Article

Is strength training associated with mortality benefits? A 15 year cohort study of US older adults

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Abstract

Background: The relationship between strength training (ST) behavior and mortality remains understudied in large, national samples, although smaller studies have observed that greater amounts of muscle strength are associated with lower risks of death. We aimed to understand the association between meeting ST guidelines and future mortality in an older US adult population. Methods: Data were analyzed from the 1997-2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) linked to death certificate data in the National Death Index. The main independent variable was guideline-concordant ST (i.e. twice each week) and dependent variable was all-cause mortality. Covariates identified in the literature and included in our analysis were demographics, past medical history, and other health behaviors (including other physical activity). Given our aim to understand outcomes in older adults, analyses were limited to adults age 65 years and older. Multivariate analysis was conducted using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: During the study period, 9.6% of NHIS adults age 65 and older (N=30,162) reported doing guideline-concordant ST and 31.6% died. Older adults who reported guideline-concordant ST had 46% lower odds of all-cause mortality than those who did not (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.70; p<0.001). The association between ST and death remained after adjustment for past medical history and health behaviors. Conclusions: Although a minority of older US adults met ST recommendations, guideline-concordant ST is significantly associated with decreased overall mortality. All-cause mortality may be significantly reduced through the identification of and engagement in guideline-concordant ST interventions by older adults.

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... An additional manual search from the lists of recent reviews and included studies, as well as the continuous update from Pubmed alerts yielded 5 eligible studies. Finally, the systematic review included 12 studies [8,[11][12][13][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] (Fig. 1). ...
... Summarized characteristics of all studies selected in the systematic review are shown in Table S1. Of the 12 articles, eleven were cohort studies [8, 11-13, 18-21, 23-25] and one case-control study [22]; ten studies [8,12,13,[18][19][20][21][23][24][25] were conducted in the US, one in Australia [22] and one in the United Kingdom (England and Scotland) [11]. All studies measured musclestrengthening activities via questionnaires. ...
... All studies measured musclestrengthening activities via questionnaires. Regarding sample classification, several studies classified participants according to the weekly frequency of musclestrengthening activities [11,18,20,21,24,25], others used weekly duration [8,12,13,19] and equivalent of tasks [22,23]. A detailed definition of musclestrengthening activities by type of measure, type of activity and analytical categories across the 12 studies is available in Table S1. ...
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Background Physical activity has been associated with reduced risk of seven types of cancer. It remains unclear, however, whether muscle-strengthening activities also reduce cancer incidence and mortality. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus were searched from inception to March 2020. Summary hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random-effects models. Results Twelve studies (11 cohorts; 1 case-control), 6 to 25 years of follow-up, including 1,297,620 participants, 32,196 cases and 31,939 deaths, met inclusion criteria. Muscle-strengthening activities were associated with a 26% lower incidence of kidney cancer (HR for high vs low levels of muscle-strengthening activities: 0.74; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.98; I² 0%; 2 studies), but not with incidence of other 12 types of cancer. Muscle-strengthening activities were associated with lower total cancer mortality: HRs for high vs low levels of muscle-strengthening activities was 0.87 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.02; I² 58%; 6 studies); and HR for ≥2 times/week vs < 2 times/week of muscle-strengthening activities was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87; I² 0%; 4 studies). Regarding the weekly duration of muscle-strengthening activities, HR for total cancer mortality were 0.91 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.01; I² 0%; 2 studies) for 1–59 min/week and 0.98 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.07; I² 0%) for ≥60 min/week vs none. Combined muscle-strengthening and aerobic activities (vs none) were associated with a 28% lower total cancer mortality (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.98; I² 85%; 3 studies). Conclusions Muscle-strengthening activities were associated with reduced incidence of kidney cancer and total cancer mortality. Combined muscle-strengthening and aerobic activities may provide a greater reduction in total cancer mortality.
... Several studies reported a variety of health benefits of exercise habits, and it is known that exercise habits are associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (Wen et al. 2011;Lee et al. 2014;Kraschnewski et al. 2016;O'Donovan et al. 2017) and mortality from CVD (Lee et al. 2014;Eijsvogels et al. 2016;O'Donovan et al. 2017) and cancer (Wen et al. 2011;Bigley et al. 2013;O'Donovan et al. 2017). However, most findings were reported based on studies with follow-up periods of less than 10 years (Inoue et al. 2008;Wen et al. 2011). ...
... However, most findings were reported based on studies with follow-up periods of less than 10 years (Inoue et al. 2008;Wen et al. 2011). A few studies revealed that exercise habits at baseline predicted relatively long-term (around 15 years) risk of mortality (Hayashi et al. 2016;Kraschnewski et al. 2016). However, no studies have examined the long-term effects of exercise habits on mortality for 20 years or more. ...
... Interview Survey (NHIS) linked to death certificate data in the National Death Index study in the United States reported that exercise habits (strength training twice each week) at baseline was associated with 46% lower risk of all-cause mortality during 15 years than those without an exercise habit (Kraschnewski et al. 2016). However, their study consisted of the elderly aged ≥ 65 years. ...
Article
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Exercise habits are known as a protective factor for a variety of diseases and thus recommended worldwide; however, few studies have examined long-term effects of exercise habits on mortality. We continuously monitored death status in a nationwide population sample of 7,709 eligible persons from the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Noncommunicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged in 1990 (NIPPON DATA90), for which baseline data were obtained in 1990. To investigate the long-term impact of baseline exercise habits, we calculated the relative risk of non-exercisers (participants without regular voluntary exercise habits) in reference to exercisers (those with these habits) for all-cause or cause-specific mortality using a Cox proportional hazard model, in which the following confounding factors were appropriately adjusted: sex, age, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking, drinking, and history of cardiovascular disease. During a median 20 years of follow-up, 1,747 participants died, 99 of heart failure. The risk for all-cause mortality was 12% higher in non-exercisers than in exercisers (95% confidence interval, 1%-24%), which was also observed for mortality from heart failure, as 68% higher in non-exercisers than in exercises (95% confidence interval, 3%-173%). These associations were similarly observed when the participants were divided to subgroups by sex, age, and the light, moderate, or vigorous intensity of physical activity, without any significant heterogeneities (P > 0.1). The present study has revealed significant impact of exercise habits on long-term mortality risks, supporting worldwide recommendations for improvement of exercise habits.
... The current preventive physical activity recommendations for healthy adults and older adults advise engaging in strength training on two or more days per week [26,27]. In a longitudinal cohort of US older adults followed from 1997 to 2011, those who already met the 2007 strength training frequency recommendation in 1997-1999 were slightly younger, more likely to be married, white, male, more highly educated, have a normal body weight, engage in aerobic exercise, and abstain from alcohol and tobacco than those who did not meet the recommendation [28]. In addition, those who met the future recommendation were less likely to have diabetes and hypertension than those who did not meet the recommendation [28]. ...
... In a longitudinal cohort of US older adults followed from 1997 to 2011, those who already met the 2007 strength training frequency recommendation in 1997-1999 were slightly younger, more likely to be married, white, male, more highly educated, have a normal body weight, engage in aerobic exercise, and abstain from alcohol and tobacco than those who did not meet the recommendation [28]. In addition, those who met the future recommendation were less likely to have diabetes and hypertension than those who did not meet the recommendation [28]. Even after adjusting for all of the demographic, health behavior, and medical history differences, those who met the strength training frequency recommendation still had a 19% lower odds of all-cause mortality than those who did not meet the recommendation [28]. ...
... In addition, those who met the future recommendation were less likely to have diabetes and hypertension than those who did not meet the recommendation [28]. Even after adjusting for all of the demographic, health behavior, and medical history differences, those who met the strength training frequency recommendation still had a 19% lower odds of all-cause mortality than those who did not meet the recommendation [28]. Therefore, older adults who were already following the recommendations in the late 1990s before they were released had better health behaviors, fewer comorbid conditions, and lower mortality risk than those who did not follow the recommendations [28]. ...
... Cox proportional hazards regression with age as time scale and with stratification by calendar year was used after adjustment for potential confounders based on weight training and mortality literature. Covariates adjusted for included race (White or non-White), smoking status (never, past, or current [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24], and $25 cigarettes per day]), family history of myocardial infarction (yes or no), family history of cancer (yes or no), baseline hypertension (yes or no), alcohol consumption (none, 0.1-4.9, 5-14.9, 15-29.9, or $30 g/day), AHEI score 2010 (quintile), total calorie intake (quintile), time spent sitting to watch television (quintile), BMI (quintile), and aerobic activity (none, 1-59, 60-149, and $150 min/week). ...
... However, whether weight training is independently associated with mortality remains unclear. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination (21-23) and the National Health Insurance Survey data (24,25), several studies examined the association between frequency of muscle-strengthening activities and mortality. These studies suggested that meeting the physical activity guideline of muscle-strengthening activities (two or more times per week) was associated with a lower risk of mortality. ...
Article
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between long-term weight training and mortality in male health professionals with and without type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 31,140 men without type 2 diabetes and 2,588 with type 2 diabetes from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1992–2018). Information on weight training was repeatedly assessed using a biennial questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 12,607 deaths (988 deaths among men with type 2 diabetes). Among participants without type 2 diabetes, 1–59 and 60–149 min/week of long-term weight training were associated with 14% (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.82–0.89) and 8% (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85–0.99) lower mortality versus no weight training, respectively, after adjustment for aerobic activity. However, ≥150 min/week of weight training was not significantly associated with mortality (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.91–1.20; overall P trend = 0.94; P quadratic < 0.001). Meeting the recommended aerobic physical activity guideline (≥150 min/week) and performing any weight training were associated with 20–34% lower mortality. Among participants with type 2 diabetes, a moderate level of pre-diagnosis weight training was associated with lower mortality, whereas post-diagnosis weight training showed no association. Performing both weight training and aerobic activity before and after diagnosis was associated with lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS A moderate level of long-term weight training was associated with lower mortality, independently of aerobic activity, among male health professionals with and without type 2 diabetes. Addition of weight training to aerobic activities may provide further benefit in mortality risk reduction. Studies are required to confirm our findings in diverse populations.
... Not only is RT an important strategy to counteract age-related health and neuromuscular degenerations, it is the primary evidence-based intervention for addressing age-related losses of function and health given that muscle mass, strength, and/or power are associated with mobility (Reid and Fielding, 2012;McGregor et al., 2014;Ferrucci et al., 2016;Tieland et al., 2018), disease risk (Volpi et al., 2004;Wolfe, 2006;McLeod et al., 2016;Mcleod et al., 2019), and mortality (Metter et al., 2002;Newman et al., 2006). Unfortunately, older adults report barriers to RT compliance including time constraints and perceived difficulty (Fisher et al., 2017), with approximately 9.6% of older adults in the United States meeting the twice/week RT recommended guidelines (Kraschnewski et al., 2016). Therefore, alternative, perhaps even creative approaches, are necessary to improve widespread implementation and increase participation adherence for RT in older adults. ...
... Therefore, assessing and developing maximal neuromuscular capacity is essential for determining age-related risk for functional decline, elucidating the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, and improving health and functional capacities. Unfortunately, the vast majority (∼90%) of older adults do not meet RT guidelines (Kraschnewski et al., 2016) despite the many demonstrable benefits of RT for older adults. ...
Article
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Exercise Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology The ability of older adults to perform activities of daily living is often limited by the ability to generate high mechanical outputs. Therefore, assessing and developing maximal neuromuscular capacity is essential for determining age-related risk for functional decline as well as the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Interventions designed to enhance neuromuscular capacities underpinning maximal mechanical outputs could positively impact functional performance in daily life. Unfortunately, < 10% of older adults meet the current resistance training guidelines. It has recently been proposed that a more "minimal dose" RT model may help engage a greater proportion of older adults, so that they may realize the benefits of RT. Eccentric exercise offers some promising qualities for such an approach due to its efficiency in overloading contractions that can induce substantial neuromuscular adaptations. When used in a minimal dose RT paradigm, eccentric-based RT may be a particularly promising approach for older adults that can efficiently improve muscle mass, strength, and functional performance. One approach that may lead to improved neuromuscular function capacities and overall health is through heightened exercise tolerance which would favor greater exercise participation in older adult populations. Therefore, our perspective article will discuss the implications of using a minimal dose, submaximal (i.e., low intensity) multi-joint eccentric resistance training paradigm as a potentially effective, and yet currently underutilized, means to efficiently improve neuromuscular capacities and function for older adults.
... For these two variables, according to international guidelines (ACSM 2018), the results can be included in the excellent category for both men and women (respectively, 76.9 vs 75-men vs 55-women; and 65.4 vs ≥30 men vs ≥27 women). These results are important because it is stated in the literature that a high musculoskeletal capacity is associated with operational tasks (Beck et al., 2015), supporting the transport of external load (Blacker et al., 2013), and also connected with health as well as benefits against chronic diseases (Kraschnewski et al., 2016). ...
... Such results for VO2max prediction are promising since the literature has pointed out that low cardiorespiratory fitness may impair security effectiveness, and may endanger the (Alvar et al., 2017). In addition, studies have also shown that high cardiorespiratory fitness and strength are associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality (Kraschnewski et al., 2016;Nocon et al., 2008), while a poor performance in push/sit-ups is associated with musculoskeletal injuries (de la Motte et al., Gribbin et al., 2019). Considering metabolic measures, the participant's systolic blood pressure average values results are included in the pre-hypertension's category (134 vs 120-139), and diastolic blood pressure comprised in the normal's category (74.6 vs <80), taking into consideration international guidelines (ACSM 2018). ...
Article
The initial assessment of physical fitness (PF) is associated with daily duty tasks/performance, and health-indicators (risk of injury/illnesses) of police officers. This research aimed to characterize the demographic, sports practice, PF, and metabolic profile of Elite Portuguese Public Security Police recruits. This cross-sectional study included 32 participants (age 30.1 ± 2.7 years old). The following data were collected: demographic, sports practice, PF (e.g. muscular resistance [pull/sit/push-ups], cardiorespiratory fitness [Cooper Test]), and metabolic measures (e.g. blood pressure [systolic/ diastolic]). A robust PF and metabolic profile was observed: sit-ups 79.6 ± 11.6 rep.; push-ups 65.4 ± 17.3 rep.; VO2max prediction 49.6 ± 4.7 ml/kg/min; Body Mass Index 23.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2; fat mass 10.7 ± 2.3%; systolic blood pressure 134.0 ± 12.0 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure 74.6 ± 12.5 mm Hg. Deeper knowledge on initial PF and its impact on health may be relevant for policing policy, allowing one to define assessment guidelines and implement regular training to optimize PF throughout police officers´ lives and careers, with potentially general health benefits.
... Mas quando se objetiva a hipertrofia, o consumo de álcool, é um grande problema enfrentado por praticantes de musculação. Pessoas de todas as classes sociais e de todas as idades utilizam o álcool diminuindo o rendimento físico para aqueles que buscam a hipertrofia 1,2 . ...
... The prescribed exercises should reflect real-world necessities as several strength-training approaches for the geriatric population (e.g. supervised or unsupervised resistance training), even if effective (Lacroix et al. 2017), are usually followed by less than 10% of the population to which they should be applied (Kraschnewski et al. 2016). This pinpoints that a series of programs, with very well established efficacy, cannot be translated into practice and therefore will not have a real impact on public healthcare. ...
Chapter
During senescence, there is a gradual decrease in the capacity to control movement. Declines in fine motor control, gait and posture can have a profound effect on old adult’s abilities to perform activities of the daily living, threatening their independence. The reasons behind these deficits are multifactorial. On the one hand, there are specific changes in muscle structure and morphology, which can decrease the force generating capacity of muscles (i.e., Sarcopenia). On the other hand, there are specific adaptations to the central and peripheral nervous systems, which influences both the cognitive processes related to motor planning and learning, as well as efferent and afferent sensorimotor pathways involved in the control of movement. Deterioration of fine motor skills such as grasping as well as gross motor skills such as reaching and aiming have important implications in the quality of life of older individuals. Moreover, deficits in the control of posture and gait increases the risk of falling, potentially inducing life-threatening injuries. Although these changes are inevitable, exercise might have an important role in ameliorating the decline in motor function, as it could be regarded as an important tool to improve both the quality of movement as well as the cognitive processes involved in the execution of motor tasks. The following chapter will discuss the neural processes responsible for the decrease in motor plasticity and motor learning as well as common impairments in motor output during fine and gross motor tasks. It will present potential exercise interventions, which could help to mitigate changes in motor function in the elderly.
... Due to the improvement in neuromuscular performance, weight resistance training (RT) is an essential component of physical conditioning programs that seek to improve activities of daily living, self-care, and the quality of life in different ages and populations [1,2]. In fact, the improvement in health-related variables is associated with the augmentation of muscle mass and strength levels [3]. In this sense, several authors consider muscular strength as a transversal axis within physical exercise programs [4]. ...
Article
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Weight resistance training (RT) is an essential component of physical conditioning programs to improve the quality of life and physical fitness in different ages and populations. This integrative review aimed to analyze the scientific evidence on the relationship between exercise selection and the appearance of musculoskeletal injuries in physical fitness centers (PFC). The Pub-Med or Medline, EMBASE or Science Direct, Google Scholar and PEDro databases were selected to examine the available literature using a Boolean algorithm with search terms. The review process was performed using the five-stage approach for an integrative review and it was reported according to the PRISMA in Exercise, Rehabilitation, Sport Medicine and Sports Science (PERSiST) guidelines. A total of 39 peer-reviewed articles (Price index = 71.7%) met the inclusion criteria and evaluated the link between exercise selection and the incidence of injuries in exercisers who regularly attend PFC. Most injuries occur to the shoulders, elbows, vertebrae of the spine, and knees. Although the injury etiologies are multifactorial, the findings of the reviewed articles include the impacts of overuse, short post-exercise recovery periods, poor conditioning in the exercised body areas, frequent use of heavy loads, improper technique in certain exercises, and the abuse of performance and image-enhancing drugs. Practical recommendations addressed to clinical exercise physiologists, exercise professionals, and health professionals are given in this paper. The exercise selection in RT programs requires professional supervision and adhering to proper lifting techniques and training habits that consider the anatomical and biomechanical patterns of the musculoskeletal structures, as well as genetic, pedagogical, and methodological aspects directly related to the stimulus-response process to mitigate the occurrence of RT-related injuries in PFC.
... Five publications were able to categorise respondents into those meeting MSE guidelines of at least two sessions/ week, often revealing a lower mortality with MSE. [17][18][19][20][21] Other studies were able to dichotomise into those who report any (vs those who do not) MSE, 22 23 and other studies used total duration (instead of frequency) of muscle-strengthening activity. [24][25][26] Prospective investigations using duration exposures (eg, hours/ week) for MSE are difficult to translate into meeting the physical activity guidelines since those are delivered in session frequency, not duration. ...
Article
Objectives Both aerobic moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) are recommended, but the mortality benefits of weightlifting, a specific type of MSE, are limited. Methods In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations between weightlifting and mortality, adjusting for demographics, lifestyle and behavioural risk factors. The sample included 99 713 adults who completed the follow-up questionnaire that assessed weightlifting who were subsequently followed up through 2016 to determine mortality (median 9, IQR 7.6–10.6 years). Results Mean age at the follow-up questionnaire was 71.3 (IQR 66–76) years, 52.6% female, with mean body mass index of 27.8 (SD 4.9) kg/m ² . Weightlifting was associated with a 9% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR=0.91 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.94)) and CVD mortality (0.91 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.97)) after adjusting for MVPA. Joint models revealed that adults who met aerobic MVPA recommendations but did not weightlift had a 32% lower all-cause mortality risk (HR=0.68 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.70)), while those who also reported weightlifting 1–2 times/week had a 41% lower risk (HR=0.59 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.64)), both compared with adults reporting no aerobic MVPA or weightlifting. Without adjustment for MVPA, weightlifting was associated with lower cancer mortality (HR=0.85 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.91)). Conclusion Weightlifting and MVPA were associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality, but not cancer mortality. Adults who met recommended amounts of both types of exercise appeared to gain additional benefit.
... Furthermore, age-related CVD is often due to impairments in vascular function, and thus aging of the vasculature may be considered a major risk factor for CVD morbidity and mortality (Lakatta and Levy 2003;Seals et al. 2009). Resistance exercise (RE) is one lifestyle behavior that has been shown to reduce the risk of CVD among older adults, which may be particularly important as the average lifespan and healthcare costs continue to increase among older adults prone to CVD (Kraschnewski et al. 2016;Liu et al. 2019). RE training in older adults helps to mitigate CVD risk through a reduction in resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) (McCartney et al. 1995;Williams et al. 2007). ...
Article
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IntroductionAge-related stiffening of the large elastic arteries (e.g., common carotid artery [CCA]) may impair wall dynamics (i.e., strain) and amplify transmission of pulsatile blood flow into the brain with large increases in pressure that occur during maximal resistance exercise (RE). The purpose of this study was to compare CCA arterial wall dynamics, central hemodynamics, and cerebral blood velocity responses during maximal RE between young and older adults.Methods Thirty-one young (YA; 26 ± 5 yrs; 23.8 ± 3.3 kg/m2) and 25 older adults (OA; 60 ± 6 yrs; 30.0 ± 5.5 kg/m2) performed a unilateral maximal isokinetic knee flexion/extension exercise protocol (i.e., maximal RE). All measures were recorded at baseline and during the last 10 s of maximal RE. Common carotid artery strain, CCA strain time to peak, and CCA strain rate (i.e., variables of arterial wall dynamics) were analyzed using 2D speckle tracking software from circumferential ultrasound images. Transcranial Doppler was used to measure right middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood velocity. Non-invasive arterial blood pressure measurements were obtained using finger photoplethysmography.ResultsOlder adults had greater reductions in CCA strain time to peak from baseline to maximal RE (345 ± 39 to 242 ± 52 ms) than YA (308 ± 35 to 247 ± 42 ms; interaction effect, p < 0.01). MCA velocity was similar between YA and OA during maximal RE (p = 0.48), despite a greater arterial pressor response in OA (p < 0.01).Conclusion These data suggest cerebral blood velocity responds similarly during maximal RE among OA compared to YA, despite subtle age-related differences in the pressor and extracranial vascular response during maximal RE.
... The main findings showed that the participants had satisfactory levels of quality of life and high levels of neuromuscular performance in the handgrip strength and sit-stand-up tests. These variables have an inverse association with allcause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and incidence of cancer 21,22 . Therefore, our data emphasize the importance of involving older individuals in regular physical exercise programs to maintain functional capacity and health-related quality of life. ...
Article
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the levels of functional capacity and quality of life in older adults practitioners of câmbio. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analytic study that evaluated men and women aged over 60 years, practitioners of câmbio in the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The participants underwent a functional capacity assessment, composed of the sit- and stand-up and handgrip tests. In addition, quality of life was assessed through the WHOQOL-bref questionnaire. Results: Participants were 69 ± 6 years and had body mass index of 27.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2. The participants practiced câmbio approximately 2.7 ± 1.2 times per week. Regarding the quality of life, results according to the domains of the questionnaire, it was observed that the participants presented values above 75% of the maximum possible. Regarding the performance in the sit- and stand-up test, participants had mean of 22 repetitions (95%CI: 20 to 23) and the average time for 5 repetitions was 7.1 s (6.8 to 7.5). In the grip strength test, participants had mean 35 kg (95%CI: 33.7 to 38.2). Conclusion: Older adults practitioners of câmbio presented satisfactory levels of quality of life and a good functional capacity.
... 28 Therefore, both older adults and those with higher BMI should be among priority groups targeted with MSA interventions, particularly as MSA can bring important clinical benefits to these two groups. [46][47][48][49] Other priority groups for MSA training are those with lower household income and lower educational attainment. ...
Article
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Objectives Understanding changes in moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity (MVPA) and muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and their correlates (socio-demographics, health characteristics, living and exercise conditions and pre-pandemic MVPA/MSA) can inform interventions. Design A cross-sectional analysis of retrospective and concurrent data on MVPA/MSA. Setting An online survey in the UK. Participants 2657 adults (weighted n=2442, 53.6% women) participating in the baseline survey (29 April 2020–14 June 2020) of the HEalth BEhaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic (HEBECO) study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Meeting WHO-recommended levels for MVPA/MSA/both (vs meeting neither) during the first lockdown and changes in MVPA/MSA from before to since the COVID-19 pandemic following stratification for pre-pandemic MVPA/MSA. Results A third of adults maintained (30.4%), decreased (36.2%) or increased (33.4%) MVPA. For MSA, the percentages were 61.6%, 18.2% and 20.2%, respectively. MVPA increased or decreased by an average of 150 min/week and 219 min/week, respectively, and MSA by 2 days/week. Meeting both MSA+MVPA recommendations since COVID-19 (vs meeting neither) was positively associated with meeting MVPA+MSA before COVID-19 (adjusted OR (aOR)=16.11, 95% CI 11.24 to 23.07) and education: post-16 years of age (aOR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.17), and negatively associated with having obesity (aOR=0.49, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.73), older age (65+ years vs ≤34 years; aOR=0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.87) and annual household income of <50 000 GBP (aOR=0.65, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.91). The odds for decreasing MVPA were lower for white ethnicity (aOR=0.62, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.86), education: post-16 years of age (aOR=0.73, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.91) and access to garden/balcony (aOR=0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.94), and were higher for those living in total isolation (aOR=3.81, 95% CI 2.33 to 6.23), with deteriorated psychological well-being (aOR=1.40, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.71) and conditions limiting physical activity (aOR=1.74, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.39). The odds for decreasing MSA were higher for having overweight (aOR=1.88, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.55), obesity (aOR=23.38, 95% CI 2.23 to 5.14) and being employed (aOR=1.81, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.46). Conclusion Aerobic and strength training were differently impacted during the first UK lockdown, with poorer outcomes associated with older age, lower education and higher body mass index. Targeted interventions may be required to avoid pandemic-related inequities in physical activity.
... Resistance training (RT) has been highly recommended as an important component in physical activity programs for older adults (46) due to its effects on functional independence, longevity, and quality of life (24). Those effects are mainly related to the efficiency of this training model for muscle strength and power development, muscle mass maintenance, and cognitive processing (17). ...
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International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 771-782, 2022. This study aimed to compare the effects of high-speed resistance training (HSRT) and low-speed resistance training (LSRT) in physical fitness, and functional performance in untrained older women. Twenty-four women (62.2 ± 2.7 years old) were allocated to the HSRT or LSRT groups. The HSRT and LSRT groups underwent a similar training program [3 sets of 8 to 12 repetitions at 90% of 10 maximum repetitions] for 14 weeks, twice a week. The LSRT group performed the exercises with 3 seconds in the concentric and eccentric phases, while the HSRT group performed with the concentric phase as quickly as possible and 3 seconds in the eccentric phase. Participants completed pre-and post-training testing to assess strength, flexibility, muscle endurance, power, walking speed, functional balance, and aerobic endurance. Two-way mixed-model ANOVA with repeated measures was applied for each variable, and the Bonferroni post hoc was used when necessary. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. No significant group*time interactions were found for any variable. Time main-effect suggested significant improvements for the 10 RM bench press (F = 46.1; p < 0.001), 10 RM leg press (F = 49.8; p < 0.001), sit-to-stand test (F = 10.4; p = 0.004), sit and reach (F = 10.5; p = 0.004), Timed Up-and-Go (F = 29.8; p < 0.001) and 6-min walking test (F = 41.6; p < 0.001). Thus, the configurations of RT tested here were similarly efficient to improve the functional performance of untrained older women. In addition, both groups showed significant gains in muscle strength, but not in muscle power and gait speed.
... A total of 9 further studies were excluded because of overlapping samples. [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] A total of 10 studies met the eligibility criteria for inclusion ( Figure 1). [15][16][17][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] Study Characteristics The characteristics of the included studies are shown in Appendix Table 3 (available online). ...
Article
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Introduction This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the relationship between resistance training and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews Registration Number CRD42019136654) was conducted. MEDLINE (OVID), Embase, Emcare, SPORTDiscus, The Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS were searched from inception to June 6, 2021. Included studies reported resistance training as the exposure and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease‒specific mortality, and/or cancer-specific mortality as outcome/s. Only studies conducted among nonclinical adult populations (aged ≥18 years) and written in English were included. Results A total of 10 studies were included in the meta-analyses. Compared with undertaking no resistance training, undertaking any amount of resistance training reduced the risk of all-cause mortality by 15% (RR of 6 studies=0.85; 95% CI=0.77, 0.93), cardiovascular disease mortality by 19% (RR of 4 studies=0.81; 95% CI=0.66, 1.00), and cancer mortality by 14% (RR of 5 studies=0.86; 95% CI=0.78, 0.95). A dose–response meta-analysis of 4 studies suggested a nonlinear relationship between resistance training and the risk of all-cause mortality. A maximum risk reduction of 27% was observed at around 60 minutes per week of resistance training (RR=0.74; 95% CI=0.64, 0.86). Mortality risk reductions diminished at higher volumes. Discussion This systematic review and meta-analysis provides the strongest evidence to date that resistance training is associated with reduced risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer-specific mortality. More research is needed to determine whether any potential mortality benefits gained from resistance training diminish at higher volumes.
... In addition, strength training is an effective method to reduce agerelated deleterious alterations such as sarcopenia (48,49) and is responsible for improving muscle strength, function, and mass (51). Strength training is also capable of preventing the risk of frailty (44,52), falls (53,54) and even mortality (55,56). ...
... Resistance training (RT) has many health benefits, such as reducing the rates of different diseases and all-cause mortality (Maestroni et al., 2020;Kraschnewski et al., 2016). While health organizations recommend two weekly sessions of RT (American College of Sports Medicine, 2009; American College of Sports Medicine et al., 2018), only 4 to 30 percent of the population follow these guidelines (Bennie et al., 2018;Harada et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Introduction: Rating of perceived effort (RPE) scales are used to prescribe intensity in resistance training (RT) in several ways. For instance, trainees can reach a specific RPE value by modifying the number of repetitions, lifted loads, or other training variables. Given the multiple approaches of prescribing intensity using RPE and its growing popularity, we compared the effects of two RPE prescription approaches on adherence rates, body composition, performance and psychological outcomes, in an online RT intervention. Methods: We randomly assigned 57 healthy participants without RT experience (60% females, age range: 18–45) to one of two groups that received two weekly RT sessions using a resistance-band for 8 weeks. In the fixed-repetition group, participants adjusted the band resistance with the goal of completing 10 repetitions and reaching a 7-RPE on a 0–10 scale by the 10th repetition. In the open-repetition group, participants selected their preferred band resistance and completed repetitions until reaching a 7-RPE by the final repetition. We measured body composition, performance, and program satisfaction rates. Results: We assessed 46 participants at post-test, 24 from the fixed-repetition group and 22 from the open-repetition group. We observed non-significant and trivial differences between groups in all outcomes (p > 0.05). We then combined the pre-post change scores of the two groups. We found that adherence rates began at 89% and gradually decreased to 42%. On average, participants increased their fat-free mass [0.3 kg (95% CI: 0.1–0.6)], isometric mid-thigh pull [5.5 kg (95% CI: 0.8–10.4)], isometric knee-extension [2.2 kg (95% CI: 0.8–3.7)], and push-ups [6.3 repetitions (95% CI: 4.5–8.2)]. We observed non-significant and trivial changes in bodyweight, grip-force, and countermovement jump. Participants reported high satisfaction rates with all components of the program. Conclusion: Participants in both groups improved their body composition and physical capacity to a similar extent, and reported comparable satisfaction rates with the programs they followed. Accordingly, either prescription approach can be used to deliver online RT sessions based on personal preferences and logistical constraints. However, since adherences rates declined over the course of the study, future research should test additional strategies aiming to maintain adherence rates.
... Countering muscle disuse through structured exercise programs, particularly resistance training, is a powerful intervention to combat physiological vulnerability and its debilitating consequences on physical function, mobility, independence, chronic disease management, psychological well-being, and mental health [1,2]. However, only 1 in 10 Australians over 50 years of age does enough exercise to ga in any cardiovascular benefit, with estimates among the wider population of one in four people not being sufficiently active [3], with a similarly small proportion (9.6%) performing resistance training consistent with the guidelines [4]. Solutions which slow the natural course of functional decline are needed to promote greater engagement in structured physical activity among older adults. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Ballistic Exercise of the Lower Limb (BELL) trial examined the efficacy and safety of a pragmatic hardstyle kettlebell training program in older adults. Insufficiently active men and women aged 59–79 years, were recruited to a 6-month repeated measures study, involving 3-months usual activity and 3-months progressive hardstyle kettlebell training. Health-related physical fitness outcomes included: grip strength [GS], 6-min walk distance [6MWD], resting heart rate [HR], stair-climb [SC], leg extensor strength [LES], hip extensor strength [HES], Sit-To-Stand [STS], vertical jump [CMVJ], five-times floor transfer [5xFT], 1RM deadlift, body composition (DXA), attendance, and adverse events. Sixteen males (68.8 ± 4.6 yrs, 176.2 ± 7.8 cm, 90.7 ± 11.0 kg, 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m²) and sixteen females (68.6 ± 4.7 yrs, 163.9 ± 5.4 cm, 70.4 ± 12.7 kg, 26.3 ± 4.9 kg/m²) were recruited. Compliance with the supervised exercise program was very high (91.5%). Kettlebell training increased GS (R: MD = 7.1 kg 95% CI [4.9, 9.3], L: MD = 6.3 kg 95% CI [4.1, 8.4]), 6MWD (41.7 m, 95% CI [17.9, 65.5]), 1RM (16.2 kg, 95% CI [2.4, 30.0]), 30 s STS (3.3 reps, 95% CI [0.9, 5.7]), LES (R: MD = 61.6 N, 95% CI [4.4, 118.8]), HES (L: MD = 21.0 N,95% CI [4.2,37.8]), appendicular skeletal lean mass (MD = 0.65 kg, 95% CI [0.08, 1.22]), self-reported health change (17.1%, 95% CI [4.4, 29.8]) and decreased SC time (2.7 s, 95% CI [0.2, 5.2]), 5xFT time (6.0 s, 95% CI [2.2, 9.8]) and resting HR (7.4 bpm, 95% CI [0.7, 14.1]). There were four non-serious adverse events. Mean individual training load for group training sessions during the trial was 100,977 ± 9,050 kg. High-intensity hardstyle kettlebell training was well tolerated and improved grip strength and measures of health-related physical fitness in insufficiently active older adults. Trial registration: Prospectively registered: 20/08/2019, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12619001177145).
... 45 50 Of the remaining 26 studies we excluded eight because of multiple publications from the same cohort (see online supplemental table 5). [52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] One study was further excluded because of insufficient information about the effect estimate 21 and another study was excluded because the exposure could not be integrated. 63 Finally, 16 studies were included in the meta-analysis (figure 1). ...
Article
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Objective To quantify the associations between muscle-strengthening activities and the risk of non-communicable diseases and mortality in adults independent of aerobic activities. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Data sources MEDLINE and Embase were searched from inception to June 2021 and the reference lists of all related articles were reviewed. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Prospective cohort studies that examined the association between muscle-strengthening activities and health outcomes in adults aged ≥18 years without severe health conditions. Results Sixteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Muscle-strengthening activities were associated with a 10–17% lower risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), total cancer, diabetes and lung cancer. No association was found between muscle-strengthening activities and the risk of some site-specific cancers (colon, kidney, bladder and pancreatic cancers). J-shaped associations with the maximum risk reduction (approximately 10–20%) at approximately 30–60 min/week of muscle-strengthening activities were found for all-cause mortality, CVD and total cancer, whereas an L-shaped association showing a large risk reduction at up to 60 min/week of muscle-strengthening activities was observed for diabetes. Combined muscle-strengthening and aerobic activities (versus none) were associated with a lower risk of all-cause, CVD and total cancer mortality. Conclusion Muscle-strengthening activities were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality and major non-communicable diseases including CVD, total cancer, diabetes and lung cancer; however, the influence of a higher volume of muscle-strengthening activities on all-cause mortality, CVD and total cancer is unclear when considering the observed J-shaped associations. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020219808.
... Therefore, sensitization/learning work about sedentary conduct and physical activity maintenance should be for this kind of people. Sobre a prática regular da atividade física, propicia a melhoria das condições físicas e psicossociais, controle ou diminuição do peso, diminuição dos níveis de ansiedade e estresse, além de sua utilização como estratégia não farmacológica para o tratamento de comorbidades e a redução do risco de desenvolvimento de doenças crônico-degenerativas e mortalidade [7][8][9][10][11] . Especificamente entre os profissionais da saúde, estudos indicam que profissionais com maiores níveis de atividade física apresentam associação positiva com a melhor percepção de qualidade de vida 12,13 . ...
Article
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Objective: to describe the prevalence of physical inactivity and sedentary conduct of residents from a residency program in multidisciplinary family health during the COVID- 19 pandemic. Methods: a cross-sectional study was made with 10 multidisciplinary residents of a public university from Bahia state. A questionnaire was applied remotely between September/2020 and March/2021 that included the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and questions about sociodemographic, professional, and health/lifestyle topics. Results: mostly the profile was women (90%), mean of 33,6 ± 5,9 years old, self-declared black/brown (60%) and single (60%). About the level of physical activity, 30% of the participants were considered insufficiently active and 60% with sedentary conduct in high values. Attention still for 70% that were overweight/obese, but had healthy habits regarding fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking and alcohol use. Conclusion: there were a high insufficiently active people prevalence and time spent excessively in sedentary conduct during week and weekends in pandemic times. Therefore, sensitization/learning work about sedentary conduct and physical activity maintenance should be for this kind of people.
... For example, genetic and pharmacological interventions may not always be applicable to humans, and in many cases, such use can make worse the quality of life of the elderly. Increased physical activity correlates with lowered risk of type 2 diabetes [30,31], metabolic syndrome [3], and overall mortality [32]. At the same time, long-term use of rapamycin by young healthy volunteers led to the suppression of anabolic processes in their muscles [29]. ...
Article
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Aging is an urgent healthcare issue in view of the rapid growth of the proportion of older persons. Searching for reliable aging biomarkers and prolonging lifespan are increasingly important scientific directions. Experimental gerontology helps to explore fundamental facts which are not always applicable in clinical scenarios. As an example, caloric restriction is one of the key interventions that prolongs laboratory animals’ lifespan and ameliorates some, but not all, aging biomarkers in humans. Consequences of overeating such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are taking their toll with aging, making caloric restriction a hot topic in gerontology and geriatrics. Nevertheless, caloric restriction is not widely applicable in view of poor adherence to and limitations of strict diets. Drugs mimicking caloric restrictions, the so-called caloric restriction mimetics, are developed to overcome these limitations. Caloric restriction alone is not a panacea since metabolic pathways are complex and not responsive to a single intervention. Fasting and exercising are additional options for reducing effects of excessive intake of calories. Arguably, physical activity significantly improves the quality of life at old age and delays the onset of overt insulin resistance and associated diseases. Thus, developing optimal fasting and exercising schemes is becoming increasingly important. Such interventions are confounded by a number of factors, including circadian and other biorhythms and baseline metabolic activity. It is justifiable to test fasting and exercising in experimental animals to reveal numerous confounding factors. A hypothesis in this article points to the role of complex interventions such as moderate and balanced diet, intermittent fasting, and physical exercise adjusted to circadian rhythms for prolonging life and improving quality of life. The hypothesis may shed light on fundamental mechanisms of aging and perspectives of anti-aging drug therapies.
... There are unique musculoskeletal (e.g., improvements in posture, mobility and balance) (Orr, Raymond, & Fiatarone Singh, 2008) and metabolic health benefits (e.g., reductions in blood sugar levels and increases in lean muscle mass) (Ashton et al., 2020) of improving muscular fitness from participation in resistance training (RT). Regular RT is subsequently associated with decreased overall mortality (Kraschnewski et al., 2016). As a result, international and national guidelines now recommend that adults participate in RT activities involving major muscle groups on two or more days a week (Ross et al., 2020;U.S. ...
Article
Background Regular muscle and bone strengthening activities through resistance training (RT) have been associated with numerous health benefits, particularly as adults age, yet participation is low. Effective promotion is likely founded on an understanding of theory-based correlates, yet almost all RT research has focused on college-aged convenience samples and employed social cognition models, which do not consider the intention-behavior gap. The purpose of this study was to explore RT from the perspective of the multi-process action control framework in a large Canadian adult sample. Method Canadian adults (N = 1338) completed M-PAC measures of reflective (instrumental attitude, affective attitude, perceived capability and opportunity), regulatory (planning and self-monitoring), and reflexive (habit, identity) processes as well as intention to engage in RT at baseline and RT behavior two-weeks later. Results Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: a) non-intenders who were not active (41.4%), b) unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (32.9%), and c) successful intenders who engaged in RT (23.5%). A discriminant function analysis (p < .01) showed that instrumental and affective attitude, perceived opportunity and planning/self-monitoring distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while perceived capability predicted the intention-RT profiles of females but not males (p < .01). By comparison, identity was particularly important to younger/middle-aged adults than older females (p < .01), while habit was associated with the intention-RT profiles of older adults but not younger/middle-aged adults (p < .01). Conclusions The findings support the importance of considering both intention formation and translation in RT. Behavior change techniques aimed at reflective, regulatory, and reflexive processes appear necessary. Additional considerations of targeting specific constructs by age and sex may maximize the potential effectiveness of RT interventions.
... Regular physical exercise could help patients with the already developed diabetes to improve a number of indicators, including sensitivity to insulin [66 68]. Muscular strength is inversely proportional to the all cause mortality [69], which can be reduced by strength training [70]. Both muscle mass and strength are important protective factors against the development of one of the most severe conse quences of IR -metabolic syndrome [71 73]. ...
Article
The review discusses the role of metabolic disorders (in particular, insulin resistance) in the development of age-related diseases and normal aging with special emphasis on the changes in postmitotic cells of higher organisms. Caloric restriction helps to prevent such metabolic disorders, which could probably explain its ability to prolong the lifespan of laboratory animals. Maintaining metabolic homeostasis is especially important for the highly differentiated long-lived body cells, whose lifespan is comparable to the lifespan of the organism itself. Normal functioning of these cells can be ensured only upon correct functioning of the cytoplasm clean-up system and availability of all required nutrients and energy sources. One of the central problems in gerontology is the age-related disruption of glucose metabolism leading to obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and other related pathologies. Along with the adipose tissue, skeletal muscles are the main consumers of insulin; hence the physical activity of muscles, which supports their energy metabolism, delays the onset of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance disrupts the metabolism of cardiomyocytes, so that they fail to utilize the nutrients to perform their functions even being surrounded by a nutrient-rich environment, which contributes to the development of age-related cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic pathologies also alter the nutrient sensitivity of neurons, thus disrupting the action of insulin in the central nervous system. In addition, there is evidence that neurons can develop insulin resistance as well. It has been suggested that affecting nutritional sensors (e.g., AMPK) in postmitotic cells might improve the state of the entire multicellular organism, slow down its aging, and increase the lifespan.
... Our findings are in agreement with previous studies that indicate that the main factors for functionality and mortality risk in older adults are good levels of muscle strength and power (Trombetti et al., 2016). Also, epidemiological studies have shown that people with higher levels of muscle strength, muscle power, and lean mass tend to increase longevity and reduce the all-cause risk of death (Kraschnewski et al., 2016). Theoretically, those relations could be explained by sarcopenia, which induces loss in physical capabilities and is highly prevalent in the older adults (Cesari et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical fitness of older women enrolled in physical exercises programs and their correlation with falls history rates in this population. Nineteen older adults (60.3 ± 4.2 years and 65.9 ± 10.2kgs) participated in the study. A descriptive analysis was performed to verify the following physical components: muscle power, aerobic endurance, gait speed, agility/dynamic balance, muscular endurance, flexibility, and strength. The Downton scale and the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) were also applied. The sample was grouped by the history of falls as HF = 0 (history of falls equal to zero in the last year) or HF ≥ 1 (history of falls higher than 1 in the last year). Chi-square test was used to verify possible relations between IPAQ scores and history of falls. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between groups and each dependent variable. Also, independent sample t- tests were applied to test absolute differences between groups. According to the IPAQ, 37.5% as 18.1% were physically active from those reporting HF = 0 and HF > 1, respectively (p = 0.03). Also, the results showed that the occurrence of falls when subjects present greater body mass (p = 0.03), and lower limb muscle strength (p = 0.02), endurance (p = 0.01) and power (Countermovement jump: p = 0.04, Squat jump: p = 0.04). Thus, it is possible to conclude that physical activity levels and performance in strength tests should be monitored in the older adults’ population, while exercise programs aiming to improve these parameters are suggested as strategy to preventing falls.
... Countering muscle disuse through structured exercise programs, particularly resistance training, is a powerful intervention to combat physiological vulnerability and its debilitating consequences on physical function, mobility, independence, chronic disease management, psychological well-being, and mental health (1) . However, only 1 in 10 Australians over 50 years of age does enough exercise to gain any cardiovascular benefit, with estimates among the wider population of one in four people not being sufficiently active (2) , with a similarly small proportion (9.6%) performing resistance training consistent with the guidelines (3) . Solutions which slow the natural history of functional decline are needed to promote greater engagement in structured physical activity among older adults. ...
Preprint
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The Ballistic Exercise of the Lower Limb (BELL) trial examined efficacy and safety of a pragmatic hardstyle kettlebell training program in older adults. Insufficiently active men and women aged 59-79 years, were recruited to a 6-month repeated measures study, involving 3-months usual activity and 3-months progressive hardstyle kettlebell training. Health-related physical fitness outcomes included: grip strength [GS], 6-min walk distance [6MWD], resting heart rate [HR], stair-climb [SC], leg extensor strength [LES], hip extensor strength [HES], Sit-To-Stand [STS], vertical jump [CMVJ], five-times floor transfer [5xFT], 1RM deadlift, body composition (DXA), attendance, and adverse events. Sixteen males (68.8 ± 4.6 yrs, 176.2 ± 7.8 cm, 90.7 ± 11.0 kg, 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m ² ) and sixteen females (68.6 ± 4.7 yrs, 163.9 ± 5.4 cm, 70.4 ± 12.7 kg, 26.3 ± 4.9 kg/m ² ) were recruited. Compliance to the supervised exercise program was very high (91.5%). Kettlebell training increased GS (R: MD = 7.1 kg 95% CI [4.9, 9.3], p < 0.001, L: MD = 6.3 kg 95% CI [4.1, 8.4], p < 0.001), 6MWD (41.7 m, 95% CI [17.9, 65.5], p < .001), 1RM (16.2 kg, 95% CI [2.4, 30.0], p = 0.013), 30s STS (3.3 reps, 95% CI [0.9, 5.7], p = 0.003), LES (R: MD = 61.6 N, 95% CI [4.4, 118.8], p = 0.028), HES (L: MD = 21.0 N, 95% CI [4.2, 37.8], p = 0.007), appendicular skeletal lean mass (MD = 0.65 kg, 95% CI [0.08, 1.22], p = 0.016), self-reported health change (17.1%, 95% CI [4.4, 29.8], p = 0.002) and decreased SC time (2.7 sec, 95% CI [0.2, 5.2], p = 0.025), 5xFT time (6.0 sec, 95% CI [2.2, 9.8], p < 0.001) and resting HR (7.4 bpm, 95% CI [0.7, 14.1], p = 0.032). There were four non-serious adverse events. Mean individual training load for group training sessions during the trial was 100,977 ± 9,050 kg. High-intensity hardstyle kettlebell training was well tolerated and improved grip strength and measures of health-related physical fitness in insufficiently active older adults.
... Grip strength has been used in a variety of clinical settings as a test of impairments and disabilities, and as a measure of fitness [3][4][5][6]. There have been several studies on the relationship between muscle mass and strength, and mortality [7][8][9][10]. However, strength measures have been found to be better associated with mortality than muscle mass [11,12]. ...
Experiment Findings
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Clinical and medical data findings have traditionally been more representative of male than female subjects, and when combined, have not clearly differentiated between the groups. In this study there were no research questions initially contemplated, as the data were obtained from an educational setting, where participants completed tasks as part of a pedagogical program of preparation. The nature of the post-hoc analysis renders the study as a hypothesis-generating type rather than a hypothesis-testing one. It began as a cross-sectional quantitative analysis of performance on a task to explore the relationship between hand grip and three independent physiological variables. The data collected from all subjects were randomized since the total group of participants contained a disproportionate number of females as compared to males, this being a result of a demographic predominance of female students in a program of teacher preparation. Graphical analysis with the slope taken as a measure of hand grip dependence on three independent variables, and the correlation value used as a measure of association between variables yielded discernible differences. The grip strength dependence on the hand size as well as the wrist thickness show consistently significant differences for females only, with t test of significance (p <.001), and large effect size differences based on Cohen's d values of 3.08 and 1.93, respectively. The significance of the finding that female grip strength depends the most on wrist thickness has implications for rehabilitative and therapeutic settings.
... [33] One study, including only 30,162 older adults (≥65 years) from the NHIS, observed that older adults who engaged ≥2 times/week of muscle strength training had a 19% lower risk of death from all-cause mortality (HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92) after adjustment for physical activity, and there was non-significant inverse association for cancer mortality (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.03) and CVD mortality (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.04). [34] In the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, [8] compared to participants with no resistance training, those who participated 1 time/week or 1-59 min/week of resistance training had a 34-35% reduced risk of all-cause mortality, after adjusting for aerobic exercise but no association of resistance training was found for those participating ≥2 times/week or ≥60 min/week. Similarly, in the WHS, a J-shaped association between strength training activity and all-cause mortality was observed in older women, after adjusting for aerobic exercise. ...
Article
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The benefits of aerobic moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are well established. However, much less is known whether muscle-strengthening activities (i.e., resistance/weight/strength training) confer similar benefits. Herein, we conducted a narrative literature review and summarized the existing evidence from large prospective cohort studies on muscle strengthening activities and risk of major chronic diseases and mortality in adults generally free of major NCDs at baseline. Current epidemiologic evidence suggests that engagement in muscle-strengthening activities over 1–2 sessions (or approximately 60–150 min) per week was associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (7 studies; approximately 20–25% reduction), type 2 diabetes (4 studies; approximately 30% reduction), cancer mortality (4 studies; approximately 15–20% reduction) as well as all-cause mortality (6 studies; approximately 20–25% reduction). For diabetes, the risk appears to lower further with even higher levels of muscle-strengthening activities, but some studies for cardiovascular and overall mortality suggest a reversal whereby higher levels have less benefit (≥2.5 hours/week), or are even harmful, relative to lower levels of activity. The likely mechanisms contributing to a benefit include improvement in body composition, lipid profile, insulin resistance and inflammation. The evidence supports engaging in 1–2 sessions per week, preferably performed complementary to the recommended levels of aerobic MVPA, up to 2.5 total per week. Although data are limited, caution is suggested for training exceeding 2.5 hours per week. Further studies are required to better understand the influence of frequency, duration, and intensity of muscle-strengthening activities on major NCDs and mortality in diverse populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Results of the current study suggest that researchers and practitioners aiming to understand individuals' exercise motivations should treat resistance and aerobic training as distinct concepts. Although both aerobic (Lee et al., 2014) and resistance (Kraschnewski et al., 2016) training are forms of exercise important to living a healthy lifestyle, our results suggest that studies examining exercise motivations might only be assessing aerobic motivations. Consistent with previous research, exercise (i.e., aerobic) motivations were significantly correlated with resistance training behaviours (Marin et al., 2018). ...
Article
Resistance training is an important component of exercise that has widespread positive distinct health benefits. However, studies examining exercise motivation typically assess general forms of exercise, thus unable to identify motivational distinctions between aerobic and resistance training. Three studies were conducted to explore the distinction between exercise modalities and to examine the extent to which behavioural regulations for resistance training relate to behaviour and strength outcomes. In Study 1 participants (N = 148) completed questionnaires assessing which exercise modalities were considered by the word “exercise”. In Study 2 participants (N = 216) completed questionnaires assessing aerobic and resistance training motivation and behaviour. In Study 3 participants (N = 100) completed measures of resistance training motivation and behaviour, as well as upper and lower body strength tests. In Study 1, we observed bias in participants understanding of the term “exercise”, whereby exercise is conflated with aerobic training. In Study 2, compared to general exercise motivation, resistance training motivation was more strongly correlated with resistance training behaviour. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that more self-determined regulations for resistance training were positively correlated to resistance training behaviour and objective assessments of physical strength. Consistent with the tenets of Self-determination theory, intrinsic motivation for resistance training was the strongest predictor of physical strength outcomes. Overall, results indicate the efficacy in specifying resistance training motivation when developing research and/or exercise interventions targeting motivational influences.
... In addition, as the Cooper test has a high correlation with the VO2max level and is considered valid, it can be used to measure endurance ability. While a low aerobic endurance level is also closely associated with musculoskeletal injuries (Joseph et al., 2012) and chronic diseases (Knapik et al., 2001), a high muscle strength endurance capacity also plays a crucial role in reducing the risk of musculoskeletal injuries (Kraschnewski et al., 2016;Sarah et al., 2017). It is also closely related to the operational duties of law enforcement officers (Beck et al., 2015). ...
... as numerous studies have reported their overall benefits, 20 21 especially in older and clinical populations. [22][23][24][25] For example, handgrip strength was demonstrated to be the third strongest modifiable risk factor for mortality when considered together with other behavioural, metabolic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, household and ambient pollution. 26 Notably, it was found out that muscle power is a stronger predictor of functional ability in older people than muscle strength, muscle mass and aerobic capacity. ...
Article
Objectives To assess the influence of muscle power and adiposity on all-cause mortality risk and to evaluate the ‘fat but powerful’ (F+P) (or ‘fat but fit’) paradox in older adults. Methods A total of 2563 older adults (65‒91 years old) from the EXERNET multicentre study were included. Adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat percentage (BF%) and fat index), allometric and relative power (sit-to-stand muscle power test) and various covariates (age, sex, hypertension, smoking status and walking and sitting times per day) were registered at baseline. All-cause mortality was recorded during a median follow-up of 8.9 years. Participants were classified into four groups: lean and powerful (L+P), F+P, lean but weak and fat and weak (F+W). Cox proportional hazard regression models and adjusted HRs were calculated. Results According to BMI and waist circumference, all-cause mortality risk was reduced in the F+P (HR=0.55 and 0.63, p=0.044 and 0.049, respectively) and L+P (HR=0.57 and 0.58, p=0.043 and 0.025, respectively) groups. According to BF%, all-cause mortality decreased in the L+P group (HR=0.53; p=0.021), and a trend for a reduction was reported in the F+P group (HR=0.57; p=0.060). According to fat index, a survival benefit was only noted in the L+P group (HR=0.50; p=0.049). Higher levels of relative power reduced all-cause mortality risk among older people (HR=0.63 and 0.53, p=0.006 and 0.011, respectively). Conclusion Powerful older people exhibited a reduced 9-year all-cause mortality regardless of BMI, waist circumference and BF%. Obesity according to fat index blunted the survival benefits of being powerful.
... While effective in containing the pandemic, quarantines also lead to a 30% reduction in physical activity (PA) levels in adults of different age groups [1]. Since insufficient levels of PA increase the likelihood of suffering from a range of diseases [2,3] and all-cause mortality [4], there is a need to explore ways to increase PA levels. This is especially so in view of the insufficient PA levels of the world's population (e.g., 31% not meeting global PA recommendations [3,5]), which are further reduced during pandemic states. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 outbreak has led to recurring quarantines resulting in drastic reductions in physical activity (PA) levels. Given its health benefits, there is a need to explore strategies to increase PA rates during this period. Video-conferencing platforms can be used to deliver live, online, group PA sessions. However, there are only few established PA protocols on how to use such platforms. Hence, the purposes of this study were to (a) design an online PA protocol and (b) explore its feasibility among older adults during a quarantine. A group of exercise specialists developed a PA protocol while accounting for challenges that may arise when using a video-conferencing platform (“Zoom”). A special focus was placed on safety, individualization, and motivational aspects. Then, 31 community dwelling older adults (71.5 ± 4 years) were recruited via social media to follow this protocol twice a week for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included adverse events, adherence rates, and satisfaction with the protocol, its delivery, and technological aspects. Twenty-eight participants completed the protocol. No adverse events occurred, and adherence rates were high (90%). Most participants (97%) indicated they would participate in such a program in the future and highly rated all aspects of the protocol (median score >6 in 1–7 Likert scales). The PA protocol delivered live via a video-conferencing platform was found to be safe and feasible with this cohort. It can therefore be implemented in practice, and in future studies planning to utilize home-based PA sessions for older adults.
... The enhancement of muscular strength, defined as the maximal force developed by a muscle performing a specific movement (Enoka 1988), is a fundamental adaptation associated with an improved quality of life (Hart and Buck 2019;Marcos-Pardo et al. 2019), increased life expectancy (Kraschnewski et al. 2016) and enhanced sporting performance (Otero-Esquina et al. 2017;Joffe and Tallent 2020). ...
Article
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Optimal strategies for enhancing strength and improving motor skills are vital in athletic performance and clinical rehabilitation. Initial increases in strength and the acquisition of new motor skills have long been attributed to neurological adaptations. However, early increases in strength may be predominantly due to improvements in inter-muscular coordination rather than the force generating capacity of the muscle. Despite the plethora of research investigating neurological adaptations from motor skill or resistance training in isolation, little effort has been made in consolidating this research to compare motor skill and resistance training adaptations. The findings of this review demonstrated that motor skill and resistance training adaptations show similar short-term mechanisms of adaptations, particularly at a cortical level. Increases in corticospinal excitability and a release in short-interval cortical inhibition occur as a result of the commencement of both resistance and motor skill training. Spinal changes show evidence of task-specific adaptations from the acquired motor skill, with an increase or decrease in spinal reflex excitability, dependant on the motor task. An increase in synaptic efficacy of the reticulospinal projections is likely to be a prominent mechanism for driving strength adaptations at the subcortical level, though more research is needed. Transcranial electric stimulation has been shown to increase corticospinal excitability and augment motor skill adaptations, but limited evidence exists for further enhancing strength adaptations from resistance training. Despite the logistical challenges, future work should compare the longitudinal adaptations between motor skill and resistance training to further optimise exercise programming.
... É fundamental que a duração do tempo de descanso seja realizada de forma correta, qualquer deslize pode ocasionar em uma tensão desnecessária no praticante.(FLECK & KRAEMER, 2004).De fato, a adaptação desse treinamento dependerá das variáveis do programa, é levada em consideração a ordem dos exercícios, o número de séries e repetições, a frequência de treinamento, o intervalo entre as séries, o volume das cargas trabalhadas e a intensidade(KRASCHNEWSKI, SCIAMANNA et al., 2016).Existem diversos benefícios que o treinamento de força pode proporcionar como, por exemplo, o aumento da resistência muscular, o aumento da força, entre tantas outras alterações fisiológicas(NELSON, REJESKI et al., 2007).O exercício aeróbio combinado com o treinamento de força é conhecido como Treinamento Concorrente (TC). Alguns autores chegaram à conclusão, que diferente do treinamento de força isolado, o TC faz com que exista uma redução na força máxima e na hipertrofia, sendo que, outros tipos de combinação não chegaram a ter esse mesmo tipo de efeito, conhecido como interferência ...
... Traditionally, cardiorespiratory fitness has been considered the cornerstone of physical fitness 3 . In recent decades, muscle strength and resistance training have gained increased attention as numerous studies have reported their overall benefits 18,19 , especially in older populations [20][21][22] . Notably, it was found out that muscle power is a stronger predictor of All rights reserved. ...
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Objectives To assess the influence of muscle power and adiposity on all-cause mortality risk and to evaluate the ‘fat but powerful’ (or ‘fat but fit’) paradox in older adults. Methods A total of 2563 older adults (65‒91 years old) from the EXERNET Multi-center study were included. Adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat percentage (BF%) and fat index), allometric and relative power (sit-to-stand muscle power test) and various covariates (age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, and walking and sitting times per day) were registered at baseline. All-cause mortality was recorded during a median follow-up of 8.9 years. Participants were classified into four groups: lean and powerful (L+P), fat but powerful (F+P), lean but weak (L+W) and fat and weak (F+W). Cox proportional hazard regression models and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were calculated. Results According to BMI and waist circumference, all-cause mortality risk was reduced in the F+P (HR=0.55 and 0.63, respectively; p≤0.049) and L+P (HR=0.57 and 0.58, respectively; p≤0.043) groups. According to BF%, all-cause mortality decreased in the L+P group (HR=0.53; p=0.021), and a trend for a reduction was reported in the F+P group (HR=0.57; p=0.060). According to fat index, a survival benefit was only noted in the L+P group (HR=0.50; p=0.049). Higher levels of relative power reduced all-cause mortality risk among older people (HR=0.63 and 0.53, respectively; p≤0.011). Conclusion Powerful older people exhibited a reduced 9-year all-cause mortality regardless of BMI, waist circumference and BF%. Obesity according to fat index blunted the survival benefits of being powerful.
... It is well established that strength is one of the most 2 important health related aspects in humans [1,2]. Indeed The sample was composed of 38 young male healthy 59 participants (age 23.9 ± 6.7 years; weight 70.7 ± 60 11.9 kg; height 172.8 ± 6.9 cm). ...
Article
BACKGROUND: The hand-grip strength test has been widely adopted to evaluate upper limb strength. Other field based tests as push-ups and pull-ups are commonly used for the same purpose. It is however unclear if these may be used interchangeably for upper body strength evaluation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate strength endurance of the upper body and understand which test could be the most appropriate for upper body evaluation. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy young male participants were tested with three tests comprised of: 1) push-ups (PS), 2) pull-ups (PL) and 3) parallel dips (PD) performed to exhaustion. Grip strength (GS), total number of repetitions, time-to-complete the test, repetition cadence and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were also retrieved for investigation. RESULTS: Repetitions, time-to-complete the test and repetition cadence significantly differed across the three tests (p< 0.001). No difference in the RPE was present. No correlation was present between GS and the other tests. No correlation was present between RPE and performance values and time-to-complete the tests. BMI was positively correlated to RPE in all tests. All tests strongly correlate to each other (PS vs. PL r= 0.55; PS vs. PD r= 0.64; PL vs. PD r= 0.70) and to time-to-complete the test (PS r= 0.79; PL r= 0.69; PD r= 0.66). Only the results of the PD correlate to their respective repetition cadence (r= 0.66). CONCLUSIONS: GS is not suitable to evaluate strength endurance. PS, PL and PD are all suitable to evaluate strength endurance. However, PD may be preferred to evaluate the upper body, if velocity also needs to be taken into account.
... Some of the beneficial effects of exercise training reported include improved performance of ADL, physical functioning, balance performance, gait, strength, and quality of life as well as decreased fall incidence. Findings for recent studies also suggest that older adults who exercise following recommended published strength guidelines have 46% lower odds of all causes of mortality than those who do not (67). ...
... The regular practice of strength training is associated with a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality in the elderly (Drenowatz 2015, Kraschnewski 2016, as well as with better walking speed and reduced risk of falls (Cadore 2013, Santos 2017. Maintaining MS should be the highest priority for working with the elderly. ...
Chapter
This chapter presents the aging physiology and concepts for physical activity prescription for the elderly. To this end, the following topics will be discussed: population aging and its challenges; stages and types of aging; physiology of aging (anthropometric changes, cardiac system, respiratory system, nervous system, musculoskeletal system, immune system, and endocrine system); prescription of physical activity for the elderly (concept of physical fitness, muscle strength/endurance training, flexibility training, balance training, cardiorespiratory or aerobic training); and some final considerations. Exercises should be aimed at facilitating the daily lives of the elderly, aiming to work on the needed physical skills for maintaining the autonomy and independence of this population. In this sense, functional activities should be prioritized, thinking about the basic movements that the elderly perform most in their daily lives, such as, for example, walking, getting up from a chair, showering, getting dressed, putting on a shoe.
... They also reduce the risk of injury 1 . At a recreational and functional level, strength training helps improve the health and quality of life, while decreasing the risk of certain diseases and medical conditions [2][3][4] . Such benefits have been verified by numerous studies, which have also established the proper dose of strength training each population group needs in order to achieve adaptations which result in improved athletic performance or, where applicable, health 5 . ...
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Introduction: There are numerous scientific studies in which the components of resistance training load have been analyzed, as well as many variables that condition the development of muscular strength. However, only a few studies compared the effectiveness of full body workouts and split body routines. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine which of them is more effective in increasing both muscular strength levels and kinanthropometric parameters. Methods: 28 male university students without previous experience in strength training were finally included in the present study. They were randomly assigned to two different training groups: Full body workout group (GECC) and split body routine group (GERD). Intra-and inter-group differences in percentage changes (pre-post) were assessed using non-parametric tests. Results: After the completion of an 8-week intervention period, significant improvements in body fat percentage (p = 0.028), levels of muscular strength on the upper body (p=0.008) and on the lower body (p=0.043) were observed in the GECC. Similarly, significant improvements in body fat percentage (p=0.006), lean body mass (p=0.011) and upper body (p=0.031) and lower body levels of muscular strength (p=0.048) were reported in the GERD. However, no significant differences between groups were found neither in the strength tests performed, nor in the Kineanthropometric parameters evaluated. Conclusion: Both split and full body routines are useful to improve strength levels and kinanthropometric parameters in college students with no previous experience in strength training. However, neither of the two structures is significantly more effective than the other one when it comes to improving the above-mentioned parameters. Resumen Introducción: Existen numerosas investigaciones científicas en las que se han analizado los componentes de la carga del entrenamiento de fuerza, y las numerosas variables que condicionan el desarrollo de esta capacidad. En cambio, son pocos los estudios en los que se ha contrastado la eficacia de los entrenamientos de cuerpo completo frente a las rutinas divididas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar cuál de los dos es más eficaz a la hora de mejorar los parámetros de fuerza y cineantropométricos. Material y métodos: 28 estudiantes universitarios de sexo masculino sin experiencia previa en el entrenamiento de fuerza fueron finalmente incluidos en este estudio y asignados aleatoriamente a dos grupos de entrenamiento de fuerza diferentes: Entrenamiento de cuerpo completo (GECC) y entrenamiento con rutina dividida (GERD). Se compararon los porcentajes de cambio (pre-post) intra e intergrupo mediante pruebas no paramétricas. Resultados: Finalizada la intervención de ocho semanas, el GECC mejoró de forma significativa el porcentaje de grasa (p=0,028), y la fuerza en el tren superior (p=0,008), e inferior (p=0,043). En el GERD se produjeron mejoras significativas en el porcentaje de grasa (p=0,006), en el tejido magro (p=0,011), y en la fuerza en el tren superior (p=0,031), e inferior (p=0,048). Sin embargo, no existieron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en ninguna de las mejoras alcanzadas en los parámetros de fuerza y cineantropométricos evaluados. Conclusión: Tanto las rutinas divididas como las de cuerpo completo permiten mejorar los niveles de fuerza y los parámetros cineantropométricos en estudiantes universitarios sin experiencia previa en el entrenamiento de fuerza. Sin embargo, ninguna de las dos estructuras de entrenamiento es significativamente más eficaz que la otra a la hora de mejorar los mencionados parámetros.
... Además, disminuye el riesgo de padecer lesiones 1 . A nivel recreativo y funcional, el entrenamiento de fuerza permite mejorar las condiciones de salud y calidad de vida, y disminuye del riego de padecer ciertas enfermedades y patologías [2][3][4] . Estos beneficios han sido verificados mediante numerosos estudios, en los que también se ha establecido la dosis adecuada de entrenamiento de fuerza que cada grupo de población precisa para lograr adaptaciones que redunden en la mejora del rendimiento deportivo o en su caso, de la salud 5 . ...
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Pablo Prieto González, et al. 78 Arch Med Deporte 2020;37(2):78-83 Artículo original Resumen Introducción: Existen numerosas investigaciones científicas en las que se han analizado los componentes de la carga del entrenamiento de fuerza, y las numerosas variables que condicionan el desarrollo de esta capacidad. En cambio, son pocos los estudios en los que se ha contrastado la eficacia de los entrenamientos de cuerpo completo frente a las rutinas divididas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar cuál de los dos es más eficaz a la hora de mejorar los parámetros de fuerza y cineantropométricos. Material y métodos: 28 estudiantes universitarios de sexo masculino sin experiencia previa en el entrenamiento de fuerza fueron finalmente incluidos en este estudio y asignados aleatoriamente a dos grupos de entrenamiento de fuerza diferentes: Entrenamiento de cuerpo completo (GECC) y entrenamiento con rutina dividida (GERD). Se compararon los porcentajes de cambio (pre-post) intra e intergrupo mediante pruebas no paramétricas. Resultados: Finalizada la intervención de ocho semanas, el GECC mejoró de forma significativa el porcentaje de grasa (p=0,028), y la fuerza en el tren superior (p=0,008), e inferior (p=0,043). En el GERD se produjeron mejoras significativas en el porcentaje de grasa (p=0,006), en el tejido magro (p=0,011), y en la fuerza en el tren superior (p=0,031), e inferior (p=0,048). Sin embargo, no existieron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en ninguna de las mejoras alcanzadas en los parámetros de fuerza y cineantropométricos evaluados. Conclusión: Tanto las rutinas divididas como las de cuerpo completo permiten mejorar los niveles de fuerza y los parámetros cineantropométricos en estudiantes universitarios sin experiencia previa en el entrenamiento de fuerza. Sin embargo, ninguna de las dos estructuras de entrenamiento es significativamente más eficaz que la otra a la hora de mejorar los mencionados parámetros. Palabras clave: Entrenamiento. Fuerza. Rutina dividida. Rutina de cuerpo completo.
... They also reduce the risk of injury 1 . At a recreational and functional level, strength training helps improve the health and quality of life, while decreasing the risk of certain diseases and medical conditions [2][3][4] . Such benefits have been verified by numerous studies, which have also established the proper dose of strength training each population group needs in order to achieve adaptations which result in improved athletic performance or, where applicable, health 5 . ...
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Full-text available
Summary Introduction: There are numerous scientific studies in which the components of resistance training load have been analyzed, as well as many variables that condition the development of muscular strength. However, only a few studies compared the effectiveness of full body workouts and split body routines. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine which of them is more effective in increasing both muscular strength levels and kinanthropometric parameters. Methods: 28 male university students without previous experience in strength training were finally included in the present study. They were randomly assigned to two different training groups: Full body workout group (GECC) and split body routine group (GERD). Intra-and inter-group differences in percentage changes (pre-post) were assessed using non-parametric tests. Results: After the completion of an 8-week intervention period, significant improvements in body fat percentage (p = 0.028), levels of muscular strength on the upper body (p=0.008) and on the lower body (p=0.043) were observed in the GECC. Similarly, significant improvements in body fat percentage (p=0.006), lean body mass (p=0.011) and upper body (p=0.031) and lower body levels of muscular strength (p=0.048) were reported in the GERD. However, no significant differences between groups were found neither in the strength tests performed, nor in the Kineanthropometric parameters evaluated. Conclusion: Both split and full body routines are useful to improve strength levels and kinanthropometric parameters in college students with no previous experience in strength training. However, neither of the two structures is significantly more effective than the other one when it comes to improving the above-mentioned parameters.
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Clinical and medical data findings have traditionally been more representative of male than female subjects, and when combined, have not clearly differentiated between the groups. In this study there were no research questions initially contemplated, as the data were obtained from an educational setting, where participants completed tasks as part of a pedagogical program of preparation. The nature of the post-hoc analysis renders the study as a hypothesis-generating type rather than a hypothesis-testing one. It began as a cross-sectional quantitative analysis of performance on a task to explore the relationship between hand grip and three independent physiological variables. The data collected from all subjects were randomized since the total group of participants contained a disproportionate number of females as compared to males, this being a result of a demographic predominance of female students in a program of teacher preparation. Graphical analysis with the slope taken as a measure of hand grip dependence on three independent variables, and the correlation value used as a measure of association between variables yielded discernible differences. The grip strength dependence on the hand size as well as the wrist thickness show consistently significant differences for females only, with t test of significance (p < .001), and large effect size differences based on Cohen’s d values of 3.08 and 1.92, respectively. The significance of the finding that female grip strength depends the most on wrist thickness has implications for rehabilitative and therapeutic settings.
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Background: Progressive ageing of the population has highlighted the importance of the relationship between physical function and frailty in patients with chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exercise capacity and grip strength (GS) in a cohort of older patients involved in an exercise-based secondary prevention program. Methods: Sixty-five outpatients (aged 75±6 years) were included. Exercise capacity was assessed through the estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O 2peak ) and the measurement of walking speed (WS). GS was evaluated in the dominant arm using a hand-held dynamometer. Results: Patients with higher V̇O 2peak and WS values exhibited significantly higher GS (P<0.01). GS was significantly related to WS (P<0.01) and V̇O 2peak (P<0.01), and inversely associated with age (P<0.01). Results from linear multiple regression analysis (P<0.01) demonstrate that GS was strongly associated with WS (P<0.01) and age (P=0.01), while BMI, weekly LTPA, cardiovascular diagnosis, V̇O 2peak and education were not. Conclusions: The evaluation of WS, V̇O 2peak and GS was feasible and well tolerated. These preliminary results suggest that prescribing regular walking activity, educating subjects to perform it at higher average WS, can help to maintain physical function in older patients with cardiovascular disease.
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Pregnancy is a major stage of many women’s lives within their reproductive years and the incorporation of exercise can be vastly beneficial. However, to a large majority, exercise during pregnancy has been long believed to be detrimental to the developing fetus. However, an abundance of literature has indicated that exercising while pregnant may benefit both the mother and unborn child, such as improvements in physical fitness, mental well-being, and a reduced duration of labor and delivery. This article will briefly discuss the physiological and psychological adaptations and review general guidelines for beginning aerobic and resistance training exercise during pregnancy.
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The concurrent training led to beneficial effects on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. However, its effects on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic control marks are little studied. This study aimed to evaluate the concurrent training effects on BP, autonomic control, aerobic fi tness and muscle strength of middle-aged men and women. Thirty-two volunteers (51.4 ± 4.2 years, systolic BP 115 ± 12 mmHg and diastolic BP 78 ± 8 mmHg) were divided into 4 groups of 8 volunteers: male concurrent training (MCT), female concurrent training (FCT), male sedentary control (MSC) and female sedentary control (FSC) groups. A minimum absence of menstruation for 12-months was required. Concurrent training, six resistance exercise for whole body followed by 30 min of jogging and/or running at 55%–85% of VO2peak, was performed three times a week. The main assessments were rest BP and cardiovascular autonomic markers evaluated through heart rate variability (iRR, LF, HF, LF/HF, RMSSD, pNN50, SD1 and SD2), aerobic fitness measured by cardiorespiratory test (VO2peak) and muscle strength by one repetition maximum (1-RM - arm curl, bench press and leg press). The concurrent training did not change any cardiovascular variables. Regarding fitness the MCT and FCT groups demonstrated signifi cant improvement in VO2peak (13.12% e 8.51%, respectively). Muscle strengthimproved significantly in the MCT group in all three exercises (arm curl: 26.53%; bench press: 25.04%; leg press: 65.37%), while FCT in just two exercises (arm curl: 12.79%; bench press: 17.25%). Although concurrent training appears to be a good alternative for inducing improvements in various physical fitnessvariables in male, its can induce concurrence in leg strength of female. Concurrent training is not an effective strategy to improve BP and autonomic nervous system.
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There is strong scientific evidence that muscle-strengthening exercise (i.e. use of weight machines, push-ups, sit-ups) is independently associated with a reduced risk of multiple chronic diseases (e.g. diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease). However, prevalence rates for meeting the muscle-strengthening exercise guideline (≥2 times/week) are significantly lower (~20%) than those reported to meet the aerobic physical activity guideline (e.g. walking, jogging, cycling) (~50%). It is therefore important to understand public health surveillance approaches to assess muscle-strengthening exercise. The aim of this review was to describe muscle-strengthening exercise assessment in public health surveillance. Informed by the PRISMA guidelines, an extensive keyword search was undertaken across 7 electronic data bases. We identified 86,672 possible articles and following screening (n = 1140 in full-text) against specific inclusion criteria (adults aged ≥18 years, English, studies containing <1000 participants), extracted data from 156 manuscripts. Fifty-eight different survey systems were identified across 17 countries. Muscle-strengthening exercise frequency (85.3%), duration (23.7%) and intensity (1.3%) were recorded. Muscle-strengthening exercise questions varied significantly, with some (11.5%) requiring a singular ‘yes’ vs ‘no’ response, while others (7.7%) sought specific details (e.g. muscle groups targeted). Assessments of duration and intensity were inconsistent. Very few studies measured the validity (0.6%) and reliability (1.3%) of muscle-strengthening exercise questions. Discrepancy exists within the current assessment systems/surveys used to assess muscle-strengthening exercise in public health surveillance. This is likely to impede efforts to identify at risk groups and trends within physical activity surveillance, and to accurately assess associations between muscle-strengthening exercise and health-related outcomes.
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Aim To examine the proportion of nurses meeting the strength training recommendation and its associated cardiometabolic, psychological and musculoskeletal benefits. Background Strength training targets poor physical and mental health often reported by nurses; however, it is unknown whether nurses are meeting the strength training guidelines. Methods Nurses from 14 hospitals completed a 7‐day physical activity log. Nurses were considered meeting the recommendation if they reported ≥2 strength training sessions per week. Cardiometabolic, psychological and musculoskeletal health, and levels of motivation were compared between nurses meeting and not meeting the guidelines. Results Of the 307 nurses (94% female; age: 43 ± 12 years), 29 (9.4%) met the strength training recommendation. These nurses had lower body mass index (24.1 ± 2.6 vs. 27.3 ± 5.5 kg/m², p = .007) and waist circumference (73.8 ± 8.3 vs. 81.1 ± 11.7 cm, p = .017); and higher vigour–activity (18.0 ± 5.8 vs. 15.6 ± 6.5 points, p = .046) and self‐determined motivation (relative autonomic index: 54.9 ± 20.3 vs. 45.0 ± 23.8 points, p = .042) scores than nurses not meeting the recommendation. Conclusion While the proportion of nurses meeting the strength training recommendation was small (<10%), they had lower body mass and waist circumference, and higher vigour–activity. Implications for nursing management Strategies to increase the strength training engagement may improve the cardiometabolic health and increase vigour among nurses.
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Background: The effects of aerobic physical activity (PA) and muscular strengthening activity (MSA) on all-cause mortality risk need further exploration among ethnically diverse populations. Purpose: To examine potential effect modification of race-ethnicity on meeting the PA guidelines and on all-cause mortality. Methods: The study sample (N = 14,384) included adults (20-79 y of age) from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PA was categorized into 6 categories based on the 2018 PA guidelines: category 1 (inactive), category 2 (insufficient PA and no MSA), category 3 (active and no MSA), category 4 (no PA and sufficient MSA), category 5 (insufficient PA and sufficient MSA), and category 6 (meeting both recommendations). Race-ethnic groups examined included non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American. Cox-proportional hazard models were used. Results: Significant risk reductions were found for categories 2, 3, and 6 for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black. Among Mexican American, significant risk reductions were found in category 6. Conclusion: In support of the 2018 PA guidelines, meeting both the aerobic PA and MSA guidelines significantly reduced risk for all-cause mortality independent of race-ethnicity. The effects of aerobic PA alone seem to be isolated to non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black.
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Muscular strength, an important component of physical fitness, has an independent role in the prevention of chronic diseases whereas muscular weakness is strongly related to functional limitations and physical disability. Our purpose was to investigate the role of muscular strength as a predictor of mortality in health and disease. We conducted a systematic search in EMBASE and MEDLINE (1980-2014) looking for the association between muscular strength and mortality risk (all-cause and cause-specific mortality). Selected publications included 23 papers (15 epidemiological and 8 clinical studies). Muscular strength was inversely and independently associated with all-cause mortality even after adjusting for several confounders including the levels of physical activity or even cardiorespiratory fitness. The same pattern was observed for cardiovascular mortality; however more research is needed due to the few available data. The existed studies failed to show that low muscular strength is predictive of cancer mortality. Furthermore, a strong and inverse association of muscular strength with all-cause mortality has also been confirmed in several clinical populations such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, cancer, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis and patients with critical illness. However, future studies are needed to further establish the current evidence and to explore the exact independent mechanisms of muscular strength in relation to mortality. Muscular strength as a modifiable risk factor would be of great interest from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Objective: To examine the independent associations of leisure-time aerobic physical activity (PA) and resistance exercise (RE) on all-cause mortality in cancer survivors. Patients and methods: Patients included 2863 male and female cancer survivors, aged 18 to 81 years, who received a preventive medical examination between April 8, 1987, and December 27, 2002, while enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study in Dallas, Texas. Physical activity and RE were assessed by self-report at the baseline medical examination. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of PA and RE with all-cause mortality in participants who had a history of cancer. Results: Physical activity in cancer survivors was not associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. In contrast, RE was associated with a 33% lower risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI, 0.45-0.99) after adjusting for potential confounders, including PA. Conclusion: Individuals who participated in RE during cancer survival had a lower risk for all-cause mortality. The present findings provide preliminary evidence for benefits of RE during cancer survival. Future randomized controlled trials examining RE and its effect on lean body mass, muscular strength, and all-cause mortality in cancer survivors are warranted.
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To determine the comparative effectiveness of exercise versus drug interventions on mortality outcomes. Metaepidemiological study. Meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials with mortality outcomes comparing the effectiveness of exercise and drug interventions with each other or with control (placebo or usual care). Medline and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, May 2013. Mortality. We combined study level death outcomes from exercise and drug trials using random effects network meta-analysis. We included 16 (four exercise and 12 drug) meta-analyses. Incorporating an additional three recent exercise trials, our review collectively included 305 randomised controlled trials with 339 274 participants. Across all four conditions with evidence on the effectiveness of exercise on mortality outcomes (secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, rehabilitation of stroke, treatment of heart failure, prevention of diabetes), 14 716 participants were randomised to physical activity interventions in 57 trials. No statistically detectable differences were evident between exercise and drug interventions in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and prediabetes. Physical activity interventions were more effective than drug treatment among patients with stroke (odds ratios, exercise v anticoagulants 0.09, 95% credible intervals 0.01 to 0.70 and exercise v antiplatelets 0.10, 0.01 to 0.62). Diuretics were more effective than exercise in heart failure (exercise v diuretics 4.11, 1.17 to 24.76). Inconsistency between direct and indirect comparisons was not significant. Although limited in quantity, existing randomised trial evidence on exercise interventions suggests that exercise and many drug interventions are often potentially similar in terms of their mortality benefits in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, rehabilitation after stroke, treatment of heart failure, and prevention of diabetes.
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Background: To examine the effectiveness of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) resistance training (RT) guidelines to improve physical function and functional classification in older adults with reduced physical abilities. Methods: Twenty-five at-risk older adults were randomized to a control (CON = 13) or 8-week resistance training intervention arm (RT = 12). Progressive RT included 8 exercises for 1 set of 10 repetitions at a perceived exertion of 5-6 performed twice a week. Individuals were assessed for physical function and functional classification change (low, moderate or high) by the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and muscle strength measures. Results: Postintervention, significant differences were found between groups for SPPB-Chair Stand [F(1,22) = 9.14, P < .01, η = .29] and SPPB-Total Score [F(1,22) = 7.40, P < .05, η = .25]. Functional classification was improved as a result of the intervention with 83% of participants in the RT group improving from low to moderate functioning or moderate to high functioning. Strength significantly improved on all exercises in the RT compared with the CON group. Conclusions: A RT program congruent with the current ASCM and AHA guidelines is effective to improve overall physical function, functional classification, and muscle strength for older adults with reduced physical abilities.
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We examined the associations between muscular strength, markers of overall and central adiposity, and cancer mortality in men. A prospective cohort study including 8,677 men ages 20 to 82 years followed from 1980 to 2003. Participants were enrolled in The Aerobics Centre Longitudinal Study, the Cooper Institute in Dallas, Texas. Muscular strength was quantified by combining 1-repetition maximal measures for leg and bench presses. Adiposity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, and waist circumference. Cancer death rates per 10,000 person-years adjusted for age and examination year were 17.5, 11.0, and 10.3 across incremental thirds of muscular strength (P = 0.001); 10.9, 13.4, and 20.1 across BMI groups of 18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, and > or =30 kg/m(2), respectively (P = 0.008); 11.6 and 17.5 for normal (<25%) and high percent body fat (> or =25%), respectively (P = 0.006); and 12.2 and 16.7 for normal (< or =102 cm) and high waist circumference (>102 cm), respectively (P = 0.06). After adjusting for additional potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.00 (reference), 0.65 (0.47-0.90), and 0.61 (0.44-0.85) across incremental thirds of muscular strength, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend). Further adjustment for BMI, percent body fat, waist circumference, or cardiorespiratory fitness had little effect on the association. The associations of BMI, percent body fat, or waist circumference with cancer mortality did not persist after further adjusting for muscular strength (all P > or = 0.1). Higher levels of muscular strength are associated with lower cancer mortality risk in men, independent of clinically established measures of overall and central adiposity, and other potential confounders.
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In a meta-analysis we investigated the effect of physical activity with different intensity categories on all-cause mortality. Many studies have reported positive effects of regular physical activity on primary prevention. This recent meta-analysis analyzed all-cause mortality with special reference to intensity categories. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in EMBASE, PUBMED, and MEDLINE data bases (1990-2006) for prospective cohort studies on physical leisure activity. Thirty-eight studies were identified and evaluated. The presentation refers to studies with 3 or 4 different intensities of regular physical activity according to a standard questionnaire. There was a significant association of lower all-cause mortality for active individuals compared with sedentary persons. For studies with three activity categories (mildly, moderately, and highly active) and multivariate-adjusted models, highly active men had a 22% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.84) compared to mildly active men. For women, the relative risk was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.90). We observed similar results in moderately active persons compared to mildly active individuals (RR=0.81 for men and RR=0.76 for women). This association of activity to all-cause mortality was similar and significant in older subjects. Regular physical activity over longer time is strongly associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality in active subjects compared to sedentary persons. There is a dose-response curve especially from sedentary subjects to those with mild and moderate exercise with only a minor additional reduction with further increase in activity level.
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Authorities advocate that resistance and aerobic exercise are essential for reducing risk factors for chronic disease and disability in older adults. However, the incremental effects of combined resistance and aerobic exercise compared with either modality alone on risk factors for disease and disability is generally unknown. Participants were 136 sedentary, abdominally obese older men and women recruited from September 30, 2002, through November 15, 2006, at Queen's University. Participants were randomized to 1 of the following 4 groups for 6 months: resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, resistance and aerobic exercise (combined exercise), or nonexercise control. Primary outcomes were analyzed by an intent-to-treat model and included changes in insulin resistance by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and functional limitation using the average change in 4 tests combined (average z score). After controlling for age, sex, and baseline value, insulin resistance improved compared with controls in the aerobic exercise and the combined exercise groups but not in the resistance exercise group. Improvement (mean [SE]) in the combined exercise group was greater than in the resistance exercise group (9.2 [1.3] vs 1.8 [1.3] mg/mL/microIU per kilogram of skeletal muscle per minute x100 [P < .001]) but not in the aerobic exercise group (9.2 [1.3] vs 6.5 [1.3] mg/mL/microIU per kilogram of skeletal muscle per minute x100 [P = .46]). Functional limitation improved significantly in all groups compared with the control group. Improvement in the combined exercise group was greater than in the aerobic exercise group (0.5 [0.1] vs -0.0 [0.1]; standard units, z score [P = .003]) but not in the resistance exercise group. Improvement in the resistance exercise group was not different from the aerobic exercise group. The combination of resistance and aerobic exercise was the optimal exercise strategy for simultaneous reduction in insulin resistance and functional limitation in previously sedentary, abdominally obese older adults. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00520858.
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To determine how multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures could be modified by high-intensity strength training exercises in postmenopausal women. Randomized controlled trial of 1-year duration. Exercise laboratory at Tufts University, Boston, Mass. Forty postmenopausal white women, 50 to 70 years of age, participated in the study; 39 women completed the study. The subjects were sedentary and estrogen-deplete. High-intensity strength training exercises 2 days per week using five different exercises (n = 20) vs untreated controls (n = 19). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry for bone status, one repetition maximum for muscle strength, 24-hour urinary creatinine for muscle mass, and backward tandem walk for dynamic balance. Femoral neck bone mineral density and lumbar spine bone mineral density increased by 0.005 +/- 0.039 g/cm2 (0.9% +/- 4.5%) (mean +/- SD) and 0.009 +/- 0.033 g/cm2 (1.0% +/- 3.6%), respectively, in the strength-trained women and decreased by -0.022 +/- 0.035 g/cm2 (-2.5% +/- 3.8%) and -0.019 +/- 0.035 g/cm2 (-1.8% +/- 3.5%), respectively, in the controls (P = .02 and .04). Total body bone mineral content was preserved in the strength-trained women (+2.0 +/- 68 g; 0.0% +/- 3.0%) and tended to decrease in the controls (-33+77 g; -1.2% +/- 3.4%, P = .12). Muscle mass, muscle strength, and dynamic balance increased in the strength-trained women and decreased in the controls (P = .03 to < .001). High-intensity strength training exercises are an effective and feasible means to preserve bone density while improving muscle mass, strength, and balance in postmenopausal women.
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Although disuse of skeletal muscle and undernutrition are often cited as potentially reversible causes of frailty in elderly people, the efficacy of interventions targeted specifically at these deficits has not been carefully studied. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing progressive resistance exercise training, multinutrient supplementation, both interventions, and neither in 100 frail nursing home residents over a 10-week period. The mean (+/- SE) age of the 63 women and 37 men enrolled in the study was 87.1 +/- 0.6 years (range, 72 to 98); 94 percent of the subjects completed the study. Muscle strength increased by 113 +/- 8 percent in the subjects who underwent exercise training, as compared with 3 +/- 9 percent in the nonexercising subjects (P < 0.001). Gait velocity increased by 11.8 +/- 3.8 percent in the exercisers but declined by 1.0 +/- 3.8 percent in the nonexercisers (P = 0.02). Stair-climbing power also improved in the exercisers as compared with the nonexercisers (by 28.4 +/- 6.6 percent vs. 3.6 +/- 6.7 percent, P = 0.01), as did the level of spontaneous physical activity. Cross-sectional thigh-muscle area increased by 2.7 +/- 1.8 percent in the exercisers but declined by 1.8 +/- 2.0 percent in the nonexercisers (P = 0.11). The nutritional supplement had no effect on any primary outcome measure. Total energy intake was significantly increased only in the exercising subjects who also received nutritional supplementation. High-intensity resistance exercise training is a feasible and effective means of counteracting muscle weakness and physical frailty in very elderly people. In contrast, multi-nutrient supplementation without concomitant exercise does not reduce muscle weakness or physical frailty.
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To examine prospectively the association between muscular strength and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in men. Prospective cohort study. Aerobics centre longitudinal study. 8762 men aged 20-80. All cause mortality up to 31 December 2003; muscular strength, quantified by combining one repetition maximal measures for leg and bench presses and further categorised as age specific thirds of the combined strength variable; and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed by a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. During an average follow-up of 18.9 years, 503 deaths occurred (145 cardiovascular disease, 199 cancer). Age adjusted death rates per 10,000 person years across incremental thirds of muscular strength were 38.9, 25.9, and 26.6 for all causes; 12.1, 7.6, and 6.6 for cardiovascular disease; and 6.1, 4.9, and 4.2 for cancer (all P<0.01 for linear trend). After adjusting for age, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, baseline medical conditions, and family history of cardiovascular disease, hazard ratios across incremental thirds of muscular strength for all cause mortality were 1.0 (referent), 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.90), and 0.77 (0.62 to 0.96); for death from cardiovascular disease were 1.0 (referent), 0.74 (0.50 to 1.10), and 0.71 (0.47 to 1.07); and for death from cancer were 1.0 (referent), 0.72 (0.51 to 1.00), and 0.68 (0.48 to 0.97). The pattern of the association between muscular strength and death from all causes and cancer persisted after further adjustment for cardiorespiratory fitness; however, the association between muscular strength and death from cardiovascular disease was attenuated after further adjustment for cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular strength is inversely and independently associated with death from all causes and cancer in men, even after adjusting for cardiorespiratory fitness and other potential confounders.
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Objective To determine the association between meeting strength training guidelines (≥ 2 times per week) and the presence of functional limitations among older adults. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from older adult participants (N = 6763) of the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2011 in the United States. Results Overall, 16.1% of older adults reported meeting strength training guidelines. For each of nine functional limitations, those with the limitation were less likely to meet strength training recommendations than those without the limitation. For example, 20.0% of those who reported no difficulty walking one-quarter mile met strength training guidelines, versus only 10.1% of those who reported difficulty (p < .001). In sum, 21.7% of those with no limitations (33.7% of sample) met strength training guidelines, versus only 15.9% of those reporting 1–4 limitations (38.5% of sample) and 9.8% of those reporting 5–9 limitations (27.8% of sample) (p < .001). Conclusion Strength training is uncommon among older adults and even less common among those who need it the most. The potential for strength training to improve the public's health is therefore substantial, as those who have the most to gain from strength training participate the least.
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Objective: To evaluate the long-term preventive impact of strength training on muscle performance in older adults. Design: A 7-year follow-up on a 1-year randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of combined resistance training and aerobic training and whole-body vibration training on muscle performance. Setting: University training center. Participants: Men and women (N=83; control [CON] group, n=27; strength-training intervention [INT] group, n=56) between 60 and 80 years of age. Interventions: The INT group exercised 3 times weekly during 1 year, performing a combined resistance training and aerobic training program or a whole-body vibration training program. The former training program was designed according to American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. The whole-body vibration training program included unloaded static and dynamic leg exercises on a vibration platform. The CON group did not participate in any training program. Main outcome measures: Static strength (STAT), dynamic strength at 60°/s (DYN60) and at 240°/s (DYN240), speed of movement at 20% (S20). Results: From baseline to postintervention, muscle performance did not change in the CON group, except for S20 (+6.55%±2.88%, P<.001). One year of strength training increased (P≤.001) STAT (+11.46%±1.86%), DYN60 (+6.96%±1.65%), DYN240 (+9.25%±1.68%), and S20 (+7.73%±2.19%) in the INT group. Between baseline and follow-up, muscle performance decreased (P<.001) in both groups. However, STAT and DYN60 showed a significantly lower loss in the INT group (-8.65%±2.35% and -7.10%±2.38%, respectively) compared with the CON group (-16.47%±2.69% and -15.08%±2.27%, respectively). This positive impact might be due to the preservation of the training-induced gains, given the similar annual decline rates in both groups from postintervention to follow-up. Additionally, in trained participants, aging seems to impact velocity-dependent strength and power more compared with basic strength, as the total losses in DYN240 (CON, -15.93%±2.64%; INT, -11.39%±1.95%) and S20 (CON, -14.39%±2.10%; INT, -13.16%±1.72%) did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions: A 1-year strength-training intervention results in an improved muscle performance in older adults 7 years after their enrollment in the intervention. However, an extensive exercise program cannot attenuate the age-related decline once the intervention stops.