A conspectus of Ceropegia L. (Asclepiadaceae) in Madagascar, and the establishment of C. sect. Dimorpha

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... C. simoneae (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae -Ceropegieae) gehört zur sect. Dimorpha H. Huber ex Meve & Liede [Meve & Liede 1994], einer Gruppe von Arten, bei denen sich die Morphologie der vegetativen und generativen Sprosse deutlich unterscheidet. Der basale vegetative Spross (Abb. 3 & 4) hat einen nahezu vierkantigen Querschnitt, er ist sukkulent ausdauernd und verzweigt sich monopodial, d. h. in jedem Jahr wächst die Sprossachse an der Spitze weiter, wobei sich in der Regel auch Seitentriebe bilden (typisches Verzweigungsmuster von Bäumen). ...
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Since 2009 Heidelberg Botanic Garden and Herbarium HEID have been working on the “Werner Rauh Heritage Project” (WRHP) dealing with the scientific heritage left behind by the German botanist Werner Rauh (1913–2000). From 2009 up until 2016 this work was funded by the foundation Klaus Tschira Stiftung. The cover of the January issue of Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten showed an Apocynacee from Madagascar. This was one of the many species first described by Rauh: Ceropegia simoneae Rauh. This article tries to explain how difficult it may be to find out the Locus classicus (type location) of a species described by Rauh and to identify the actual type specimens. Seit 2009 wird am Botanischen Garten Heidelberg und Herbarium HEID im Rahmen des «Werner Rauh Heritage Project» (WRHP), das von 2009 bis 2016 von der Klaus Tschira Stiftung gefördert wurde, der wissenschaftliche Nachlass des deutschen Botanikers Werner Rauh (1913–2000) aufgearbeitet. Das Titelbild der Januarausgabe 2013 von Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten lenkte die Aufmerksamkeit auf eine madagassische Apocynacee, die Rauh neben zahlreichen anderen Arten erstbeschrieben hatte: Ceropegia simoneae Rauh. In diesem Beitrag soll aufgezeigt werden, wie schwierig es mitunter ist, bei einer Rauh-Art den Locus classicus (Typfundort) herauszufinden und die tatsächlichen Typus-Belege zu identifizieren.
... The diversity within Ceropegia, its wide distribution, and the attractive flowers were and are fascinating. Many floristic, often geographically focused works, have been produced for places such as India (Hooker, 1883;Ansari, 1984), China (Li et al., 1995), Arabia (Bruyns, 1988), Madgascar (Meve & Liede, 1994), Southern Africa (Dyer, 1980), and Tropical East Africa (Masinde, 2012). Only one complete revision of the genus has been undertaken (Huber, 1957), although a wide-ranging treatment (lacking the non-succulent taxa) was published more recently by Meve (2002). ...
The African genus, Riocreuxia Decne., is revised. Eight species, R. aberrans, R. chrysochroma, R. flanaganii, R. picta, R. polyantha, R. splendida, R. torulosa, and R. woodii, all of them restricted to Africa south of the Sahara, are recognised. R. aberrans occupies an isolated position. The relationship between Riocreuxia and t'he morphologically similar genera Ceropegia L. and Emplectanthus N. E. Br. is briefly discussed based on a comparison of morphological characteristics. Nearly all the characters comprising the combination that circumscribes Riocreuxia and Emplectanthus are also found in Ceropegia. Ceropegia is a large and morphologically diverse group that accommodates several morphologically well defined sub-groups. Riocreuxia is most similar to Emplectanthus and the presumed primitive group of non-succulent Ceropegia with fusiform roots and twining leafy stems. The only main morphological character that separates Emplectanthus from Riocreuxia is the somewhat rotate corolla with an indistinct short tube. The apparent basal position of Riocreuxia is supported by the fact that vegetative and floral parts are much less differentiated in comparison with Ceropegia, and the often poorly developed coronal parts represent developmental stages for several Ceropegia species. The question of maintaining Riocreuxia or including it in Ceropegia remains open, although a morphological comparison favours the inclusion of Riocreuxia in Ceropegia.
A new species of Asclepiadaceae-Stapelieae from central Madagascar, Ceropegia striata Meve & Masinde, is described and illustrated. The delicate, tuberous twiner is characterized by linear corolla lobes and purplish, adaxially bulging vascular bundles resulting in the conspicuous striation of the completely whitish-greenish corolla. Due to similarities in vegetative growth and corona morphology, C. striata is probably nearest to C. madagascariensis Decaisne.
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Even though the species-rich genus Ceropegia L. (Apocynaceae, Ceropegieae) is convincingly characterized by its pitfall flowers, investigation of non-coding markers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) (trnT-L and trnL-F spacers and the trnL intron) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) (ITS) has shown that Ceropegia is twice paraphyletic. The 36 analyzed Ceropegia taxa scatter over a grade of seven clades. One clade is shared by Ceropegia and all Brachystelma R. Br. species investigated, making Ceropegia (without Brachystelma) paraphyletic. All endemic Madagascan Ceropegia taxa investigated and the East African C. robynsiana Werderm. share a terminal, but not further-resolved clade with the stapeliads. Thus, again, Ceropegia without the stapeliads is paraphyletic. These results are incongruent with current taxonomy. In the absence of adequate morphological, anatomical, or karyological characters supporting a taxonomic reclassification of the genus in accordance with the retrieved clades of the phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that the current taxonomy be maintained.
AimThe Apocynaceae–Asclepiadoideae (c. 125 species) of Madagascar's flora are highly endemic, and floristic conformity between Madagascar and Africa (and Asia) is low. Of the c. 1250 Old World Asclepiadoideae species, only ten species are shared between mainland Africa and Madagascar. Our comprehensive data elaborated during the last 15 years of systematic research in Asclepiadoideae were used to (1) examine Leroy's hypothesis that Madagascar's flora resulted from an autochthonous Gondwanean stock and natural introduction of taxa in time, (2) check the probability of our phylogentic considerations against the direction of the floristic exchange traced, and (3) present evidence for successful long-distance dispersal events.LocationAfrica, Madagascar, Asia.Methods Published and unpublished data on distribution, morphology, chromosome numbers and DNA sequence analysis of Asclepiadoideae taxa distributed in both Africa and Madagascar (Asia and Madagascar) were reviewed and evaluated.ResultsTen species belonging to the genera Ceropegia, Cynanchum (incl. Sarcostemma), Gomphorcarpus, Gymnema, Microloma, Pentatropis, Pleurostelma, Telosma and Tylophora are shared between mainland Africa and Madagascar, three species extend to Asia. In most of the cases presented, evidence points to long-distance dispersal from Africa to Madagascar; only in the Cynanchum complex dispersal events from Madagascar to Africa are corroborated.MainconclusionsAn exchange of asclepiadaceous flora between mainland Africa and Madagascar and vice versa took place in at least ten cases. However, <1% of the Malagasy species is involved, meaning that the speciose autochthonous Malagasy Asclepiadoideae flora is only inconspicuously influenced by these presumably rather recent introductions. The African–Malagasy distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal events effected by anemochorous seeds.
Thèse--Faculté des sciences de Paris. "Index bibliographique": p. [249]-256. From Annales du Musée colonial de Marseille, 3. sér., vol. II, 1914.
for example, form a complex of very closely related elements, which possibly should be treated as a single species in future. Group A: 2.2.1. C. dimorpha HUMBERT
  • C Bosseri
  • C Hofstaetteri
  • C Petignatii
  • C Razafindratsirana
thought. The four taxa C. bosseri, C. hofstaetteri, C. petignatii and C. razafindratsirana, for example, form a complex of very closely related elements, which possibly should be treated as a single species in future. Group A: 2.2.1. C. dimorpha HUMBERT, Bull. Mus. Hist. nat. Paris, ser. 2, 6: 504 (1957). -Holotype: Madagascar, W Ranohira, plateaux et vallees de risalo, 250 m, 1955, HUMBERT 28763 (P!).
  • Ceropegia Sect
  • H Phalaena
  • Huber
Ceropegia sect. Phalaena H. HUBER, Mem. Soc. Brot. 12: 30 (1957) Type species: C. aristolochioides DECNE. 3.1. C. racemosa N. E. BR. subsp. glabra H. HUBER, Mem. Soc. Brot. 12: 96 (1957)
glabra is a leafy twiner, but possesses fleshy fusiform roots, as usually found in its relatives, the well-known East African species C. volubilis
  • C Dimorpha
  • Subsp
Dimorpha, C. racemosa subsp. glabra is a leafy twiner, but possesses fleshy fusiform roots, as usually found in its relatives, the well-known East African species C. volubilis N. E. BR. and C. distincta N. E. BR. C. r. subsp. glabra is limited to the central and northern parts of Madagascar. 4. Ceropegia sect. Amphorina H. HUBER, Mem. Soc. Brot. 12: 35 (1957) Type species: C. sobolifera N. E. BR. 4.1. C. ampliata E. MEYER subsp. madagascariensis LAVRANOS, Adansonia, ser. 2, 13: 71 (1973)
Un curieux Ceropegia (Asclepiadacees) nouveau de Madagascar
HUMBERT H. 1957. Un curieux Ceropegia (Asclepiadacees) nouveau de Madagascar. -Bull. Mus. Hist. nat. Paris, ser. 2, 29: 503-507.
Sur une nouvelle Asclepiadaceae de Madagascar. -Adansonia, ser
  • J J Lavranos
LAVRANOS J. J. 1973. Sur une nouvelle Asclepiadaceae de Madagascar. -Adansonia, ser. 2, 13: 71-73.
Alabastra Diversa -Part XVII
  • M Moore S
MOORE S. M. 1908. Alabastra Diversa -Part XVII. -J. Bot. 46: 305-313.
Ceropegia leroyi RAUH et MARNIER-LAPOSTOLLE, eine neue Art aus Madagaskar. -Kakteen Sukk
RAUH W. 1964. Ceropegia leroyi RAUH et MARNIER-LAPOSTOLLE, eine neue Art aus Madagaskar. -Kakteen Sukk. 15: 178-181. -1965. Ceropegia armandü RAUH. -Adansonia, ser. 2, 4: 419-425. -1989. Ceropegia bosseri RAUH et BUCHLOH var. razafindratsirana RAUH et BUCHLOH. -Kakteen Sukk. 40: 124-130.
Neue Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Blütenstände und Blüten von Ceropegia-Arten
  • Troll W
TROLL W. 1959. Neue Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Blütenstände und Blüten von Ceropegia-Arten. -Akad. Wiss. Lit. Mainz, Abh. math, naturw. Kl., 5: 227-263.