The fauna of chewing lice (Phthiraptera) of non-passerine birds was studied in Rostov Region of Russia for the first time. The material was collected from 2001 to 2017 in the vicinity of Rostov-on-Don city. As a result, 29 species of chewing lice from 85 birds of 16 species were identified: Caprimulgiformes (1), Ciconiiformes (4), Cuculiformes (1), Galliformes (3), Gruiformes (3), Piciformes (4 ... [Show full abstract] species). Sixteen species of Phtiraptera are recorded for the territory of Russia for the first time: Amyrsidea perdicis (Denny, 1842), Colpocephalum leptopygos Nitzsch, 1874, Menacanthus pici (Denny, 1842), M. phasiani (Modrzejewska et Złotorzycka, 1977), Pseudomenopon pilosum (Scopoli, 1763), Ardeicola leucoproctus (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1866), A. rhaphidius (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1866), A. goisagi Uchida, 1954, Cuclotogaster cinereus (Nitzsch, 1866), C. heterogrammicus (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1866), Goniodes astrocephalus (Burmeister, 1838), Goniocotes microthorax (Stephens, 1829), Picicola candidus (Nitzsch, 1866), Rallicola fulicae (Denny, 1842), Otidoecus antilogus (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1866), Mulcticola hypoleucus (Denny, 1842). A new host parasite association (Menacanthus pici (Denny, 1842) from Dendrocopos syriacus Hemprich et Ehrenberg, 1833) and the case of temporal chewing lice transition of Trinoton querquedulae (Linnaeus, 1758) to Fulicа atra Linnaeus, 1758 were registered for the first time. Chewing lice were not found on four collected species of Ciconiiformes: great bittern Botaurus stellaris (Linnaeus, 1758), yellow heron Ardeola ralloides (Scopoli, 1769), great white egret Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758) and grey heron Ardea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758.