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Vocational Pedagogy: what it is and why it matters

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It is a myth that clever people do not get their hands dirty. The paper explores aspects of effective vocational pedagogy in the context of Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence.
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Vocational Pedagogy:
What it is and why it matters
Bill Lucas, Director of the Centre for Real-World Learning,
University of Winchester
2
Contents
Executive summary Pg 3
1. The challenge Pg 4
2. Practical and vocational learning Pg 5
3. Vocational pedagogy Pg 7
4. Final word Pg 11
References Pg 12
The views expressed in this publication are those
of the author(s). They may not necessarily represent
the views of Skills Development Scotland, The Edge
Foundation or constituent organisations.
One of the original aims of
A Curriculum for Excellence was to
place more emphasis on employability
and skills required to meet market
demand.
The final report of the Commission for
Developing Scotland’s Young Workforce
has made a series of recommendations
in the same vein. In Sir Ian Wood’s own
words, “There should be a continuum
from primary school right through into
employment”.
Developing a young workforce
demands a culture change from all parts
of the education and training system.
In particular, there needs to be a focus
on high-quality vocational teaching and
learning, wherever and whenever it
takes place.
This paper challenges some popular
myths – for example, that “clever people
don’t get their hands dirty” – before
proposing six desirable outcomes from
vocational learning. Having set out the
aims, Professor Lucas goes on to outline
the major features of successful vocational
pedagogy, or the science, art and craft
of teaching and learning vocational
education.
The author, Bill Lucas, is Director of the
Centre for Real-World Learning at the
University of Winchester.
Executive summary
3
Key lessons for Scotland
vocational education is demonstrably
a complex, intelligent activity which
engages mind and body together.
It is a myth that it involves only
lower-order thinking, and that it is
only for the less ‘able’
vocational education can (and should)
support six outcomes:
- routine expertise (being skilful)
- resourcefulness (stopping to think
and deal with the non-routine)
- functional literacies (communication,
and the functional skills of literacy,
numeracy, and ICT)
- craftsmanship (vocational sensibility;
aspiration to do a good job; pride in a
job well done)
- business-like attitudes
(commercial or entrepreneurial
financial or social - sense)
- wider skills (for employability and
lifelong learning)
vocational pedagogy involves a range
of techniques and approaches, which
vary according to the subject being
taught (eg. brick-laying or cutting hair)
and the context in which teaching takes
place (eg. a school, college or workplace)
most vocational learning methods
are experiential – that is, they involve
learning by doing. However, they also
call upon reflection, feedback and
theory, leading to an ability to apply
something learned in one context to
another, perhaps novel context
from the moment a vocational teacher
walks into a room, he or she is faced
with a range of choices. There is now
good evidence to help them make the
kinds of choices which will improve the
quality of teaching and learning and so
be more likely to create excellent
workers. The dimensions of these
choices are explored and explained
in the final section of the paper.
The real issues facing any truly engaging
educational system
The final report of the Commission for
Developing Scotland’s Young Workforce,
Education Working for All, has identified
many of the issues facing Scotland as it
seeks to create a world class workforce and
proposed some ways of addressing them.
This paper offers an approach to
vocational pedagogy which might be
helpful as Scotland builds on its broad
Curriculum for Excellence to create
educational opportunities which will
engage all of its young people.
Scotland is not alone. Countries across
the world are looking at the ways in which
they can best engage all students at school
or college and considering how to develop
the kinds of skills needed for success in the
workplace and personal effectiveness as
a citizen. Strategies for improving the
capabilities of young people typically
include new curricula, better engagement
of employers, the creation of new kinds of
schools, campaigns to reward or re-esteem
vocational pathways and boosting
apprenticeships.
While there is a place for each of these
approaches, they frequently miss some
vital elements. In particular, it is essential
to appreciate that vocational teaching and
learning is not simple: in fact, it is highly
complex. Second, we must define some
desirable outcomes from practical and
vocational education. And, third, we must
set out clear guidance about how to teach
and learn vocational education more
effectively – which we describe as
vocational pedagogy.
The challenge
1
4
“Scotland is not alone.
Countries across the
world are looking at
the ways in which
they can best engage
all students.”
Practical and
vocational learning
2
5
The complexity of practical and
vocational learning
Vocational learning is under-researched
and under-theorised. It is also the victim
of naive assumptions about what it means
to be intelligent.
In Bodies of Knowledge (Claxton et al.,
2010) we set out to discredit eight ‘myths’
about practical and vocational education:
Myth 1: practical learning is
cognitively simple
Myth 2: clever people ‘grow out’ of
practical learning
Myth 3: you have to understand
something before you can
(learn how) to do it
Myth 4: clever people don’t get their
hands dirty
Myth 5: clever people don’t ‘need’ to
work with their hands
Myth 6: practical education is only for
the less ‘able
Myth 7: practical learning involves only
lower order thinking
Myth 8: practical teaching is a
second-rate activity
None of these myths is true, but they are
widely believed. Their continued existence
reminds us that although vocational
education is demonstrably a complex,
intelligent activity which engages mind
and body together, not everyone
acknowledges this fact.
Six desirable outcomes
If we are to reconfigure our education
systems to ensure that they truly work for
all students, we need to present vocational
pathways as broader and more valuable
rather than defining it by ‘not being
academic’.
The goal of vocational education is, we
believe, enabling people to do things in the
workplace; it is not enough to be able to
write or talk about such things (as might
be the case in more general education).
Unpacking this simple goal, we propose
six outcomes:
1. routine expertise (being skilful)
2. resourcefulness (stopping to think and
deal with the non-routine)
3. functional literacies (communication,
and the functional skills of literacy,
numeracy, and ICT)
4. craftsmanship (vocational sensibility;
aspiration to do a good job; pride in a
job well done)
5. business-like attitudes (commercial
or entrepreneurial – financial or social
– sense)
6. wider skills (for employability
and lifelong learning).
Routine expertise
Routine expertise involves skilled
routines and the ability to carry out
skilful activities to a satisfactory standard.
It relates to the use of materials, tools
and abstract concepts. Acquiring any kind
of practical expertise requires time and
practice. Anders Ericsson has suggested
that typically it takes 10,000 hours to
become an expert (Ericsson et al., 1993).
A default position for developing routine
expertise would be that a teacher needs
to get attention, explain, demonstrate,
set an engaging task, give learners the
chance to practise and provide multiple
opportunities for feedback, questioning
and reflection. Routine expertise tends
to be developed, for example, by watching,
by imitating, through careful and regular
practising, via feedback from experts and
peers and by being coached.
Resourcefulness
Sometimes we need to stop and think.
We encounter something which is not
routine and need to be able to respond
accordingly.
Beyond the familiar and routines, expert
practitioners are able to bring to mind
knowledge that is applicable to new and
unfamiliar contexts. In the vocational
context, the prime function of ‘knowledge’
– theory, formulae, maxims, rules of
thumb, heuristics – is to enable
appropriate thinking, decision-making,
and performance, in non-routine
situations.
The relationship between knowledge and
expertise is, of course, complex. Questions
arise such as:
how much explicit knowledge does a
learner need in order to be able to
perform a task?
how much of the necessary
knowledge will they acquire ‘on the
job’?
what is the role of theory, frameworks,
and models, in learning?
how and when should theory be best
introduced so that it comes to mind
when needed?
Learners need to be able to apply
knowledge in a range of situations
which do not closely replicate those
already encountered in training.
Resourcefulness tends to be learned
through extensive practice in a range
of contexts. It can be promoted by
problem-solving, through enquiry-based
learning, by being coached in the
moment, using virtual environments
and through simulation and role play.
Craftsmanship
The literature of vocational education has
– until quite recently – said remarkably
little about craftsmanship: the pleasure,
pride and patience involved in doing a
’good job’. In the last decade, however,
there has been a number of attempts to
understand the cultural aspects of being
a skilled ‘craftsman’. Mike Rose’s
The Mind at Work (2005), Richard
Sennett’s The Craftsman (2008)
and Matthew Crawford’s The Case for
Working with Your Hands (2010) are
good examples.
Crawford sums up his idea of
craftsmanship in these terms:
“As you learn, your
trade… takes its
place in a larger
picture that is
emerging, a picture
of what it means to
be a good plumber
or a good mechanic…
Your sense that your
judgments are
becoming truer… is
a feeling of joining
a world that is
independent of
yourself, with the
help of another who
is further along.”
(Crawford, 2010: 207)
Craftsmanship is learned primarily
through prolonged exposure to working
cultures where excellence is constantly
sought and where critical reflection is a
way of being. It can also be developed
and enhanced through watching,
imitating, conversation and teaching and
helping others. Competing can play a role
when tied to an ethic of high levels of
performance – something seen, for
example, in WorldSkills competitions.
In a school and college context,
Ron Berger (Berger, 2003) has explicitly
explored ways in which different
pedagogical approaches tend to cultivate
an ‘ethic of excellence’. Berger also
highlights three ways in which an ethic
of craftsmanship can be promoted:
1. using positive peer pressure to develop
a positive culture built around a pride in
‘beautiful student work’ and by pairing
more advanced students with those just
embarking on their learning
2. by recognising that self-esteem grows
from ‘accomplishments not
compliments’ and can be cultivated
through ‘powerful projects’ which fully
engage students and also encourage
them to make mutual critique
3. encouraging all teachers to see their
profession as a ‘calling’ and to
constantly seek to develop both their
‘craft’ and their ‘scholarship’.
Functional literacies
There are justified concerns about the
functional skills of literacy, numeracy
and ICT in all parts of the UK. Functional
literacies are slightly broader categories
and include the general communication
and comprehension skills which are as
essential in vocational education as
they are in general education.
There are live debates today about how
best to teach these kinds of functional
literacies. Some argue for them being
embedded in authentic contexts and
therefore likely to be taught by vocational
teachers. Others suggest that they are
better learned from specialists.
In terms of specific methods, it is likely
that, if they have not been adequately
acquired by the age of 16, some kind
of one-to-one intervention may be
necessary. Regular corrective feedback
is essential. Some learners thrive within
well-structured and engaging virtual
environments, perhaps using incentives
of the kind found in many computer
games. Others need simpler practice
and repetition coupled with feedback
and reflection.
Business-like attitudes
Work may or may not be ‘for profit’.
Many services, for example in social
services and housing, are provided by
the ‘third sector’. Nevertheless, an
essential outcome from all vocational
education is being able to understand
and to practise the ‘basics’ of running
or working in an organisation prov iding
services or products with budget.
This broadens out to include specific
tasks such as marketing, book-keeping,
invoicing, and estimating. It also includes
‘softer’ skills, such as communicating
with customers and peers in a
professional, polite, and effective way.
As with craftsman-like outcomes,
learning to be business-like is hugely
influenced by the culture in which the
learning takes place and, specifically,
by the behaviours modelled of staff and
other learners. Watching, imitating,
conversation, listening, and teaching
and helping others are examples of
some useful specific methods.
Wider skills
As the end of the 20th century
approached, one of the most pressing
questions related to the sorts of
competencies the 21st century
would demand.
In a report for the National Endowment
for Science, Technology and the Arts,
my colleagues and I identified a wide
range of approaches to wider skills
adopted across the world by national
and state education departments,
research institutions, third sector
organisations, and commercial
organisations, (Lucas and Claxton, 2009).
The sorts of ‘wider skills’ deemed
important are many and varied, and are
described variously as ‘broader skills’,
‘competencies’, ‘dispositions’, ‘capabilities’,
and ‘habits of mind’. Employers regularly
call for employees with wider skills such
as problem-solving, team-working,
resilience, entrepreneurialism etc. in
addition to high-level basic skills.
Methods which require learners to take
responsibility for their own learning are
likely to work well here, such as practising,
receiving (and giving) feedback, teaching
and helping others, real-world problem-
solving, enquiry, learning on the fly, being
coached and various kinds of simulation
and role play.
6
Practical and
vocational learning (continued)
2
Vocational pedagogy encompasses the
science, art and craft of teaching and
learning vocational education.
More simply, vocational pedagogy is the
sum total of the many decisions which
vocational teachers take as they teach,
adjusting their approaches to meet the
needs of learners and to match the
context in which they find themselves.
In 2012 my colleagues and I were
commissioned by City & Guilds to
undertake research into this topic and
articulate a theory of vocational pedagogy
(Lucas et al., 2012). What follows is a brief
rehearsal of points made in that report.
Being clear about the nature of vocational
pedagogy matters: it forces us to think
about the wider goals of vocational
education and thus to improve its status
and scope. It also helps us to understand
that vocational education is worthy of
serious study.
Once grasped more comprehensively,
vocational pedagogy enables us to
develop models and tools which can help
teachers more effectively match teaching
and learning methods to the needs of their
students and the contexts in which they
are working. A plausible description or
theoretical underpinning cannot be
developed for vocational pedagogy unless
we are prepared to ask and answer some
fundamental questions about vocational
education. Figure 1 indicates our line of
thinking.
We considered the goal and desired
outcomes of vocational education
earlier, and need not repeat ourselves
here. However, we need to pause over
the word ‘subject’. Learning how to build
a load-bearing wall is different from
cutting a head of hair or creating a
website or caring for someone with
dementia. Helping people learn how to
do these widely different things calls for
widely different approaches to vocational
pedagogy.
Similarly, effective vocational
teachers draw on a long list of teaching
and learning methods, choosing those
which are likely to work best in any given
situation. They adapt to the needs of
learners and the context in which the
learning is taking place.
Vocational
pedagogy
3
7
Be clear about the goal of vocational education
Understand the nature of your ‘subject’
Be clear about the breadth of desired outcomes
Understand the range of learning methods that may,
taken together, provide the best blend
Bear in mind any contextual factors:the nature of learners;
the expertise ofthe ‘teacher’; and the settings for learning
Figure 1 – Five key steps in developing vocational pedagogy
The idea of ‘signature pedagogy’
First coined by Lee Shulman in 2005,
‘signature pedagogy’ refers to ‘the
types of teaching that organize the
fundamental ways in which future
practitioners are educated for their
new professions’.
‘Signature pedagogies prefigure
the culture of professional work and
provide the early socialisation into the
practices and values of a field. Whether
in a lecture hall or a lab, in a design
studio or a clinical setting, the way
we teach will shape how professionals
behave…’ (Shulman, 2005).
One way of thinking about signature
pedagogies is to consider the medium
through which the work is expressed,
for example, working with:
1. physical materials – for example,
bricklaying, plumbing, hairdressing,
professional make-up
2. people – for example, financial advice,
nursing, hospitality, retail, and care
industries
3. symbols (words, numbers and images)
– for example, accountancy,
journalism, software development,
graphic design.
In thinking about pedagogical choices
it may therefore be helpful to start by
considering the degree to which a
particular subject suggests certain
learning methods or has a signature
pedagogy. If we grouped vocational
subjects widely taught in colleges it
might look like Figure 2.
While these groupings are, inevitably,
somewhat arbitrary, vocational teachers
tell us that they are helpful starting points
in encouraging them to think afresh about
teaching and learning methods. Most
subjects will have aspects of each of our
three different focus ‘materials’ as part of
their endeavours.
Recently, in work commissioned by the
Royal Academy of Engineering, I have
sought to reframe the lack of STEM skills
issue faced by both Scotland and England
as being the result of schools failing to use
the kinds of signature pedagogies likely to
cultivate engineers (Lucas et al., 2014).
Vocational
pedagogy (continued)
3
8
PHYSICAL MATERIALS
PEOPLE SYMBOLS
Plumbing
Civil engineering
Performing arts
Sport
science
Childcare Counselling Marketing Journalism Accountancy
Information
technology
Construction
management
Hairdressing
Aromatherapy
Electrical
installation
Creative arts and
graphic design
Computer games
development
Figure 2 – A selection of subjects taught in FE grouped according to their predominant media
9
Teaching and learning methods
Too often vocational teachers rely on a
narrow range of methods. But the research
shows there are many different engaging
methods from which to choose. Whether
or not learners achieve the six desired
outcomes described earlier will largely
depend on the degree to which the most
appropriate blend of methods has been
selected.
The list in Figure 3 is indicative of those
vocational learning methods which have
considerable value and which are relatively
well-understood in a range of contexts.
For each one there is significant research
to suggest that it might be effective in
vocational education. The majority are
broadly ‘learning by doing’ or
‘experiential’, though many combine
reflection, feedback and theory.
Vocational
pedagogy (continued)
3
learning by watching
learning by imitating
learning by practising or trial and error
learning through feedback
learning through conversation
learning by teaching and helping
learning by real-world problem-solving
learning through enquiry
learning by listening, transcribing and remembering
learning by drafting and sketching
learning on the fly
learning by being coached
learning by competing
learning through virtual environments
learning through simulation and role play
learning through games.
Figure 3 – Vocational learning methods which work
“But the research
shows that are many
different engaging
methods from which
to choose.”
10
Responding to context: blending
pedagogical methods
The final set of considerations in creating
a vocational pedagogy requires us to focus
on the important issue of context.
Context matters in all kinds of learning.
Learning something while working beside
a supervisor in a factory is different from
learning to make a dovetail joint in a college
workshop or learning about health and
safety legislation via an online course. Each
of these situations is different. First, the other
learners who may or may not be present
will affect things. Then the ‘teacher’ and his
or her experiences, traditions and culture
will shape it. And thirdly, of course, the
physical location will play an important role.
Context is specifically important in
vocational education as most teaching and
learning takes place in the dual settings of
both workplace and educational institution.
A skill may be taught in one setting with a
view to being largely applied in another,
often in a move from college to workplace.
This brings with it two further challenges:
ensuring that what is learned
theoretically in one context is applied
effectively in another, and
anticipating how best learners can
be taught so that they can prompt
themselves to use skills learned in one
context when they need them for real
in another.
Just as vocational education teachers
are drawn from dual professional worlds, so
vocational teaching settings span the
worlds of work and of education. Yet
whether located in a college classroom
or a busy salon, the physical aspects of any
‘designed learning environment’ are hugely
influential in terms of the choices ‘teachers’
can take with regard to pedagogy. In a
workshop setting, for example, it is easy to
enable vocational learners to move between
expert instruction, collaborative
investigation and practising a skill using
specialist equipment. On a busy production
line or in a small classroom,
on the other hand, this blend of methods is
much more difficult to achieve.
The organisation of space and its impact on
learners is generally under-researched. But
to understand ‘settings’, it seems helpful to
think of at least two levels of meaning:
the physical space, and
the culture of learning.
Vocational pedagogy is, in effect, a series of
choices to be taken by teachers with regard
to learning and teaching methods. These
choices directly impact on the quality of
learning outcomes and, ultimately, on the
quality of a country’s workforce.
In thinking about designing a vocational
pedagogy it is important to see a number of
different levels at play. It must work both at
the day-to-day level (eg in lessons) as well
as at the macro end as determined by the
various sector skills bodies (eg in the
context of occupational standards) and at
all points in between – series of lessons,
modules, courses and whole qualifications.
To help vocational course designers and
teachers we suggest a series of ten
spectrums or dimensions, each of which
needs to be considered in context (Figure 4).
It is important to point out that these are
not binary, either-or spectrums: teachers
and designers will most likely settle on
points part-way between the two extremes
of each dimension.
So, for example, when teachers are
considering their role, they will want to be
thinking about which situations call for a
more didactic approach and which will tend
to be more effective if more facilitative.
Neither end of the spectrum is right or better
than the other. They are judgments that
require teachers to make an assessment of
content, desired outcome, chosen method,
characteristic of learner and context.
Nevertheless there has been a shift in
thinking about pedagogic practice which is
moving broadly to the left of our figure.
Vocational
pedagogy (continued)
3
Role of the teacher
Nature of activities
Means of knowing
Attitude to knowledge
Organisation of time
Approach to tasks
Visibility of processes
Proximity to teacher
Proximity to teacher
Role of the learner
Facilitate
Authentic
Practice
Questioning
Extended
Workshop
Group
High
Virtual
Self-managing
Didactic
Contrived
Theory
Certain
Bell-bound
Classroom
Individual
Hidden
Face-to-face
Directed
Figure 4 - Ten Dimensions of Decision-Making in Vocational Pedagogy
From the moment a vocational teacher
walks into a room, he or she is faced with
a range of choices. It is our belief that
there is now good evidence to help them
make the kinds of choices which will
improve the quality of teaching and
learning and so be more likely to create
excellent workers and that this is a key
element of what is required in improving
the quality of vocational education.
We also suggest that being explicit about
the kinds of choices you are making is
important. Naturally, as teachers become
more skilled they will need to think less
consciously about what they do. By the
same token, trainee teachers will need
to make more conscious decisions.
As Scotland embarks on its ambitious
and commendable plan to ensure that
education works for all of its young
people, I hope that a more nuanced
exploration of the power of vocational
pedagogy might be part of its strategy.
Final word
4
11
1. Berger, R. (2003) An Ethic of Excellence:
Building a culture of craftsmanship with students
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books
2. Bodies of Knowledge: How the learning sciences
could transform practical and vocational education
Claxton, G., Lucas, B. & Webster, R. (2010) London
3. The Case for Working with Your Hands: Or why office
work is bad for us and fixing things feels good
Crawford, M. (2010), London: Penguin
4. The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition
of Expert Performance
Ericsson, A., Krampe, R. & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993)
Psychological Review, 100(3): 363-406
5. Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800
meta-analyses relating to achievement
Hattie, J. (2009), Oxon: Routledge
6. Wider Skills for Learning: What are they, how can they
be cultivated, how could they be measured and why are
they important for innovation
Lucas, B. & Claxton, G. (2009), London: NESTA
7. Mind the Gap: Research and reality in practical
and vocational education
Lucas, B., Claxton, G. & Webster, R. (2010),
London: Edge Foundation
8. How to teach vocational education: a theory
of Vocational pedagogy
Lucas, B., Spencer, E. & Claxton, C. (2012),
London: City & Guilds
9. Pedagogic Leadership: creating cultures and practices
for outstanding vocational learning
Lucas, B., & Claxton, C. (2013), London: 157 Group
10. Thinking like an Engineer: implications for the
education system
Lucas, B., Hanson J., and Claxton, G. (2014), London:
Royal Academy of Engineering
11. It’s about work: excellent adult vocational educational
teaching and learning
McLoughlin, F. (2013), London: CAVTL
12. The Mind at Work
Rose, M. (2015), London: Penguin
13. Education Working for All: Commission for Developing
Scotland’s Young Workforce Final Report
Scottish Government (2014), Edinburgh: Scottish Government
14. The Craftsman
Sennett, R. (2008), London: Allen Lane
15. Daedelus
Shulman, L. (2005) Signature pedagogies in the professions,
134, 52-59
16. Review of Vocational Education: The Wolf report
Wolf, A., (2011), London: Department for Education
This paper draws substantially on work commissioned by
City & Guilds and published as:
How to teach vocational education: a theory of
vocational pedagogy
Lucas, B., Spencer, E., and Claxton, G (2012) London: City & Guilds.
Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 are taken from this paper.
The leadership implications have subsequently been explored in:
Pedagogic Leadership: Creating cultures and practices for
outstanding vocational learning
Lucas, B. and Claxton, G. (2013) London: 157 Group.
The thinking was also the topic of an e-Forum organized by
UNESCO in June 2014. The initial spark for our thinking was a
major commission from the Edge Foundation in 2008.
References
Author’s note
12
... Pedagogical decisions are the processes of thinking that form the basis of justification in relation to teacher's professional practice to achieve meaningful and effective learning for the students (Rajendran et al., 2008). The right pedagogical decision taken by the teacher either during or after activity in the classroom will bring change of learning outcome towards positive improvements (Lucas, 2014). Pedagogical decisions that are made by a TVET teacher are related to activity planning, implementation and evaluation of learning in delivering the content of teaching. ...
... Various pedagogical decisions can be made by teachers in an active role in controlling the implementation of teaching and controlling the learning environment. Lucas, Spencer, and Claxton (2012) and Lucas (2014) argued that pedagogical decision is very important in the concept of vocational pedagogy, because it plays a role in determining the direction of teaching and learning process which will be conducted by the teacher. In addition, pedagogical decisions taken by teachers after classroom completion of activities are useful in improving future teaching and learning processes. ...
... Menurut Sarebah, Yusop dan Ahmad Esa (2011) kaedah pengajaran guru memainkan peranan yang penting untuk melahirkan pelajar yang terlatih dan berkemahiran. Oleh itu, pengetahuan dan kemahiran guru dalam menguruskan aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran dapat ditingkatkan melalui penerapan berbagai jenis kaedah pengajaran dan pembelajaran (Lucas, Spencer & Claxton, 2012;Lucas, 2014). Manakala guru yang tidak memahami masalah pembelajaran, tidak dapat menyesuaikan cara, pendekatan dan kaedah pengajaran bagi membantu pelajar membina kefahaman dan kemahiran yang dipelajari akan menyebabkan pengajaran dan pembelajaran kurang berkesan (Yadav, Lundeberg & Bunting, 2011;Prince & Felder, 2006). ...
... All the three technicians gave a score of 5, "strongly agree". Considering these results, a teacher is faced by a number of variables in choosing the best blend of methods to use in instruction, such as means of learning being by practice or theory (Lucas, 2014). Besides, there could be a miss match between the method chosen and the students" preference and the students" learning would be variously affected. ...
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This study was carried out to determine ways of improving the delivery of training in computing for mechanical engineers in the Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Kyambogo University, Uganda. The study employed the "Work Process Analysis tool to analyze the prevailing situation in the delivery of instruction, and the "Future Workshop procedures to identify the gaps in delivery of training and the most appropriate strategies to address the gaps. Evaluation of implemented strategies was carried out. The key stakeholders that participated in the study included students, the head of department, the department administrator, examinations coordinator, teaching staff and technicians. The Work Process Analysis was carried out by means of focused group discussion with the aim of identifying gaps in the teaching/learning process. It was found that more theory was being covered and less of practical work and inadequate relevance in relation to the real work environment. The most appropriate intervention strategies identified were; allocation of more time for practical work, relating instruction to the real work environment, group work, demonstrations, integration of information communication technology (ICT) in the teaching process, such as video tutorials for repetitive demonstrations. Implementation of the identified strategies was carried out. Evaluation of the implemented interventions was carried out. Additional practical time and group discussion were rated highest and ICT integration in the teaching/learning process was rated lowest. Group discussion has merits of occurring in a social context with free interaction, collaboration and feed back in the group which factors maximize the learners' ability to construct meaning. Demonstration and particularly ICT integration received the lowest ratings. It should be remembered that ICT integration in the teaching/learning process depends on available resources and efficient infrastructure.
... Denne artikkelen bygger på en studie som plasserer seg i det yrkespedagogiske feltet, hvor jeg tar utgangspunkt i følgende definisjon av yrkespedagogikk: «It is the science, art and craft of teaching and learning vocational education» (Lucas, 2014). Denne begrepsforståelsen favner også yrkesdidaktikken, slik Hiim definerer den: «Laerernes profesjonelle virksomhet dreier seg om didaktikk -det vil si å planlegge, gjennomføre, vurdere og ikke minst utvikle utdanning, undervisning og laering» (Hiim, 2017, s. 50). ...
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Artikkelen beskriver og diskuterer erfaringer med tverrfaglig problembaserte undervisningsopplegg for studier innen planlegging av byutvikling. I profesjonsutdanninger som byplanlegging, landskapsarkitektur og eiendomsutvikling vil en vesentlig del av opplæringen bestå av å utforske mulige løsninger på problemstillinger hentet fra virkelighetsnære case. I slike undervisningsopplegg kan ikke studentene lene seg på et gitt pensum eller innlærte metoder og teknikker, men innta en søkende og utforskende tilnærming og uten forventning om en lineær og forutsigbar læringsprosess. De mest designorienterte profesjonsutdanningene som arkitektur og landskapsarkitektur har lang erfaring med problembasert læring i studioundervisning, men uten det tverrfaglige møtet med andre profesjoner. Erfaringer fra tverrfaglig problembasert undervisningsopplegg på tvers av ulike studieprogram, er at studentene oppgir at det gir stort læringsutbytte ved å arbeide i tverrfaglige team, men at det problembaserte og åpne undervisningsopplegget, er krevende, dels frustrerende og uvant for mange. Med dette utgangspunktet gjennomførte vi en følgeforskning av to likeartede emner for å få mer systematisk kunnskap om hvordan studentene lærer og hvilke undervisnings- og læringsaktiviteter som bidrar til størst læringsutbytte. Artikkelen oppsummerer resultatene fra følgeforskningen med noen refleksjoner omkring overføringsverdi.
... This study is a survey of quantitative studies. This research instrument is a questionnaire which is an adaptation of Lucas (2014). The results of the pilot study found that overall questionnaire items had the Alpha Cronbach value of 0.87 -0.90. ...
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To achieve the objective of vocational education, teachers are required to use a variety of teaching and learning methods to improve student achievement. Cultural differences in a country can influence the pattern of thinking and attitudes in implementing an educational system. This study aims to identify pedagogical decisions based on “theory”, “practical” and “technical drawing”, used by Vocational College teachers in Malaysia. This study is a survey of quantitative studies. This research instrument is a questionnaire which is an adaptation of Lucas (2014). The results of the pilot study found that overall questionnaire items had the Alpha Cronbach value of 0.87 - 0.90. It can be concluded that the questionnaire in this study is valid and reliable. The respondents of this study were selected using a random sampling method consisting of 312 vocational college teachers in Malaysia. The data in this study have been analyzed using the Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. Based on “theory”, “practical” and “technical drawing”, respondents prefer “facilitative” for “Role of Teacher” element, “authentic” for “Nature of Knowing”, “Bell bound time” for “Content of Curriculum”, limited to specified content “for element” Organization of Space element, “individually” for “Approach to Task” element, “explicit” for “Visibility of Processes” element, “face to face” for “Attitude to Knowledge” element, and “instruction & monitor” for “Role of Learner” element. However, based on “theory” and “practical” respondents prefer “questioning” for “Organization of Time” element and “workshop” for “Proximity to Teacher” element. In addition, based on “technical drawing” respondents prefer “certain” for “Organization of Time” element and “classroom” for “Proximity to Teacher” element.
Chapter
Vocational teacher education and training in Indonesia are one of the essential pillars for guaranteeing quality in the learning processes which are carried out in vocational secondary schools. TVET teacher education and training in Indonesia is a cross-sectoral field of responsibility for vocational teachers, for the pre-service TVET Teacher Training program which is carried out by universities in faculties related to existing study programs in vocational secondary schools. At the same time, in-service TVET Teacher Training is the responsibility of the TVET Teacher Training Institution, which belongs to the ministry of education and culture and also involves universities in some of its programs. Nowadays, TVET Teacher education and training in Indonesia are attempting to synergize pre-service programs with in-service programs. This needs to be done so that the development of vocational teachers can produce professional vocational teachers according to the needs of SMKs sustainability.
Chapter
This article provides an overview of the development of teachers’ training in the field of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TT-TVET) in Malaysia. The issues and challenges in the profession of TVET teacher are also highlighted, with a focus on the future of TT-TVET in Malaysia. TVET programme has made a massive contribution to human capital development in Malaysia by producing a skilled workforce. This article also reports on the action plan, the strategies and policies of the Malaysian government that will be implemented to strengthen TT-TVET in Malaysia in an attempt to improve the quality of TVET educators. This comprehensive article hopes to change, collaborate and transform existing TVET Teacher Training in Malaysia to create value in the long term towards Professional TVET Educators Standard.
Chapter
This chapter discussed TVET teacher education in Myanmar on the threshold of the 21st century; a qualitative analysis of the present state of the art. Recent status of Myanmar's TVET system was highlighted and the chapter strongly maintained that qualified and motivated teachers and instructors are key for effective learning and are as well at the heart of TVET quality. The chapter provided a comprehensive problem scenario with regard to TVET teacher training; to mention a few, that there is a low awareness for the relevance of TVET in general and with respect to its potential to develop a country's skilled and semi-skilled workers. In comparison to university degrees, graduating from training courses at vocational institutions is not perceived as a valuable career option. Lastly, this chapter attempts to add to the collection of vocational education and training research by consulting a case in Myanmar - a country which currently possesses only a sparse amount of data in this field.
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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 yrs. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
An Ethic of Excellence: References Author's note
  • R Berger
Berger, R. (2003) An Ethic of Excellence: References Author's note
Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement Hattie
Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement Hattie, J. (2009), Oxon: Routledge
Wider Skills for Learning: What are they, how can they be cultivated, how could they be measured and why are they important for innovation
  • B Lucas
  • G Claxton
Wider Skills for Learning: What are they, how can they be cultivated, how could they be measured and why are they important for innovation Lucas, B. & Claxton, G. (2009), London: NESTA