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Graphic Design Curriculum and Printing Technology: The Partnership and the Impact in the Industrial Printing Market

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Abstract

Graphic design education at the Jordanian Universities teach students mainly design theories, concepts and digital graphic, without considering the printing technology and training in their teaching. As a result, this led to a decline in opportunities for graduates in the labor market. On the other hand, the printing and graphic design industry are going through a period of transformation, because of the emergence of digital technology, and downsizing the employees' number in printing companies. When the job market change, educational institution respond. Therefore, the researcher emphasizes to include printing technology education in the graphic design curriculum, in association with discipline based courses. This paper explores the partnership between graphic design and printing technology, and the importance of teaching printing technology to graphic design students. Furthermore, this paper suggest teaching offset lithographic printing and digital printing to graphic design students, because these methods contribute to the development of graphic designers, and they will offer new capabilities and job opportunity to them. As well, the researcher suggests off campus training course for graphic students to put what they learned about printing into practice.
British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences
ISSN: 2046-9578, Vol.15 No.II (2013)
©BritishJournal Publishing, Inc. 2013
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Graphic Design Curriculum and Printing
Technology: The Partnership and the Impact In The
Industrial Printing Market
Dr. Bassam Naser Al-Radaideh
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman & Yarmouk University, Jordan
E-Mail: bassamr20@hotmail.com
Abstract:
Graphic design education at the Jordanian Universities teach students mainly design theories,
concepts and digital graphic, without considering the printing technology and training in their
teaching. As a result, this led to a decline in opportunities for graduates in the labor market.
On the other hand, the printing and graphic design industry are going through a period of
transformation, because of the emergence of digital technology, and downsizing the
employees‟ number in printing companies. When the job market change, educational
institution respond. Therefore, the researcher emphasizes to include printing technology
education in the graphic design curriculum, in association with discipline based courses. This
paper explores the partnership between graphic design and printing technology, and the
importance of teaching printing technology to graphic design students. Furthermore, this
paper suggest teaching offset lithographic printing and digital printing to graphic design
students, because these methods contribute to the development of graphic designers, and they
will offer new capabilities and job opportunity to them. As well, the researcher suggests off
campus training course for graphic students to put what they learned about printing into
practice.
Keyword: graphic design, students, offset lithography, digital printing technology, training,
printing education, partnership, impact.
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Introduction
Graphic design is a vital component of the communications we all receive each and
every day. Newark says, “…It‟s the most universal of all the arts. It is all around us,
explaining, and decorating, identifying, imposing meaning on the world”. (Newark, 2007, p.
6) The history of graphic design is intertwined with many movements in artistic, social and
political change, but nothing has affected how designers create their work more than advances
in printing technology, since all designs must be produced and printed.
As a graphic design educator for many years, and with a combined experience in
graduate and undergraduate teaching, I have witnessed the design world change, including
educational institutions in response to new technologies. The western universities such as
United States and Canada and others included printing technology in their graphic design
curriculums. However, graphic design education curriculums at Jordanian Universities,
concentrate mainly on theories and discipline based courses that teach students designing
skills such as studying forms, building concepts, and manipulating scale, rhythm, and color.
On the other hand, printing processes such as lithographic printing technology has virtually
being ignored in the graphic design curriculums, maybe the reason for the omission is
financial or technical, or they are not aware of its potential. As a result, the opportunities of
graphic design graduates in getting proper jobs in distinguished companies are little, and if
they were lucky and get hired, they faces the possibility of being discharge from their jobs
even if they have good artistic ability and many years of experience, because understanding
and practicing print production is the most essential skill employer seek in designers.
Additionally, it was noticed lately that printing companies are downsizing their
employees‟ numbers, because of economic reasons and introducing improved technology that
allows to do much more work in far less time (Waite, 2006). Therefore, companies have
increased their emphasis on employers with high level of experience and skills in both
designing and printing technology; designers who have the knowledge to do the whole cycle
process from design to correct errors, to assembly and to print final production; designers who
can keep up with the advances in the printing technology, and the value of training course at
the fourth year before graduation.
The extensive retraining of the workforce and the reexamination of the basic skills
required for graphic design students employments, accompanied by the growth of
lithographic offset printing and digital printing, whence copy preparation, image setting, plate
making, press work and finishing, all have brought forth the need for high level of graphic
design education associated with printing technology. Thus, it‟s more important than ever for
graphic design curriculum to include contents that reflect both the offset lithography and the
digital printing technology education.
The present research will investigate the relationship between graphic design and
printing technology. It will also discuss the importance of printing technology for graphic
design students. Furthermore, I will address what to teach graphic design students about
printing technology.
This research is valuable because learning the lithographic and digital printing
technology in the graphic design curriculum education, will play a major role in providing
high-quality education and professional development to the printing industry in Jordan‟s
printing markets. There will be greater numbers of qualified professionals to accomplish
many technical tasks relating to the broad spectrum of the graphic design and printing
industry. Moreover, graphic design students will expand their opportunities of getting better
job in the world of graphic design and printing business.
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The partnership between graphic design and printing
Graphic design industry and printing technology are inseparable and they were always
linked together. In fact, lithographic printing in early poster design marked the birth of
graphic design (Newark, 2007). As a profession, graphic design has only existed since the
middle of the twentieth century. It owes its creation to the industrial revolution, and
fundamental transformation on western economics. At that time, graphics played an important
role in the progress of industrial developments, and in marketing factory output (Weill, 2004).
Worthington (1998) asserted that during the industrial revolution, the lithographic
printing process was invented in Germany in 1797 by Alois Senefelder which was then
perfected by Englemann. At the end of the nineteenth century, lithography allowed artists to
print large formats of posters and to use color, and gave them the freedom to draw their own
lettering, which had previously been limited to a ready-made type design. Hird and Finley
(2010), and Mack (2007) stated that the ability to combine word and image in such an
attractive and economical format finally made the lithographic poster a powerful innovation.
This control over print was the beginning of graphic design. Later, posters became a primary
method of advertising and publicizing events, boosted by the lithographic process.
The lithographic process revolutionized the creative conventions of graphic design
and found new ways to communicate. Designers as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Privat
Livemont were at the front of early poster design that elevated the status of the poster to fine
arts by using the lithographic process. Livemont took full advantage of the lithographic
methods to impose his creative control over the use of color. He produced a variety of hues,
shades and gradient color in his designs. Other hand, Toulouse-Lautrec employed the use of
firm outlines with flat panels of color and contour, and he utilized hand-drawn lettering which
was integrated into the text. Posters played a large communication role in world war two. By
this time, most posters were printed using the mass production technique of photo offset.
(Meggs, 1992).
In 2008, Kahng conducted a study that discusses the notion of a shared technology
roadmap between lithography printing and design from several perspectives. He examined
how printing and design affected each other. He concluded that through technology,
lithography printing and design can truly bridged together by determining layout practices
and design roles (Kahng, 2008). Kaye an editor and publisher in the Graphic Design USA
Magazine asserts that graphic designers and other creative professionals view print as central
to their personal and professional lives. He said that more than 90% of graphic designers will
work on print and that nearly 75% of their projects involve a print component (Kaye, 2011).
The importance of teaching printing technology to graphic design students
Graphic designers create solutions to design problems. A part of every solution
includes communicating how to get the job done technically, and how to get the poster
printed or how to create the mechanicals for the package design. The designer must learn to
clearly express and transmit ideas and instructions as well as to receive and evaluate
feedback.
Education and training provides an important pathway into the printing and graphic
arts industry. Students entering the field of graphic design must be provided an education that
teaches them not only disciplinespecific content, but also teach them how to approach
printing technology methods, starting with offset lithographic processes and digital printing.
According to Ervin, Olusegun and Daniel (1996) universities should provide quality learning
and assessments resources to graphic students, to support their consistent implementation. In
addition, prospective employers need a stamp of approval such as accreditation or
certification for the quality of the program and instruction, to be confident that the student has
a core set of skills required for the business.
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With the advance of new technologies, graphic designers can purchase a powerful
computer workstation, high resolution scanner, and a suite of image creation, editing and
layout software, which will allows them to do much more work in far less time. But, even
with using the computer and the right software, it may not result in a printed job that meets
the customer‟s needs, because a graphic designer working in isolation from printing
processes cannot possibly know all the interactions and permutations between ink, paper,
process and press (Waite, 2006).
According to the American graphic design community, the value of print is not an
abstract concept but a fundamental mainstay of their lives (Kaye, 2011). Kaye argues that for
most designers, printing promises an authentic human connection. The real, tangible, sensual
attributes of print, enable it to touch people emotionally and convey trust. Furthermore, he
listed four reasons that explains why graphic designers view printing as central to their
personal and professional lives. First, designers are drawn to the real world physicality of
print, its ability to be held and touched. Second, printmedia remains relevant to designers
because it‟s practical, easy, effective, convenient and understandable. Third, designers will
learn to establish a productive coexistence between print and new media. Finally, designers
are taking advantage of prints evolution into a smarter, faster, more efficient, more convenient
medium (Kaye, 2011).
When printing technology education is introduced to graphic design students, they
will develop exceptional technical understanding of printing industrial technology, and they
will intensify the learning of printing quality, design, compositional and media handling skills
(Ervin, et al., 1996). Learning and practicing a new method and experimenting with the new
materials and technology will expand student creativity, imagination and aesthetic freedom.
Weill (2004) explained that when Toulouse-Lautrec used lithography in the poster „Moulin
Rouge, La Goulue‟, it gives the image the sense of the aesthetic freedom, but at the same time
he has control over the media showing that lithography could be manipulated by the designer.
Additionally, through utilizing printing technology such as lithographic offset
printing, students will learn the methodology of problem-solving. Morin (2013) clarified that
offset printing may include some common printing errors, such as uneven color, picking and
muddy or uneven screens. Students will learn how to locate and define the problem, how to
research and gather information, then find solutions and finally implement one or more
solutions. Also, students will gain certain level of predictability which sometimes difficult to
accomplish.
Most of all, it‟s important for graphic design students to be involved with printing
methods and techniques for career purposes. Pepper Communications Ltd (2013) stated that
they worked closely with marketers and graphic designers through the United Kingdom for
three decades, and they recognized the importance of converting design to effective print, and
how it fits into the overall marketing communication mix. One of the most skills employers
seek in designers is an understanding of print production. Erawan Interactive Co., Ltd (EICL),
a well-known lithographic offset printing company in Thailand which provides printing
service, mentioned that they are employing highly skilled designers, with years of experience
in page layout, image manipulation, and illustration packages, but they seek to make their
designers experts in the use of printing press (Erawan Interactive Co., Ltd, 2013). The
American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) founded in 1914 stated that when designers
master printing techniques, they will be able to convert their design into high quality print,
which is important because the printed material is often the first impression people get of the
designer work, so it‟s essentially to get it right. Also, good print gives the customers
confidence in what they do (American Institute of Graphic Arts, 2013). Additionally, the well
trained designer can provide the client with sophisticated solutions that match and satisfy
client‟s needs.
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The Environment Scan (Escsn) provided Innovation and Business Skills Australia
(IBSA) with a report that examined the key challenges facing the printing and graphic design
industry, and considered their impact on workforce development. It concluded that the
printing and graphic design industry are going through a significant period of transformation,
because of the emergence of digital technology, and reducing the number of employers in
prepress and printing departments. As a result, much of prepress and printing duties have
been pushed to the graphic designers (Innovation and Business Skills Australia, 2010).
Therefore, it‟s more important than ever for graphic design student to be prepared by having
the best education and training about printing technology, in order to do the prepress and
printing services, which include designing, correcting errors, assembly, and printing final
production. Moreover, to respond to employers needs, by allowing qualifications and
professional skills to keep pace with industry and technological change.
What to teach graphic design students about printing technology
Any successful program is graduating students who are hired in the industry, and go
on to successful careers. Design education is a preparation for practice, and therefore,
students should be involved with a program that combine education and work experience.
This will be achieved by graphic design curriculums that include contents of printing
technology education, represented by offset and digital printing.
Most current design programs for undergraduate curriculum emphasizes certain
subjects and concepts as aesthetics and visual organization, visualization techniques
(techniques and processes used to produce images, sketches, models and finished work), tools
and technology, blending ideas and production techniques, history and criticism, design
theory and graphic design subjects (Typography, design systems, symbol and identity system,
book design, poster design, and computer graphics) (American Institute of Graphic Arts,
2013). Not every category is taught, because the time is too short. I believe that teaching
printing technology will be a valuable addition to the graphic design program.
Printing technology includes different methods such as Offset lithography,
flexography, gravure, xerography, inkjet and screen printing. Educator‟s main concern is
about lithographic methods to be included in the graphic design curriculum, because it‟s the
first fundamentally printing technique, its dominant and most printing industries utilizes
offset lithographic printing to produce prints in mass. Moreover, lithography allows the
designer almost complete freedom in terms of image development production (Environmental
Protection Agency, 1995).
To introduce the graphic design students to the printing world, a basic introduction
about lithographic printing will be appropriate to start with. Hird and Finley (2010) suggested
to include basic information and concepts as, how and why the lithographic process? How
these processes work? What is the importance of various aspects of printing in our world,
how to apply lithographic theory to practical situation, the proper set of material used in the
process (paper, ink, fountain solutions, plates, blankets and rollers), and the different types of
presses used; beside important technical information about the process. This will enable
students to gain basic knowledge of the lithographic process.
Offset lithography printing is another form of lithographic printing technology that is
common and widely used for mass production. It is a process of transfer an inked impression
from a plate to a rubber-covered cylinder to a paper or other medium for the final printed
product. There are two types of offset printing: sheet fed that is most suitable for shorter runs,
and web fed that uses rolls of paper, and it is suitable for larger print jobs. The web offset
lithography is a high speed and high printing process. This technology requires transforming
the skill sets, the equipment and the processes to support the evolving printing industry. In
these methods, electronic applications are used, which includes computer-to-plate operations,
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computer-controlled inking and printing, digital image generation and electronic prepress
(Bruning, 2007).
The design students should be instructed about the principles and technical operations
of offset lithography in both types, the properties of offset materials, the interrelationships
among inks, papers, plates, blankets and fountain solutions, and understanding the concept of
color space (a combination of types of color and how those colors interact to create other
colors) (Environmental Protection Agency, 1995). Additionally, Xerox Corporation (2011)
mentioned that in offset lithography, students need to learn technical ability to use machinery
and advanced computer programs, in order to run the press and all of its subsystems such as
ink/water, paper feeding, drying systems, plate alignment and color balance. Also, safety is an
important issue for student to know, because of environmental concern and because printing
industry is involved with hazardous chemicals that might affect health.
According to Hird and Finley (2010) lithography printing involves two types of
operations that students need to be aware of and learn. First, related to the pre-press
operations which include design layouts and assemble text, and graphics into page formats for
printing, using computerized typesetting and image assembly. The second one related to
printing press operations, which include preparing, operating, and maintain the printing
presses. The quality of the print product depends not only on the press but also on the proper
set of materials used in the process. Mistakes made in pre-press can cost thousands of dollars
to the business. Therefore, it‟s crucial for students to make sure that everything is correct, and
to prepare completed files as accurately as possible, in order to effectively pass through the
print workflow. Waite suggested teaching graphic design students specifications and
guidelines that help to reduce pre-press problems. He said Teachers of graphic design should
procure, read, understand, and teach the relevant specifications that correspond to the industry
segment in which their students are likely to be employed (Waite 2006, p. 26).
Waite appointed four types of specifications. First, Specifications for Web Offset
Publications (SWOP); it‟s good for everyone involved with magazine advertising printed by
web offset or by gravure. Second, Flexographic Image Reproduction Specifications (FIRS);
it‟s good for students involved with packaging, wrappers, labels, and designing folding
cartons. Finally, Specifications for Newsprint Advertising Production (SNAP) and General
Requirements for Applications in Commercial Offset Lithography (GRACOL); these works
for newspaper and production, advertising agencies and publishers (Waite, 2006).
Other problem that might face the graphic designer is printing related problems.
Erawan Interactive Co., Ltd has conducted surveys over the years to better understand the
requirements of the customers. They concluded that printer satisfaction was low because of
lack of variable quality printing with common print errors, and inflexibility in file formats and
proofing options (Erawan Interactive Co., Ltd, 2013). Therefore, its vital for students to know
how to recognize, analyze and solve offset printing problems, such as uneven color, chosts (
images formed in areas where they should not appear), hickies (non inked circles created by
lint on the plate or blankets), picking (non-inked areas look like snow) and smashed blankets.
Chou and Krauss (1997) asserts that by exploring the interactions that cause many common
press problems, students will gain an understanding of the variables involved, as well as the
means for controlling them, which will improve quality and productivity.
On the other hand, digital printing is becoming a new standard in printing industry. It
appeared as a result of the advent of software design tools and high speed digital printing.
Digital printing has characteristics that are not available with other printing processes. It
offers fast turnaround time with each job easy to update products and layouts, and the ability
to print and deliver the job to the customer. Xerox Corporation (2011) affirms that in the
digital printing world, the skills required are significantly different than the offset printing
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skills. A digital output device has no ink and water, no printing plates and no drying system.
Digital laser printing devices use electro photography, via a laser to charge an image onto a
drum and then apply toner to the charged image with a final step of fusing the toner to the
paper. Additionally, the Innovation and Business Skills Australia (2010) mentioned that
digital printing has a feature that is not available in the offset printing, it‟s known as variable
data printing; it‟s the ability to do any adjustments to the image without impacting output
device productivity, through operating software on the device.
Graphic design students need to learn about the characteristics of digital printing, what
differentiate this method of printing than the others, and when to use it. To operate a digital
production printing device, graphic design students should know typical skills as knowledge
of the operating software, knowledge of the application capabilities of the device (imposition,
color adjustment), how to perform color calibration, digital file preparation, knowledge of
Digital Front-End (DFE), digital pre-flighting, font management and problem resolution
(Xerox Corporation, 2011). Waite (2006) stated that it‟s important for graphic design students
to learn how to use a page layout program (desktop publishing program) such as Adobe,
Publisher and Quark. Print design also requires an understanding of concepts like color
separations, grid layout, and master pages.
The need for training
The successful printing companies demand from their employees to be creative, well
educated and trained. Thus, a training course that concludes for years of formal education will
be valuable for graphic design students who are interested in entering the printing industry. In
order to maximize the benefits of this course, it should be implemented off campus in one of
the print-media companies, because they are fully and properly equipped with the most
advanced graphic arts printing technology. Also, students will put what they learned about
printing into practice, and they will learn new graphic communication processes, software and
equipment.
Walker (2011) stated that a training course present a good opportunity to expand the
knowledge base of all graphic students, and it will strengthen those skills that each students
needs to improve. Furthermore, Walker argues that students who receive the necessary
training will be better to perform their job when they enter the printing market. Training
creates an overall knowledgeable stuff, more aware of proper procedures for basic tasks and
safety practices. A staff who can take over for one another as needed, work on team or work
independently without help or supervision from others.
Moreover, training will improve student performance, efficiency, and productivity.
According to Forst (2013) training will also build the student‟s confidence because they have
a stronger understanding of the industry, and this confidence will push them to perform even
better and think of new ideas that help them to excel. The U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics
(2009) asserts that after training and gaining experience, those students will get more
responsible positions when they hired such as skilled craft jobs or even supervisors.
The most common training methods being currently used in the printing industry are
workshops and seminars. The trainees receive hands-on training because of the small class
sizes and personal attention they are given (Walker, 2011). Frost (2013) added that workshops
are developed to go beyond classroom and theory training, they are designed to use
demonstrations and hand-on experience to increase student‟s skills set, such as the latest
printing software, prepress, pressroom, and bindery equipments training. The printing related
workshop and seminars include both knowledge concepts and operational procedures
demonstrated in industry, color management, special press problems, process controls, and
safety issues.
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Interactive modules also used for training purposes. After introducing each topic, the
trainee will take a quiz to see how much information he/she retained. At the end of the
module, each trainee will receive a certificate of completion that present the trainee‟s name,
date of completion and the quiz score (Forst, 2013). At last, training in the printing industry is
an ongoing process, due to increased competition in the print industry, and advances in
technology. Thus, students who enter the printing market need to keep an eye on
technological breakthroughs throughout their careers.
Conclusion
Graphic design and printing technology are inseparable, and they are highly connected
to each other. Printing and graphic art industry are going through a significant period of
transformation, such as the emergence of digital technology and reducing the number of
printing employers in printing companies, which certainly have affected the workforce
development. Therefore, educational institutions should respond to the industry workforce
development needs, and they should develop advanced curriculums and training courses to
built workforce skill and productivity.
The graphic design students must be provided a special education courses and field
training that teaches them not only discipline-specific contents, but also teach them how to
approach printing processes and providing the students with firsthand training practices,
because of the increasing emphasis of companies on high level of printing skills, and for
employment purposes. Offset lithography printing and digital printing technology are highly
recommended to be included in the graphic design curriculum, because they are dominant and
widely utilized in most printing industries, for their ability to produce prints in mass
production. Students need to learn and understand the special skills set that are associated
with each method.
Printing technology education will offer new capabilities and job opportunity to the
graphic designer, and it will supply the workforce with adequate job skill and experiences. In
addition, learning and practicing a new method and experimenting with new materials and
technology will expand the graphic design student‟s printing creativity and skills, and to be
able to become qualified to engage in the labor market.
A training period for graphic design students that conclude what they have learned
about printing is valuable especially for those who intend to enter the printing industry. It was
found that a training course will expand the knowledge of all graphic students, improve
students‟ performance, efficiency and productivity, and it will give them a better opportunity
to get more responsible positions when they hired.
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Article
As printing company prepress departments downsize, it is increasingly important for designers to submit correct digital files. International associations offer printing guidebooks such as the Specifications for Newsprint Advertising Production (SNAP), General Requirements for Applications in Commercial Offset Lithography (GRACoL), Specifications for Web Offset Publications (SWOP), and Flexographic Image Reproduction Specifications and Tolerances (FIRST)1. If utilized, these guidelines can help graphic designers prepare files that will effectively pass through the print production workflow. As printers adopt guidelines, employees will be increasingly called upon to explain them to graphic designers and to shepherd guideline-compliant documents through the print production workflow. So, teachers of graphic design and print2 must be familiar with industry guidelines and teach accordingly. This study investigates the awareness and implementation of SNAP, GRACoL, SWOP, and FIRST by graphic design and print teachers and provides opportunities for instructional programs, particularly at the university level, to fill the gaps in knowledge that were identified through an online survey.
Article
The fabrication of an integrated circuit requires a variety of physical and chemical processes to be performed on a semiconductor substrate. In general, these processes fall into three categories: film deposition, patterning, and semiconductor doping. Films of both conductors and insulators are used to connect and isolate transistors and their components. By creating structures of these various components millions of transistors can be built and wired together to form the complex circuitry of modern microelectronic devices. Fundamental to all of these processes is lithography, ie, the formation of three-dimensional relief images on the substrate for subsequent transfer of the pattern to the substrate. This book presents a complete theoretical and practical treatment of the topic of lithography for both students and researchers. It comprises ten detailed chapters plus three appendices with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Additional Information: Visiting http://www.lithoguru.com/textbook/index.html enhances the reader's understanding as the website supplies information on how you can download a free laboratory manual, Optical Lithography Modelling with MATLAB®, to accompany the textbook. You can also contact the author and find help for instructors.
Article
Optical lithography has been the dominant patterning process for semiconductor fabrication for over 40 years. The patterning process evolved initially from methods used in the printing industry, but as integrated circuits became more complex, and as device geometries shrank, sophisticated new imaging methods evolved. Today"s optical lithography systems represent the highest resolution, most accurate optical imaging systems ever produced. This remarkable evolutionary process continues to this day, paced by "Moore's Law". The evolutionary development of lithography systems over the last 40 years is reviewed along with a brief discussion of options for the future.
Article
Nanoimprint lithography, a high-throughput, low-cost, nonconventional lithographic method proposed and demonstrated recently, has been developed and investigated. Nanoimprint lithography has demonstrated 10 nm feature size, 40 nm pitch, vertical and smooth sidewalls, and nearly 90° corners. Further experimental study indicates that the ultimate resolution of nanoimprint lithography could be sub-10 nm, the imprint process is repeatable, and the mold is durable. In addition, uniformity over a 15 mm by 18 mm area was demonstrated and the uniformity area can be much larger if a better designed press is used. Nanoimprint lithography over a non-flat surface has also been achieved. Finally, nanoimprint lithography has been successfully used for fabricating nanoscale photodetectors, silicon quantum-dot, quantum-wire, and ring transistors.
Article
We discuss the notion of a 'shared technology roadmap' between lithography and design from several perspectives. First, we examine cultural gaps and other intrinsic barriers to a shared roadmap. Second, we discuss how lithography technol-ogy can change the design technology roadmap. Third, we discuss how design technology can change the lithography technology roadmap. We conclude with an example of the 'flavor' of technology roadmapping activity that can truly bridge lithography and design.
Lithographic Technology in Transition
  • D Ervin
  • O Olusegun
  • W Daniel
Ervin, D., Olusegun O., & Daniel W. (1996). Lithographic Technology in Transition. 1 st edition. Delmar Publications.
The Importance of Training & Development in the Workplace. Hearst Newspapers
  • S Forst
Forst, S. (2013). The Importance of Training & Development in the Workplace. Hearst Newspapers, 2013 Hearst Communications, Inc. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-training-development-workplace-10321.html
Offset Lithographic Technology
  • K Hird
  • C Finley
Hird, K. and Finley, C. (2010). Offset Lithographic Technology. 4rt Edition. Goodheart-Willcox Co. Workbook.