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... The consensus among these studies is that LLLT causes a reduction in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels (Level IV Evidence). 55,56 LLLT SUMMARY There has been interest in the use of LLLT as a noninvasive method of body contouring. The exact mechanism of how LLLT works remains unclear. ...
... This coupled with the results of studies in which there were reductions in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels have increased interest in LLLT as a method of body slimming. 55,56 ...
The demand for body contouring is rapidly increasing, and interest in noninvasive approaches has also grown. The author reviewed the evidence base behind the currently available devices and methods for nonsurgical body contouring. There is little high-level evidence in the present literature to support the effectiveness of any of these devices. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission:
... This increasingly common knowledge, mounted on highly pressured cultural ideals of beauty and attractiveness, have instilled a strong desire amongst the population to obtain slimmer and healthier appearing bodies. The growing demand for methods of fat reduction is perhaps driven by the fact that over 69.0% of American adults age 20 years and older are now overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ), up from 54% in 1988. 1 In 2013, over 11 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States, a 279% increase since 1997. 2 Liposuction is the most common cosmetic surgery in the United States with 363 912 procedures in 2013, a 16% increase from 2012. 2 More specifically, liposuction is the most common cosmetic surgery overall in men, in all adults age [35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50], and second overall in women, behind breast augmentation. 2 Although liposuction is extremely effective at removing large amounts of excess fat, it is accompanied by significant risk of complications and severe adverse effects. ...
... 13 Despite the excess lipids being cleared through the lymphatic system, LLLT has not been shown to increase serum lipids but rather, has been shown to reduce serum cholesterol and leptin levels. [39][40][41] RF studies reported transient erythema and some pain in 9.5% of subjects; both of which resolved within 60 min of treatment. 23,27 However, 89% of subjects treated with Vanquish RF found it to be comfortable or very comfortable. ...
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The risks, financial costs and lengthy downtime associated with surgical procedures for fat reduction have led to the development of a number of non-invasive techniques. Non-invasive body contouring now represents the fastest growing area of aesthetic medicine. There are currently four leading non-invasive techniques for reducing localized subcutaneous adipose tissue: low-level laser therapy (LLLT), cryolipolysis, radio frequency (RF) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). To review and compare leading techniques and clinical outcomes of non-invasive subcutaneous fat reduction. The terms 'non-invasive', 'low-level laser', 'cryolipolysis', 'ultrasound' and 'radio frequency' were combined with 'lipolysis', 'fat reduction' or 'body contour' during separate searches in the PubMed database. We identified 31 studies (27 prospective clinical studies and four retrospective chart reviews) with a total of 2937 patients that had been treated with LLLT (n = 1114), cryolipolysis (n = 706), HIFU (n = 843) or RF (n = 116) or other techniques (n = 158) for fat reduction or body contouring. A majority of these patients experienced significant and satisfying results without any serious adverse effects. The studies investigating these devices have all varied in treatment regimen, body locations, follow-up times or outcome operationalization. Each technique differs in offered advantages and severity of adverse effects. However, multiple non-invasive devices are safe and effective for circumferential reduction in local fat tissue by 2 cm or more across the abdomen, hips and thighs. Results are consistent and reproducible for each device and none are associated with any serious or permanent adverse effects. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
... After injection of tumescent solution containing local anesthetic, a fiber optic was inserted via a cannula into the deep and intermediate subcutaneous spaces moving at a rate of at least 1 cm/second. The applied power setting ranged from 7 to 38 W, with a total fluence ranging from 2,000 to 64,000 J per site [56]. Suction-assisted lipolysis was then performed using standard manual Mercedes-style-tip liposuction cannulas. ...
... Although it had been hypothesized that fat released following LLLT treatment may appear in the bloodstream where it might adversely affect the lipid profile, a nonrandomized, uncontrolled pilot study demonstrated an actual reduction in serum cholesterol and leptin levels following LLLT [56]. Two other studies by Rushdi [35] and Jackson et al. [34] demonstrated similar effects in blood lipid profiles following LLLT treatments using i-lipo (Chromogenex, South Wales, United Kingdom) and Erchonia Zerona (Erchonia Medical, Inc.) devices, respectively. ...
Background and objective: Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) is a noninvasive, nonthermal approach to disorders requiring reduction of pain and inflammation and stimulation of healing and tissue regeneration. Within the last decade, LLLT started being investigated as an adjuvant to liposuction, for noninvasive body contouring, reduction of cellulite, and improvement of blood lipid profile. LLLT may also aid autologous fat transfer procedures by enhancing the viability of adipocytes. However the underlying mechanism of actions for such effects still seems to be unclear. It is important, therefore, to understand the potential efficacy and proposed mechanism of actions of this new procedure for fat reduction. Materials and methods: A review of the literature associated with applications of LLLT related to fat layer reduction was performed to evaluate the findings from pre-clinical and clinical studies with respect to the mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety. Results: The studies as of today suggest that LLLT has a potential to be used in fat and cellulite reduction as well as in improvement of blood lipid profile without any significant side effects. One of the main proposed mechanism of actions is based upon production of transient pores in adipocytes, allowing lipids to leak out. Another is through activation of the complement cascade which could cause induction of adipocyte apoptosis and subsequent release of lipids. Conclusion: Although the present studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy of LLLT in fat layer reduction, studies demonstrating the efficacy of LLLT as a stand-alone procedure are still inadequate. Moreover, further studies are necessary to identify the mechanism of action.
... The therapies were reported be effective in clinical practice, such as laser therapy [4][5][6], hypolipidemic 30 drugs [7]. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been found to modulate various biological processes with- 31 out side effects. ...
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Background: Laser therapy is reported to be clinically effective for improving microcirculation, rheological properties and blood lipid profiles despite the lack of certainty on the mechanism. Objective: This study intends to provide methods to drop blood lipid level of hyperlipidemia samples by low-intensity laser irradiation therapy and provide reasoning of mechanism. Methods: Twenty whole blood samples of high level of lipids profile are irradiated by 405 nm low-intensity laser at 12 J/cm2 twice a day for 3 days and compared with normal lipids profile group. Then whole blood sample are centrifuged to obtain result of erythrocyte for further interpretation. Multi-scan spectrum microplate reader is used to measure absorption spectrum and data is analyzed by software SPSS 14.0. Results: Results show that after 405 nm low-intensity laser irradiation, whole blood samples of high lipid level statistically have higher absorbance peak value than normal samples while erythrocyte samples have lower absorbance peak value. Conclusions: From the divergence of absorption peak value change after low-intensity laser irradiation for whole blood sample and erythrocyte, we suspect that low level laser irradiation affects the enzymes activity of lipid metabolism, improves the cholesterol balance of plasma and cytoplasm in erythrocyte, and decreases aggregation of the erythrocyte.
... It is used for tissue regeneration and bio-stimulation, pain reduction, swelling, inflammatory response in orthopedic injuries and degenerative diseases, wound healing and numerous cosmetic procedures such as breast augmentation and lipoplasty. [8][9][10] It is used as an adjunct to liposuction to reduce pain and inflammation, 11 and it has also been shown to be effective for non-invasive body contouring. Reduction in cholesterol and leptin levels are other significant clinical benefits of LLLT which were reported in several studies. ...
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Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of 3 wavelengths (including red, infra-red, and blue) of low-level laser (LLL) as a non-invasive therapeutic method to reduce abdominal girth. To achieve biochemical activity on adipocytes, a red laser was used in our selective laser combination. Near-infrared laser was used to increase depth of penetration. Nitrosyl complexes of hemoglobin (NO-Hb) are sensitive to blue light, thereby leading to increase in release of biologically active nitric oxide (NO), which can affect tissue perfusion. Thus, a blue LED was added to the laser combination. Methods: Eighteen females participated in the study. Twelve sessions of laser therapy were performed, 2 sessions per week for each subject. Continuous wave diode lasers, including red (630 nm), infra-red (808 nm), and a blue LED (450 nm) were applied and were all designed by the Canadian Optic and Laser Center. Results: Statistical analyses revealed that upper abdomen size significantly decreased from pre- (91.86 ± 11.16) to post- (87.41 ± 10.52) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (P<0.001). Middle abdomen size showed significant reduction from pre- (97.02 ± 8.82) to post- (91.97 ± 8.49) LLLT (P<0.001). Lower abdomen size significantly decreased from pre- (100.36 ± 9.45) to post- (95.80 ± 8.52) LLLT (P<0.001). Conclusion: Based on this case series pilot investigation, the combination of 3 different wavelengths of LLL was effective for abdominal girth reduction in 100% of our subjects (P<0.001), without any side effects. Future studies will assess the long-term benefits of this laser combination for reduction of subcutaneous fat deposits.
... With regard to body contouring, a randomized, doubleblind, sham-controlled study using a 635 nm LLLT device showed a circumferential reduction of the waist, hips, and thighs following six treatments administered over a 2week period [14,16]. This device has been shown to provide other significant clinical benefits including reduction in cholesterol and leptin levels while remaining noninvasive and relatively risk-free [17]. ...
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Background Noninvasive body contouring is one of the fastest growing segments of the cosmetic aesthetic industry. There is increased public demand for procedures with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times. Cryolipolysis and Laser lipolysis have been used as treatments for localized body contouring. Objective To compare the effect of Cryolipolysis versus Laser lipolysis on adolescent's abdominal adiposity. DesignRandomized, controlled trial. SubjectsForty-five obese adolescents of both sexes ranged in age from 13 to 16 years participated in this study were to be categorized into three groups of equal number (each group 15 subjects) randomly selected from population. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group A was received (Cryolipolysis and diet), Group B was received (Laser lipolysis and diet), Group C was received (only diet) all groups were observed for 8 weeks. Weight and height scale for (change in weight), tape measurement for (waist-hip ratio), skinfold caliper, and MRI. ResultsThere was no significant difference between three groups post-treatment in BMI and body weight P-value were (0.2, 0.42, 0.67), respectively. There was a significant improvement for Cryolipolysis group in waist-hip ratio, Suprailiac skin fold, and subcutaneous adipose tissue than other groups P-value (0.001). Conclusions Cryolipolysis has a favorable effect than Laser lipolysis in the reduction of waist-hip ratio, skin folds at Suprailiac level and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), there is no significant difference between them in the reduction of BMI and body weight. All groups did not have an effect on VAT. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:365-370, 2016. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... It was postulated by the authors that the lipid material is degraded in the lymphatic system prior to entering the circulatory system; the newly formed nonesterfied free fatty acids (NEFAs) are further catabolized during beta-oxidation. To corroborate this mechanism, a study evaluated patient serum chemistry following a body-contouring regimen with LLLT and reported no elevations in lipid content-in part, substantiating the theory [10]. However, it could be surmised that the liberated material and consequential slimming could arise inadvertently as a result of simple fluid redistribution. ...
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a noninvasive treatment for a wide-assortment of medical ailments. A recent application is for noninvasive body slimming. A Level 1 clinical study was completed and recorded a significant reduction in circumferential measurements across waist, hips, and thighs compared to placebo subjects. Questions remain unanswered to whether the result observed was based upon simple fluid redistribution. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT for noninvasive body slimming and determine if the loss was attributable to fluid or fat relocation. Data from 689 participants were obtained to evaluate the circumferential reduction demonstrated across the treatment site of the waist, hips, and thighs as well as nontreated systemic regions. Patient data were not pre-selected; all reports provided by clinics using LLLT for body contouring were used to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment. Participants received a total of six LLLT treatments across 2-weeks having baseline and post-procedure circumferential measurements recorded. Measurement sites included waist, hips, thighs, arms, knees, neck, and chest. The mean circumferential reduction reported for the waist, hips, and thighs 1 week after the treatment regimen was 3.27 in. (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, participants demonstrated an overall mean reduction of 5.17 in. across all measurement points 5.17 in. (P < 0.0001). Each anatomical region measured exhibited a significant circumferential reduction. These data reveal that the circumferential reduction exhibited following LLLT is not attributable to fluid or fat relocation as all measurement points, including nontreated regions, reported an inch loss.
... treatment parameters as used in this study was recently completed, the study will be published with preliminary results revealing an overall reduction in both triglyceride and total cholesterol levels following 2 weeks of laser therapy [26]. Further, no adverse events were reported in this clinical investigation. ...
Transmission electron microscopic images have demonstrated the formation of transitory pores in adipocyte cell membranes followed by the collapse of adipose cells subsequent to laser irradiation of 635 nm. The objective is to evaluate the application of a 635 nm and 17.5 mW exit power per multiple diode laser for the application of non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a 2-week non-invasive laser treatment conducted from May 2007 to June 2008 across multiple-private practice sites in the United States of America. Sixty-seven volunteers between the ages of 18-65 with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 30 kg/m(2) and who satisfied the set inclusion criteria participated. Eight of the 67 subjects did not have circumference measurements recorded at the 2-week post-procedure measurement point. Participants were randomly assigned to receive low-level laser treatments or a matching sham treatment three times per week for 2 weeks. Reduction in the total combined inches of circumference measurements of the waist, hip and bilateral thighs from baseline to the completion of the 2-week procedure administration phase was assessed. Participants in the treatment group demonstrated an overall reduction in total circumference across all three sites of -3.51 in. (P < 0.001) compared with control subjects who revealed a -0.684 reduction (P < 0.071745). Test group participants demonstrated a reduction of -0.98 in. (P < 0.0001) across the waist, -1.05 in. (P < 0.01) across the hip, and -0.85 in. (P < 0.01) and -0.65 in. (P < 0.01) across the right and left thighs from baseline to 2 weeks (end of treatment). At 2 weeks post-procedure, test group subjects demonstrated a gain of 0.31 total inches collectively across all three sites. These data suggest that low-level laser therapy can reduce overall circumference measurements of specifically treated regions.
A well-established faction of photomedicine is the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), which yields a valuable response without generating a photothermal or photoacoustic means. LLLT is categorized by two distinctive phases: (1) a primary phase that describes the absorption of light energy by a photoabsorbing molecule and (2) a secondary phase that is characterized by a biological cascade responsible for beneficial clinical results. Noninvasive body contouring is discussed.
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