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Online learning in primary schools



Online learning originally focused on busy working adults or students living in remote areas. Over the years though, students of all ages and backgrounds have begun using online learning to support their educational needs. In fact, online learning is now used to support the education of many primary school students in an increasing number of schools around the world. In the following chapter, the skills acquired and benefits that online learning can bring to primary aged students are highlighted as well as some of the challenges associated with online learning for this age group.
Damian Maher*
University of Technology, Sydney
Online learning originally focused on busy working adults or students living in remote areas.
Over the years though, students of all ages and backgrounds have begun using online learning
to support their educational needs. In fact, online learning is now used to support the
education of many primary school students in an increasing number of schools around the
world. In the following chapter, the skills acquired and benefits that online learning can bring
to primary aged students are highlighted as well as some of the challenges associated with
online learning for this age group.
Keywords: online learning, primary schools, social networking systems, cyber safety, 21st
century skills
The school bell rings and the students tumble out of the classroom for yet another
afternoon. Alex checks her smart phone to make sure the train is running on time and
then sends a text message to her Dad to let him know she will be home by four o’clock.
After she gets home and has a snack she settles down to complete her homework. First
she goes to her teacher’s YouTube page and checks out the video her teacher posted
explaining her homework. She then logs into her class blog and downloads resources for
her class project. After that, she videoconferences with her science group using Google
Hangout; they work on their presentation together using Google docs and start to put
together a movie using iMovie. She then works on her math homework and takes a
SnapChat picture of one of the problems and emails her teacher for assistance.
The scenario presented above is not uncommon. It highlights some of the ways primary-
aged students are already learning online in countries around the world. This way of learning
is likely to increase as more and more young people get regular access to the Internet.
Already though, in Australia, 93% of households with children under 15 years of age have
access to the Internet (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011); in the United States, 93% of
children aged 12-17 have access to the Internet (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, & Zickuhr, 2010);
and in the United Kingdom 99% of children aged 8-17 have regular access to the Internet
(Cowie & Colliety, 2010). With increased access, the Internet has become an integral aspect
of many young people’s lives mirroring at the same time the dramatic growth of online
learning over the past decade (Boulind & Mendez Coca, 2013)
* Corresponding Author address
Damian Maher
Despite the high use of the Internet for learning and leisure by young people, there are
those who caution its unrestricted use. For instance, there are concerns about online safety
(Maher, 2008) as well as general health concerns such as eyesight issues (Blehm, Vishnu,
Khattak, Mitra, & Yee, 2005). But despite concerns like these, there are some very good
reasons to get students learning onlineeven during their primary school grades (e.g.,
socialisation and enculturation to online communities of practice).
In the following chapter, the benefits that online learning is bringing to primary aged
students are highlightedwith a specific focus on some of the skills that can be developed in
conjunction with the tools and technologies the students are currently using. After
highlighting some of the benefits of learning online for this age group, some of challenges
will be addressed with some recommendations of how to overcome them. By the end of this
chapter you should have a better idea of how online learning is being used for primary aged
students, some of the benefits, and finally some of the challenges and ways to address these.
There are a number of benefits of online learning. For instance, students can develop a
new range of skills (e.g., research skills) with online learning. Online learning also provides
students the opportunity to engage in authentic experiences (e.g., contacting experts). Online
learning can also help prepare students to be successful in the 21st century. The 21st century
learning skills movement highlights skills young people need once they move into the work
force as adults (Silva, 2008), an increasingly globalised and competitive environment
(Kaufman, 2013). Trilling and Fadel (2009) categorise these as: (a) learning and innovation
skills, digital literacy skills, and career and life skills. Learning online, whether in formal or
informal environments, has the ability to help children develop a number of these 21st century
skills, specifically, communication and collaboration skills and media literacy skills while
learning in authentic settings.
Communication and Collaboration Skills
Participating in online learning environments can help develop students’ communication
and collaboration skills. This can be achieved through a variety of different platforms, some
of which are collectively known as social networking sites (SNSs). A social networking site is
essentially a web-based service that allows individuals to:
(1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system,
(2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and
(3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others
within the system. (boyd & Ellison, 2007, p. 211)
Facebook is the most popular social networking site today. In 2012, Facebook had a
billion active users (Popkin, 2012). Despite a requirement to be 13 years or older, Facebook
is also very popular with primary school-aged children. For instance, research indicates that
57% of 9-16 year olds in Europe use it (Livingstone, Ólafsson & Staksrud, 2011). But there
Online learning in primary schools
are many other social networking sites such as Bebo ( and WeeWorld
( that young people access.
While specific social networking sites like Facebook might not be around or in vogue in a
decade from now (e.g., see the rise and fall of MySpace), one thing is certain, people’s desire
to connect with others online is unlikely to change. Therefore, educators need to begin to help
students of all ages learn how to use social networking sites like these successfully. Social
networking is sometimes characterised in a negative light (see Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010) but
the benefits of social networking sites are hard to deny.
One of the advantages of SNSs is that they facilitate the opportunity for students to
develop 21st century skills like communication and collaboration skills that people like
Binkley et al. (2010) stated are needed by young people once they enter the workforce.
Educators seeking a more private and safer social networking site have turned to
Edmodo, which allows teachers to post alerts, assignments, notes, files and links. Students
can then reply, discuss, and submit homework (Jarc, 2010). One of the features of Edmodo
that help to build a community of learners is that when students post homework, other
students can then submit comments about the homework, thus building on each other’s ideas
in a constructive way. The ability of students to build on each others ideas allows them the
opportunity to develop collaborative skills where they are encouraged to reflect upon each
others idea and then make considered responses. Through these considered responses the
students are then able to develop their own ideas and writing skills.
Twitter is another type of SNS being used for instructional purposes for students of all
ages. Twitter allows users to post a short message of up to 140 characters as well as link to
other sites. In one instance, a class in Ontario Canada spent time collaboratively tweeting with
a class in Singapore on solving math problems together (CBS News, 2013). Through this
process of collaboration students were able to build upon and develop each others ideas. In
another instance, a year 2 class used Twitter, which enabled them to evaluate and reflect on
their own learning through the writing process (Waller, 2010). For the year 2 class, the notion
of audience was empowering for them and gave them a sense of purpose in their writing. The
concept of communicating with someone outside of the classroom was empowering for the
students and allowed them to both develop and share their writing. In addition to this, it gave
students a sense of pride in their work.
From the two examples presented here, it can be seen that Twitter is a platform that can
support learning across a number of different subjects including English and math, which
makes it a versatile platform for use in primary schools.
Media Literacy Skills
Online learning can also help students develop media literacy skills needed in the 21st
century. Media literacy is defined by the National Association for Media Literacy Education
as “a series of communication competencies, including the ability to access, analyze, evaluate
and communicate information in a variety of forms, including print and non-print messages”
(n.d. para. 1). Given that literacy is now more diverse in nature ranging from traditional
paper-based texts to multimodal electronic texts it is important that students develop such
new literacy skills in order to participate in modern society. One way students are developing
media literacy skills is by becoming content producers through the creation of blogs
(Richardson, 2010; Zawilinski, 2009).
Damian Maher
A blog is similar to a journal. But unlike a journal, a blog is a multimodal text. The
multimodal (see Kress & Van Leeuwen, 2002; Jewitt, 2006) capabilities of a blog enable
users the ability to integrate written text, images, animations, sounds, and colors. Through
creating multimodal texts, students become sign-makers (Walsh, 2007), which require new
literacies. Blogs enable individuals or groups to share items of interest, news and personal
information (Williams & Jacobs, 2004) while at the same time developing their writing skills.
As suggested by McGrail and Davis (2011) and Rozema (2005), one of the outcomes of
students writing blogs is they develop their sense of a real-world audience, much like the
students experience reported earlier with using Twitter. This awareness of audience can
improve the quality of students’ writing (Corden, 2007) while further developing their media
literacy skills. Developing this sense of audience for young writers can be a challenging
process (Kellogg, 2008), but a blog, similar to Twitter, and other online learning tools can
provide an active audience and thus support the writing process. McGrail and Davis (2011)
researched a group of students in year five. They found that students’ sense of audience,
which was weak to begin with, developed as they blogged with different readers which in turn
developed their writing skills.
Blogs, as well as other Web 2.0 sites, can also enable and promote reflective practice
(Dunlap & Lowenthal, 2011). As blogs are public documents, students need to think more
carefully about the purpose of their entries and the needs of the audience (Dunlap, 2008). This
links to critical thinking skills highlighted earlier. Often, a number of 21st century skills that
students develop, link and support each other and therefore need to be systematically taught
in the classroom.
Authentic learning
Another benefit of online learning is that it can facilitate what is labeled authentic
learning. Authentic learning draws from situated learning theory, which Collins (1998)
defined as “the notion of learning knowledge and skills in contexts that reflect the way they
will be used in real life” (p. 2). Authentic learning has the following features:
1. Provide authentic contexts that reflect the way knowledge will be used in real life
2. Provide authentic links
3. Provide access to expert performances and modeling of processes
4. Provide multiple roles and perspectives
5. Support collaborative construction of knowledge
6. Promote reflection to enable abstractions to be formed
7. Promote articulation to enable tacit knowledge to be made explicit
8. Provide coaching and scaffolding by the teacher at critical times
9. Provide for authentic assessment of learning within the tasks. (Herrington & Oliver,
2000, p. 25)
While each of these features can be accomplished online, the fifth aspect, support of the
collaborative construction of knowledge, is one that stands out that can easily be achieved
through the use of online learning. Learning online can provide students with opportunities to
collaborate online with other students (even beyond their current class), their teachers and the
wider community on an on-going basis both in school and at home. An example where
students can link to and communicate with other students includes ePals (
Online learning in primary schools
which is a site that links schools together to work on collaborative projects. Another example
of students connecting to the community is highlighted in New South Wales, Australia, where
some students in public schools have had the opportunity to talk with Morris Gleitzman, a
well-known author of children’s books.
Learning online can also provide students authentic links to audiences. While the
audience may initially consist of peers and the teacher, this audience has the potential to be
developed beyond these immediate links (Richardson, 2005). Other audiences can soon
include relatives of the students, from the immediate family to grandparents, cousins etc.
Students get very excited when they receive email communication from parents on their
classroom website and it encourages them do their best (Maher, 2012). The audience can also
be expanded to include students from other parts of the world who have shared interests. This
was highlighted earlier where students interacted with students from Singapore.
Online spaces such as SNSs also provide the opportunity for students to engage in
learning that is embedded in social practice (McKenzie, Morgan, Cochrane, Watson, &
Roberts, 2002) whereby they can communicate with each other and their teachers around
topics that interest them. This allows the teacher to gain an insight into students’ interests,
which in turn can facilitate learning in the classroom that is more meaningful and authentic
for the students. The use of online spaces can democratize learning so that students can have a
greater input into the design and implementation of the curriculum. This is an opportunity
though that so far, many schools have not taken up.
It is important that students have the opportunity to have input into the audiences they
interact with and be provided the opportunities to link their school work to their online
network of friends. This is by no means an easy task for teachers to facilitate and will require
many schools to rethink the way they facilitate online learning.
The teacher can take on a different role when online learning is occurring. Rather than
having the traditional teacher-centred role, the teacher can take on more of a facilitating
supporting role (Berge, 1995). This is particularly the case where students are interacting with
online experts. In this instance, the teacher becomes the pedagogical expert facilitating and
setting up learning opportunities for the students rather than being the content expert.
As outlined in the chapter, there are many benefits online learning can provide primary-
aged students. However, there are also challenges with having students learning online that
need to be recognised and addressed by teachers. Some of the issues young people can face
when learning online include inappropriate contact with people and inappropriate contact
with content.
Inappropriate Contact with People
In focusing on inappropriate contact with people, one of the biggest fears reported in the
literature is cyberbullying (Maher, 2008). Cyberbullying most often occurs between young
people who know each other and often relates to issues of power and control. Because the
young people often know each other, cyberbulling is also often linked to face-to-face bullying
which can make it difficult to manage for both parents and teachers. According to Hanewald
Damian Maher
(2013), the effect of cyberbullying between young people is going to have an impact on the
practices of schools. Some of the impacts include “mandatory professional development on
digital safety for school educators and the introduction of digital citizenship classes into the
curriculum” (p. 4).
Online grooming is another form of inappropriate contact with people. The Sexual
Offences Act 2003 defined online grooming as: “A course of conduct enacted by a suspected
paedophile, which would give a reasonable person cause for concern that any meeting with a
child arising from the conduct would be for unlawful purposes” (para. 1). This type of
behavior is carried out by adults against children, which is also similar to sexual solicitation
(Mitchell, Wolak, & Finkelhor, 2008). Young children are generally trusting and this allows
this type of behavior to be carried out.
A further type of inappropriate contact with people is called cyber stalking (Pittaro,
2007). “Cyber stalking is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk someone....
This term is used interchangeably with online harassment and online abuse” (Jaishankar &
Uma, 2005). The intent of cyber stalking is generally to instill fear into the victim although
sometimes this can be carried out anonymously (Sen, 2013). It is worth noting that while this
is mostly a problem amongst the older population, young children are being cyber stalked in
greater numbers (Aftab, 2002).
Inappropriate Contact with Content
In focusing on inappropriate contact with content, some of the material that students are
coming into contact with is content that is violent, sexually explicit or offensive, and
encourages activities that are dangerous to the self or others. Sexually explicit content is a
major concern on the Internet and can be found on dedicated websites or in advertising
(Dombrowski, Gischlar, & Durst, 2007).
A form of inappropriate contact with content involves the practice of sexting. This
involves young people sharing sexually explicit images of themselves with each other via
mobile devices. It also includes uploading images onto the Internet (Weldon, 2011). Often the
picture is meant for only one person (usually a boyfriend or girlfriend) but can be then passed
on to other people. While sexting is not always done for malicious purposes, it can have
negative consequences for the young people involved. For example, if a person is caught
sending images he or she can be convicted for creating distributing and possessing child
pornography (Albury, Funnell, & Noonan, 2010). Sexting generally involves teenagers, but is
has been reported to occur among students as young as 11 years old (Livingstone, Haddon,
Görzig, & Ólafsson, 2010).
Given the potential challenges young people face online and that schools are now
actively encouraging online learning, it is important that schools take on part of the role in
educating young people in cyber safety. Some suggestions put forward by O’Neill and
McLaughlin (2010) were:
children as young as seven years old should be taught about cyber safety,
the teaching of skills to students should include basic skills as well as more creative
uses of Internet use,
Online learning in primary schools
teachers should pay close attention to student’s self-management of online content
and behavior so that they become aware the benefits and risks of posting content
develop peer-to-peer education and intervention programs as it is a friend who is first
confided in if problems arise with online use occur,
teachers should be aware of the risks of bullying online and respond when incidences
arise, and
schools should strengthen home-school initiatives of cyber safety, such as programs,
workshops and information dissemination.
These strategies include teachers and parents working together to help young people
safely learn online. They reflect the need to develop programs in schools to support students.
Moreover, the training of teachers needs to be on-going so they can both teach the content
and be able to recognise when problems are occurring online and effectively manage the
process. The importance of involving parents is also reflected in the statements above.
Schools can support parents by running information sessions and providing links to useful
While many young people have a good understanding of computer related uses, it is not
accurate to portray them as digital natives (see Prensky, 2001). Young people generally have
a good understanding of game sites and some social media sites. They are less savvy when it
comes to using various online sites in support of their own learning.
In a study of European youth by Livingston, Haddon, Görzig, and Ólafsson (2011),
young people were asked if they knew more than their parents about computers. Only 36% of
9-16 said yes and one in three of 9-10 years olds said yes. Talk of digital natives obscures
children’s need for support in developing digital skills” (Livingston et al., 2011, p. 42).
Greater awareness by students, teachers and parents as well as improved education in schools
should help students to be safe when learning online. It is an area that requires constant
vigilance and communication between the school and home.
The learning technologies outlined in this chapter are only a small example of the types
of resources that are available to support schools in establishing and maintaining an online
learning environment, which draws on people and resources outside of the school
environments as well as connecting students, teachers, family members and experts. In this
chapter, two broad types of 21st century skills that can be developed when engaging in online
learning have been outlined. The first set of skills outlined was communication and
collaboration skills. Communication is an important element of learning and having the
ability to develop this skill set through online learning creates many new opportunities for
students to engage with new audiences who can be geographically located around the globe.
Students also develop these skills in communicating and collaborating with experts on topics
teachers may not have expertise in. This, in turn, allows the teacher to focus on pedagogical
aspects of teaching and learning.
The second set of skills outlined was media literacy skills. These skills allow students to
develop as authors and post information online that they can share with others. In using these
Damian Maher
skills they also develop new related skills associated with multimodal authoring as well as
critical reflective skills. In focusing on this set of skills, it is clear how the different types of
21st century skills link with each other as part of writing involves an audience.
In providing links between the school and the home as well as the broader community, it
is possible for both formal and informal learning to be part of the educational experience for
young people. In combining these two areas, learning can be a more authentic experience
where students have genuine opportunities to have input into the curriculum. The
opportunities for this type of engagement by young people can only come about with some
re-engineering of the curriculum, which requires school leaders to allow for these
opportunities to occur. It is clear online learning is increasing in schools and will continue to
do so, which will allow for new educational opportunities for students and will require
teachers and educational authorities to continue to develop pedagogical practices to ensure
these technologies are used in the most safe and beneficial ways for students.
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thinking. The Reading Teacher, 62(8), 650-661.
... It also helps learners to think. Maher (2014) highlighted the benefits of online learning for primary school pupils as; opportunity to develop: communication and collaboration skills, media literacy skills, it provides students authentic learning, authentic links to audience. It provides the opportunity for pupils/students to engage in learning that is embedded in social practice. ...
... Therefore, to surmount these challenges O' Neill and McLauhglin (cited in Maher, 2014) recommended that the teachers and the parents are supposed to work together to assist the children to safely learn on the internet. Again, Maher (2014) noted that the school, the teachers and the parents were expected to work together to help online teaching and learning to be successful. The school supposed to develop programme to support students and also provide information and links to useful learning resources for the parents in order to support the students. ...
... According to Gestwicki (2007) parents are the first teachers that the child meets, they engage in informal teaching of the children. O'Neill and McLauhglin in Maher (2014) recommended that during virtual learning, the parents/guardian must be available to supervise the student/pupil in order to discourage distraction. Parental involvement in terms of providing a home learning environment is crucial to learning. ...
... Javne objave so vir ponosa, obenem pa so spodbuda za razvoj medijske pismenosti in kritičnega mišljenja, saj prav zavedanje javnosti izboljša kakovost učenčevih pisnih izdelkov (Corden, 2007, po Mahler, prav tam). Refleksivno prakso spodbujata tudi pisanje in objavljanje spletnih dnevnikov, ki so javni dokumenti, kar postavlja zahtevo, da učenec skrbneje premisli namen svoje objave ter potrebe publike (Dunlap, 2008, po Maher, 2014). ...
... 55 F-test = 9,210, sig. = 0,000 56 64 Učitelji v strokovnih šolah so v primerjavi z gimnazijskimi učitelji v večji meri od učencev pridobivali različne »običajne predstavitve« (plakati, zloženke), 65 različne e-predstavitve, 66 ...
... V deležu učiteljev, ki so izbrali posamezno od šestih preostalih dokazil o učenju, glede na dobo poučevanja ni bilo razlik.62 hi-kvadrat = 9,248, ss = 4, p = 0,010 63 hi-kvadrat = 11,738, ss = 4, p = 0,003 64 hi-kvadrat = 14,033, ss = 4, p = 0,00165 hi-kvadrat = 9,704, ss = 4, p = 0,00866 hi-kvadrat = 7,794, ss = 4, p = 0,020 67 hi-kvadrat = 22,470, ss = 4, p = 0,000 68 hi-kvadrat = 27,367, ss = 4, p = 0,000 ...
... Most of the extant studies have analyzed online and distance learning at higher education levels, which implies a previous implementation of many years in traditional school structures. There are also a few evaluations regarding the benefi ts of introducing online education in primary or gymnasium schools which are similar to the ones for higher education--that improved collaboration and communication skills, increased media literacy skills, enhances "authentic learning" (Lee, 2006;Maher, 2014). ...
... n Limited socialization and impoverished interpersonal contact between learners and educators (Maher, 2014); n Inappropriate digital content (Maher, 2014); n Developing a sense of community (Sun & Chen, 2016); and n Maintaining motivation and the lack of self-motivation and discipline (Gilbert, 2015). ...
... n Limited socialization and impoverished interpersonal contact between learners and educators (Maher, 2014); n Inappropriate digital content (Maher, 2014); n Developing a sense of community (Sun & Chen, 2016); and n Maintaining motivation and the lack of self-motivation and discipline (Gilbert, 2015). ...
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Adapting “face-to-face” education to distance and online education in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been a massive challenge for countries around the world. Online education reignited older debates about inclusive education, such as hoped-for universal access versus current digital divides, prompting the public to refl ect about the past, the present, and future of the educational system. This article analyzes the Romanian public discourse, both scientifi c and non-scientifi c, on emerging distance and online education in Romania during the COVID-19 pandemic, in order to understand how public communication functioned as feedback for school digitalization. The paper charts the advantages and challenges of distance and online education experienced by various actors (teachers, students, and the members of civil society) or identifi ed through scientifi c research, focusing on the way online education has spotlighted and reshaped social inequalities. We use thematic content analysis of 152 online articles published from March to June 2020 and eight scientifi c studies and reports. The results showed that public discourse about distance and online education was largely consistent within and across multiple stakeholders; also, the scientifi c reports were aligned with the other public opinions expressed and promoted via online channels. The general perspective of the emerging online education during COVID-19 is that it deepens the educational gaps and create new forms of exclusion. On the positive side, some of the teachers have improved their teaching methods and educational content.
... Application of online platforms such as SNSs (Social Networking Sites) platform and VLE or Moodle open-source platform generally used online learning activities in primary schools [12], [30], [31]. For instance, grade 1 primary school students in Canada and Singapore use Twitter to solve math problems together. ...
... For instance, grade 1 primary school students in Canada and Singapore use Twitter to solve math problems together. Meanwhile, grade 2 students in the primary classroom use Twitter to review and evaluate their learning outcomes [31], [32]. However, under the COPPA (Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) regulation, the use of SNSs is restricted for children under 13 years. ...
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Online learning has been widely applied due to developments in information technology. However, there are fewer relevant evaluations and applications for primary school students. All innovation efforts in learning are directed at improving the quality of education by creating an active learning atmosphere for students. Students’ participation in the teaching-learning process can be improved by selecting appropriate learning materials suitable to the student’s learning style. The research aims to develop and measure the impact of an Artificial-Intelligence (AI)-based learning style prediction model in an online learning portal for primary school students. The subjects were recruited from Indonesian primary school students in grades 4 to 6. To fulfill the principle of personalized learning, the AI model in the online learning portal was designed to recommend learning materials that suit students’ learning styles. We formulated a new AI approach that enables collaborative filtering-based AI models to be driven by learning style prediction. With this AI algorithm, the online learning portal can provide material recommendations tailored specifically to the learning style of each student. The AI model performance test achieved satisfactory results, with an average RMSE (Root Mean Squared Error) of 0.9035 from a rating scale of 1 to 5. Moreover, students’ learning performance was improved based on the results of t-test analysis on 269 subjects between the pre-test and post-test scores.
... -Lack of face-to-face relationships: Online learning will become more prevalent in higher education, but it will never be able to fully replace face-to-face instruction (Sun & Chen 2016). The lack of face-to-face relationships between students and professors, as well as a lack of communication between them, is a challenge that affects the success of online teaching (Maher, 2014;Joshi et al., 2020). ...
... Communication problems are commonly cited by the researchers of online schooling (Maher, 2014;Joshi et al., 2020). It is very logical, since the main shift in transference from face-to-face to online education is the change of communication channel (according to R. Jacobson's message transmission model (Jacobson, 1960)). ...
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The research of the educators’ perspectives on online learning of undergraduate, graduate and doctoral students of public/ business administration conducted in the USA, Ukraine and a number of Asian countries, performed via mixed methodology combining qualitative (interviews and survey) and quantitative research methods, revealed general tendencies in the educators’ perceptions of losses and gains of online education. The prevalence of positive overall assessments, as well as numerous gains and opportunities for teachers and students show the prospects of online education development, specifically for working adults. The major benefits of learning online for the students include developing online communication and collaboration skills, teambuilding and teamworking skills, along with more opportunities to get education abroad without leaving their countries and interrupting jobs. For the faculty modern interactive and integrated online modality opens more opportunities for professional development as well as flexibility of schedules, savings on time and resources and ultimately better work/life balance. The analysis of problems in online learning revealed areas that require special attention of the educational institutions as well as educators, such as: creating the institutional basis for adapting the syllabi and developing new approaches to online teaching; providing the platforms for training and professional development; supporting the creation and development of multimodal instructional materials; introducing students’ learning outcomes testing methodologies which allow measuring the students’ progress and professional competences, skills and attitudes without close monitoring of their use of resources. With technological innovations, multimedia and interactive teaching tools, real-time learning tests and quizzes, online hides a huge potential for moving educational technologies and methodology to a new quality level, enriching onsite and hybrid modalities with new content and tools.
... According to Trilling & Fadel (2009), the skills could be categorized as learning and innovation skills, digital literacy skills and career and life skills. Whether in formal or informal settings, online learning has the ability to help children develop a number of these 21 st century skills (Maher, 2014). ...
... It worths mentioning that Facebook is also very popular among primary school aged children. Maher (2014) reported that Livingstone, Olafsson & Staksrud (2011) found out in a research that 57% of 9-16 year old pupils in Europe use Facebook. Young people also access social networking sites such as Bebo and Weeworld. ...
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The aim of the study was to highlight the perceived deficiencies in the current secondary school curriculum in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) using diabetes mellitus (DM) as a case study. The design is a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 18 purposively selected science related subject teachers in secondary schools in Delta State. Key informant Interview guide was used to collect the data. The collected data was transcribed and analysed thematically and based on content. The findings revealed that about 8(44.4%) of the teachers were aged 40-49 years and 12(66.6%) were females. Most of the teachers affirmed to deficiencies in the curriculum with some suggesting the teaching of NCDs in both primary and secondary schools and inclusion of patient daily life management practices as part of the curriculum. Ultimately, the study showed that in the opinions of the teachers, there is need to review the current secondary school curriculum to align with the present reality of the increasing prevalence of DM and other non-communicable diseases.
... Barbour (2019) states that the volume of education by distance learning is increasing dramatically, and the literature, especially in respect to research, is not keeping pace. Various authors (Bregar et al., 2020;Maher, 2014;Means et al., 2010) list the advantages and disadvantages of distance education, but there is not a great deal of scientific research on teachers' attitudes towards distance learning or their opinions regarding it. Rupnik Vec et al. (2020) has published an analysis of distance education during the Covid-19 pandemic in Slovenia. ...
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The Slovene language has several roles in the educational process in the Republic of Slovenia, including its role as a subject in the curriculum in its own right. It is a basic general education subject in public primary schools and has the most hours of all of the subjects. All teachers were forced to teach remotely for the first time in the history of education (first during the 2019/20 school year and then in the 2020/21 school year) during the Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic. The results of a survey comprising 348 teachers with the ability to teach the mother tongue at primary school level (grades 1–9 of primary school; 59% were class curriculum teachers and 41% were Slovene language teachers) show, among other things, that teachers mostly have a good attitude towards distance teaching and feel empowered for this type of teaching, although they feel that this method makes them mentally and physically more tired than teaching in the classroom. Among the advantages of distance teaching, teachers mention the greater use of modern information and communication technology, more use of e-material and the opportunity for formal monitoring of students. In their opinion, the biggest problems of distance teaching (of the Slovene language) include: lack of student participation; lack of non-verbal communication, thus creating difficulties in understanding; and technical issues. Most teachers believe that students acquire less knowledge or far less knowledge by distance education than they would from education in the classroom. Teachers who feel more empowered to teach remotely also have a better attitude towards teaching their mother tongue and are more satisfied with the communication aspect with students in distant teaching. Teachers who have received the necessary training for distance teaching as part of their work feel more empowered to teach this way than teachers who have not had such training.
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E-Learning has become integral part of life of students. Students from pre-primary to doctoral studies are now exposed to e-learning environment. This paper tries to find out the requirement in form of support system for effective e-learning environment. Researcher has reviewed 4 books, 18 research papers and 4 reports from reputed organizations. Factors like availability of devices and hardware, internet connectivity, performance of the teacher, flexibility in learning, interactivity, quality of e-learning material, capacity of the learner and motivation for the learner decides the effectiveness of e-learning. If these factors are maintained properly, it will create a grate learning experience for the students as well as for the teachers.
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The objectives of this article is developing an online learning management model for vocational student in Thailand based on the New Normal lifestyle under the COVID-19 situation. The sample consisted of 400 teachers and students. The results obtained from the research found that the according to the 17 online instructional design experts who assessed the appropriateness of the online learning management framework based on the New Normal lifestyles under the COVID-19 situation for vocational students in Thailand (OLA Framework), the overall assessment results were excellent due to the conceptual framework being consistent with the objectives, processes, and sequential thinking methods. And Comparison of the mean scores of mathematics learning achievement between the experimental group and the control group had mean scores of 75.13 and 75.47, respectively. The students in both groups demonstrated no significant difference in learning achievement at the .05 level, indicating that regarding the experiment, students in the online learning group and the traditional classroom learning group demonstrated no difference in learning achievement because the teacher's learning management was consistent with the concept of online learning management in the New Normal lifestyle. The results of the assessment of satisfaction with online learning management were at the highest level because teachers organized learning system according to the conceptual framework, As a result, online learning management meets the learning objectives. The assessment of satisfaction with online learning based on the New Normal lifestyle under the COVID-19 situation among vocational students in Thailand was at the highest level overall.
Cyber bullying is a growing concern for practitioners, policy makers, educators and parents as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are becoming a pervasive part of young people's lives, especially in the developed world where such new technologies are more widespread. This is a concern for the psychological, educational and physical well-being of victims, bystanders and also the bullies. In response, most educational institutions, governments and numerous non-governmental organizations have initiated prevention and intervention efforts. At the core of these activities is the engagement of young people in digital and interactive experiences in a safe, supportive and enjoyable way and the protection from risks in these environments. This book examines the opportunities and challenges that arise when online environments are used for teaching and learning. Chapters include the notion of digital citizenships, the legal risks in electronic interactions, government and local educational institutions' policies, parental responsibilities, the willingness of bystanders to intervene in cyber bullying incidents, bullying interactions between real-world and online-world environments and the development of anti-bullying programs and approaches.
With the recent explosion of technology into the world of education across the globe, this book sets out a framework for rethinking the three key areas of schooling that are most affected by technology's impact on education today: knowledge as curriculum; learning and pedagogy and literacy across the curriculum. A well-known author in this field, Jewitt takes the reader through an analysis of teaching and learning with materials such as CD-ROMs, websites, the Internet, computer programming applications and computer games, relating each in turn to the main curriculum topics.
Cyber bullying is a very recent phenomenon, in existence for only a decade and a half. However, since its first appearance in the late 1990's it has gone through four distinct stages, each characterised by the available technology, namely hardware and software. Parallel to these advancements in cheaper, easier and more widespread access time online increased and with it the risk of inappropriate and unsafe interactions. In an effort to combat cyber bullying, cyber suicide and more recently sexting, a plethora of intervention and prevention programs have been designed and implemented by governments, educational authorities and child protection agencies. In addition, expensive Internet software filters and blocks have been developed and implemented to shield children and young people while at school from inappropriate content and contact. Despite substantial funding and a patchwork of initiatives, cyber bullying has steadily increased. Some endeavours are emerging to evaluate and subsequently improve the effectiveness of these efforts. Alongside these educational attempts, new legislation to persecute cyber bullying has been introduced and a number of convictions have been issued. This chapter will trace the emergence and infancy of the field of cyber bullying, identify the main issues and outline the current state of the research evidence. It is hoped that it will illuminate readers who are new to the problem of cyber bullying with solid background knowledge. For others, who are accustomed with the literature on cyber bullying, it is aimed to refresh their memories and extend as well as up-date their knowledge.