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Native-speakerism and authenticity are two subjects that have been written on extensively in the field of English language teaching, but the links between the two have yet to be explored in any great depth. This paper extensively reviews the literature on native-speakerism and authenticity and outlines where the connections between these two concepts, both practical and theoretical, may lie. Native-speakerism and authenticity are first briefly introduced and contextualised separately, and a theoretical framework is then presented to explain the connections between them based on the key foundational topics of authority, culturism, and cultural capital. Following this, the paper moves on to explain how these connections manifest in the ELT industry to influence the lives of ‘non-native speaker’ teachers in terms of student perceptions, self-perceptions, and professional discrimination, and how these are both influential on, and propagated by, the sales rhetoric of the ELT industry. Finally some suggestions are given for possible avenues of future research.
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... Examining the literature dealing with the concept of 'the native speaker', it soon becomes apparent that "the native speaker as the only true and reliable source of language data" has been awarded a special place by linguists for quite some time [4]; p.vii). This means that the notion of 'the native speaker' is oftentimes so closely linked with the notion of 'the authentic speaker' that both concepts are seldom treated as distinct [6] but rather as deeply intertwined [7,8]. In the context of Manx, a formerly extinct Gaelic language spoken in the Isle of Man, it has been claimed that it is possible for some second language learners to be "bestowed with authenticity" [9]; p. 45) when there are no longer any traditional native speakers around. ...
... This was welcomed as language teachers qua their role as language norm authorities [39] tend to demonstrate higher levels of metalinguistic knowledge and are more likely to articulate their metalinguistic perceptions. 6 ...
... Hearing individuals, who have acquired a sign language later in life and outside the parental home, could also be referred to as New Signers. Although exploring their perspectives might be a worthwhile endeavor, this research solely focuses on deaf New Signers.6 While the sample of participants all having some sign language teaching experience was seen as helpful in terms of accessing metalinguistic awareness, it needs to be pointed out that their perceptions may not necessarily be representative of ideologies held (or not) by diverse members of the deaf community. ...
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Much of sociolinguistic research aims at exploring various aspects concerning authentic and native speakers. Throughout the literature, both concepts are not only frequently conflated but the corresponding terms oftentimes even used interchangeably. Focusing on emic perspectives of deaf sign language users, and strategically applying a theoretical approach well established in educational and race studies, the research examines how New Signers construct the counter-story of their own status as ‘the authentic signer’ (TAS) against the backdrop of the master narrative of native signer ideology. The qualitative analysis is based on conversations with 31 deaf signers recorded in the context of 10 focus group, which were conducted in 9 cities throughout Germany. The research demonstrates that participants construct the status of TAS either as inherited or as the outcome of a dynamic process of intentional change. Introducing notions of ‘Deaf aristocracy’ vs. ‘Deaf meritocracy’, the paper proposes a significant extension to current conversations about native speaker ideologies by providing empirical evidence that deaf conceptualizations embrace a clear differentiation between authentic and native language users, which therefore must also be upheld in relevant academic discourses. Keywords: Authentic signer, New signer, Deaf meritocracy, Deaf aristocracy
... This concept seeks to fit in with today's era of super-diversity when cultures are in constant interaction and it is difficult to pinpoint where one language or culture ends and another begins, with the English language becoming a binding agent for many cross- English for whom it is taught and learned as a "disembodied" foreign language (Lowe & Pinner, 2016;Pinner, 2016b). ...
... On the other, much of the debate over cultural authenticity and appropriateness has still revolved around NS-based models (Kramsch, 1998;Pinner, 2016b (Kramsch, 1998;Nunan, 2013). Secondly, imposing a NS-based concept of authenticity on NNSs might devalue the sense of self, constrain their autonomy, and undermine their legitimacy and autonomy as teachers, learners, and users of English as a foreign and international language (Alptekin, 2002;Kramsch, 1998;Lowe & Pinner, 2016). The focus of concern on learners and non-native teachers should therefore remain on "what they are" and "what they are becoming", that is as "intercultural speaker" who 'stands in a complex relationship with languages, cultures, and communities, as insider or outsider … recognized as a member of many speech communities' (Liddicoat & Scarino, 2013, p. 53 While Wati's and Yanti's account above may suggest a perceived limited language competence and some lack of self-confidence, some scholars have noted that the concept of "authenticity" and its application to the second/foreign language classrooms have always been problematic, partly because its tie to native-speakerness (Alptekin, 2002;Kramsch, 1993Kramsch, , 1998Kramsch, , 2014cLowe & Pinner, 2016;Pinner, 2016a;Widdowson, 1994Widdowson, , 1996. ...
... Secondly, imposing a NS-based concept of authenticity on NNSs might devalue the sense of self, constrain their autonomy, and undermine their legitimacy and autonomy as teachers, learners, and users of English as a foreign and international language (Alptekin, 2002;Kramsch, 1998;Lowe & Pinner, 2016). The focus of concern on learners and non-native teachers should therefore remain on "what they are" and "what they are becoming", that is as "intercultural speaker" who 'stands in a complex relationship with languages, cultures, and communities, as insider or outsider … recognized as a member of many speech communities' (Liddicoat & Scarino, 2013, p. 53 While Wati's and Yanti's account above may suggest a perceived limited language competence and some lack of self-confidence, some scholars have noted that the concept of "authenticity" and its application to the second/foreign language classrooms have always been problematic, partly because its tie to native-speakerness (Alptekin, 2002;Kramsch, 1993Kramsch, , 1998Kramsch, , 2014cLowe & Pinner, 2016;Pinner, 2016a;Widdowson, 1994Widdowson, , 1996. Kramsch (1993), for example, has flagged up some aspects of "authenticity," i.e. ...
Thesis
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This study examined the pedagogic beliefs and practices of Indonesian teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) regarding the teaching and learning of culture and interculturality in the local high-school English classrooms. I took an intercultural stance on language education and viewed language and culture as socially constructed practices that have fluid and negotiable boundaries and are interrelated in multiple and complex ways (Holliday, 2011, 2016; Kramsch, 1998; Liddicoat, 2002). An interculturally-oriented language education recognises an inextricable language-culture connection and links home with target language-and-cultures (Byram, 1997; Kramsch, 1993; Liddicoat & Scarino, 2013; Newton, Yates, Shearn, & Nowitzki, 2010). I conducted a qualitative case study to gain in-depth understandings of the phenomenon in question. I illuminate how the Indonesian EFL teachers addressed culture and interculturality in the EFL classrooms, what beliefs informed the teachers’ instructional judgement and decisions, and what immediate and wider contextual factors shaped their understandings and presentations of culture and interculturality in the classrooms. Five teachers working in general, vocational and Islamic high schools participated in this study. I made classroom observations, conducted stimulated recall and in-depth interviews, and administered narrative frames to glean the teachers’ insights. I also used document analysis and students’ focus group discussion to corroborate the teachers’ practices and illuminate the situatedness of Indonesia’s EFL pedagogy. Triangulations within the data set occurred throughout the iterative research process. In addition, I paid close attention to the sociolinguistic, cultural, educational, political and religious factors that were simultaneously at play and likely to impact on the teachers’ beliefs and practices. The cases of the EFL teachers reveal some significant evidence. First, the ways the teachers worked with culture and interculturality was to a certain extent influenced by Indonesia’s policies on language, general education, and EFL pedagogy. The policies and underlying ideology shaped the teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards English and the NSs of English as well as towards values and behaviours associated with Western culture. Second, the teachers’ conceptions of culture had an important bearing on how they represented culture in the classrooms. The teachers’ “large culture” (Holliday, 1999; Holliday, Hide, & Kullman, 2010) approach to culture and interculturality intersected with the expected role of the teachers and influenced their instructional decisions. Third, despite the hegemonic State policies, the fact remains that the teachers demonstrated an active agency in dealing with the complexities of culture and interculturality. A variety of linguistic, cultural and political factors present in the immediate classroom and school contexts as well as in the wider socio-educational setting contributed to their agency. The teachers negotiated and mediated between home and target language-and-cultures. Fourth, the paths of EFL pedagogy and Islamic worldview ineluctably cross in predominantly-Muslim Indonesia. Both the teachers and learners came to terms with sometimes conflicting cultural beliefs and behaviours embodied in English and perceived to be incompatible with–or even threatening to–cultural values, meanings, and practices ingrained in the local societies. In the light of the findings, I explore some wider pedagogic implications for various stakeholders in Indonesia’s educational setting in particular and in other similar EFL contexts. An intercultural EFL pedagogy could and ought to go beyond equipping learners with a mere English skill to providing them with opportunities to develop critical openness, informed understanding, and constructive engagement with the “foreign, culturally different others”.
... It also signifies that Arabic on its own would not be considered sufficient for people to develop economically and socially in Egypt. This finding supports Seargeant's (2009 as cited in Lowe and Pinner, 2016) finding that showed that English was framed as the language of achieving success and self fulfilment in Japan. ...
... However, individualized differences emerged. Because Native Speakerism is a common issue in the English language teaching culture in Egypt (El Fiki, 2006), especially in the private sector, EFL teachers feel impelled to find ways to legitimize their competency through adopting western-centric models of teaching (Lowe &Pinner, 2016). One way to do so is to acquire certificates in teaching English as a foreign language from western institutes. ...
... One way to do so is to acquire certificates in teaching English as a foreign language from western institutes. This could be explained in terms of the significant relationship between authenticity and cultural capital (Lowe & Pinner, 2016). After reviewing several studies, Lowe and Pinner (2016) contend that nonnative English teachers are more prone to acquire TESOL certificates from Western institutes than from national or local ones because the teachers believe that teaching methodologies from western universities/institutes are more authoritative and authentic. ...
Thesis
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Globalization and the advent of technology have compelled many Egyptians to master the English language to participate in an increasingly competitive knowledge-centered global economy. Therefore, the demand for English language classes has been increasing in Egypt in recent years. However, English language classes alone may not guarantee that learners become technologically competent to master 21st century skills. Therefore, one purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine how Egyptian EFL teachers and Egyptian EFL adult learners utilize technology and digital resources in teaching and learning English to promote autonomous learning and 21st century skills. The study also explores the participants’ attitudes towards technology integration in the classroom and the growing importance of digital and multimodal literacies. Because the English language has played an important role in the Egyptian culture since the 1950s, its mastery is part and parcel of their identity formation as Egyptians and users of the language. Being aware of this role, the study explores how the participants perceive the English language in Egypt and how they construct their identities as English language speakers. Because there is a connection between language and technological practices (Warschauer, 2002), the study also investigates how the participants perceive themselves as users of technology to teach or learn English. Participants are 4 EFL Egyptian teachers and 3 EFL adult Egyptian learners. The study was conducted in an adult language center in Alexandria, Egypt. Data was collected through semi structured interviews and field notes. Findings indicate that social media sites and visual tech are the most common technological practices among teachers and learners. The use of the English language was indexical for power and prestige and had significant implications for how the participants constructed their identities as users of English and technology.
... This is despite the majority of English speakers using it as their L2, as established in the beginning of this paper. Although within the literature on applied linguistics (and subsequently discussions of authenticity within language teaching) the term "native-speaker" is now used with caution, the native speaker definition of authenticity is very much alive and well in the ELT industry as a whole, which creates numerous problems for L2 teachers as they strive for legitimacy, and ultimately authenticity, in their work as language educators (Lowe & Pinner, 2016). The aforementioned "classic" definition of authenticity presupposes that native-speaker "norms" and "standard English" exist in reality outside of the textbook, and that they are to be emulated by learners as closely as possible, hence they are provided as samples of and models for learning. ...
... The issue of authenticity has been a feature of several discussions around native-speakerism, especially in terms of authentic model speakers (Edge, 1988;Goto Butler, 2007;Seargeant, 2005), the marginal presence of international speakers in textbooks (Canagarajah, 1993;Matsuda, 2002;Siegel, 2014), the ownership of English (Matsuda, 2003;Widdowson, 1994), and wider sociological issues relating to identity and legitimacy (Creese, Blackledge, & Takhi, 2014;Kramsch, 2012;Myhill, 2003;Widdowson, 1996). These issues make the "classic" definition of authenticity extremely contentious, often directly linking it with prejudicial practices (see Lowe & Pinner, 2016 for an in-depth review). Clearly, any definition of authenticity which potentially excludes L2 speakers of English from being recognised as "authentic" could have a very demotivating, depersonalising and disenfranchising effect for both teachers and learners of English. ...
... For Breen (1985) and Widdowson (1978Widdowson ( , 1996Widdowson ( , 1998, authenticity is an interaction between learners and texts, but it is also an interaction between agents in the classroom. However, such an assertion is often misunderstood or misrepresented by materials writers and publishers, for the simple reason that authenticity is an important part of the sales rhetoric for English as a Foreign Language (Lowe & Pinner, 2016). Indeed, the construct of authenticity is also central in other industries such as tourism, food, art, and more generally in the field of sales and marketing. ...
Article
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This paper discusses some of the troubling issues which surround the nature of authenticity in language teaching and learning, such as identity, the legitimacy of L2 teachers of English, and the disempowerment of L2 voices. This paper presents an examination uncovering how the English language is marketed to learners, and traces the effect this has on our teaching approach and sense of efficacy as language teachers. Rather than simply 'real language' or 'newspapers', I propose that authenticity should be taken to mean that learning is both personally meaningful and socially relevant to each individual in context. Fundamentally, this paper argues that as teachers we must find our own authentic reasons for working with students, in order to create a culture of authenticity in the language classroom. RESUMEN El presente artículo examina algunas de las cuestiones que rodean la naturaleza de la autenticidad en la enseñanza y aprendizaje de otra lengua, tales como la identidad, la legitimidad de los docentes de inglés como segunda lengua, y el desempoderamiento de las voces en segundas lenguas. El artículo analiza cómo la lengua inglesa es mercantilizada a los estudiantes, y traza los efectos que esto tiene sobre nuestro enfoque didáctico y nuestro sentido de eficacia como profesores de inglés. En lugar de tomar la autenticidad solamente referida a diarios y lengua real, propongo que la autenticidad sea tomada como el aprendizaje relevante personal y socialmente de cada individuo en su contexto. Fundamentalmente, este artículo discute que como docentes debemos encontrar nuestras propias razones auténticas para trabajar con los estudiantes con el fin de crear una cultura de la autenticidad en la clase de lengua. Palabras
... It also signifies that Arabic on its own would not be considered sufficient for people to develop economically and socially in Egypt. This finding supports Seargeant's (2009 as cited in Lowe and Pinner, 2016) finding that showed that English was framed as the language of achieving success and self fulfilment in Japan. ...
... However, individualized differences emerged. Because Native Speakerism is a common issue in the English language teaching culture in Egypt (El Fiki, 2006), especially in the private sector, EFL teachers feel impelled to find ways to legitimize their competency through adopting western-centric models of teaching (Lowe &Pinner, 2016). One way to do so is to acquire certificates in teaching English as a foreign language from western institutes. ...
... One way to do so is to acquire certificates in teaching English as a foreign language from western institutes. This could be explained in terms of the significant relationship between authenticity and cultural capital (Lowe & Pinner, 2016). After reviewing several studies, Lowe and Pinner (2016) contend that nonnative English teachers are more prone to acquire TESOL certificates from Western institutes than from national or local ones because the teachers believe that teaching methodologies from western universities/institutes are more authoritative and authentic. ...
Article
Globalization and the advent of technology have compelled many Egyptians to master the English language to participate in an increasingly competitive knowledge-centered global economy. Therefore, the demand for English language classes has been increasing in Egypt in recent years. However, English language classes alone may not guarantee that learners become technologically competent to master 21st century skills. Therefore, one purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine how Egyptian EFL teachers and Egyptian EFL adult learners utilize technology and digital resources in teaching and learning English to promote autonomous learning and 21st century skills. The study also explores the participants’ attitudes towards technology integration in the classroom and the growing importance of digital and multimodal literacies. Because the English language has played an important role in the Egyptian culture since the 1950s, its mastery is part and parcel of their identity formation as Egyptians and users of the language. Being aware of this role, the study explores how the participants perceive the English language in Egypt and how they construct their identities as English language speakers. Because there is a connection between language and technological practices (Warschauer, 2002), the study also investigates how the participants perceive themselves as users of technology to teach or learn English. Participants are 4 EFL Egyptian teachers and 3 EFL adult Egyptian learners. The study was conducted in an adult language center in Alexandria, Egypt. Data was collected through semi structured interviews and field notes. Findings indicate that social media sites and visual tech are the most common technological practices among teachers and learners. The use of the English language was indexical for power and prestige and had significant implications for how the participants constructed their identities as users of English and technology. Advisor: Loukia Sarroub
... It seems clear from these studies that English native speakerism is a socially constructed identity, rather than a linguistic category which raises uncertainties of the ability of bilingual or multilingual speakers to be authentic NES (Brutt-Griffler and Samimy 2001). The ideal or authentic NES is seen by many within the ELT industry as being a white, monolingual English speaker from an inner circle country, and is evident in teaching materials, job advertisements and prejudice towards NNES and non-white NES (Lowe and Pinner 2016). As Lowe and Pinner (2016) observe this "classic" definition of authenticity, as being something that is "real," can have a detrimental effect on NNES and non-white NES teachers. ...
... The ideal or authentic NES is seen by many within the ELT industry as being a white, monolingual English speaker from an inner circle country, and is evident in teaching materials, job advertisements and prejudice towards NNES and non-white NES (Lowe and Pinner 2016). As Lowe and Pinner (2016) observe this "classic" definition of authenticity, as being something that is "real," can have a detrimental effect on NNES and non-white NES teachers. Students may decide that their teachers are not authentic NES because of their ethnicity, and consequently their spoken English and also their teaching ability may also be considered inauthentic. ...
... As some of my participants make clear, they appear content with the label NNES, but they are dissatisfied with the associations of NNES which positions them as lower than NES. Although it has been observed that these prejudices could have a detrimental effect on the self-image of NNES teachers (Amin 2004;Lowe and Pinner 2016), this was not evident among the participants in this study, who tend to 'brush-off' these challenges to their authenticity as teachers. I would suggest that one of the reasons for this, is that these teachers have significant teaching experience and feel secure in their own professional identity. ...
Chapter
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This chapter reports on a qualitative study of multilingual South-Asian English language teachers working in an ESOL department in Leicester. Through narrative interviews and focus groups the study explored how the participants experience linguicism, which positions them as inauthentic native English speakers (NES) or non-native English speakers (NNES). Several of the participants are also complicit in this, with many resisting a NES label or feeling some ambiguity with their native speaker status. One of the reasons for this, is that the NES/NNES dichotomy is embedded in the ideology of English language teaching and the ideological values of society. NES is semantically linked with other terminology, such as British English, RP, ‘whiteness’, Standard English, correct English and good English. In attempting to overcome prejudice, rather than identifying themselves as NES, the participants emphasised their multilingualism and presented stories of teaching practices. Therefore, while tending to accept essentialised identity construction by others, the participants utilized other aspects of their identity to overcome prejudice in the workplace.
... These co-occurrences, while not significant in volume terms, demonstrate that the issue of L1 in L2 classrooms is deeply connected to inquiries about authenticity. On the other hand, recent research on authenticity in SLA comes very close to the issue of L1 use when it reveals a deep connection between so-called 'native-speakerism' (Holliday 2006: 385;Pinner, 2016: 44) and the dominant representation of authenticity (Lowe and Pinner, 2016), and suggests an innovative understanding of authenticity that covers not only traditional native-speaker-oriented textual authenticity, but also what Will (2018: chap. 3) encodes as the authenticity of individual behaviour. ...
... Studies demonstrate that 'native-speakerism' (Pinner, 2016: 44) is common in academic communities (e.g. Lowe and Pinner, 2016;Walkinshaw and Duong, 2012). Based on a research of students' perception, many researchers authors from the volume edited by E. Llurda (2005) demonstrated that the most valuable characteristic of native-speaker teacher is 'authenticity' concerning with pronunciation, vocabulary, and information about culture (219,256,228,287). ...
... 5.2.1, 5.2.2). Researchers acknowledge that the dominant view on authenticity found today in academic discourse (Pinner, 2016: 68), textbooks (Pinner, 2014b: 22;Pinner, 2018: 14), and teachers' (Pinner, 2014a: 15) and students' beliefs (Lowe and Pinner, 2016) is still limited by the initial reductionist native-speaker-centric perspective. In the light of previous discussion on monoglossic ideology and monolingual native-speakerism in discourse on L1 use, we could should supplement the critical reflection on native-speakerism as important component of the classic representation of authenticity (Pinner, 2016: 44-45;66-68;Pinner, 2014a;Pinner and Lowe, 2016) with an additional feature: the dominant role model of the 'authentic' speaker widely promoted in SLA is not only native but also monolingual. ...
Preprint
The term ‘first’ or ‘own language’ (L1) in second/foreign language (L2) acquisition, learning and teaching (SLA) refers to languages students (and teachers) may speak with varying levels of proficiency and ‘through which (if allowed) they will approach the new language’ (Cook, 2010: xxii). Many teaching methods originating in communicative and immersive paradigms and recognized as mainstream trends in SLA – such as Natural, Content-, Task- and Project-based Language Learning, and the neurolinguistic approach (Richards and Rodgers, 2001; R. Ellis, 2003; Beckett and Miller, 2006; Germain, 2017) – have promoted an ‘authenticity claim’ (Buendgens- Kosten, 2014: 457; Mishan, 2005: 1-10) while simultaneously challenging the usage of the L1 (Hall and Cook, 2013: 8). The latter is accepted as a last resort (Littlewood and Yu, 2011: 64) or is restricted to specific areas, such as explicit grammar instruction (particularly with beginners), conveying and checking the meaning of words, and classroom management (Cook, 2001: 410-211; Kerr, 2016). Despite the near-consensus about ‘monolingual imperatives’ (Hall and Cook, 2013: 177), many L2 instructors make extensive use of L1 (Kerr, 2016: 517; Marsella, 2020: 22) and the interest in L1 use has been steadily increasing in SLA literature. On the other hand, recent research on authenticity in SLA comes very close to the issue of L1 use when it reveals a deep connection between so-called ‘native-speakerism’ (Pinner, 2016: 44) and the dominant representation of authenticity (Lowe and Pinner, 2016), and suggests an innovative understanding of authenticity that covers not only traditional native-speaker- oriented textual authenticity, but also what Will (2018: chap. 3) encodes as the authenticity of individual behaviour. However, the issue of L1 use has been rarely addressed in connection with authenticity. Studying a corpus of more than 80 publications in English from the late 1990s – 2020, I was able to find a few noteworthy instances of authentic/authenticity being used in discussions on L1 use. They can be divided into the following three groups. (1) The first type of co-occurrences relates authenticity to cognitive mechanism of L2 acquisition which inherently involves L1. It can be traced back to Lindsay Clanfield’s and Duncan Foord’s publication in a free online journal in 2000. In a short note presenting their ‘practical ideas kit’, the authors encourage teachers to use L1: ‘If you can do this, your classroom is likely to be more authentic in the sense that it reflects the natural interplay of L1 and L2 which is inherent in second language acquisition’ (Clanfield and Foord, 2000). Independently of Clanfield and Foord (2000), in the summary of her 2001 paper examining the theoretical cognitive premises of L1 use, Vivian Cook notes that L1 is ‘a useful element in creating authentic L2 users’ (Cook, 2001: 402). Thurbull and Arnett (2002: 207) explain Cook’s position by asserting that usage of L1 ‘creates particularly authentic learning environments as it acknowledges the influence of the L1 on the L2’. In the same vain, Wolfgang Butzkamm (2003) and later Butzkamm and Caldwell (2009) put forward a method for teaching grammar, which is based on systemic usage of L1 and respects the cognitive mechanism of L2 acquisition: learners ‘build upon existing skills and knowledge acquired in and through the mother tongue’ (Butzkamm, 2003; 31). The L1 use reduces learners’ dependence on L1, promotes ‘authentic communication’ and ‘a genuine foreign language atmosphere’ as it allows to not interrupt the flow of the classroom conversation and keeps it focused on message (Butzkamm and Caldwell, 2009: 33, 40, 80). (2) The second type co-occurrence is represented by Leo van Lier (2011) who considers ‘translanguaging’ to be an important factor in ‘authenticating learning’ (van Lier, 2011: 14). (3) Finally, Claire Kramsch (2012: 116) questions the established category of ‘authenticity’ as being incompatible with ‘multilingual SLA’. These co-occurrences, while not significant in volume terms, demonstrate that the issue of L1 in SLA is deeply connected to inquiries about authenticity. In this chapter, we try to situate the found co-occurences in the context of current trends in SLA (related to reseach both on authenticity and on L2 use). In addition, a cross-analysis of these two core concepts can reveal some emerging tendencies in the understanding of authenticity in SLA. We argue that consolidating the conceptual nexus around two core notions of SLA – L1 and authenticity – as parts of the larger conceptual framework of an emerging students/teachers-as-people paradigm would help to reinforce theoretical arguments in favor of systematic use of L1 in the L2 classroom. The proposed approach also enables us to bring together data from two fields in SLA – poststructuralist and neurocognitive – and to put forward an inclusive socio-cognitive model of L1 use, which could be a foundation for a L1-as-pedagogy approach.
... Pese a la impronta sociolingüística y comunicativa que se difundió rápidamente a lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, todavía es frecuente encontrarse ante la creencia de que existe un hablante ideal empalmado en la figura del nativo y de que este sería, por lo tanto, la persona más indicada para enseñar su lengua como extranjera (Ghlamallah, 2016). En este sentido, son innúmeros los cursos de idiomas ofrecidos en diferentes países que, para promocionarse, abusan del sintagma "hable como un nativo" o bien "tome clases con profesores nativos" (Chacón, 2010;Coracini, 2007;Lowe y Pinner, 2016). Sumándose a esto, aún opera la idea de que existe una variedad pulcra de lengua que debería ser la elegida como modelo para la enseñanza (Bagno, 2003). ...
... En seguida, se refiere a su propia habla como "idioma auténtico del inglés". La repetición de la palabra "auténtico" hace aparecer la tensión entre la memoria discursiva estabilizadora que remite lo nativo a lo auténtico (Lowe y Pinner, 2016) y, al mismo tiempo, pone en jaque esa afinidad a través de una construcción polisémica. Se constituye una tensión entre lo mismo y lo diferente cuando el docente se refiere al habla inglesa de un argentino como idioma auténtico. ...
Article
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En el contexto de intercambios interculturales cada vez más frecuentes, el objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el discurso de profesores argentinos de inglés como lengua extranjera respecto al concepto de hablante nativo. Para esto, partimos del marco teórico y analítico del Análisis de Discurso francés (Pêcheux, 1975) y brasileño (Orlandi, 2015; 2017) y trabajamos con la materialidad lingüística situada socio-históricamente. Las memorias discursivas evocadas remiten a dos perspectivas que sostienen, por un lado, prácticas clásicas relacionadas a una concepción estructuralista de lengua y de hablante nativo y, por el otro, ideas innovadoras ancladas en el giro sociolingüístico y comunicativo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Asimismo, eventos glotopolíticos del corriente siglo empiezan a hacer eco en estos discursos.
... Pese a la impronta sociolingüística y comunicativa que se difundió rápidamente a lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, todavía es frecuente encontrarse ante la creencia de que existe un hablante ideal empalmado en la figura del nativo y de que este sería, por lo tanto, la persona más indicada para enseñar su lengua como extranjera (Ghlamallah, 2016). En este sentido, son innúmeros los cursos de idiomas ofrecidos en diferentes países que, para promocionarse, abusan del sintagma "hable como un nativo" o bien "tome clases con profesores nativos" (Chacón, 2010;Coracini, 2007;Lowe y Pinner, 2016). Sumándose a esto, aún opera la idea de que existe una variedad pulcra de lengua que debería ser la elegida como modelo para la enseñanza (Bagno, 2003). ...
... En seguida, se refiere a su propia habla como "idioma auténtico del inglés". La repetición de la palabra "auténtico" hace aparecer la tensión entre la memoria discursiva estabilizadora que remite lo nativo a lo auténtico (Lowe y Pinner, 2016) y, al mismo tiempo, pone en jaque esa afinidad a través de una construcción polisémica. Se constituye una tensión entre lo mismo y lo diferente cuando el docente se refiere al habla inglesa de un argentino como idioma auténtico. ...
Article
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En esta contribución discuto el discurso desde su dimensión cognitiva y compleja. Propongo entenderlo como un espacio comunicativo, relacional e identitario (ECRI) que es simultáneamente estructura y proceso. Describo el potencial creativo del discurso que posibilita la significación y re-significación de situaciones comunicativas, eventos, así como la caracterización de actores involucrados y sus relaciones e interdependencias sociales. Todo ello mediante una serie de operaciones o procesos conceptualizadores que crean los nexos necesarios y suficientes entre el fenómeno social, la estructura cognitiva y la instanciación discursiva. A través de ejemplos concretos analizo en mayor detalle el funcionamiento del proceso conceptualizador del framing y su relevancia para la construcción de patrones recurrentes de identidad en el discurso.
... Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide a comprehensive review of the topic of native speakerism in Thailand, which seems to be understudied regardless of the fact that various studies have demonstrated its impact on teaching and learning English in this country. The article begins with a review of definitions of native speakerism and its effects on teachers and students who are often affected by its ideology (Holliday, 2006(Holliday, , 2017Lowe & Kiczkowiak, 2016;Lowe & Pinner, 2016). Then, it moves on to focus on native speakerism in Thailand as well as its impacts on Thai teachers and students of English based on the findings and discussions of ELT research undertaken in Thailand from the late twentieth century to the present. ...
... It was conceptualized by Holliday (2005) to discuss an inherent superiority of NESs over NNESs in terms of teaching the English language. Lowe and Pinner (2016) considered that the ideology of native speakerism developed from an earlier concept called 'linguistic imperialism'. This was suggested by Phillipson (1992) and criticized how the power centers of the West exercise control over the language learning and language use of developing nations. ...
Article
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Currently, the role of English language has changed from being a language used among native English speakers (NESs) to being a language spoken by people of various backgrounds or known as English as a lingua franca (ELF). This phenomenon has affected different aspects of global English usage and users across the world. However, in Thailand, this issue does not seem to be taken into account with regard to English language teaching (ELT) and learning practices as different ELT stakeholders continue to conform to traditional teaching methods related to NESs. This action is reflected in an English language ideology called ‘native speakerism’ which has long been entrenched in Thai society. It has repeatedly caused different problems for both Thai teachers and students of English language until the present day. This review article aims to demonstrate the impacts of the native speakerism ideology on Thai teachers and students of English language in the period of English as a global lingua franca. The article begins with an explanation of how the changes of role and status of English challenge traditional perspectives of English language and how the ELT industry around the world, including in Thailand, should adapt to such changes. Then, the article gives brief conceptualizations of native speakerism and its effects on English teachers and students. Finally, it moves on to discuss the native speakerism ideology in Thailand and reports different negative effects of native speakerism on Thai teachers and students of English language.
... The status of Canadian French varieties versus European (or Hexagonal) French in FSL language education has been subject to a recurring debate over the past three decades, generally foregrounding a view that prioritizes European French as the only authentic variety (Levis, 2005;Train, 2000; see also Lowe & Pinner, 2016). For the most part, the discussions have centred on Québécois versus Parisian French, the latter typically associated with the French spoken in France and as representing the ideal model for la francophonie (Robyns, 1994). ...
... In other words, a subordinating discourse that specifically engages notions of prestige associated with the French spoken in France (Martel & Cajolet-Laganière, 1995) is used as a way of authenticating language expertise and thereby substantiating the legitimacy of a position as FSL teacher. The focus on authentic language within the context of SA points to a main finding of the larger study discussed here, namely the persistent and wide-ranging preoccupation among teachers and SA learners with native speaker norms and monocentric views of language, which are taken to be the only acceptable standard for the L2 classroom (Train, 2007; see also Lowe & Pinner, 2016). One way of addressing such constraints may be to explicitly consider these hierarchizing discourses in teacher education within the context of L2 learning on professional development initiatives on SA. ...
Article
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For many decades, Francophone regions in Canada have provided language study exchanges for French as a second language (FSL) learners within their own country. At the same time, FSL students and teachers in Canada continue to orient to a native speaker standard associated with European French. This Eurocentric orientation manifested itself in a recent study examining conceptions of authentic language among Canadian FSL teachers on professional study abroad in France. Taking an interactional perspective (De Fina & Georgakopoulou, 2012), this article examines how the teachers negotiated discourses of language subordination (Lippi-Green, 1997) that construct Canadian French as less authentic than French from France. Findings show some teachers drawing on this hierarchization of French to “authenticate” (Coupland, 2010) an identity as French language expert, either by contrasting European and Canadian varieties of French or by projecting France as the locus of French language and culture as exclusively representative of authentic “Frenchness.” Résumé Depuis des décennies, les régions francophones au Canada ont offert aux apprenants de français langue seconde (FLS) des programmes d’échange linguistique dans leur propre pays. Toutefois, les étudiants et les enseignants de FLS au Canada ont tendance à toujours se référer à la norme standard du locuteur natif parlant le français européen. Cette orientation eurocentrique a été relevée récemment dans une enquête examinant la notion d’authenticité linguistique auprès d’un groupe d’enseignants de FLS à la suite d’un stage de formation en France. S’appuyant sur une perspective interactionnelle (De Fina et Georgakopoulou, 2012), cet article examine la façon dont les enseignants font face aux discours de subordination linguistique (Lippi-Green, 1997) qui contribuent à renforcer l’idée que le Canadien français est moins authentique que le français de France. L’analyse montre que certains enseignants utilisaient cette hiérarchie du français pour se justifier comme experts linguistiques en français dans leur processus d’authentification (Coupland, 2010) en contrastant les variétés canadiennes et européennes du français ou en privilégiant le français et la culture de la France comme seule variété authentique.
... Previous studies have observed that the marketability and employability of native English-speaking teachers are in stark contrast to those of non-native English-speaking teachers (Braine, 2010;Dervić and Bećirović, 2019;Selvi, 2010). This employment discrimination against those labelled as non-natives is associated with the perception of what accounts for an authentic speaker of English (Lowe and Pinner, 2016). From a traditional view, authenticity in ELT research is often judged to be something absolute and inherent, with little space for ambiguity or negotiation (Patterson, 2020). ...
Chapter
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Technological advances and globalization have created numerous opportunities for online informal language teaching/learning. What emerges with this trend is that teaching languages online has become an increasingly common commercial practice. While previous research has explored how learners rely on a wide range of digital affordances to facilitate their beyond-classroom language acquisition, the question of how online language instructors draw on various multimodal resources to create content with both a marketing and a pedagogical focus has not been adequately addressed. Taking a social semiotic approach, this study analyses a Douyin video on speaking to an immigration officer and how the content creator deploys multimodal resources to advertise his language lessons and simultaneously to provide language instructions. The analysis identifies two strategies used in the video to attract followers: constructing English as a valuable skill and establishing expertise, during which specific varieties or types of English are commodified. It is also found that translanguaging, despite being perceived negatively in the video, serves to facilitate the commodification of English and is adopted as a pedagogical approach.
... However, he acknowledges that native-speakerism is the norm both in Korea and North American academia. Similarly, other scholars working in the field assert that there is still much to be done to deconstruct 'the native speaker fallacy' (Braine, 2010;Hall, 2012;Lowe & Pinner, 2016;Mahboob & Golden, 2013). Considering that the notion of a nativespeaker is thought to be an idealized concept in the literature (Davies, 2008;Doerr, 2009;Hall, 2012;Mahboob, 2005;Paikeday, 1985), one should cease labelling teachers of English. ...
Article
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İngilizce öğretmenliği alanyazınında anadili İngilizce olan öğretmenler ile anadili İngilizce olmayan öğretmenler arasındaki eşitsizlik üzerine pek çok çalışma vardır. Söz konusu eşitsizliği Freire’nin kuramsal bakış açısından inceleyen bu çalışma, anadili İngilizce olmayan çok sayıda İngilizce öğretmeninin içselleştirdiği anadili İngilizce olanların çıkarına olan anadilci ideolojiye ilişkin bir analiz sunmaktadır. Freire’nin ezen ezilen çelişkisi üzerine yaptığı çözümlemeyi kullanan bu çalışma anadili İngilizce olmayan İngilizce öğretmenlerinin benliğinin ikiye bölünmüş olduğunu savunmaktadır: söz konusu İngilizce öğretmenlerinin benliği bir yandan kendi benlikleriyken bir yandan içselleştirdikleri anadili İngilizce olan bireylerin benliğidir. Freire’nin özgürleştirici pedagojisinden yararlanan bu çalışma anadili İngilizce olan öğretmenler ile olmayan öğretmenler arasındaki bu eşitsizliği gidermek için Türkiye’deki İngilizce öğretmeni eğitimi programlarında diyaloğa dayalı problem tanımlayıcı eğitimin kullanılmasını önermektedir.
... NSs are often viewed as having high innate ability in the language that makes them preferable teachers. NSs are also sometimes perceived to be better qualified due to attending universities in native language contexts (Lowe & Pinner, 2016). Survey research has also shown that employers prioritize NS teachers over NNS teachers in the hiring process, which leads to qualified NNS teachers being unable to find employment or being underemployed (Clark & Paran, 2007). ...
Article
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This multiple case study explores the means through which freelance teachers establish their legitimacy in their classrooms outside of formal institutions. The data in this study were examined through the lens of Bourdieu’s (1986) social theory of capital and Van Leeuwen’s (2007) theory of authority. The perceived legitimacy of four core participants was examined using interviews, observations, and collection of artifacts. Native speaker (NS) and nonnative speaker (NNS) differences were found to be an important factor, and legitimacy was found to be highly context dependent, with some teachers constructing their legitimacy in contexts where being an NNS is advantageous. Some freelance teachers’ legitimacy is constructed around experience gained outside of the English language teaching (ELT) industry and through offering access to authentic second language contexts to their students. A minority of freelance teachers have identified pedagogical gaps in the ELT industry and have flourished in their own special market niches. The emic approach employed in this study shows that teacher legitimacy is more nuanced and context‐dependent than the simple NS/NNS dichotomy.
... More precisely, these statements point to the profound value attached to standard Japanese, correct grammar, and native-like proficiency as the legitimate goal of Japanese language instruction. Considering that the respondents agreed less (which also means they disagreed) with these items overall, we can infer some awareness of the controversial nature of monolingual, nativespeakerism ideology embedded in these statements (Lowe and Pinner 2016). However, given that these statements were not unanimously declined, either, there might be some discrepancies among the teachers on this issue. ...
Article
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This article reports the results of the online survey on Japanese-language educators’ beliefs and experiences concerning their profession that we conducted in the fall of 2018. A total of 355 teachers in North America responded to the survey. The responses were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative data suggest that the survey respondents almost unanimously agreed on the importance of global and translingual/transcultural competence as a crucial goal for JFL education. However, the items concerning the legitimacy of language varieties (e.g., standard vs. regional dialects), the importance of accuracy (e.g., grammar, pronunciation), and the views on Japanese culture (e.g., emphasis on uniqueness) received rather conflicting responses from the participants. Moreover, qualitative comments brought up the issues of native-speakerism, nihonjinron, and heteronormativity ideologies as prevailing in JFL education. In short, the results illuminate both converging and diverging perspectives of the survey participants and contradictions or dilemmas between aspirational ideals and mundane practices.
... Third, research demonstrates that students also express greater preference to NESTs, recognizing them as language authorities, cultural ambassadors, and models for speaking and/or pronunciation (Chun, 2014;Huang 2018;McKenzie & Gilmore, 2017;Rao, 2005;Rivers & Ross, 2013;Tang, 1997). Students' biases are also cultural and racial, as they express a preference for teachers with Western Anglo-Saxon Whiteness (Appleby, 2017;Fithriani, 2018;Hickey, 2018;Kubota & Lin, 2006;Leonard, 2019;Lowe & Pinner, 2016;Rivers & Ross, 2013;Stanley, 2013). Stanley (2013) and Leonard (2019) provided specific examples of how the "performance of foreignness" (Leonard, 2019, p. 168), closely tied to ethnicity, influenced students' perception of their foreign teachers. ...
Article
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This article provides a comprehensive review of Nativespeakerism: its definition in English Language Teaching (ELT), how it operates on a practical level, its historical background, and the current states of affairs as well as the research carried out so far in relation to the native-speakerist phenomenon. Even though the current multilingual paradigm has disproved the inherent superiority of the “native” English Speaker (NES), mainstream ELT markets still demonstrate strong preferences for the native over the non-native speaker. While research has already begun to demonstrate how pedagogical proficiency and linguistic competence are more important to student success than a teacher’s status as a native or non-native speaker of a language, further research into teacher classroom performance is needed to debunk pervasive myths that native speaker status perceived proficiency, and race are sufficient qualification for effective language teaching.
... There are also some other ideologies, such as the ideology of authenticity (Lowe & Pinner, 2016;Woolard, 2008) implicit in the discourse around the ideology of native-speakerism. Jenkins (2014) insisted that the ideology of authenticity covertly supports StE ideology. ...
Article
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This paper primarily aims to explore how the notion of "Good English" and its sister terms, such as good writing/writers and good speaking/speakers, are perceived by ELT students and secondly attempts to determine the language ideologies that lie behind their perceptions. A phenomenological research approach was adopted making use of open-ended email questionnaires with 42 students studying at a Turkish university to become English language teachers. The data analysed through a mixture of quantitative and qualitative content analysis revealed that most students" perceptions of Good English are normative and accord with the traditional view of the notion in which it is equated with correct English and native-like English. It was also observed that most students" perceptions of Good English guided their perceptions of good English speakers and writers and the way they perceive themselves as good or bad speakers and writers. The results indicated that particular ideologies, such as standard English, native-speakerism and authenticity, impact upon many students" normative perceptions of Good English and that such ideologies are passed on to students through various mechanisms. Not submitting themselves to these ideologies, a small group of students offered a different conceptualisation of Good English by underlining the importance of adjusting their language use to their interlocutors in different communication situations and prioritizing intelligibility over grammatical accuracy and native-like pronunciation/accent. Drawing on the results, the study makes some suggestions regarding the potential constituents of Good English and the key attributes of Good English users.
... The way foreign languages (especially English) are marketed around the world tends to place undue emphasis on so-called 'native speakers' as being the most authentic (and thereby authoritative) examples. Native-speaker teachers are often shown unfair preference by students and employers because of the false assumption that the 'native speaker' represents a 'standard', more 'correct' and thus empowered variety of the language (Lowe & Pinner, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
Authenticity is a loaded term. If one thing is branded authentic and another is branded as inauthentic, clearly the inauthentic item is less desirable in ordinary circumstances. Authenticity in the language classroom should be reconceptualised as a dynamic component of language, which interacts with motivation, autonomy and self at multiple levels.
... Similarly, as English is constructed as the original possession of white people, it is not surprising that students would perceive white native English speakers as authentic teachers of the language (e.g. Lowe and Pinner 2016). However, this perception is problematic because unlike a meal that can be objectively measured for authentic taste, etc., race and other embodied traits are used as subjective indicators of English language-teacher authenticity, which subsequently marginalises nonwhite instructors. ...
Article
Private English language schools market the language as a tool that helps one connect with others from different cultures. Despite their promotion of English aiding in intercultural communication, these institutions may believe that only the white native speaker is the ideal teacher of the language. This valuing of the white native speaker can consequently act as an organisational inequality regime that marginalises nonwhite teachers. Using qualitative interviews with 10 nonwhite instructors working in schools in Toronto, Canada, this article investigates the ways in which these teachers experience the inequality regime of the white native speaker at work. The findings indicate that the teachers experience this inequality regime as a series of microaggressions that involve space, competence and customer desire. The article concludes with suggestions to dismantle inequality regimes in private institutions. © 2019
... One of the many ways that Anna Marie moved towards greater equity in her classroom was by reframing the notion of authenticity. Like (non)native speakered subjectivities, authenticity has been heavily politicized and problematized and whether an individual's language is perceived as "authentic" at best depends on racialized, classed, 232 and nationalistic associations between language and power (e.g., Lowe & Pinner, 2016). ...
Article
Despite its imprecision, the native-nonnative dichotomy has become the dominant paradigm for categorizing language users, learners, and educators. The “NNEST Movement” has been instrumental in documenting the privilege of native speakers, the marginalization of their nonnative counterparts, and why an individual may be perceived as one or the other. Although these efforts have contributed significantly towards increasing awareness of NNEST-hood, they also risk reifying nativeness and nonnativeness as objectively distinct categories. In this dissertation, I adopt a poststructuralist lens to reconceptualize native and nonnative speakers as complex, negotiated social subjectivities that emerge through a discursive process that I term (non)native speakering . I first use this framework to analyze the historico-political milieu that made possible the emergence of (non)native speakered subjectivities. Then, I turn to the production of (non)native speakered subjectivities in K-12 and higher education language policies, as well as their impact on the professional identity development of pre-service teachers. Next, I consider the relationship between (non)native speakering and other processes of linguistic marginalization in which language is implicit, as well as how teacher educators can resist (non)native speakering and move towards a more equitable paradigm of language and language education. This inquiry draws on qualitative data from teacher education courses at a large US university, including course texts, policy documents, observational field notes, interviews, and focus group data. In the conclusion, I consider the implications of (non)native speakering as a theoretical and analytical frame, as well as applications of the data for teacher education settings, and possible directions for future research. By reconceptualizing (non)native status as socially and discursively produced, this project provides a new lens for the critical examination of teacher education curricula, professional identity formation, and language education policy. Finally, it contributes to a theory of change and encourages a move towards more inclusive language teaching fields.
... Tsuchiya found that native-speaker bias impacted language teachers and learners in a variety of ways, including at the individual level, where students preferred teachers who were "native speakers," and at the programmatic level, where teaching assignments and other activities were conducted based on a teacher's status as a native or nonnative speaker. Studies of native-speaker bias tend to focus on English language teaching (e.g., Barešova, 2015;Lowe & Pinner, 2016); as such, Tsuchiya's study makes an important contribution to the literature, in particular, because he focused on native-speaker bias in the context of Japanese and Chinese language teaching. Nevertheless, native-speaker bias and its impacts on L2 speakers remain prevalent in foreign language classrooms (e.g., Aneja, 2016;Derivry-Plard, 2016) and the question of how native-speaker bias impacts L2 learners remains understudied. ...
Article
This study reports findings of a survey about keigo, Japanese honorifics, and L2‐Japanese speakers; survey respondents were teachers of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). Researchers have studied keigo ideologies within Japanese society and documented approaches to keigo instruction and learners' efforts to master or resist keigo. However, researchers have not studied teachers' beliefs about keigo and neither the impact of keigo ideologies on classroom practice nor teachers' views of students as legitimate Japanese speakers have been studied. The survey examines JFL teachers' beliefs about keigo, approaches to teaching keigo, and beliefs about keigo's relevance for L2 speakers. Conducted within a qualitative framework, analysis of thematic coding and descriptive statistics demonstrate that respondents report different standards for L2 speakers that convey implicit native‐speaker bias. Findings underscore the importance of foreign language teachers reflecting on language ideologies that affect classroom practices and advocating for L2 speaker legitimacy. Language ideologies such as native‐speaker bias have a negative impact on foreign language teaching and learning. What language ideologies inform foreign language teachers' beliefs about L2 speakers and foreign language learners? What can foreign language teachers do to avoid reinforcing native‐speaker bias in the classroom?
... Alghofaili & Elyas, 2017;Aslan & Thompson, 2017;Lasagabaster & Sierra, 2005;Mahboob, 2004;Park, 2009;Tsou & Chen, 2019). Although NESTs are generally favoured because they are still considered to be the "authentic" models of the langauge of the West in this day and age (Lowe & Pinner, 2016), findings from these studies mostly do not suggest strong biases for NESTs; rather, they generally illustrate students' appreciation of the respective strengths and weaknesses of NESTs and NNESTs. NESTs are generally considered more suited for the teaching of speaking and listening and pronunciation skills and the latter better in other aspects of teaching, such as grammar teaching and the use of teaching strategies. ...
Article
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Native-speakerism has generated much debate in the field of English language teaching, with the general assumption that native English-speaker teachers (NESTs) are better teachers and would be learners' preference over non-native English-speaker teachers (NNESTs) given the choice. Despite challenges against such an assumption in recent decades, it is argued that NESTs are still prioritized over NNESTs. Studies on learners' perceptions of NESTs and NNESTs and the factors behind them have produced inconclusive findings, which prompted the present study in post-colonial Hong Kong, where English is a language of privilege. To gain a better understanding of the reality, 253 students from various academic programmes in a tertiary institution in Hong Kong were invited to complete a questionnaire which aimed to elicit their views and preferences concerning teaching by NESTs and local English teachers (LETs, i.e., NNESTs) after being taught by NESTs. Factors affecting their preferences were also explored using open-ended questions and correlation tests. The findings suggest a minor preference for NESTs, but LETs are favoured in terms of effectiveness. Experience with NESTs and learners' English proficiency may also have notable influences over learner preferences. These findings have practical implications for teacher deployment for English courses or programmes at tertiary institutions.
... Firstly, that NS English is the most authentic is asserted as a misinterpretation of authenticity. According to Lowe and Pinner (2016), authenticity, as a socio-psychological construct, refers to "the way an individual sees themselves in relation to the various contexts in which they exist and are required to use language for social production of meaning" (p. 36). ...
Article
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This article explores native speakerism, a chauvinistic ideology, in reference to relevant literature. It first exposes its ideological essence and adverse effects on English language teaching (ELT), and then moves to deconstruct the native speakerist practices concerning English language teachers, English language norm, cultural foundation of ELT curriculum, and teaching methodology, particularly the approaches of communicative language teaching (CLT) and task-based language teaching (TBLT). Through unearthing the culturist essence of native speakerism and the fallacies embedded in native speakerist ELT practices, this study is intended to contribute to eliminating native speakerism and building up more equitable and harmonious ELT profession.
... 12). Later, Phillipson [41] argued that the concept is a fallacy and has no objective reality but is rather a social construct [42,43]. In response, Rampton [44] proposed the alternative term "expert speaker" to denote every fluent speaker of English. ...
Article
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This article investigates how “native speaker” teachers define who a “native speaker” is and how they view themselves in relation to the concept. It further explores how they feel about discriminatory practices in employability and the pay gap that are systemically carried out against their “nonnative speaker” counterparts by recruiters. Data were gathered from 10 English language teachers: five males and five females from the UK, Canada, Ireland, and South Africa, who were hired by a state university in Saudi Arabia on the basis that they are “native speakers.” The findings show that although the place of birth and the official status of English in a given country were the main defining criteria for hiring a “native speaker,” the interviewees did not view the concept of the “native speaker” in the same ways as their recruiters did, who they believed used those criteria in an overly simplistic and reductive way rooted in native-speakerism. The findings also show that the participants did not enjoy the unjustified privileges given to them by their recruiters at the expense of their “non-native speaker” colleagues. Instead, in some cases, they attempted to confront their recruiters over such discriminatory practices, and in some others, they attempted to bridge the gap and ease the tension between themselves and their “nonnative speaker” counterparts, although these efforts were hindered by the system’s unfair and unjust practices.
... Indeed, there is a view that native speakerism is sustained and reinforced by the manner in which structures and systems with not only British-centric English orientations, but with western-centric biases as well, continue employing ELT approaches and methods that tend to dominate the ELT profession (Basu, 2013;Davila, Hsu, 2017;Torres-Rocha, 2019). Such discourses operate not only as hegemonic discourses, but also as master narratives or grand narratives (see Holliday, 2014;Lowe & Pinner, 2016;cf. Kumaravadivelu, 2012cf. ...
Article
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This paper sets out to answer two questions by characterizing and deconstructing Alan Davies’s seminal views and concepts - especially his ostensive views and his native speakerism - within the context of applied linguistics. Arguing that these are some of Davies’s seminal views and concepts, it offers a philosophical framing of his ostensive views and his other views by maintaining that they entail elements of philosophizing and fragments of the postmodern turn in the manner in which they are articulated in relation to applied linguistics. The paper also argues that Davies’s views of native speakerism are constructed within a classical binary perspective and, thus, can be construed to be fostering othering non-native speakers. In addition, it situates native speakerism within de-coloniality, epistemic break and de-linking, arguing that a de-colonial framework lends itself well to critiquing native speakerism. On this basis, it contends that there is a need to reconceptualize the notion of native speakerism that resonates with a de-colonial perspective. Lastly, the paper offers implications de-coloniality has for ELT.
... Both of us experienced challenges to our self-confidence as well as to our professional standing and authority, but this was experienced in different ways. For Marek, this was experienced as a perceived lack of trust on the part of students or colleagues due to not being a "native speaker", and therefore not being an authentic voice on the language (Lowe & Pinner, 2016). For Robert, the experience was of being perceived as being an authentic voice, but not an authoritative voice. ...
Article
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This paper presents a duoethnographic study into the effects of native- speakerism on the professional lives of two English language teachers, one “native”, and one “non-native speaker” of English. The goal of the study was to build on and extend existing research on the topic of native-speakerism by investigating, through dialogic interaction, the complex ways in which this ideology can influence the lives and career trajectories of individual language teachers. We show that the effects of native-speakerism can vary greatly from person to person based on not only their “native” or “non-native” positioning, but also on geography, teaching context and personal disposition.
... Previous studies have observed that the marketability and employability of native English-speaking teachers are in stark contrast to those of non-native English-speaking teachers (Braine, 2010;Dervić and Bećirović, 2019;Selvi, 2010). This employment discrimination against those labelled as non-natives is associated with the perception of what accounts for an authentic speaker of English (Lowe and Pinner, 2016). From a traditional view, authenticity in ELT research is often judged to be something absolute and inherent, with little space for ambiguity or negotiation (Patterson, 2020). ...
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Chapter
As dichotomized notions of “native” and “nonnative” are unraveled, an ongoing question is how teacher educators in their own classrooms can create spaces where candidates can explore and enact alternative identities that resist the (re)invention of such binaries. In this chapter, I consider pedagogical possibilities by examining how a teacher educator at a large, urban university integrates critical discussions, normalizes diversity, and encourages and facilitates her students’ exploration of identity in ways that resist traditional, dichotomized paradigms, while also advocating for more nuanced ways of thinking about language, its users, and its use. To contextualize the glocal significance of Anna Marie’s approach, I first develop (non)native speakering as a poststructuralist, dynamic way of framing both the historical emergence of (non)native speakered subjectivities, as well as how “native” and “nonnative” identities are reified, conferred, denied, and performed through everyday interactions (see also Aneja GA, Crit Inq Lang Stud 13(4):351–379, 2016a; TESOL Q 50(3), 572–596, 2016b). I then use (non)native speakering as a lens through which to analyze the significance of the possibilities Anna Marie’s classroom pedagogy offers for undoing structuralist, binary views of identity. The chapter’s conclusion will discuss participants’ resistance against the ‘traditional’ (non)native speaker concept and how ELT professionals can continue to address inequity in the “field.”
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The importance of materials in language teaching and learning has been extensively acknowledged (McGrath, 2013). Teaching materials are a key instrument in most language courses. Language teaching throughout the world today could not be more successful without the extensive use of commercial materials (Richards, 2001). This paper gives an overview about material design and the use of authentic materials in the English as a second/foreign language classroom and their significance for language learners. It also looks for the sustaining theories which support the efforts in developing culture sensitive ELT materials in a view to improving classroom teaching. Recently, the necessity of culturally acceptable authentic material has been felt more intensely. It is found from this study that authentic and culturally appropriate materials play a vital role in teaching a foreign/second language. They enrich the traditional lessons and can be very interesting to the learners.
Article
This article aims to explore whether well-attested findings of World Englishes (WE) and English as a lingua franca (ELF) research have been included in Chinese English language teaching (ELT) materials and how Chinese English learners perceive English as a native language (ENL), WE and ELF-informed materials. The study was carried in the Chinese Business English Program. Results from questionnaires and interviews suggest that: there is no significant move to include linguistic and cultural diversity; ENL-informed materials are perceived as essential while WE-informed materials are perceived as necessary only at the advanced level; the current materials include inauthentic ELF scenarios, which might provide misleading information to English learners; and native cultures, non-native cultures and learners’shome culture are recommended to be included in ELT materials. In the light of these findings, suggestions for the design and use of ELT materials in the Chinese context are offered.
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Recently, a regional newspaper agency in Mainland China reported on the Chinese celebrity Angelababy by using her English name (Net Ease Entertainment, 2016). A reader complained about this, suggesting that Angelababy's Chinese name needs to be in the report as well. The reader's comment and the name Angelababy went viral on many online news outlets, and comments were posted about the problems associated with such an English name from a large number of Chinese netizens.
Article
The present study investigated agentive one-on-one intercultural communication between L2 English-speaking international faculty and their L2 English-speaking host colleagues in relation to identity (re)construction. Two foreign professors and their Chinese faculty colleagues participated in the study. The research instruments consisted of reflective journal writing and in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that the occasions of the faculty’s communication at Chinese universities were both influenced by and influenced a number of factors. These factors represented self- and other-positioning, agency, appropriation of native speakerism, face-threatening acts, and alterity. Based on the findings of the study, research implications are provided.
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This chapter takes up the issue of authenticity in language pedagogy. Traditional views of authenticity take the native speaker to be the primary authority for linguistic norms. Written standard language is especially highly valued here. It is argued herein that TELL environments are equally valid as learning environments, and that students can use the freedom they provide to develop their own locally negotiated cultural and linguistic norms. Evidence is provided that students on a net-based MA program develop their own norms for reducing language, and use them and other means to mark membership of a local TELL community. Thus, TELL is a rich and authentic environment for learners of English to become what is referred to as "language practitioners".
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In this chapter, the focus lies on language practices on virtual learning sites. A questionnaire sent to students on net-based courses in English demonstrated that the informants still had a conservative view of norms in the English language, in that they aimed to have native speaker-like proficiency. They reported that English as a lingua franca was relevant for communication with other non-native speakers in informal situations; however, education in particular was seen as a preserve of native-speaker norms. The informants saw English as a lingua franca as a performance variety that they wanted to learn alongside native varieties. However, textchat data of actual language practices demonstrated that users of English can develop their own norms through interaction with other non-native speakers. The conclusion of these studies is that, even though they may still report that they want to be like native speakers, they do develop their own language practices in the process of interacting with others. This entails that they have a much freer practical view of what is authentic language than their reported attitudes suggest, and I propose that this is due to them using the language on a virtual learning site. Thus, virtual learning sites are environments where, consciously or unconsciously, new non-standard linguistic practices can be developed.
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Native-speakerism is a prevalent ideology in ELT based on the notion that "native speakers" of English are its ideal teachers (Holliday, 2006). One type of research that aims to disrupt dominant narratives such as native-speakerism is duoethnography, which explores juxtaposed perspectives through reflexive dialogue (Sawyer & Norris, 2013). This duoethnographic study focuses on how experiences of native-speakerism have shaped the careers of one "native speaker" English teacher and one "non-native" English teacher in Japan. The researchers recorded conversations about their varying experiences of native-speakerism in the public school and private conversation school systems in Japan and collaboratively analyzed this data using interpretive thematic coding. In this study, we describe how our discussions on the topic of native-speakerism transformed our views on our respective positions in language teaching and encouraged us to examine our standing as professionals. We discovered that while native-speakerism had significantly shaped our teacher identity and beliefs, we had also both used our agency to exploit the ideology in order to make our professional lives easier. Furthermore, despite claiming to oppose the ideology, we eventually came to question the extent to which native-speakerist elements had in fact infiltrated our beliefs and even the construction of the duoethnography itself. 2 Daniel HOOPER and Azusa IIJIMA
Article
La tendance veut que l’homogénéité culturelle et linguistique des destinations des programmes d’études à l’étranger soit tenue pour acquise. Or, la diversité culturelle et linguistique des destinations occidentales anglophones, en particulier celle des métropoles urbaines, n’a pas cessé de croître. Compte tenu de l’évolution sociolinguistique de ces destinations, les auteurs se demandent comment les étudiants conjuguent la réalité multilingue à laquelle ils font face et leur volonté d’interagir avec des anglophones de naissance. En s’appuyant sur une étude ethnographique réalisée auprès de jeunes adultes sud-coréens étudiant l’anglais à Toronto, les auteurs montrent que, pour gérer la contradiction, les jeunes Coréens ont classé les anglophones dans différentes catégories afin déterminer lesquels d’entre eux sont le mieux à même de contribuer à leur apprentissage de l’anglais. Toutefois, en dépit du fait que les étudiants coréens se soient efforcés d’entrer en contact avec des anglophones de naissance, ils n’y sont généralement pas parvenus en raison de leur méconnaissance de la culture et de la langue locales. En outre, les étudiants coréens ont classé leurs condisciples allochtones selon la perception qu’ils avaient du degré de maîtrise de l’anglais et des accents de ces derniers, confirmant toutefois chez ces non anglophones de naissance les limites auxquelles se heurtait leur usage de l’anglais. Enfin, les sujets ont attribué différents rôles linguistiques à chaque type d’anglophones et évalué les interventions pédagogiques destinées à faciliter leur apprentissage de l’anglais dans le contexte multilingue.
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This chapter explores the ‘native speaker’ frame; the core concept of this book. The account begins by examining the notion of frames, both as individual cognitive structures and as prescriptions for group behavior, and discusses the relationship between frames and ideologies. This chapter also contains an elaborated discussion of frame analysis, the data analysis tool developed for this study. In order to provide an analogy for readers regarding ‘native speaker’ framing, a discussion is provided of the white racial frame in the theory of systemic racism, showing how the ideology of systemic racism influences the white racial frame. A full description is provided of the ‘native speaker’ frame, highlighting the parallels between native-speakerism and the ‘native speaker’ frame, and systemic racism and the white racial frame. Finally, the chapter examines some of the common native-speakerist discourses which inform ‘native speaker’ framing, and which help to construct the perceptual filters which influence how ELT practitioners see themselves and their practice.
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This chapter discusses some of the major literature surrounding the concept of the ‘native speaker’, and investigates the ways in which the ‘native speaker’ has been conceptualized historically in both theoretical linguistics and applied linguistics. Following this, the chapter explores the concept of ‘native-speakerism’, focusing on the role the ideology plays in global ELT and describing some of the professional issues it causes. Particularly, its effects on the lives of language teachers, the design and development of materials, the privileging of Western models of English and of Western-developed English language teaching methodologies, and the Othering of students. This chapter also looks at recent approaches to the concept of native-speakerism, and examines how cultural resistance has been enacted against the ideology by those involved in English language learning and teaching.
Article
Native-speakerism is the main goal of the monolingual approach to language education. In an attempt to challenge native-speakerism as a dominant ideology in English language education, this study probed into language learners’ experience of authenticity through an existential framework, comprising the two concepts of resoluteness and self-other relations, which was derived from Heidegger's (1962) concept of authenticity in Being and Time. To collect data, a group of English language learners studying at Iranian state universities were investigated by the administration of semi-structured interviews. The analysis of data led to the emergence of three core themes: epistemological and ontological engagement, agency for response-ability, and the process of in-situ knowing. Indeed, the collected data demonstrated a shift of emphasis on authenticity from native-speakerism towards the realities of language learning where the possibility of being rendered capable can be provided, and space is offered for the integration of mainstream epistemology and learners’ ontology through in-situ knowing. More importantly, the existential interpretation of authenticity, proposed in our study, was revealed to be an inclination towards bi/multilingualism.
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This paper examines English teacher identity of Japanese “non-native” English-speaking teachers through a multi-layered analysis of discourses and identity. Informed by poststructuralist views of identity, it explores dominant discourses surrounding “non-native” English-speaking teachers by analyzing their portrayal in national English education policy in Japan. This analysis is combined with qualitative data analysis of interview accounts of five Japanese high school “non-native” English-speaking teachers, which allows for examination of the interrelation between dominant discourses and their teacher identities. The data analysis demonstrates how the policy documents portray “non-native” English-speaking teachers, framing them within two competing discourses: the discourse of teaching professionals vis-à-vis students and the discourse of “nonnative” teachers vis-à-vis imagined “native” speakers of English. This discursive portrayal corresponds to the “non-native” English-speaking teacher identity illuminated by narrative accounts from the participant teachers, manifesting the paradoxical and conflicting nature of teacher identity. The discussion concludes with implications and recommendations for English education policy design and teacher education with a heightened sensitivity to identity.
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Resumen El lenguaje confiere al ser su condición de existencia, en tanto ser humano deseante inserto en una cultura (Revuz, 1998). En el contexto migratorio actual, los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje de lenguas se ponen de relieve. Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar una revisión teórica respecto a la concepción de hablante nativo como un mito (Lippi-Green, 1997; Mariño, 2011; Rajagopalan, 1997) en el ámbito de la enseñanza de lenguas. Se adopta la perspectiva sociolingüística de Bagno (2007) que propone la variación lingüística como el estado natural de las lenguas. Desde esta perspectiva, la norma estándar funciona como modelo artificial de lengua, que neutraliza las diferencias. A su vez, el concepto de hablante nativo que viene sosteniendo la didáctica de lenguas extranjeras da cuenta de un sujeto ideal, no real, por lo tanto, inalcanzable (Chacón, 2010; Coracini, 2007). Estos aspectos atraviesan los vínculos entre profesores y estudiantes de lenguas, escenario de nuestros interrogantes.
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This conceptual article draws together perspectives from the research fields of Global Englishes and English medium instruction (EMI) to explore shared issues, critical perspectives, and future agendas. While embedded in the reality of English being a dominant global language and academic lingua franca, both Global Englishes and EMI lobby for the promotion of multilingual pedagogies, challenge native speaker hegemony, and highlight the importance of multilingual teachers. Both fields strive to balance pragmatic aims to develop students into global language users, while supporting critical movements to resist centre–periphery views of English. To support the perspectives raised in this article, we draw upon scholarship from and about Asian contexts to emphasise research contributions to both Global Englishes and EMI outside the western hemisphere and Anglosphere. The article concludes with calls for more critical research into EMI, which could be informed by further exploration of research at the crossroads of Global Englishes and EMI. Open access full-text available here: https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2022.2056794
Chapter
This chapter takes up the issue of authenticity in language pedagogy. Traditional views of authenticity take the native speaker to be the primary authority for linguistic norms. Written standard language is especially highly valued here. It is argued herein that TELL environments are equally valid as learning environments, and that students can use the freedom they provide to develop their own locally negotiated cultural and linguistic norms. Evidence is provided that students on a net-based MA program develop their own norms for reducing language, and use them and other means to mark membership of a local TELL community. Thus, TELL is a rich and authentic environment for learners of English to become what is referred to as “language practitioners.”
Article
This paper reports findings of a qualitative study on a group of cross-border mainland Chinese students’ English learning experiences in an English medium instruction (EMI) university in Hong Kong. It focuses on their investments in English-mediated practices in the university context, with particular attention to the mediating role of identity, capital and ideology in their second language (L2) investments. Findings indicate that the participants were invested in L2 practices for academic purposes by leveraging their cultural capital to speak and practise their L2 in the classroom, which enabled them to construct desirable academic identities as competent university students. However, their L2 investments for social purposes were somewhat constrained by their lack of necessary cultural capital to secure access to L2 interactional opportunities outside the classroom. Findings also suggest that their differential levels of investments in different L2 practices during their cross-border studies appeared to be shaped by their exercise of agency to invest or otherwise in particular identities and forms of capital and mediated by multiple ideologies with respect to the role of English as the world language, native-speakerism, and cultural differences.
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This chapter showcases the ways in which narrative accounts and thus identities manifested, are manipulated, restricted and/or empowered by the complexities of the ‘native-speaker’ English teacher location within the Japanese sociocultural context. The study participants are initially bound together by the national context in which they reside, their location as minority members of society (across a variety of criteria), their shared employment in the domain of foreign language education, and most importantly, their institutional categorization as ‘native speakers’ of English. In turn, the role of categorization is particularly pertinent to the process of identity development as it permits the label of ‘native-speaker’ English teacher and ‘the complex baggage of “nativeness” as it is constructed in the field of English language teaching’ (Stanley, 2012: 25), to be conceptualized as a bounded space in which one is able to reside either voluntarily or otherwise.
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This book examines the concept of authentic English in today's world, where cultures are in constant interaction and the English language works as a binding agent for many cross-cultural exchanges. It offers a comprehensive review of decades of debate around authenticity in language teaching and learning and attempts to synthesise the complexities by presenting them as a continuum. This continuum builds on the work of eminent scholars and combines them within a flexible framework that celebrates the process of interaction whilst acknowledging the complexity and individual subjectivity of authenticity. Authenticity is approached as a complex dynamic construct that can only be understood by examining it from social, individual and contextual dimensions, in relation to actual people. Authenticity is a problem not just for language acquisition but one which affects us as individuals belonging to society
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Native-speakerism is an ideology in English language teaching (ELT) in which so-called “native speaker” teachers, and the culture they are believed to represent, are perceived to be norm-providing both for the English language and for the ways in which English is taught around the world. While native-speakerism has been written on extensively, this study investigates one area in particular – the prevalence of “centre” qualifications (those awarded by institutes in the political West) in “periphery” educational settings. By investigating the qualifications held by instructors (both “native” and “non-native” speakers) working on large ELT programs at three Japanese universities and comparing these data to the number of similar qualifications available in Japanese universities, the research shows a possible bias towards centre qualifications in two of the institutions, and an overall bias in the data as a whole. It is suggested that this may be indicative of a subtle native-speakerism at play in which Western methods and approaches are preferred or idealised over locally developed techniques.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This paper aims to highlight the fact that English is still taught as an Inner-Circle language in many EFL contexts, such as Japan and other parts of Asia. It looks at the prevalence of culturally-embedded definitions of authenticity, tracing the history and evolution of the definition, and goes on to propose that authenticity should be conceptualized as a continuum, with both social and contextual axes
Book
This book examines the ways in which English is conceptualised as a global language in Japan, and considers how the resultant language ideologies - drawn in part from universal discourses; in part from context-specific trends in social history - inform the relationships that people in Japan have towards the language. The book analyses the specific nature of the language’s symbolic meaning in Japan, and how this meaning is expressed and negotiated in society. It also discusses how the ideologies of English that exist in Japan might have implications for the more general concept of ‘English as a global language’. To this end it considers the question of what constitutes a ‘global’ language, and how, if at all, a balance can be struck between the universal and the historically-contingent when it comes to formulating a theory of English within the world.
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A much-cited and highly influential text by Alastair Pennycook, one of the world authorities in sociolinguistics, The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language explores the globalization of English by examining its colonial origins, its connections to linguistics and applied linguistics, and its relationships to the global spread of teaching practices. Nine chapters cover a wide range of key topics including: international politics colonial history critical pedagogy postcolonial literature. The book provides a critical understanding of the concept of the ‘worldliness of English’, or the idea that English can never be removed from the social, cultural, economic or political contexts in which it is used. Reissued with a substantial preface, this Routledge Linguistics Classic remains a landmark text, which led a much-needed critical and ideologically-informed investigation into the burgeoning topic of World Englishes. Key reading for all those working in the areas of Applied Linguistics, Sociolinguistics and World Englishes.
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Human language has changed in the age of globalization: no longer tied to stable and resident communities, it moves across the globe, and it changes in the process. The world has become a complex 'web' of villages, towns, neighbourhoods and settlements connected by material and symbolic ties in often unpredictable ways. This phenomenon requires us to revise our understanding of linguistic communication. In The Sociolinguistics of Globalization Jan Blommaert constructs a theory of changing language in a changing society, reconsidering locality, repertoires, competence, history and sociolinguistic inequality. • There is great interest in the issue of globalization and this book will appeal to scholars and students in linguistics, sociolinguistics, applied linguistics and anthropology • Richly illustrated with examples from around the globe • Presents a profound revision of sociolinguistic work in the area of linguistic communication
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This chapter will explore how we need to rethink current associations between ‘autonomy’ and language students, in order to address a reductive culturism which I believe pervades TESOL. I shall begin with a critique of two dominant conceptualizations of student autonomy. The first is characterized by a long-standing ‘us’—’them’ native-speakerism. Although the second is based on a more critical cultural relativism in which native-speakerism is seen as untenable, I see both as being equally culturally reductive. I shall then argue for a third position in which autonomy is defined in the terms brought by students from their own worlds outside the classroom. I suggest that we routinely fail to see this social autonomy because of preoccupations with our own professionalism.
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This chapter focuses on the social position of English in Japan. Specifically, we examine the representation of globalization, particular languages, and users of languages in specific forms of public discourse, and we explore the role that these discursive representations play in English-promotion policies. Thus we examine the development and dissemination of assumptions, images and beliefs about English, Japanese and other languages, as well as their links with important public policy issues.
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This chapter deals with two different studies. One of them was conducted in Egypt. Meanwhile, the second one was conducted in Japan. The subjects of the two studies were university students studying English as a foreign. The results of the study revealed that strategy training could help learners be better, faster, more effective, and more self-directed foreign language learners. It was found out that the subjects’ level in speaking skills significantly improved after receiving intended treatment that focused on training the subjects on learning strategies.
Book
For many Japanese women, the English language has never been just another school subject. For them, English is the tool of identity transformation and the means of obtaining what they passionately desire - mobility, the West and its masculinity. Language Learning, Gender and Desire explores Japanese women's passion for learning English and how they negotiate identity and desire in the terrain of racial, sexual and linguistic politics. Drawing on ethnographic data and popular media texts, the book offers new insights into the multidirectionality of desire and power in the context of second language learning.
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Identity and Language Learning draws on a longitudinal case study of immigrant women in Canada to develop new ideas about identity, investment, and imagined communities in the field of language learning and teaching. Bonny Norton demonstrates that a poststructuralist conception of identity as multiple, a site of struggle, and subject to change across time and place is highly productive for understanding language learning. Her sociological construct of investment is an important complement to psychological theories of motivation. The implications for language teaching and teacher education are profound. Now including a new, comprehensive Introduction as well as an Afterword by Claire Kramsch, this second edition addresses the following central questions: -Under what conditions do language learners speak, listen, read and write? -How are relations of power implicated in the negotiation of identity? -How can teachers address the investments and imagined identities of learners? The book integrates research, theory, and classroom practice, and is essential reading for students, teachers and researchers in the fields of language learning and teaching, TESOL, applied linguistics and literacy.
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Great philosophers such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Sartre have clearly been preoccupied by the possibility of authenticity. In this study, Jacob Golomb looks closely at the literature and writings of these philosophers in his analysis of their ethics. Golomb's writings shows his passionate commitment to the quest for the authenticity - particularly in our climate of post-modern scepticism. He argues that existentialism is all the more pertinent and relevant today when set against the general disillusionment which characterises the late twentieth century. This book is invaluable reading for those who have been fascinated by figures like Camus's Meursault, Sartre's Matthieu and Nietzsche's Zarathustra. © 1995 Jacob Golomb Phototypeset in Garamond by Intype, London All rights reserved.
Article
According to current estimates, about eighty percent of English teachers worldwide are nonnative speakers of the language. The nonnative speaker movement began a decade ago to counter the discrimination faced by these teachers and to champion their causes. As the first single-authored volume on the topic since the birth of the movement, this book fills the need for a coherent account that: traces the origins and growth of the movement. summarizes the research that has been conducted. highlights the challenges faced by nonnative speaker teachers. promotes NNS teachers' professional growth. No discussion of world Englishes or the spread of English internationally is now complete without reference to the NNS movement. This book celebrates its first decade and charts a direction for its growth and development.
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This book explores neoliberalism-a view of the world that puts the market at its centre-from the perspective of applied linguistics.
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This paper reports the outcome of a study carried out in Qassim University with 169 Saudi male novice university students to obtain a deeper insight into their perceptions of their native English speaker teachers (NESTs) and non-native English speaker teachers (NNESTs) in the English language classroom. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected in two stages by means of students' questionnaires and interviews. The results reveal statistical significant difference in the respondents' perceptions in favor of NESTs. Students showed more preference for NESTs as they go to higher levels. Students previous learning experiences may affect their general preference for NESTs since they were taught by both types of teachers. Subjects also exhibited an explicit preference for NESTs in relation to the teaching strategies adopted. However, the respondents showed moderately favorable attitudes towards NNESTs who provide a serious learning environment and a favorable response to learners' needs.
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Translingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations introduces a new way of looking at the use of English within a global context. Challenging traditional approaches in second language acquisition and English language teaching, this book incorporates recent advances in multilingual studies, sociolinguistics, and new literacy studies to articulate a new perspective on this area. Canagarajah argues that multilinguals merge their own languages and values into English, which opens up various negotiation strategies that help them decode other unique varieties of English and construct new norms. Incisive and groundbreaking, this will be essential reading for anyone interested in multilingualism, world Englishes and intercultural communication.
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This volume brings together key writings since the 1992 publication of Linguistic Imperialism - Robert Phillipson's controversial benchmark volume, which triggered a major re-thinking of the English teaching profession by connecting the field to wider political and economic forces. Analyzing how the global dominance of English in all domains of power is maintained, legitimized and persists in the twenty-first century, Linguistic Imperialism Continued reflects and contributes in important ways to understanding these developments.
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The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.
Article
This book examines the ways in which English is conceptualised as a global language in Japan, and considers how the resultant language ideologies - drawn in part from universal discourses; in part from context-specific trends in social history - inform the relationships that people in Japan have towards the language. The book analyses the specific nature of the language's symbolic meaning in Japan, and how this meaning is expressed and negotiated in society. It also discusses how the ideologies of English that exist in Japan might have implications for the more general concept of 'English as a global language'. To this end it considers the question of what constitutes a 'global' language, and how, if at all, a balance can be struck between the universal and the historically-contingent when it comes to formulating a theory of English within the world.