Technical ReportPDF Available

Textile in House Building & Civil Applications

Authors:

Abstract

"Textiles instead of concrete" is not only a slogan, but a fact"[5]. We are in the age of specialists, and there is an increasing need for understanding, how particular specialty fits into the overall textile picture. Textile industry changes rapidly, the methods of today is not sufficient to meet the problems of tomorrow’s technology. New talent will be needed to fill the ranks of textile technologists in technical textile areas.
10/2/2015
Textile in House
Building and Civil
Engineering
Source: http://textilelearner.blogspot.fr/application-of-geotextiles-in-civil.html
Submitted By: Ali Hassnain Farrukh
M.Sc Textile Engineering (E-TEAM)
Gent University, Belgium
PREFACE
"Textiles instead of concrete" is not only a slogan, but a fact"[5]. We are in the age of
specialists, and there is an increasing need for understanding, how particular specialty fits into
the overall textile picture. Textile industry changes rapidly, the methods of today is not
sufficient to meet the problems of tomorrow’s technology. New talent will be needed to fill
the ranks of textile technologists in technical textile areas.
This report is based on literature studies and are purposed to give a better knowledge about
textile structure in the area of building & civil engineering. Textile application in building &
civil engineering is no more novice. This report covers textile, used in civil engineering areas
like roads, waterproofing, garden roofs, ground stabilization, shore and ports development,
drainage materials and 3D printer for house building.
Textile plays a main role in building infrastructure offering properties light weight, strength
and also give thermal and acoustic insulation and resistance from sunlight, chemical &
pollutants. Textile industry provide now high modulus & high strength fabric to replace steel,
wood, concrete. An important contribution of textile in civil engineering is Geotextile. Textile
may also be used in architectural to bring innovation approach & improve the aesthetics of
buildings.
In this report we are focus mainly on the Geotextile function, properties, raw material,
application, in the building & civil engineering. But also discuss 'buildtech', 'Green Roofs', 3D
printer technology for house building & Nano textile in civil engineering applications.
To understand the knowledge of the textiles used in civil engineering is the aim of this report.
ALI HASSNAIN FARRUKH
Table of Contents
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 1
1.1. Buildtech ..................................................................................................................... 1
1.2. Geotextile .................................................................................................................... 1
1.2.1. Scope .................................................................................................................... 2
1.2.2. Global Market ...................................................................................................... 2
1.2.3. History.................................................................................................................. 2
1.3. Types of Geotextile ..................................................................................................... 3
1.3.1. Woven fabrics ...................................................................................................... 3
1.3.2. Non-Woven .......................................................................................................... 4
1.3.3. Knitted fabrics ...................................................................................................... 5
1.4. Manufacturing Method & Geotextile share out [2&3] ................................................ 5
1.5. Fiber Used for Geotextile ............................................................................................ 6
1.5.1. Natural Fibers....................................................................................................... 6
1.5.2. Synthetic Fiber ..................................................................................................... 6
2. Geo Textile Functions ........................................................................................................ 7
2.1. Separator Function ...................................................................................................... 7
2.1.1. Application of Geotextile in Separator ................................................................ 7
2.2. Drain function ............................................................................................................. 8
2.2.1. Application of Geotextile in Drainage ................................................................. 8
2.3. Filter Function ............................................................................................................. 8
2.3.1. Application of Geotextile in Filter ....................................................................... 8
2.4. Reinforcement function: .............................................................................................. 9
2.4.1. Application of Geotextile in Reinforcement ........................................................ 9
2.5. Container Function: ..................................................................................................... 9
3. Geotextile Application & Functions-Combined Effect: [7] ............................................ 10
4. Performance Requirements of Geotextile ........................................................................ 10
4.1. Physical properties .................................................................................................... 10
4.2. Mechanical properties ............................................................................................... 10
4.3. Hydraulic properties .................................................................................................. 10
4.4. Degradation properties .............................................................................................. 10
4.5. Endurance properties ................................................................................................. 11
4.6. Geotextile Properties ................................................................................................. 11
5. Geotextile Durability ....................................................................................................... 11
6. Living/Green Roofs ......................................................................................................... 11
6.1. Green roofs Categorization ....................................................................................... 12
6.1.1. Intensive ............................................................................................................. 12
6.1.2. Extensive ............................................................................................................ 12
6.2. Advantages of Green Roofs ...................................................................................... 12
7. Nano-textile in Civil Engineering .................................................................................... 13
8. Acoustic & Thermal insulation Textile............................................................................ 14
9. Architectural Textile ........................................................................................................ 14
10. 3-D Printer for House Building..................................................................................... 15
11. Conclusion & Future ..................................................................................................... 16
References ............................................................................................................................... 17
1
1. Introduction
Textile is no more used only for interior applications like carpets & curtains but used in civil
engineering for temporary structures. New textile materials invention & methods textile are
used in permanent applications of houses & civil engineering. Current era we are more focused
in construction, houses & building design have more sunlight, greener, high performance,
cost saving & sustainable structure. To fulfill that requirements textile play a fundamental role.
Textile used in Buildtech, Geotextile, Architectural, Green roofs & new development of 3D
printer for houses.
Textile used in civil application are divided in two categories:
Buildtech
Geotextile [1]
1.1. Buildtech
Textile used in building houses & Construction called Buildtech or Buildtex. Textile have
increased usage indoor & outdoor for surface & hidden applications. Textile traditional use in
houses carpets & curtains, but textile are also used in acoustic & thermal insulation, protection
of building against sun, wind, fire, water. Textile fibers are used with concrete to enrich its
properties & lowering the cost & protection against UV & electromagnetic radiations. Textile
integrated LED & other electroluminescent material used for energy saving & use of more
sunlight.
Textile fabric made from glass, aramide or carbon fibers crosslink with resign to made
composites have high modulus, high strength & high mechanical properties that enable textile
materials to use in civil engineering applications. These materials have high strength &
stiffness w.r.t weight & provide great flexibility in design and use to engineers [2].
Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) composite material with performances similar to steel
reinforced concrete, giving lightweight structures with high durability and high quality
surfaces. [3]
1.2. Geotextile
Geotextile is the combination of two words 'Geo' comes from the Greek word meaning 'Earth'
& textile. Geotextile defined as
“Any permeable textile material used for filtration, drainage, separation, reinforcement and
stabilization purposes as an integral part of civil engineering structures of earth, rock or other
constructional materials” [4]
"Geo synthetic is a product of which at least one component is made from a synthetic or natural
polymer, in the form of a sheet, strip or three dimensional structure, and which is used in contact
with soil and/or other materials in geotechnical & civil engineering" ISO10318.
2
1.2.1. Scope
This report covers global market, history, geotextile types, fiber used, geotextiles functions
properties, durability & applications. Geotextiles are used in roads, rail ballast, Non-permanent
roads, reinforced wall, steep slide slops, embankment, and textile reinforced concrete and drain
construction. Geotextile purpose illustrate consist of roads, pavements, reinforced
embankments, filtration and drainage, railroads, erosion control and earth retaining walls. In
that report I do not touch other areas of geo synthetics such as geogrids, geo nets & geo
composite.
1.2.2. Global Market
"The market for geotextiles is projected to reach $8,632.83 Million by 2019, growing with a
CAGR of 10.59% between 2014 and 2019. Asia-Pacific dominated the geotextiles market in
2013. Asia-Pacific is projected to gain the major market size by value by 2019."[21]
Non-Woven have the major share followed by Woven & after that knitting.
1.2.3. History
The exploitation of the use of natural fibers in construction can be traced back to the fifth and
fourth millennia BC compacted soil reinforced with reed for dwelling construction as described
in the Bible (Exodus chapter 5, verse 69)
Excavations of ancient Egyptian sites show the use of mats made of grass and linen. First
modern application in 1956 in Holland for bed protection where hand woven nylon tape is
used. Geotextile may be used for natural fiber but the problem of durability. Geo-textiles have
been used very successfully in road construction for over 30 years. In 50's to 60's woven fabric
Geo
Synthetics
Geo
textile
Geo gird
Geo drain
Geo
membrane
Geo
composite
3
is used, in 60's to 70's Nonwoven & woven but in 70's & afterword mostly nonwoven geotextile
is used. [6]
Babylonians 3000 years ago constructed
this Ziggurat using reeds in the form of
woven mats and plaited ropes as
reinforcements.
The Greater wall of China 200B.C used
tamarisk branches to reinforced mixture of
gravel & clay [7].
1.3. Types of Geotextile
Textile made natural or synthetic permeable resources, used with base soil, rock, earth, or any
other geotechnical related material main focused areas of geotech. The geotextiles are further
prepared in three different categories:
1.3.1. Woven fabrics
Geotextile produced from Woven material 27% of market. [6].Woven geotextile are
manufactured by using weaving technology as standard clothing textiles. Higher permeability
is obtained with monofilament and multifilament than with flat construction only.
Polymer
Form of the
fibre
Process
Method of
Production
Woven
wide loom
(beam) Slit-flat tape
Fibrillated yarn
PP(HDPE)
PP
wide loom
(creel) Multi-filament
yarn PET (PA)
<3.8m loom
(beam) Medium mono
filament yarn
PP
HDPE
PA
4
Film tape Woven Monofil PET Multifilament Extruded tape
1.3.2. Non-Woven
Non-woven have 70% share of geotextile [2] & can be manufactured by adopting thermal,
chemical or mechanical techniques or a combination of techniques. Nonwoven geotextile are
mostly used due to better their 'Price' & 'Performance' parameters.
Needle Punched Nonwoven [3] Thermally boned Nonwoven [7]
Polymer
Form of
the fibre
Process
Method
of
Producti
on
Non-
Woven
Heat-
bonded
Continuous
filament
PP/PE bi-
component
PP
Staple fibre PP
PP/PE mix
Needle-
punched
Continuous
filament
PP
PET
Staple fibre
PP
PET
HDPE
5
1.3.3. Knitted fabrics
Knitted geotextile & other have only 3% share & process by interlocking a series of loops of
yarn together. All of the knitted geo-synthetics are formed by using the knitting technique in
conjunction with some other method of geo-synthetics manufacture, such as weaving.
Knitting Base Upper Surface [7]
1.4. Manufacturing Method & Geotextile share out [2&3]
Polymer
Form of
the fibre
Process
Method of
Production
Knitted
Stitch-bonded Non-woven base
with multi filament
stitch yarn
PP or PET non-
woven PET stitching
Weft insertion Filament yarn PET
Warp insertion Multi-filament yarn PET
Geotextiles
Woven
27%
Knitted 3% Non-
woven
70%
Composite
6
1.5. Fiber Used for Geotextile
Natural & man-made fibers both are used in geotextile manufacturing.
1.5.1. Natural Fibers
Natural fibers that can be used in geotextile manufacture are get from Jute, Sisal, Flax, Hemp,
Ramie and Coir. Natural fibers provided high modulus & strength and low breaking extension
& elasticity.
Advantages of Natural Fibers
Natural’s fibers are offered some of the mentioned below advantages
Low cost
Strength/durability
Availability
Robustness
Good drapeability
Biodegradability/ environment friendly [7]
1.5.2. Synthetic Fiber
Synthetic fibers materials are also used for the manufacturing of geotextiles. Main synthetics
fiber used & their percentage of usages
Polypropylene: 65%
Polyester: 30%
Polyamide: 1%
Polyethylene: 1%
Others: less than 1% [6]
Limitations of Synthetic
Synthetic geotextiles can cost over 10 times as much per unit area as natural ones
Non-biodegradable and may cause soil pollution
The material composition of geotextiles determines their longevity in the field: natural
products last about two to five years, whereas synthetic products last >25 years [6]
7
2. Geo Textile Functions
The mode of operation of geotextile in any application can be defined by the following
functions:
2.1. Separator Function
Geotextile as separtor function,made a layer between fine soil & course materials, separator
provides high extension together with excellent puncture resistance. Sustained flow capacity
and sand tightness without subsoil washout are achieved at all strains [8].
2.1.1. Application of Geotextile in Separator
Road construction for time saving,long lasting road life & economical
Railway Ballast to protect against pumping phenomana
Geotextile placed between subgaurd & overlying layer
Sea and riverbed protection to protect soil,grow grass for stabilization
Embankment Stabilization
Non permanenrt Roads [6]
Geotextile in road construction act as a
filter/separator to protect the road Geotextile stop the pumping
phenomenon mean water cannot rise up
due to pressure [8]
Filter
Energy absorber
Separator
Reinforcement
Drainage
Container
8
2.2. Drain function
Geotextile in drainage function, - collects and redirects liquid or gas. In civil engineering, the
need for drainage has long been predictable and has created the need for drainage filter to
prevent in-situ soil from being washed with water into the drainage system.
2.2.1. Application of Geotextile in Drainage
Filter around trench drain and edge drain to prevent soil from migrating into
aggregates.
Filters beneath pavement permeable bases, blanket drain and base courses.
Drains for structure such as retaining wall and bridge abutment.
Tunnel lining system to protect the concrete
Geo-textile wraps for slotted or joined drain and well pipes.
Chimney and toe drains for earth dams and levees to provide seepage control.[9]
Geo Textile layer in Sub grade [9] Geotextile collect and redirect liquid [10]
2.3. Filter Function
Geotextile in filter function, structured that liquids can pass through its thickness while it
prevent the passage of soil particles from the geotextile fabric. It has suitable level of
permeability and average pore size & pore size distribution small to prevent soil migration.
[11]
2.3.1. Application of Geotextile in Filter
Perforated pipe wrapped with geotextile to collect water
Filter between earth & galbions to protect structure at slope
Filter between permeable embankment
Filter preventing erosion[6]
[7]
9
2.4. Reinforcement function:
Geotextile in reinforcement function, stabilize the weak soil & balance it by higher tensile
strength of fabric. When the soil properties are low we use geotextile to improve its properties
2.4.1. Application of Geotextile in Reinforcement
Steep slide slop to reduce the angle & less space utilize
Reinforced wall & protect that wall with grass
Vertical faced walls
Reinforcement soil mattress to protect the subsoil pipes[6]
2.5. Container Function:
Geotextile container - holds or protects the materials such as sand, rocks, fresh concrete.
Application of Geotextile in Container:
Framework fabric, geotextile filled with sand & stitched to protect erosion
Basement protection of a bridge under water
Pile Protection with the aid of geotextile
Plugging of cavities
Sand fill tube [6]
Different container application Sand fill tube for costal protection
10
3. Geotextile Application & Functions-Combined Effect: [7]
Application
Function
Roads
Reinforcement, Separation, Filtration
Railways
Reinforcement, Separation, Filtration
Foundations
Reinforcement, Separation, Filtration
Drainage system
Separation & Filtration
Erosion Control
Reinforcement, Separation, Filtration
Dams
Reinforcement, Separation, Filtration, Protection
Canals
Reinforcement, Separation, Filtration, Protection
Tunnels & underground
work
Protection
Solid waste
Reinforcement, Separation, Filtration, Protection
Liquid waste
Reinforcement, Protection, Filtration
4. Performance Requirements of Geotextile
Important characteristics of geotextile are classified as:
4.1. Physical properties
Specific gravity, Weight, Thickness, Stiffness, Density
4.2. Mechanical properties
Tenacity ,Tensile Strength ,Bursting Strength, Drapability ,Compatibility,
Flexibility
Tearing Strength, Frictional Resistance
4.3. Hydraulic properties
Porosity ,Permeability ,Permittivity ,Transitivity ,Turbidity /soil retention
,Filtration length
4.4. Degradation properties
Biodegradation ,Hydrolytic Degradation ,Photo Degradation ,Chemical degradation,
Mechanical degradation
11
4.5. Endurance properties
Elongation ,Abrasion Resistance, Clogging length and flow [5]
4.6. Geotextile Properties
Mechanical Responses,
o Mechanical properties of geotextile represent the ability to do work in stressed
environment & its capability to resist in damage in tough conditions
o The ability to perform work is fundamentally governed by the stiffness of the
textile in tension and its ability to resist creep failure under any given load
condition
Filtration Ability
o Ability of geotextile in Filtration is water may exude from the soil surface and
through the textile without damage the soil surface.
Chemical Resistance
o Geotextiles made for soils which have high acidic values, Soil which have pH
values down to 2
o Industrialized areas
o U.V light
These all properties are developed in geotextiles by their textile construction, chemical
characteristics and physical form of fibers. [6]
5. Geotextile Durability
As we use polymer materials for Geotextiles & due to factors like water, soil, sunlight the
polymer physical properties are degrades. The rate of degradation is reduced by the adding of
carbon black but not eliminated. Polymer materials become brittle in very cold temperatures.
Geotextile material also react with Chemicals in the groundwater. All geotextiles gain water
with time if water is present. "High pH water can be harsh on polyesters while low pH water
can be harsh on polyamides". Where chemically present environment exists, laboratory test are
done before so that exposure of the geotextile to this environment should be sought. Before
selecting geotextiles materials, for a specific purpose, all of these factors should be keep in
mind. Where geotextile material reliability for long term is significant to life safety and where
we cannot be examined the geotextile materials easily & occasionally and it cannot easily
replaced if it would become degrade in functions like filtration or drainage within a dam, to
avoid that we use now only geologic materials which have more degree of resistant to these
weathering effects than polyesters. [12]
6. Living/Green Roofs
Green Roofs or Living roofs are used in most of building & attractiveness for better
Environment. Living roofs have features vegetation, growing media and waterproofing
membranes, water retention, drainage and irrigation systems.
12
Typical layer buildup for Living/Green Roofs
6.1. Green roofs Categorization
Green roofs are divided into two main categorized.
Intensive
Extensive
6.1.1. Intensive
"More than 300mm depth of growing media, irrigation with a wide variety of shrubs, grass and
tree species on slopes less than 3%".[13]
6.1.2. Extensive
"Less than 300mm depth of growing media, minimal irrigation with hardy, low growing plant
and ground cover species on slopes up to 30%". [13]
6.2. Advantages of Green Roofs
Living roofs increase the green area ratio on building sites and allow the design of
commercial and recreational roof gardens and terrace areas.
Reduced Maintenance Green roofs geotextile materials protected against UV
radiations, snow & storm situations.
Water retention Continuous supply of water to the root zone in the absence of
irrigation, rain water in retained & supply through capillary action.
Superior Environment By green roofs Planted area increased which reduce
greenhouse gases effect & plants absorbed pollutants.
Reduced Energy Costs Living roofs provides insulation properties & radiation is
minimized which guarantee building is cooler in the summer and warmer in winter.
Better Sound Protection In the building noise transfer if reduced.
Drainage-Timely disposal of excess water not held within the engineering growth
media.
13
7. Nano-textile in Civil Engineering
In buildtech and geotextiles, nanotechnology play a vital role in a different way. Nano-
technology improve existing textile properties & offered additional functional performance by
increasing chemical, mechanical, biological & photochemical properties. Nanotechnology also
make possible arrangement of different functions in the same textile or establish completely
new properties.
In buildtech the nanofibers and nanotubes are used to made, lighter & stronger, concrete
materials which run longer & more capable to resist strong shocks generated by earthquakes.
"An example is the seismic wallpaper composite concept, based on a reinforced textile
composite system, combining different materials like multiaxial, warp knitted glass and
polymer fibers, nanoparticle-enhanced coatings for the textile fabric, nanoparticle-enhanced
mortar to bond the textile to the structure, and fiber-optic sensors. The seismic wallpaper is
now past the prototype phase taking the first steps towards commercialization"[14]
Nanotechnology resultant in novel coating & fillers to producing textile membranes which
provide acoustic and thermal insulation, efficient energy management, controlled light
transmission and easy cleaning and decontamination behavior.
Application of Nanotechnology in Building:
self-healing concrete,
localized crack repair,
reinforcement of critical walls,
wrapping of existing columns,
protection against earthquake or hurricanes,
explosive incidents and protection purposes.[15]
Technology Readiness Level [18*]
18*: Dr.P.Roshan LEITAT Technological Center Spain, has provided valuable inputs
concerning nanotechnology readiness level in technical textiles.
14
8. Acoustic & Thermal insulation Textile
Geotextile materials used in house roof for thermal insulation. Fabric are also made which
protect the building from sun light. One of the example is Mermet® solar protection fabrics
are designed for external and internal blinds. In below figure an example of intelligent textile
fabric which adopt according to thermal permeability to costume temperature, have possibility
to reduce cost of heating or air conditioning.
It is universally standard noise is consider as a proven health risk. "The proof is that half of the
population of Europe lives in a noisy environment and one third of that population have their
sleep disturbed by background noise". In today houses & building made with improved
acoustic comfort. Acoustis® 50 is the first patented solution based on exclusively weaving
coated fiber glass with a special weave and a controlled diameter; Weaving from that way
provide textiles with an intensity of acoustic absorption. [16]
Intelligent textiles which are which are able to adopt according thermal permeability to suit
temperature, have possibility to reduce the cost of heating or air conditioning Source :
Hohenstein Institute
9. Architectural Textile
Majority of people spend one or more nights in tent & get advantage from protection offered
by its fabric. Textiles are light weight, easy to handling, flexibility and they provide protection
against wind, U.V radiations, snow and rain.
In architecture, textile materials proposed very fascinating degree of independence with respect
to their properties. Present day architectures are creating room for textiles in building
constructions & revived the principle of the tent as an architectural form and do advancement
in this concept further not only in temporary structures but also in permanent buildings.
Technical and durable fabrics permit their consumption into a highly dedicated sector of
construction industry. Factors effecting on textiles by wind load, weathering and deformation
together with structural factors & these textile materials provide numerous attractive properties
such as self-cleaning, odor control, thermal insulation and lightness. Hence textile elements
require a great engineering skills. [17]
15
In past few years, the use of textile materials in architectural membranes resulted in the
construction of as airports and sports stadiums, provide much lighter and functional properties.
Sun and weather protection as well as light and temperature regulation are the main
requirements for textiles applications in new sports stadium" Around 80%
Of newly built or refurbished stadiums worldwide have textile roofs and/or claddings". [18]
Another textiles application in architecture is inflatable buildings. With respect to textile
materials useful in architecture, the most used are fibers are polyamide, polyethylene,
polyester, glass, and optical fiber. For architectural membranes, textile structures are
impregnated with polymers such as P.V.C, silicone and PTFE. The polymers granted increased
mechanical strength, protection against UV radiations and impermeability. Fibrous based
materials provide additional freedom to the architects when compared to conventional
materials such as steel, wood or concrete. [19]
'Tubaloon' textile sculpture by Snohetta for the Kongsberg Jazz Festival; Photo © Snohetta.
10. 3-D Printer for House Building
3D printing technology we are make to made things in a new way. Main advantages of this
technology is build houses with
Cost Saving
Environmental friendly
Time saving & very fast way
An Italian company World’s Advanced Saving Project (WASP) showed world’s largest 3D
printer, BigDelta, which can create budget-friendly mud huts in one continuous printing
session.
"BigDelta can make houses out of mud, clay, water, dirt, and natural fibres, avoiding the
expense and environmental consequences of cement. Best of all, clay houses don’t require
much in the way of maintenance once they’re up, and can last for years with thin applications
of new clay over their external surfaces every five years or so. The frame serves to support a
16
giant printing nozzle that slowly extrudes what becomes the walls and ceilings of entire houses
in a circular motion, layer upon layer, from the ground up."[20]
[21]
11. Conclusion & Future
"Textiles instead of concrete" is not only a slogan, but a fact"[5]. This report describes
various textile in buildtech & civil engineering application has shown where, why and how this
area is interesting and important by analyzing the textile structure. The benefits of using textile
material in civil engineering are the potentials of textile fibers to create a lot of applications,
which are profitable in products for durability, cost, strength to weight ratio & environmental
aspect as well. As I wrap up Textile using in buildtech & civil engineering applications
provided following benefits
Viable tools for many civil and environmental engineering applications
Increased system performance & life
Value engineering
Reduce carbon footprint
Flexibility in design & selection methodologies
Specification based upon functional design intent
The future for geotextiles in buildtech & civil engineering is very bright. Effects to be done
from manufacturer’s side to do communication with customers & need to explore new markets.
Special focus must be done on Gulf, Russian, and Indian & Brazil markets. Manufacture
However, for manufacturers to be successful in this market segment, there must be a lot of
know market, requirements and possible civil engineering applications. As in today world
innovations are increased frequently & customers’ needs more and more focused product
requirements, which makes the markets highly competitive and attractive, and creates more
business.
3D printer for house contraction reduce construction costs & extend the life of civil
engineering construction as well. Textile in house building & civil engineering have flexibility
& economical which make them better and more demanding materials than any other building
materials.
17
References
1. Barb Ernster, Potential builds for fabric in construction Specialty Fabrics Review, May
2010 http://specialtyfabricsreview.com/articles/0510_f2_architectural.htm
2. C. Ollenhauer, Textiles in Architecture, Geoff Fischer Ed., Judy Holland Publisher-Textile
Media Services, May 2011
3. J.Hegger et al., textile reinforced concrete realization in applications. Tailor made concrete
structures, Walraven& Stoelhorst eds. (2008)
4. Recycling in textile edited by Youjiang Wang page 151
5. Textile World Jürg Rupp, Executive Editor Geotextiles: The Concrete Alternative
January/February 2011
6. Civil Engineering Application D.C. Adolphe & J.Y. Drean E-team lectures
7. Textile in civil Engineering(Geotextile) Wollo University Granch Berhe 2015
8. http://www.geofabrics.com/geotextiles/coastal-river-flood-protection.htm
9. 'Application of Geotextiles in Pavement Drainage Systems' Dr U.Sharma International
Journal of Civil Engineering Research. ISSN 2278-3652 Volume 5, Number 4 (2014), pp.
385-390
10. http://www.geofabrics.com/geotextiles/waterproofing-protection.htm
11. Textile Innovation Knowledge Platform by Textile centre of Excellence
12. Unified facilities criteria (UFC) engineering use of Geotextiles UFC 3-220-08FA 16
January page1-2
13. Enriching the environment with Green roofs system by Elmich Green roof system
14. Role of Nanotechnology in Building Construction -http://
nanoall.blogspot.com/2011/07/role-of-nanotechnology-in- building.html
15. European Commission, Innovative technologies for buildings EUR 24023 EN (2009)
16. The Very Fabric of Architecture: textile use in construction By Susanne Fritz
Zürich Switzerland
17. Observatory NANO Briefing March 2012 Nano enabled Textiles in Construction and
Engineering 7th framework program page 1
18. Observatory NANO Briefing March 2012 Nano enabled Textiles in Construction and
Engineering 7th framework program page 3
19. http://www.sciencealert.com/the-world-s-largest-3d-printer-can-now-make-entire-houses-
out-of-clay
20. http://www.businessinsider.com/3d-printer-builds-house-in-24-hours-2014-1?IR=T
18
21. http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/geotextiles.asp
22. Alnaf geosynthetics solutions in Civil & Environmental engineering
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Application of Geotextile in Drainage
  • ........................................................................................................................................................................... Drain Function
Drain function............................................................................................................. 8 2.2.1. Application of Geotextile in Drainage................................................................. 8
Potential builds for fabric in construction Specialty Fabrics Review
  • Barb Ernster
Barb Ernster, Potential builds for fabric in construction Specialty Fabrics Review, May 2010 http://specialtyfabricsreview.com/articles/0510_f2_architectural.htm
textile reinforced concrete realization in applications. Tailor made concrete structures
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