. In India and the tropics, it grows
naturally in wet soil, shallow water, and
marshes. It is also found in Nepal,
Srilanka, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Florida
and Southern states of USA. It is widely
distributed in warmer parts of Asia,
Australia, America and India commonly
known as Brahmi or Indian water hyssop
has been investigated (5). The herb can be
found at elevations from sea level to
altitudes of 4,400 feet, and is easily
cultivated if adequate water is available.
Flowers and fruit appear in summer and
the entire plant is used for medicinal
purpose (6).
It is astringent, bitter, having
cooling properties and is reported to
improve the intellect. It is widely used for
the treatment of asthma, hoarseness,
dermatitis, anaemia, diabetes, cardiac
disorders, insanity, and epilepsy. It is also
used in boils as blood purifier, used in
cataract complaints. Whole plant is used
for medicinal purpose like juice of the
leaves for relief in bronchitis and diarrhoea
given to children, paste of the leaves is
used as a remedy for rheumatism, leaves
and tender stalks are reported to be eaten
in the west Bengal and decoction of leaves
is used in cough disorders. It is also
observed that it is safe cardiac tonic, gives
relief to patients from anxiety neurosis if
given with ginger juice, sugar and bark
extracts of Moringa oleifera. It was
reported as a potent antioxidant and
In view of the importance of this
plant in the indigenous system of
medicine, systematic chemical
examinations of the plant have been
carried out by several groups of
researchers. Detailed investigations were
first documented in 1931, when Bose and
Bose reported the isolation of the alkaloid
"Brahmin" from Bacopa monneri (BM)
and other alkaloids like nicotine and
herpestine have also been reported later
(7). It was found highly toxic, when
administered at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body
weight of cat, it produces a fall in the
blood pressure. In therapeutic doses it
action resembles with action of strychnine
chemical. The isolation of D-mannitol,
saponins, hersaponin and potassium salts
by Sastri provided further details of the
chemical components of BM (8). The
major chemical entity shown to be
responsible for the memory-facilitating
action of BM, Bacoside A, was assigned as
D-glucopyranoside-10, 20-dihydroxy-16-
keto-dammar-24-ene (9). It usually co-
occurs with Bacoside B, the latter differ to
each other only in optical (10). Bacosides
A and B possess haemolytic activity. On
acid hydrolysis, Bacosides yield a mixture
of aglycones, bacogenin (11), and two
genuine sapogenins, jujubogenin and
pseudojujubogenin (12). In addition, same
authors isolated three new saponins from
BM, designated as bacopasides III, IV and
V (13). Moreover, three new
phenylethnoid glycosides, viz.
monnerisides I-III along with the known
analogue plantainoside B have been
isolated from the glycoside fraction of BM
(14). Analysis of the leaves and stalks
exposed, moisture 88.4; protein 2.1: fat
0.6; carbohydrates 5.9; crude fibre 1.05;
ash 1.9 g / 100gm, calcium 202.0;
phosphorus 16.0; iron 7.8; ascorbic acid
63.0; nicotinic acid 0.3 mg /100 g; and
energy 38 cal / 100 g. The leaves contain a
sterol C 26 H 46 O .H2O, m p 76 0) (15).
Pharmacological Properties:
Anti Asthmatic Activity:
BM extract possessed
relaxant properties in tracheal muscle of
rabbit and guinea-pigs with a partial
contribution by (beta)-adrenoreceptor and
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International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine, 2013, 4(2), 92-99
prostaglandins (16). It also
produced bronco dilation in anaesthetized
rats (17) supported the traditional use of
this plant in for various respiratory
ailments (18). Bronchodilator property of
extract may be reflected by antagonism of
carbachol-induced effects
on inspiratory and expiratory pressures.
Extract exhibited a dual action on
bronchoconstriction induced by carbachol.
At low doses (25 and 37 mg/kg),
predominantly inhibited inspiratory
pressure, but at a high dose (50 mg/kg)
inhibited only expiratory pressure. This
property of the plant extract implies that
more than one mechanism of action may
be responsible for bronco-dilation. Some
of the possible mechanisms include (beta)-
adrenoreceptor activation, muscarinic
receptor antagonism, prostaglandin release
or interference with calcium mobilization.
A more recent study by the same authors
demonstrates the calcium antagonistic
activity is present in ethanol extract of BM
(19). In addition, it has been reported that
BM methanolic extract exhibited a
potent mast cell stabilizer, indicating the
potential usefulness of BM leaves in
allergic conditions (20).
Anti cancer activity:
Pre treatment with BM
significantly reduced the acute stress (AS)-
induced increase in the ulcer index,
adrenal gland weight, plasma glucose,
aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and
creatine kinase (CK) (21) in cancerous
patients. This was due to presence of
Bacosides present in BM, which have
anticancer activity. Methanolic extract
exhibited potent mast cell stabilizer (22)
activity. Bacopa monneri is a known hyper
accumulator of cadmium, chromium, lead
& mercury and used for phytoremedy (23).
Bacopa has been indicated as a
remedy for epilepsy in Ayurvedic
medicine and animal research showed
anticonvulsant activity present in it, only at
high doses over extended periods of time.
It have been also reported that crude water
extract of BM controls epilepsy in
experimental animals (24). The naturally it
exhibited sedative effect and significantly
prolonged hypnotic action of
phenobarbitone. Those substances which
stimulate GABA are known to possess
anticonvulsant, pain relieving and sedative
effects (26). It suggests the involvement of
GABA-ergic system in mediation of
central nervous system (25). BM was
evaluated alone and in combination
with phenytoin (PHT) for its effect on PA
task, maximal electroshock seizures and
locomotors activity in mice (27). Both
acquisition and retention of memory
showed improvement without affecting
PHT anti convulsive activity. Further
investigations using BM alone or in
combination with other antiepileptic drugs
are warranted to explore the full potential
of BM in epilepsy.
Methanolic extract of BM possess
potential antidepressant activity in rodent.
When given in the dose of 20 and 40
mg/kg, orally for 5 days, the extract was
found to have significant antidepressant
activity in forced swim and learned
helplessness models of depression and was
comparable to that of imipramine (28).
Anti inflammatory:
Bacopa monneri has the ability to
inhibit inflammation through modulation
of pro-inflammatory mediator release (29)
i.e. it possesses significant anti-
inflammatory activity that may well be
relevant to its effectiveness in the healing
of various inflammatory conditions in
traditional medicine (30). It also
significantly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-
LOX), 15-LOX and cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2) activities (31). This activity may
be due to presence of the triterpenoids and
bacosides in it.
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Yadav Kapil Deo, Critical review on pharmacological properties of Brahmi
Anti nociceptive activity:
Aqueous extract of Bacopa
monneri (AEBM) exhibits analgesic
activity through multiple pain pathways
(32) i.e. involvement of β1-adrenergic, α2 -
adrenergic receptors and 5-HT receptors in
analgesic activity. It was also observe that
when AEBM was given in combination
with naloxone did not increase the latency
for analgesic effect, which indicates
involvement of opioid receptors in
analgesic activity.
Antioxidant activity:
Alcoholic and hexane extract of
BM have antioxidant properties (33) by
inhibiting lipid peroxidation. A more
recent study explored antioxidant effect of
BM by other mechanism like inhibition of
superoxide dismutase
(SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione
peroxidise (GPX) activities (34). It was
also observed that the hydro alcoholic
extract of the whole BM plant exhibited an
inhibitory effect on superoxide released
from polymorphonuclear cells in nitro
blue assay (35). Sumathy et al. (2001)
investigated hepato protective activity of
alcoholic extract BM on morphine-treated
rats (36). It may be due to decreased brain
mitochondrial enzyme activity in rats (37).
Methanolic extract BM is able to directly
inhibit the superoxide anion formation in a
dose-dependent manner due to this it
reduces concentrations of nitric oxide
(NO), generated (enzymatic and non-
enzymatic) by activated astrocytes, might
be involved in a variety of
neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD,
ischemia and epilepsy(38, 39).
Anti stress Activity:
Standardized extract of BM
possesses an adaptogenic activity. Pre
treatment with low dose of BM extract
significantly reversed changes in ulcer
index and plasma AST only, whereas the
pre treatment with higher dose
significantly reversed changes in ulcer
index, adrenal gland weight, CK, and AST
Anti Spasmodic Activity:
BM extract have
spasmolytic activity in smooth muscles
due to inhibition of calcium influx via both
voltage and receptor-operated calcium
channels of the cell membrane. (41)
However, the absence of any modification
of either nor-adrenaline or caffeine-
induced contractions in the presence of
BM extract suggests that this natural
compound has no detectable effect on
mobilization of intracellular calcium.
Anxiolytic effect:
The higher doses of BM extract
produced significantly greater anxiolytic
effects compared to LZP (42). However,
BM has a distinct advantage over
lorazepam (LZP) since it does not induce
amnesia and has a memory-promoting
action in animals and man (43, 44). These
results was also observed by Shanker and
Singh and reported that BM extract
possessed an anxiolytic effect (45).
Cardiovascular activity:
Ethanolic extract of BM, shown
cardiac depressive activity on left
ventricular contractility, heart rate and
coronary flow in isolated rabbit heart (46).
It also demonstrated that protective effect
of BM on pulmonary artery and aorta (47).
Gastroprotective activity:
The anti-ulcer and ulcer-healing
activities of the Bacopa monneri extract
may be due to its effects on various
mucosal offensive and defensive factors
(48). It also have beneficial role in
intestinal spasm such as irritable bowel
syndrome (49). It may be due to
spasmolytic activity on intestinal smooth
muscle, via inhibition of calcium influx
across cell membrane channels. Fresh BM
juice (BMJ) and BM extract has been
reported to have significant anti
ulcerogenic activity (50, 51, 52). Ulcer
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International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine, 2013, 4(2), 92-99
protective effect of BMJ may be due to its
effect on mucosal defensive factors such as
enhanced mucin secretion, mucosal
glycoprotein and decreased cell shedding,
rather than on offensive factors such as
acid and pepsin.
Hepatoprotective activity:
It was found that pre treatment with
BM extract has shown to possess a
significant protective effect against
morphine-induced liver and kidney
functions in terms of serum glutamate
oxaloacetate transaminase, serum
glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline
phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenases and
gamma-glutamyl transferase activities and
urea, creatinine and uric acid level
respectively (53). Pre treatment of
Bacoside A also prevents the elevation of
LPO (Lipid Peroxidise) and activity of
serum marker enzymes and maintains the
antioxidant system and thus protects the
rats from Diethyl nitrosamine-induced
hepatic toxicity (54).
Learning and memory:
Plant extracts and isolated
Bacosides have been extensively
investigated in several laboratories for
their neuro pharmacological effects and
number of reports are available confirming
their Nootropic action. Preliminary studies
established that treatment with plant (55)
or alcoholic extract of BM plant (56)
enhanced learning ability in rats.
Subsequent studies indicated that the
cognition-facilitating effect was due to
presence of Bacosides A and B, in ethanol
extract (43). These active principles, apart
from facilitating learning and memory in
normal rats, inhibited the amnesic effects
of scopolamine, electroshock and immobili
zation stress (44). The mechanism of these
pharmacological actions remains
conjectural. It has been suggested that
bacosides induce membrane
dephosphorylation, with concomitant
increase in protein and RNA turnover in
specific brain areas (57). BM has been
shown to enhance protein kinase activity in
hippocampus which could also contribute
to its nootropic action (58). Administration
of BM for two weeks, also reversed the
depletion of acetylcholine, the reduction in
acetyl cholinesterase activity and the
decrease in muscarinic cholinergic
receptor binding in the frontal cortex and
hippocampus, induced by neurotoxin,
colchicines (59). It has been suggested that
the behavioural effects of cholinergic
degeneration can be alleviated by a
reduction in noradrenergic function (60).
BM is known to lower nor epinephrine and
increase 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the
hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebral
cortex (58), thus BM indirectly, modify
Ach concentrations.
Traditional daily doses of Bacopa
was 5- 10 gm of non-standardized powder,
8-16 ml of infusion, and 30 ml daily of
syrup (Brahmi). Dosages of 1:2 fluid
extract are 5-12 ml per day for adults and
2.5-6 ml per day for children ages 6-12
years. For Bacopa extracts standardized to
20-percent Bacosides A and B, dosage is
200-400 mg daily in divided doses for
adults, and for children, 100-200 mg daily
in divided doses.
Bacopa monneri, traditional
Ayurvedic medicinal plant has been used
for centuries as a memory-enhancing, anti-
inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic,
sedative, and antiepileptic agent. More
recently, preclinical studies and clinical
studies supported the cognitive enhancing
effects with various extracts of BM, but
the exact mechanism of its actions is still
uncertain, as its multiple active
constituents make its pharmacology
complex. It has been suggested that BM,
like Ginkgo biloba, exhibits protective and
cognitive enhancing effects, to modulate
the cholinergic system and to contrast
oxidative stress. .
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Yadav Kapil Deo, Critical review on pharmacological properties of Brahmi
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... Most of the ingredients are useful in various respiratory diseases due to their bronchodilator, anti-in ammatory, anti-allergic, anti-tussive and mucolytic actions. [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] The synergistic action of these ingredients could have helped in cessation of smoking and to overcome other effects related to smoking. ...
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Background: Smoking is a major predisposing factor for many health problems including Cancers, Vascular disorders etc. Quitting smoking is the only solution to prevent them. Various medicinal and non-medicinal methods are used for the same. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nicotine free herbal formulation (Smotect tablets) containing ingredients like Mucuna pruriens, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monnieri etc. for cessation of smoking and its effects on other health parameters related to smoking. Study Design: The present study was a placebo controlled, double blind, randomized, multi-centric clinical study conducted at three clinical sites in India. Methods: After ethical approval and informed consent, all participants were given nicotine free herbal composition - Smotect Tablets or Placebo tablets in a dose of 2 tablets twice daily for 90 days. A total of 103 Participants (52 in trial group and 51 in placebo group) completed the study. Evaluation of cessation of smoking was done along with other parameters like measurement of lung capacity, clinical assessment and laboratory investigations at baseline and at regular intervals till the end of the study. Results: A significant reduction in smoking as well as in the CO and COHb levels was observed with the use of Smotect tablets as compared to placebo over a period of 90 days. Significant improvement was also observed in quality of life, energy and stamina levels, reduction of stress level. Smotect tablets were found to be safe without causing any adverse effects. Conclusion: Smotect tablets, a nicotine free herbal composition, can be recommended as a safe and effective remedy for de-addiction of smoking along with improving health related problems arising due to smoking.
... The global herbal pharmaceutical companies leading in this sector and growing rapidly include Nutraceutical International, USA, Shen Chang Pharmaceutical Company, China, Himalaya Drug Company, India, Zandu Pharma, India, Dabur, India, Hamdard Laboratories, India [22]. Large ...
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Conventional herbal medication has picked up a gigantic sum of intrigue around the world due to its viability in the treatment of extreme illnesses from the period of antiquated civilizations. Phytomedicines are considered a major health-care supplier around the globe, especially in rustic and farther ranges. A huge segment of individuals depends on or accept home-grown drugs as an essential cure for different afflictions rather than manufactured drugs. Researchers are paying much attention to herbal medicine as compared to synthetic drugs due to their severe side effects, and toxicity with less efficacy and specificity. Despite the significant increase in global interest in the investigation and development of new botanical products, only a few have been approved till now. Natural product medication development has significant technical and monetary hurdles, including a time-consuming formulation process, quality assurance, safety, therapeutic efficacy, promotion, and administrative issues. To meet these challenges, the regulatory agencies EMEA, ICH, AYUSH, DCGI, WHO, and U.S. FDA trying to bring these herbal drugs under the regulatory pipeline under the NDA approval process. Moreover, the process of drug discovery has also been revolutionized with the new advent of technologies such as the successful drug development of a novel therapeutic agent is critically relying on the process which adopts novel approaches and involves the concept of ADMET (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) in the early stages of drug discovery along with the interaction profiles of herb-herb and herb-synthetic. In the present review, we will address the noteworthy opportunities and issues related to phyto-drug improvement in various developing and developed nations such as Europe, U.S. and India, its commercialization with regulatory guidelines, and recommended potential methods to bring them up into the mainstream of modern medical practices and healthcare.
... Phyllanthus emblica, [13] B. monerrei, [14] Mentha piperata [15] have the ability to Mentha piperata helps to reduce the fermentation of food and maintains a balance between oral and intestinal microorganisms' thereby preventing flatulence. [15] proven anti-stressor [17] and anxiolytic effects [18] respectively. ...
Experiment Findings
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder in which there is functional derangement of the gastrointestinal tract without any organic cause. IBS is characterized by a group of symptoms such as abdominal pain, discomfort and a change in bowel habits. The presently available treatment modalities include anti diarrheal, antispasmodics and antidepressants with limited benefits. This calls for the need to explore effective treatment modalities. Herbal medicines have proved efficacious in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders since ancient time. Herewith we report a case series of patients suffering with IBS-D (diarrhea) type treated with Cap Ibomic a proprietary herbal formulation manufactured by Shree Baidyanath Ayurveda Bhavan for the treatment of IBS. We observed that there was a decrease in median scores of the symptoms such as abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, stress and fatigue. There was a decrease in the mean frequency of motions per day and improvement in symptoms of flatulence and tenesmus. Thus Cap. Ibomic was found effective in the management of patients with IBS-D.
... It is considered to improve the memory power and enhance the focus. It is used in various blood disorders, brain illnesses, diabetes and epileptic seizures [4]. ...
Himachal is rich in the natural resource. These plants are hereditary used in various formulation and dietary foods. The plants are widely distributed in the lower Himachal from the altitude of 800mtrs to 2600mtrs. The plants are known by their local names and the ethnic knowledge has been passed from one generations to next generation. These plants are immunomodulatory, anticancer and improves the body functions. Various parts of plants like roots, barks, leaves and fruits are used in the food and medicines by local peoples.
This chapter outlines aspects of understanding epilepsy from an African perspective. The chapter starts by introducing the condition of epilepsy and what research says nationally and internationally with definitions from various views. Furthermore, the chapter discusses causes, symptoms, and impact on children. This chapter highlights the definition of epilepsy and describes epilepsy from various African languages and perspectives. The chapter also shows that epilepsy in children is associated with problems in multiple areas such as their academic achievement, behavioural and emotional adjustments, and social competence. The chapter reports that students with epilepsy often experience negative social consequences due to their condition, and that teachers can do several things to help minimise and assist the children to reach their full potential. In conclusion, the chapter discusses and suggests effective strategies to manage and support the condition.
Bacopa monnieri (common name: Brahmi), is an herb containing a plethora of phytochemicals of extreme medicinal importance. It belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae and occurs in tropical nations. Its use has been well established in both traditional and ayurvedic medicine for its nootropic and neuroprotective attributes. Its age-old use has been as a memory booster and restoring cardiac and nervous system related disorders. In the modern therapeutics, clinical investigations have been carried out to evaluate its role managing Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, diabetes, also hepatotoxicity. The functional active compounds isolated from Brahmi include bacosides, bacopasides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides.
A BSTRACT Background Smoking is a major predisposing factor for many health problems including cancers, vascular disorders, etc., To quit smoking is the only solution to prevent them. Various medicinal and non-medicinal methods are used worldwide for the same. The present study evaluates the effect of a nicotine free herbal formulation containing ingredients like Mucuna pruriens , Withania somnifera, Bacopa monnieri , etc., for cessation of smoking and its effects on other health parameters related to smoking. Materials and Methods The present study was a placebo controlled, double blind, randomized, and multi-centric clinical study conducted at three clinical sites in India. After ethical approval and informed consent, all participants were given Smotect Tablets or Placebo tablets in a dose of 2 tablets twice daily for 90 days. A total of 103 participants (52 in trial group and 51 in placebo group) completed the study. Evaluation of cessation of smoking was done along with other parameters like measurement of lung capacity, clinical assessment, and laboratory investigations before and after the study. Results A significant reduction in smoking as well as in the alveolar Carbon monoxide (p < 0.05) and Carboxyhemoglobin levels (p < 0.05) were observed with the use of Smotect tablets as compared to placebo over a period of 90 days. Significant improvement was also observed in quality of life, energy and stamina levels, and reduction of stress level. Smotect tablets were found to be safe without causing any adverse effects. Conclusion Smotect Tablets is an effective and safe remedy for cessation of smoking and reducing other effects related to smoking.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also called senile dementia, is the most common neurological disorder. Around 50 million people, mostly of advanced age, are suffering from dementia worldwide and this is expected to reach 100-130 million between 2040 and 2050. AD is characterized by impaired glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, which is associated with clinical and pathological symptoms. AD is characterized clinically by loss of cognition and memory impairment and pathologically by senile plaques formed by Amyloid β deposits or neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) consisting of aggregated tau proteins. Amyloid β deposits are responsible for glutamatergic dysfunction that develops NMDA dependent Ca2+ influx into postsynaptic neurons generating slow excitotoxicity process leading to oxidative stress and finally impaired cognition and neuronal loss. Amyloid decreases acetylcholine release, synthesis and neuronal transport. The decreased levels of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, neuronal loss, tau aggregation, amyloid β plaques, increased oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, bio-metal dyshomeostasis, autophagy, cell cycle dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction are the factors responsible for the pathogenesis of AD. Acetylcholinesterase, NMDA, Glutamate, BACE1, 5HT6, and RAGE (Receptors for Advanced Glycation End products) are receptors targeted in treatment of AD. The FDA approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitors Donepezil, Galantamine and Rivastigmine and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist Memantine provide symptomatic relief. Different therapies such as amyloid β therapies, tau-based therapies, neurotransmitter-based therapies, autophagy-based therapies, multi-target therapeutic strategies, and gene therapy modify the natural course of the disease. Herbal and food intake is also important as preventive strategy and recently focus has also been placed on herbal drugs for treatment. This review focuses on the molecular aspects, pathogenesis and recent studies that signifies the potential of medicinal plants and their extracts or chemical constituents for the treatment of degenerative symptoms related to AD.
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The rapid advancement in fast pacing lifestyle of people and more dependent on fast food is the major leading cause of the increase in stomach infections leading to dysentery and diarrhea. Diarrhoea / Diarrhea and Dysentery are major causes of morbidity and mortality in rural communities of the developing world. The current review focus on herbal remedies from the Melghat region for dysentery and diarrhea-related symptoms. A total of 287 medicinal plant species from 90 families have been compiled for Dysentery (210) and Diarrhea (243). Most reported plant families were Fabaceae contributing 11.14% plants of the total population, followed by Asteraceae (5. 49 Mimosoideae (2.43%), etc. In this study, out of 287 species reviewed, trees represented 34.49% of species, followed by herbs (32.75%), shrubs (21.95%), climbers (8.01%), grasses (2.43%), and orchids (0.34%). Curated data presented along with the plant's botanical name, plant's family, category (habit), ailments, the part used with relevant traditional, folk, ethnobotanical uses and patterns with cross citations offers scope for researchers engaged in herbal drug discovery and development to dwell into the herbal reservoir and find suitable plant compounds for fighting this disease.
For thousands of years, medicinal plants have been played an important role throughout the world in treating and preventing a variety of diseases. The present paper aims at the review on various medicinal plants used by the population of Kannur district of Kerala state in the management of asthma. A wide number of ethno botanical surveys conducted in many tribal pockets and rural parts of Kannur district of Kerala have reported a countable number of medicinal plants with high therapeutic effect in the management of asthma. Apart from the tribal's, the review also includes the plant data collected from ayurvedic physicians and common people in the villagers of different parts of Kannur.
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A cost-effective and efficient protocol has been described in the present work for large scale and rapid invitro propagation of a valuable medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri (L.) by shoot bud proliferation on internodal segments isolated from field grown mature plants. This shooting was achieved on low concentration of cytokinin with BAP 1.0mg/l and Kn 0.5mg/l within 3weeks of inoculation contrary to earlier reports where auxin is also used in combination with cytokinin. Normally internodes gives rise to a clump of shoots (18 shoots). On an average within a period of three subcultures the internode explant generated 324 shoots thereby improving the economics of the cost of the plants produced and time required. For rooting this is a first report of its growth in a liquid culture. The regenerated plants resemble the mother plants in the general habitat without any morphological variation. This paper reports a very simple, reproducible procedure for invitro propagation of Bacopa monnieri (L.) that can be used to form a foundation stock of elite plant material for large-scale cultivation.
Bacopa monniera L. (Syn Herpestis monniera L.) family Scrophulariaceae (Hindi: Brahmi) has been classified in Ayurveda as Medharasayana, drags used to improve memory and intellect. Bacopa monniera (BM), and its active chemical constituents, bacosides A and B, have been shown to facilitate learning acquisition and retention of learning (memory), in a variety of experimental paradigms. Since the mechanism of the cognition-facilitating effect of BM, and its active chemical moeties, remains conjectural, the present study investigated the effect of sub-chronic administration (14 days) of a standardized extract of BM (bacoside A content 82.0 ± 0.5%) on two animal models of Alzheimer's disease, induced by i.c.v. administration of colchicine and by lesioning of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbm) with ibotenic acid. Apart from noting the effect of BM on memory deficits induced in these models, the effects of the drug were also assessed on i.c.v. colchicine-induced depletion of acetylcholine (Ach) concentrations, reduction in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and decrease in muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MCR) binding, in frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. Lesioning with colchicine or ibotenic acid induced marked deficits in the retention of active avoidance learning, which was evident on day 7, after lesioning, and increased progressively by day 14. Subchronic administration of BM reduced the magnitude of memory deficits induced by both colchicine and ibotenic acid, which was statistically significant at days 7 and 14 with the higher dose (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and on day 14 only with the lower dose (5 mg/kg, p.o.), of BM. BM (10 mg/kg, p.o.) reversed colchicine-induced reduction in frontal cortex and hippocampal Ach, ChAT activity and MCR binding. The effect of the lower dose of BM (5 mg/kg, p.o.) was evident only after 14 days administration. The results indicate that the memory- facilitating effect of BM, and its active chemical constituents, may be due an effect on central cholinergic modulation of memory functions.
Bacopa monniera Linn is described in the Ayurvedic Materia Medica, as a therapeutically useful herb for the treatment of inflammation. In the current study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera (BME). For some experiments EtOAc and bacoside fractions were prepared from BME. The effect of these extracts in modulating key mediators of inflammation was evaluated. Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, rat mononuclear cells and human whole blood assay were employed as in vivo and in vitro models. In carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, BME brought about 82% edema inhibition at a dose of 100mg/kg i.p. when compared to indomethacin (INDO) (3mg/kg) that showed 70% edema inhibition. BME also significantly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 15-LOX and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities in rat monocytes in vivo. Among the fractions tested in vitro, EtOAc fraction possessed significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with IC(50) value of 30 microg/ml compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (IC(50) = 13 microg/ml). This fraction also exerted significant hydroxyl radical scavenging activity with IC(50) value of 25 microg/ml in comparison with quercetin (IC(50) = 5 microg/ml). Inhibitory effects of EtOAc and bacoside fractions on LOX and COX activities in Ca-A23187 stimulated rat mononuclear cells were also assessed. 5-LOX IC(50) values were 25 microg/ml for EtOAc, 68 microg/ml for bacosides and 2 microg/ml for nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) where as COX-2 IC(50) values were 1.32 microg/ml for EtOAc, 1.19 microg/ml for bacoside fraction and 0.23 microg/ml for indomethacin. EtOAc and bacoside fractions also brought about significant decrease in TNF-alpha release ex vivo. Bacopa monniera possesses anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of COX and LOX and downregulation of TNF-alpha.
Bacopa monniera Wettst. (syn. Herpestis monniera L.; Hindi - Brahmi) is classified in Ayurveda, the classical Indian system of medicine, as Medhyarasayana, a group of plant derived drugs used as nervine tonics to promote mental health and improve memory and intellect. Earlier experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the memory-promoting action of the plant extracts and that of its active saponins, bacoside A and B. The present study was designed to investigate the anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract (bacoside A content 25.5 ± 0.8%) of B. monniera (BM), since the plant is used in Ayurveda in clinical conditions resembling the modern concept of anxiety disorders. The animal models used have been extensively validated as experimental models of anxiety and included the open-field, elevated plusmaze, social interaction and novelty-suppressed feeding latency tests in rats. BM was used at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o. and the results were compared with those elicited by lorazepam, a well known benzodiazepine anxiolytic, used at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. BM produced a dose-related anxiolytic activity, qualitatively comparable to that of lorazepam, in all the test parameters. However, statistically significant results were elicited usually by the higher two doses of BM. BM did not produce any significant motor deficit, at the doses used, as was evidenced by using the rota-rod test. The findings correlate with the clinical use of the plant in Ayurveda. The advantage of B. monniera over the widely used benzodiazepine anxiolytics lies in the fact that it promotes cognition unlike the amnesic action of the latter.
The bronchodilatory effect of the ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera on anaesthetized rats was studied. The extract antagonized the bronchoconstrictor action of carbachol. The bronchodilatory property shown by the plant extract (50 mg/kg) is reflected by a reduction in expiratory pressure which resembled more a salbutamol induced effect as compared with isoprenaline. The bronchodilatory action of the plant extract is probably mediated jointly by β-adrenoceptor dependent and independent mechanisms. Thus providing a rationale for its traditional use in the treatment of asthma.
The relaxant action of an ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera was examined on ring segments of pulmonary arteries (guinea-pig and rabbit), aorta (rabbit) and tracheal preparations (guinea-pig). The plant extract induced relaxation in all the tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Guinea-pig main pulmonary artery was found to be the most responsive to the plant extract, however, complete relaxation was obtained in the tracheal preparations. The relaxant response to the plant extract was unaffected by pretreatment of the blood vessels with either atropine or propranolol, whereas in the tracheal preparations propranolol partially blocked the response. Indomethacin reduced the plant extract-induced relaxation in all the tissues. In blood vessels relaxation induced by the plant extract was not modified in the presence or absence of the endothelial layer. These results suggest that relaxation induced by Bacopa monniera possibly involves prostacyclin compounds (in all the tissues) and β-adrenoceptors (in tracheal preparations). Furthermore, this relaxation is independent of endothelium and muscarinic receptors activation. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.