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With the growth of mobile data applications, the spectrum allocation is becoming very scarce. To ease congestion and boost speeds, cognitive radio (CR) is currently seen as a major solution and expected to be the key player in the new wireless technologies. In this paper, we will start by introducing the cognitive radio systems, followed by exploring the challenges in designing RF engine, along with an investigation of its antennas, amplifiers, oscillators, and the components that are expected to operate over a wide range of frequencies.
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Review Article
Recent Advances on Radio-Frequency Design in Cognitive Radio
H. M. El Misilmani, M. Y. Abou-Shahine, Y. Nasser, and K. Y. Kabalan
ECE Department, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
Correspondence should be addressed to Y. Nasser; yn
Received  October ; Accepted  January 
Academic Editor: Symeon Nikolaou
Copyright ©  H. M. El Misilmani et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
With the growth of mobile data applications, the spectrum allocation is becoming very scarce. To ease congestion and boost speeds,
cognitive radio (CR) is currently seen as a major solution and expected to be the key player in the new wireless technologies. In this
paper, we will start by introducing the cognitive radio systems, followed by exploring the challenges in designing RF engine, along
with an investigation of its antennas, ampliers, oscillators, and the components that are expected to operate over a wide range of
1. Introduction
With the increasing demand for high data rates requiring
high resources, such as energy and frequency bandwidth,
cognitive radio (CR) is thought of as a very promising solu-
tion. e basic operating principle of CR device relies on a
cycle of observation, analysis, and decision and an oppor-
tunistic access to the available bandwidth. Hence, a CR
device, usually referred to as secondary terminal, has to rstly
sense the existence of a primary transmission and oppor-
tunistically transmits whenever a frequency/time slot is
vacant. If the authorized (primary) terminal restarted trans-
mission, the secondary terminal jumps o into a dierent
band or alters its transmission parameters so that it does not
aect the primary transmission [].
In practice, the cognitive radio devices are expected to
sense the occupancy of any channel at any band in the
entire spectrum and autonomously adapt to the primary
transmission []. is continuous (or discontinuous) sensing
process on a large bandwidth imposes dierent constraints
on the radio-frequency front-ends of the secondary terminal.
More precisely, these requirements constrain strict issues
on antenna design, low noise amplication, frequency syn-
thesizers providing a carrier frequency from tens of mega-
hertz to about  GHz, mixing spurs, and spectrum sensing.
Broadband and tunable antennas, multiband ampliers, RF
lters, broadband direct-conversion mixers, baseband lters,
and ADCs/DACs are needed to realize soware-dened cog-
nitive radio equipment. ese RF components are expected
to operate over a wide range of frequencies [].
In cognitive radio, a recongurable radio front-end can be
programmed to transmit, steer to any band, tune to a channel
of any bandwidth, and receive any acceptable modulation
scheme. e ability to design linear and spectrally agile
components and architectures in the radio-frequency front-
end of the transceiver is considered a primary technological
cerns of the front-end design of a CR system including the
antennas, ampliers, and oscillators. In the literature, very
few works have investigated the design issues of the CR front-
end from end-to-end. Moreover, a complied review of the
dierent constraints has been very little tackled. We cite, for
instance, the work in [] as a rst attempt to harmonize all
these constraints. Hence, this paper belongs to the research
working on CR. To complete this work, we detail and
investigate the challenges to overcome in the next few years
in order to design a complete and smoothly tunable RF front-
end for CR applications.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2016, Article ID 9878475, 16 pages
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
sub =W
F : A proposed sensing and communicating antenna cong-
uration in [].
2. Antennas for Cognitive Radio
Cognitive radio communication is envisaged to be a new
paradigm of methodologies for enhancing the performance
of radio communication systems through the ecient uti-
lization of radio spectrum. A key enabler for realization
of a cognitive communication system and one of its main
challenges is the capability of recongurability in the under-
lying hardware and the associated protocol suite. From the
antenna design perspective, the demand for multiwideband
antennas which can be easily integrated with the communi-
cation system is continuously increasing. Recongurable and
frequency agile architectures are mostly designed nowadays
in order to solve the broad frequency allocation and to reduce
the number of functional blocks. Intensive work has been
done in designing antennas for cognitive radio applications.
rowband antennas for transmission has been proposed by the
research community [, ]. e sensing and transmitting
Figure .
In general, there are three dierent categories of recong-
urable antenna:
() Frequency recongurable antennas: the frequency of
radiation pattern remaining unchanged while the
frequency is changing [–].
() Radiation patterns recongurable antennas: the
antenna can steer its radiation patterns beams to dif-
ferent direction. e frequency remains unchanged
while the radiation pattern changes upon the system
requirements [–].
() Polarization recongurable antennas: providing an
additional degree of freedom to improve link quality
as a form of switched antenna diversity with improved
signal reception performance in a multipath fading
environment [].
So far, recongurable antennas for cognitive radio com-
munications can be classied into three types: electronically
recongurable antennas, mechanically recongurable anten-
nas, and optically recongurable antennas.
T : Operating bands achieved when switches are ON/OFF [].
Switch  Switch  Switch  Switch  Frequency band (GHz)
ON ON ON ON .–. and .–.
ON ON ON OFF .–. and .–.
ON ON OFF ON .–.
ON ON OFF OFF .–.
ON OFF ON ON .–.
OFF ON ON ON .–.
OFF OFF ON ON .–.
Switch 4
Switch 1
Switch 2
Switch 3
F : A proposed sensing and communicating antenna cong-
uration in [] (dimension is mm).
2.1. Electronically Recongurable Antennas. Electronic recon-
gurability is usually achieved by incorporating switches,
variable capacitors, lumped components such as PIN diodes,
varactor diodes, MEMS switches, or phase shiers in the
topology of the antenna [, , –]. An example of a
frequency recongurable antenna for cognitive radio is pro-
posed in []. e sensing and communicating antenna are
positioned at the same one volume, with a printed hour glass
shaped coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed monopole sensing
antenna operating at . GHz to  GHz, accomplishing the
UWB characteristic. e reverse side of the substrate con-
tains the communicating antenna designed to operate from
. GHz to . GHz. Another broadband antenna designed
for a frequency and radiation patterns recongurability for
cognitive radio is investigated in [] and shown in Figure .
e antenna consists of two branches. e le branch involves
a short transmission line and a short dipole, and the right
branch involves a long transmission line and a long dipole.
By setting switching pairs of the four controlling switches,
mutual coupling between a dipole and a nearby transmission
is disturbed. e currents on the transmission line will be
unbalanced, and hence radiation will occur. An example of a
summarizing table of such recongurability of the proposed
In [] PIN diodes are used in the design of a recong-
urable C-slot microstrip patch antenna that can operate in
gurable double C-slot microstrip patch antenna is also pro-
posed in [] and shown in Figure . Two PIN diode switches
are used here to generate a dual-band and wideband by
changing the states of the PIN diode. e antenna can operate
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
PIN diodes
F : A proposed sensing and communicating antenna cong-
uration in [].
bands. e wideband mode can be obtained when both
In [] a quad-band antenna for cognitive radio is pre-
sented. It has a direction radiation pattern in four frequency
bands, covering most of the spectrum used for existing
wireless applications. MEMS switch is used to adjust the
operating frequency of the quad-band antenna. A two-
element antenna array was further developed to increase the
antenna gain for base station applications.
A dual port sensing and communicating antenna design
narrowband frequency operation is also proposed in [].
open loop resonator (OLR) based band-stop lter. GaAs eld-
microstrip monopole antenna with recongurable multiband
function. In [], a novel design of a recongurable minia-
turized planar spiral monopole antenna suitable for TVWS
applications is reported. By inserting a tunable inductor on
the spiral monopole and modifying its inductance, frequency
recongurability is attained.
2.2. Mechanically Recongurable Antennas. Mechanic recon-
gurability is usually achieved by incorporating some phys-
ical alteration of the antenna structure using a rotational
movement. e advantage of this method is that no biasing
circuits for switch activation are needed, which might aect
the antenna performance. An example of this implementa-
structures incorporated together into the same substrate: the
rst structure is an ultrawideband (UWB) antenna covering
the spectrum from . GHz for channel sensing, and the
F : Implemented front-end using rotatable controlled recon-
gurable antennas [].
second structure is a frequency recongurable triangular-
shaped patch for establishing communication with another
RF device. e frequency recongurability is achieved via a
rotational motion, for which the rotating part of the antenna
is responsible to produce the required frequency tuning. By
rotation of the antenna with dierent rotation angles dierent
resonances are produced, making the antenna suitable to
communicate at the frequency specied by the “sensing”
Another example of this implementation in the design
of a cognitive radio front-end is presented in [] using also
rotatable controlled recongurable antennas. e frequency
agility is also achieved via a rotational motion of the antenna
patch controlled by a stepper motor mounted on the back
an UWB sensing antenna is presented with slotted polygon
patch. e frequency conguration is achieved by rotational
movement of the triangular-shaped patch communicating
Moreover, in [], a frequency recongurability of an
antenna for cognitive radio is also achieved via rotation
motion of a part of the antenna patch. e rotating part has
which each shape corresponds to a dierent antenna struc-
ture. With every rotation, a dierent antenna structure is fed
in order to produce a dierent set of resonant frequencies.
Using the same rotation mechanism, a multiband recong-
urable antenna is presented in [] using dierent rotating
slot congurations of the antenna.
2.3. Optically Recongurable Antennas. Additional work has
been done on the design of optically recongurable antennas
[, –]. An example of a photoconductive switch that
uses an 𝜂-type silicon switch doped with phosphorus to
increase its conductivity is proposed in []. A frequency
by eectively changing the dipole arm length. Optical-ber
cables are used to feed the printed dipole antenna. Another
example of optically controlled frequency recongurable
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Copper piece for
thermal radiation and
laser diode xture
Laser diode
F : Integration of the laser diode into the antenna structure
microstrip antenna is also presented in []. Moreover, eld-
eect-transistor- (FET-) based electronic switches used with
optical control are proposed in [] to control planar arrays
of electrically small metallic patches.
Furthermore, dynamically changing the material proper-
ties of parts of an antenna can signicantly alter the antenna
tive properties of some materials through an electric current
or optical signal. In [] a frequency recongurable rectangu-
lar patch antenna is achieved using LED that is used to alter
the conductivity of the semiconductors used. e variable
conducting material changes the resonant frequency of the
Another work that reduces the complexity of the systems
negating the need for optical-ber cables [] is proposed in
[]. e design is based on integrating laser diodes within the
antenna structure, as shown in Figure . is technique does
not require any biasing lines for switch activation purposes
in the antenna radiating plane, as is the case with RF MEMS
[] or PIN diodes [].
3. Amplifier Design for Cognitive Radio
3.1. Power Ampliers. Ampliers are basic building blocks
in electronics communications systems. For the transmit-
ter design in cognitive radio applications, in order not to
interfere with the primary user and operate at multistandard
frequency range, a high power gain is required, and thus a
broadband linear power amplier (PA) is desired. It must
provide a high output power, simultaneously assuring a wide
bandwidth, high eciency, and linearity behavior.
e power amplier, which is a crucial element of wireless
transmitters, consumes a large portion of energy in RF
circuits during transmission. Consequently, an ecient PA
design with high eciency capabilities is required. As the
system requirements vary, the specic constraints on the
amplier design also vary considerably. ere are, however,
common requirements for nearly all ampliers, including
frequency range, gain atness, output power, linearity, match-
ing, and stability. Oen there are design trade-os required
to optimize any parameter over the other, and performance
compromises are usually necessary. Dierent classes and
modes of operation were dened, each achieving certain
criteria in such performance metrics. Popular examples are
the basic classes such as Classes A, B, C, D, E, and F PAs.
Because of their highly versatile circuit function, PAs have
always been the rst to benet from developments in the
device and semiconductor technologies, which helped in
dening even new techniques for operation like the Doherty
ampliers and Class J PAs to meet the requirements imposed
on PAs due to the evolution of new communication systems
and standards as CR systems.
When the PA is driven towards saturation, the nonlinear
distortion will increase signicantly. On the other hand, the
highest PA power eciency is obtained at the saturation
point. In fact, there is a trade-o between the power eciency
of the PA and its linearity. e nonlinear behavior of the PA
leads to spectral regrowth of its out-of-band output signal
and, as a result, to adjacent channel interference (ACI). e
ACI power is a nonlinear increasing function of the PA
input power. erefore, it is important to consider the PA
nonlinear behavior of the CR transmitter and the resulting
ACI power for allocating power in CR networks by noting the
interference temperature limits. e CR system design should
be aware of the nonlinear behavioral model of the PA and of
the other users constraints in the environment.
ere are several methods to develop wideband PAs:
(i) e traveling-wave and distributed amplier topolo-
gies have excellent characteristics in terms of band-
width, gain atness, and input voltage standing-wave
ratio, so that they are widely used for broadband PA
development [, ].
(ii) e multistage LC combination technique is pro-
posed [] to improve the GaAs HBT PA in order to
be used in broadband wireless applications from .
to . GHz.
(iii) e push-pull PAs can reach wide bandwidth using
broadband transformers [–].
(iv) e shunt-feedback technique and multisection dis-
tributed matching networks are demonstrated to be
useful in [].
Several works have been proposed in designing power
ampliers for cognitive radio applications. In [], a broad-
band PA is demonstrated in InGaAs HEMT technology using
load impedance tracking. e power-added eciency and
the  dB compression point of the PA are better than %
and . dBm, respectively. A wideband power amplier for
the application of intelligent cognitive radios is proposed in
[]. In this PA design, the broadband frequency response is
enhanced using transformer matching network and resistive
feedback. As shown in Figure , series stack topology is used
to achieve the broadband load impedance match by dis-
cussing the constraints of stack PA in both GaAs and CMOS
methods. e main dierence between these two PAs is the
feed point. In the rst one, transformers are employed using
the RF feed point is upside-down compared to Figure (a).
the total biasing current is controlled by the transistor. To
verify the design models, a high eciency broadband PA in
commercial . m CMOS process with the best PAE of %
and the  dB compression point of  dBm is established. is
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
F : Two kinds of transformer orientations of stack PA. In (a), the transformers are opposite coupled. (b) e upside-down input fed
conguration [].
PA also demonstrates the widest bandwidth performance
among CMOS PAs below GHz. In [], a high eciency
Doherty power amplier suitable for TV band applications
for the main amplier and a Class C scheme for the peak
one. It attained a high power-added-eciency of .%,
a . dBm output power, an associated gain of .dB,
and an operating frequency bandwidth between  and
 MHz (.% fractional bandwidth) which make it
suitable for cognitive radio applications in the TV band.
In [], the interference control in time-windowed OFDM
Systems with realistic power ampliers for cognitive radio
applications is investigated. e load-tracking technique
PA design. e interference in holes generated inside an
orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) spec-
trum, for applications related to cognitive radio, is discussed.
Due to its simplicity, the time-windowing technique is
selected in order to obtain interference reduction in the out-
band region and inside the spectral hole. In this design,
it is shown how to choose system parameters (number of
guard subcarriers, window type, and extended guard interval
duration) in the presence of a nonlinear power amplier,
whose generated interference is of dominant importance in
assessing the real gain provided by the OFDM technique.
3.1.1. Tunability for Power Ampliers. Broadband PA modules
with frequency tuning capabilities have been also investi-
gated. ese modules having multiple narrowband power
amplier chips and corresponding matching circuits are
joined into a platform and controlled by switches in order to
obtain frequency band tuning [, ].
In order to lessen the number of components in PAs and
corresponding matching circuits, alternative single chip solu-
tions have been recommended. For example, while a balanced
amplier is a good applicant, it is usually not practical to
use quarter wavelength size of the couplers. A distributed
amplier is another consideration, where it suers from low
eciency and low gain and requires a relatively large chip
size. On the contrary, the feedback ampliers have a relatively
small chip size, but with low gain at microwave frequencies
and compromised eciency when resistive feedback is used.
to attain better gain atness, making a trade-o with the
power gain. In [], a novel recongurable output matching is
applied in the dual mode broadband InGaP HBT PA through
employing PIN diodes to adjust the LC networks as shown
in Figure . Using the compensating matching technique,
the -stage broadband power amplier is achieved and the
distribution of power gain among stages is optimized. e
output matching circuit is realized with parallel LC tank
circuits using PIN diodes in order to control the inductor
value. is broadband amplier module oers the advantage
of using less components, less power insertion loss, high
linearity, and small size.
3.2. Low Noise Amplier. For the receiver side in cognitive
tions, it is very essential to detect the presence of primary
users, creating spectrum opportunities for secondary users
(CR users) in order to increase the capacity of wireless
communications. For realizing this function, the sensitivity
of the spectral sensing in CR must be much higher than con-
ventional radio receivers. High sensitivity integrated receivers
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
power amplier
matching circuit
Input port Output port
Input port Output port
F : (a) Proposed broadband power amplier module; (b) schematic of the novel recongurable output matching circuit [].
Spectrum access engine (management, access, allocation, etc.)
Sensor and control plane
and radio resource manager
RF front-
end, PA,
ADC/DAC Digital base band
layer design
(soware, core +memory)
F : e spectrum access scheme including RF front-end.
require low noise amplier (LNA) that can deliver suciently
low noise gure (NF), acceptable linearity, quite high gain,
achieved over a wide frequency range in CR. Commonly
wideband LNAs consist of MOSFETs and resistors which are
far from the above-mentioned requirements. Some research
intends to enhance the noise performance in LNA design
using noise cancellation methods. However, the gain of all
those LNAs is less than  dB when the NF is about  dB, and
all of them have relative large power dissipation [–].
Several works have been proposed in designing low noise
ampliers for cognitive radio applications. A new wideband
low noise amplier, operating in UHF band for spectral
sensing in the receiver of cognitive radios, is reported in [].
e noise canceling technique is employed in this circuit,
and it yields higher gain and lower power dissipation. e
method of shunt-resistive feedback is adopted for achieving
a broad bandwidth. e noise gure is less than  dB, the
gain is – dB, and the LNA consumes only .mW at
. V power supply. In [], a new full on-chip CMOS LNA
very low power consumption, is introduced. In this LNA,
the common-gate (CG) stage for wideband input matching is
combined with the common-source (CS) stage for canceling
the noise and distortion of CG stage. Moreover, the CS stage
used both nMOS and pMOS transistors to improve the IIP.
is LNA achieves an input return loss (S) less than  dB
over the whole bandwidth and a noise gure of . dB to
. dB while consuming only  mW from a  V power supply.
e average power gain (S) is  dB. e achieved IIP and
IIP are about  dBm and  dBm, respectively.
4. Oscillator Design for Cognitive Radio
4.1. Introduction. Figures  and  present the main blocks
of a suitable architecture for CR systems. In practice, the
spectrum sensing architecture is composed of two stages.
In the rst stage, the target spectrum undergoes a coarse
detection and analysis on relatively large subbands of interest.
is allows recognizing those channels occupied by primary
(strong power) signals and marking them as busy. en, a
sweep over the band of interest is applied to have a ne
detection of the presence or absence of the primary signal.
e second stage consists of the RF transmission block able
to generate the necessary RF signals whenever a spectrum
opportunity occurs.
e signal band in CRs is shared between primary
and secondary transmission. In practice, there are various
architectures of receivers, such as direct-conversion (homo-
dyne), super-heterodyne, low-IF, and bandpass sampling
radio architecture. However, contrarily to the conventional
tuners, the spectrum sensing receivers should have similar
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Main LO
Tx front-end
Rx front-end
Rx front-end
LO coarse
Spectrum mapping
Main radio
Spectrum monitor
F : Spectrum monitoring and mapping scheme [].
architectures to spectrum analyzer. e frequency of the
local oscillator (LO) and its intermediate frequency should
be selected outside the signal band boundary []. On the
other hand, as the CR system should call for exible RF
architectures, with a wide frequency range, a wideband
high performance controlled local oscillator with a relatively
relaxed phase noise performance should be designed for
the use of both spectrum monitoring and transmission
In this section, we investigate techniques related to the
design and implementation of VCOs and to the increase of
their tuning range while maintaining acceptable design speci-
cations such as phase noise, power dissipation, accuracy, and
stability. In practice, two popular oscillator architectures have
been proposed for spectrum sensing applications: LC tank
based and ring based oscillators. e LC tank oscillators are
well-known for their phase noise and low power consump-
tion at radio frequencies and they are usually recommended
in many applications. However, they suer from low tuning
range as compared to ring oscillators, a necessary step in
spectrum sensing techniques. In practice, the tuning range of
the LC tank based oscillator is restricted to only % to %
if implemented without compensation techniques yielding
then to vulnerability to process variations. e utilization
of an inductor with a high quality factor however increases
the chip area, the cost, and complexity of the oscillator [].
Moreover, in a system requiring multiple output phases,
additional circuits, such as I/Q generators, make the system
more complex.
On the other hand, ring oscillators are considered to
be suitable candidates as the core block in the required
frequency synthesizer naturally with wide tuning range.
Moreover, the relatively small area makes it a good choice
for low cost portable devices. ey are able to generate
wide range frequency signals with multiple output phases
without any supplementary circuits which is very practical to
cognitive radio applications. However, they suer from high
level of phase noise.
4.2. e LC Tank Oscillator. In the literature, dierent LC
resonant tanks with multiple frequencies and based on
transformers or multitapped inductors have been proposed
to design tunable multibands and/or wideband oscillators
[–]. In [–] transformers with small turn ratio and
adequate coil coupling are utilized to design dierential
dual-band oscillators. As the target frequency ranges from
. GHz to  GHz, two congurations are proposed. A one-
port oscillator is used for the low-band mode, while a two-
port oscillator design is used for the high band.
Multitapped inductors are proposed in [] to design
an LC tank of order equal to , covering the two bands
. GHz and . GHz with target application GSM/DCS/PCS
standards. In [], transformers with high coupling ratio and
( GHz/ GHz). To stabilize their one-port oscillator, a
notch-peak cancellation technique is proposed. Similarly, a
single multitapped inductor and two-port oscillations are
used in [] to design a . GHz/ GHz dual-band dif-
ferential VCO for area-ecient wideband applications. In
to . GHz is proposed by utilizing loosely coupled -coil
transformer with one-port oscillations.
All this work shows that VCOs with high order LC tanks
present large prospective to design wideband or multiband
applications. Nevertheless, the comparison of these VCOs
with the conventional LC-VCO schemes reveals that the
stability of the VCO becomes a real issue when the order of
the resonator increases. is leads to an increased complexity
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
which yields to the inclusion of many design parameters
in the design of the VCO end-product. For instance, the
inductor, capacitor, and the coupling between the inductors
ratios should be carefully (and maybe jointly) considered in
order to optimize the VCO outputs.
Fortunately, some attempts in the literature have been
established [] to derive analytical results and close-form
expressions of the oscillation frequencies and of the condi-
tions of the transformer-based one-port and two-port oscil-
of one-port and two-port oscillators with high order resonant
tanks and to a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of
dierent tanks topologies and designs at dierent bands for
particular applications on the other side. Nevertheless, it is
considered in [] that the capacitors of the oscillators are
lossless, a basic assumption yet invalid in real networks. To
solve this problem, a complete understanding of the two-
oscillator congurations (one-port and two-port) including
capacitance loss, phase noise, and tank Qs is provided in [].
need to be stabilized if the designer is seeking oscillation at
stability issue and have superior phase noise performance
for a given output swing but are less ecient in convert-
ing the bias current to the tank swing. Based on these
observations, both congurations are combined to exploit
their corresponding advantages at dierent frequency for
spectrum sensing (and soware-dened radio-SDR) appli-
cations. Accordingly, a transformer-based dual-band Q-VCO
frequency synthesizer is proposed and designed [], which
supports existing wireless technologies.
In [], a VCO with tuning range extension circuit is
designed using an injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD)
and ip op dividers. e -stage dierential ILFD can
generate quadrature outputs, with a tunable divide ratio equal
to , , , and  and very wide output frequency range.
e proposed oscillator achieves a large frequency from
. MHz to . GHz with  dBc/Hz of gure of merit. It is
implemented using a  nm CMOS process. Other wideband
the same tuning range extension technique and QVCO. We
cite, for instance, the works of [, ] which design VCOs
for multistandard transceivers using a tuning range extension
technique and QVCO. ese VCOs achieve quite wide tuning
range and high spurious rejection using single-sideband
mixer (SSBM) with I/Q signals. However this is obtained at
the detriment of large phase noise and power consumption.
e work of [] is also interesting in this regard. A tuning
range extension technique is utilized using dierential VCO,
a mixer, and dividers. However, the VCO does not generate
I/Q signals, while spurious frequencies appear at the output
of the mixer.
4.3. e Ring Oscillator. Generally, a ring oscillator is com-
is proportional to the number of stages (𝑁)andthetrans-
mission delay of each delay cell stage (TD). In practice, the
number of stages is usually xed for a given design while the
TD reects the charging and discharging time for the load
capacitance. For instance, with a CMOS inverter based delay
cell used in an oscillator, the transmission delay could be
tuned by changing the bias current of the design []. For a
dierential amplier base stage, either the tail current source
design parameters allow to oer large VCO gain variation
over the overall tuning band. In particular, very high gain is
oen observed in the middle of the tuning range, where the
oscillator would suer from high sensitivity to control voltage
ere is no doubt that a linear relationship between
the voltage control and the oscillating frequency is required
for wideband systems to ensure the locking range of the
frequency synthesizer. Hence, most of the oscillators designs
were based on this basic yet important approach. For CR
applications using ring oscillator approach, we distinguish
the work of [] on standard  nm CMOS technology
targeting a wide range frequency tuning range. e three-
stage dierential ring oscillator proposed therein is tuned by
an array of MOS varactors, controlled by a staggered voltage
ring oscillator oers a measured tuning range from . GHz
to . GHz, consuming . mA current from a . V supply
for such designs (. Bc/Hz at  MHz oset from an operat-
ing frequency of . GHz). In [], a novel voltage-controlled
ring oscillator fabricated in TSMC .-m CMOS technology
is designed. To maintain the linearity between frequency and
voltage characteristics and phase noise specications over
a wide tuning range, a transmission gate is implemented.
e proposed ring oscillator has achieved a wide operating
frequency range from MHz to  MHz covering particu-
interesting point of the proposed ring design resides in its
phase noise which measures  dBc/Hz at  MHz oset from
 MHz and its power consumption of  mW.
is implemented using a linear CMOS switched-capacitor
frequency detector (SCFD) that operates appropriately over
the frequency range of the designed oscillator. en, a neg-
ative impedance converter (NIC) is utilized to control the
supply current and complete the ring oscillator design. e
interesting part of the proposed oscillator resides in the
fact that it does not use operational ampliers or resistors
which makes it very easy and widely applicable in all types
of oscillators. is oscillator has power consumption less
than . mW in the frequency range of  MHz to . GHz
performance (in the order of . dBc/Hz at  MHz oset
from the carrier frequency of . MHz). In [], a compact
and low power quadrature local oscillator is designed and
implemented for the .–GHz band using a dierentially
tuned LC-VCO. e same design is then converted to cover
the band – GHz with continuous frequency coverage. A
-stage dierential injection-locked ring oscillator (ILRO) is
used subsequently to the latch-based divider to generate
quadrature output phases without restricting % duty cycle
from input signals as those of conventional divide-by-
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
approaches. When implemented in a  nm general purpose
CMOS IC technology, the integrated quadrature-phased LO
consumes  mA of current at a  V supply and oers very
good phase noise performance across the entire – GHz
band targeting the CR applications.
In [, ], an all-digital phase-locked loop using a com-
bination of a digitally controlled ring oscillator with an LC
tank is proposed to extend the tuning range of the LC tank
and reduce its power dissipation. In the suggested design,
an adaptive frequency calibration, based on binary search, is
introduced to accelerate the frequency settling. e proposed
architecture is fabricated in a -nm CMOS while the fre-
quency synthesizer has an active area of . mm2and achieves
a frequency tuning range of . to . GHz, with power
consumption of less than  mW from a .-V supply.
To improve the poor phase noise performance common
in ring oscillators, a series of works have been proposed to
using a saturated-type dierential delay cell with a positive
feedback path is proposed. It is shown that the phase noise of
the proposed oscillator has comparable performance as the
conventional LC tank VCO. However, the frequency tuning
mechanism implemented is not practical as it changes the
strength of the latch in the positive feedback. Indeed, the
latter could not be proportional to the control voltage which
means that the oscillator could not have a linear frequency
versus the input voltage. In addition, the oscillator could not
operate in low frequency range such as VHF bands. To over-
come this problem, a transmission gate is proposed in [, ]
to linearize the voltage-frequency tuning relation. In [], a
monolithic ring VCO is proposed. It is based on delay cell and
a -stage scheme taking into account the trade-o between
the frequency tuning range, phase noise performance, and
power consumption of the oscillator. e delay cell consists
of one NMOS input pair, one PMOS positive feedback pair,
and one transmission gate which connects the output of one
delay cell to the input of the next one.
4.4. Other Oscillators. In [], a Distributed Voltage-Con-
trolled Oscillator (DVCO) suitable for CR applications is
proposed and optimized. To do so, Harmonic Balance (HB)
based optimization techniques have been used. e proposed
DVCO aims at minimizing the output power variation along
with a feedback loop. e oscillator tuning is achieved
through biasing all the drain terminals with a xed voltage
𝑉DD and varying the gate bias voltages of the active devices
in pairs. e measured DVCO frequency band, shown in
Figure , covers from .GHz to .GHz, dissipates a
power equal to  mW, and generates average output power of
set from the carrier across the tuning range is . dBc/Hz.
Another interesting work in this eld concerns the con-
ing at detecting spectral usage and spectrum holes in the
. GHz industrial scientic-medical (ISM) band. e pro-
posed design consists of a swept oscillator and frequency
discriminator, both of which use the injection locking of
the VCO to process the sensed signal without requiring
0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
Frequency (MHz)
ctrl (V)
F : Frequency-voltage control characteristics [].
a frequency synthesizer. e proposed sensor can detect
accuracy at a spectrum scanning speed of MHz/ms. It is
worth mentioning that the sensitivity of the proposed design
can be below  dBm when an external low noise amplier
5. Challenges
Although a large number of research works on CR exist,
the challenges of this technology remain numerous. Besides
the challenges related to intelligence distribution and imple-
mentation, decision making, sensing algorithms and learn-
ing process, delay/protocol overhead, geolocation, and exi-
ble hardware design, major diculties lie in the implementa-
tion and the design of antennas, ampliers, and oscillators.
e complexity found in the implementation of these RF
parts is lowering the pace of its development []. Several
, , –].
Referring to Figure , for this system to operate on
multiband or a broadband simultaneously, the employment
of parallel processing from antennas to analog to digi-
tal interfaces is materialized. Multiantennas are necessary
for MIMO operation and/or multibands operation. Passive
module used for RF ltering, switching, or duplexing and
impedance matching between power ampliers and antennas
are located aer the antennas. Aer that, multireceiver
(Rx) and multitransmitter (Tx) are followed before a multi-
ADC/DACs module. e high performance of this system
requires coding and encoding, in addition to conventional
processing for modulation and demodulation, and conse-
quently digital ltering, digital automatic gain control, dc
oset cancellation, nonlinearities, and correction and calibra-
tion of analog errors. In order to improve the performance of
the analog part, a feedback from baseband to RF front-end
and transceiver combined with control plane and sensor is an
 International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
essential step. e challenges of RF front-end and transceiver
in the short-midterm are
(i) reducing the chip and passive components,
(ii) increasing their frequency-tunability,
(iii) minimizing the dissipation of power,
(iv) reducing their area.
5.1. RF Front-End: Tx and Rx. Investigating the RF front-end,
the RF section needs to be particularly exible. Flexibility
requires the cognitive radio transceiver being able to adapt
to multiple access methods and adaptive modulation scheme
munication with several points, switch quickly between links,
and most importantly handle very large peak-to-average
power ratios (PAPRs) []. e eciency of the PA suers
dramatically in case of very large PAPR. Also, the large PAPR
highly aects the linear upconverters leading to high power
Investigating the RF part in the transmitter, important
design challenges are faced when the linearity requirement
has to be encountered for high lower levels. Although the
power levels in the RF part of the receiver are much lower,
the presence of adjacent channel interference from dierent
radio systems also adds to the design challenges. For linearity
requirements, the expected level of blocker power above the
desired channel should be also included in the design of
received components. Moreover, the receiver must operate in
a wide dynamic range in order to handle a large interferer
and at the same time receive a much smaller wanted signal.
Two challenges arise from this diculty related to achieving
acceptable noise gure performance for the overall receiver
and sucient dynamic range for the ADCs. e receiver
should then have a good sensitivity required to achieve low
noise factor (< dB) and low insertion losses (<dB)andhigh
LNA and mixer linearity (IP, IP). It also needs to be a good
blocker immunity and low local oscillator (LO) phase noise
[]. ese requirements are dicult to be handled by the
band limited traditional front-end technology and even by
multimode/multiband and wideband transceivers. Switching
Typically, these challenges and requirements are attained
through the use of additional components such as surface
acoustic wave (SAW) lters and crystal oscillators. However
the added components are mostly costly and increase the
power consumption, in addition to added lack of exibility.
On-chip lters are suggested to limit these disadvantages, but
at the cost of added signal corruptions.
5.2. Low Noise Ampliers. A CR receiver (Rx) must provide
a relatively at gain and a reasonable input return loss across
BWCR . Consequently, it is challenging to employ traditional
RF circuit techniques. As an example, the switched-band
staggered resonance frequencies proves to be impractical
for such a large bandwidth. is problem is illustrated
in several papers [, ]; however the solutions are still
inconvenient for CR systems. e design of broadband LNA
F : CG/CS stage [].
is an interesting challenge due to the trade-os it governs
between input matching, gain, noise gure, bandwidth, and
voltage headroom. e choice of the topology begins with the
input matching requirement []. e input matching of the
LNA can take on one of several forms:
() a common-gate (CG) stage,
() a common-source (CS) stage with inductive degener-
() a gain stage with resistive feedback,
() a combination of CS and CG stages.
However, each one of these approaches has its drawbacks.
For example, the rst one suers from a relatively high noise
gure in addition to severe gain-noise trade-os. e second
one does not lend itself to broadband operation.
e fourth approach could be considered as a develop-
ment of the rst two methods by combining the CG and
GS approaches, shown in Figure . is provides additional
voltage gain and forms a dierential output along with the CG
stage, with reduced noise (canceled 𝑀1,𝑉𝑛1)[].However,
this topology still suers from the drawbacks of the CG
LNA, facing serious headroom issues and degraded reection
coecient. Noise cancellation can be realized when the input
signal appears with opposite polarities and the noise of
a device []. e cancellation technique also suppresses
nonlinear components produced by the input device.
5.3. Nonlinearity and LO Harmonics. In addition to third-
order intermodulation, nonlinearity in cognitive radios cor-
rupts the signal path in the presence of large interferers. As
illustrated in Figure  two interferers at 𝑓1and 𝑓2generate a
beat at 𝑓2−𝑓
1as they face even-order distortion in the LNA
and the input stage of the mixer. Due to random asymmetries
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation 
Desired band
(primary CR
RFin IFout
LO oscillator
F : Example of even-order distortion in spectrum sensing receivers due to image bands.
quadrature LO
Inputs for other divisions
F : Multidecade carrier generation using a single multimodal LO.
within the mixer, a fraction of this random beat leaks to
components at 𝑓2+𝑓1and 𝑓2−𝑓1,bothofwhichmayliewithin
BWCR .atis,theLNAbecomesthebottleneck.Another
eect arising from even-order distortion is the demodulation
of AM interferers.
5.4. LO Path Design. Another challenge in CR arises from the
design of Local Oscillators. e carrier synthesis for cognitive
radios must follow three principles []:
() Each frequency component must be produced in
quadrature form.
() Single-sideband (SSB) mixing must be avoided
() For a frequency divided by an odd number, it must be
divided by  so as to generate quadrature phases.
Using one decade of carrier frequencies, some of the
issues related to the LO path design shoot from the supply
coupling within divider chains. An alternative approach to
multidecade carrier synthesis is illustrated in Figure . e
circuit consists of a quadrature LC oscillator operating at
one of two frequencies (e.g., . GHz and  GHz) and three
. e worst-case oscillator tuning range in this case is %
compared to .% in the rst case.
e circuit produces quadrature phases at all outputs. An
exception to the third principle prescribed above is given
through the use of quadrature Miller dividers [], in which
an SSB mixer is used to form a Miller loop, and all of
the unwanted frequencies generated by the SSB mixer are
translated to zero, or to its harmonics as they travel to the
Miller dividers is the need for quadrature LO inputs, which
suer from higher phase noise [] and exhibit two possible
but poorly controlled oscillation frequencies [].
5.5. Antenna Cancellation for Simultaneous Cognitive Radio
Communication and Sensing. For real time and accurate
monitoring of the radio spectrum, concurrent communica-
tion and sensing is a vital CR functionality. is depends
on the ability of isolating the communication path from
 International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Sensing antenna
Transmit antennas
Transmit far-eld
F : (a) e numerical model of the array prototype comprised of three short monopoles and (b) the far-eld beam pattern when
out-phasing the transmit antennas [].
the sensing path to a level which ensures that the local
transmissions do not overload the sensing unit when the
transmitting and sensing antennas are collocated in the same
CR device. is can be achieved by equipping the CR with
selectively cancels the transmit signal in the sensing direction
[]. Such antenna cancellation could result in an isolation
level of  dB as depicted in [] that can be further increased
when combined with active power cancellation in the RF or
baseband stage.
e concept of using multiple antennas has also been
used to cancel the interference via zero forcing or far-eld
null steering [, ]. e transimpedance between the
transmit and sensing ports is hence diminished and the
transmit power is spatially canceled in the sensing direction
before arriving at the sensing antenna. is is dierent from
active ltering where the leaked power is canceled aer the
sensing port in the RF front-end and also dierent from
the passive antenna cancellation [] in the sense that the
destructive interference is designed by properly weighting
the transmit antennas rather than by physically locating
the transmit antennas at proper distances from the sensing
antenna. Consequently, as long as the frequency response of
the phase-shiing components and the antennas is wideband,
this results in a wideband performance. Part of the antenna
isolation is owed to the mutual coupling loss between the
antennas; in addition, an adaptive spatial lter that selectively
nulls the transmit signal in the sensing direction can be
formed, as shown in the example in Figure (a) for which
two antennas are dedicated for data transmission and the
third antenna is dedicated for sensing. e null steering
the scattering channel environment; thus adaptive antenna
cancellation should be implemented in a real-life scenario.
e two transmit signals should be equal and out-phased
by 𝜋radians. Inspecting Figure (b) showing the power
beampattern of the transmit antennas under such excitation,
it is clearly shown that an articial null is formed toward
the sensing antenna via the spatial lter thus enhancing the
antenna isolation.
6. Conclusions
In this paper, a literature review of the RF front-end of CR
systems has been investigated. Starting with a brief descrip-
tion of CR systems, an extensive review of the antennas,
ampliers, and mixers design schemes used in CR systems
has been presented. Moreover, an investigation of some of the
challenges facing the design of RF front-end for CR systems
in the near future has been illustrated. It is very clear that the
design issues include but are not limited to power eciency,
chip dimension, phase noise, and the recongurability, yet the
power amplier remains one of the main bottlenecks.
Conflict of Interests
e authors declare that there is no conict of interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
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... It is that portion of electromagnetic spectrum which ranges from 3 Hz to 300 GHz that is used for communication purposes [1]. The enormous pressure on it has caused significant scarcity on the availability of the RF resource [2][3] [4]. Spectrum occupancy measurement carried out in various parts of the world showed underutilization of the resource [5] [6] [7] in the frequency range of 2.4-2.7 GHz The locations cut across rural, suburban and urban areas. ...
... The limitations of the traditional fixed management system are enough to embrace a system that would access spectrum dynamically [2]. The old spectrum management system does not consider spectrum white space and as such renders the system ineffective. ...
This study was carried out to investigate the spectrum utilization of the licensed Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum in Rumuokwuta, Port Harcourt. An outdoor measurement of spectrum occupancy was carried out in a high-rise building situated at Rumuokwuta urban area in Port Harcourt, Nigeria using RF explorer spectrum analyzer and a personal computer laptop system. Spectrum activities in the band of 240-960 MHz were monitored for 24 hours. The frequency band was subdivided into 24 sub bands each with a span size of 30 MHz. Scanning of bands was made efficient using a python script that scans a range, analyzed the frequencies and signal strengths for 112 data points, saves data in CSV file format, scans the next range until the 24 ranges were scanned. The process was repeated to achieve 15 iterations. With a noise floor of - 110dBm, a threshold of -95dBm was used to determine the presence of signal, hence the spectrum occupancy of measured bands. Results showed that out of the 24 investigated sub bands; only one band was completely occupied with spectrum occupancy of 100%. 12 bands were partially occupied while 11 were completely free. The average spectrum occupancy for the whole band was obtained as 11.64%. This showed good location for dynamic spectrum access and cognitive radio deployment, especially in Television White Space (TVWS).
... Second one is re-configurability: The cognitive radio parameter could be adjusted for transmitting and receiving at different frequency ranges and using different hardware-powered access techniques. With this feature, the best frequency band available and the most acceptable operating channel parameters for use can be selected and reconfigured [5]. ...
In this research article, we present the Matlab Simulation of PUE attack conceptual development using mitigation techniques based transmitter locations with received signal strength (RSS), feature detection (FD) & power estimation method (PEM) using Power Spectral Density (PSD). We know that the growth in wireless communications has increased the demand for wireless radio spectrum to utilize many social and individual benefits. Cognitive radio is a technology that provides a possible solution for improving the spectrum efficiency by allowing opportunistic access to the spectrum for unlicensed users (CRs). In this work, we mainly focus on Primary User Emulation attack (PUEA) is one such major threat posed on spectrum sensing, which decreases the spectrum access probability. In this work, we mainly focus on Primary User Emulation attack (PUEA) & this is one such major threat posed on spectrum sensing, which decreases the spectrum access probability. We had proposed the mitigation techniques based transmitter location using received signal strength (RSS) and based on feature detection (FD), which employs a cyclostationary calculation (CC) to represent the modulation features of the user signals using a mathematical model, which was the subject of another paper.Principle of operation of the detection of the primary signal & the malicious signal transmitter during the spectrum sensing period along with the data flow diagram used for the simulation purposes for the observation of the results is presented in this context. The .m code is developed as per the proposed algorithms, the simulation is run for requisite amount of time and the simulation results are observed such asthe graphs of SCF of AWGN noise signal ; SCF of the primary user signal with FM modulation technique ; SCF of the primary user signal with FM modulation technique at SNR ∞, 3 dB and-3dB ; SCF of the Malicious user signal with QPSK modulation technique at SNR ∞, 3dB and-3 dB ; Probability of false alarm ; Probability of misdetection ; Power estimation for both proposed Localization and PSD at PUE mitigation ; Probability of false alarm and misdetection of both proposed Localization and PSD ; The localization errors and computation time of the localization system are observed. The simulation results show that the system performance of the power estimation method using PSD is better than the localization detection method using RSS in the presence of PUEA, in the other words, the results portray the effectiveness of the methodology proposed in this research paper.
... Thus there is a need for broadband linear power amplifier (PA) having high efficiency and high output power. Therefore, minimum power consumption by PA is one of the key challenges to realize green radios [10]. ...
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The aim of this paper is to propose a new hybrid optimization technique, namely Jaya-BAT algorithm (JBA) and to demonstrate its application for constrained power consumption minimization in cognitive radio network considering Class B power amplifier. JBA is motivated by recently developed Jaya algorithm (JA) having good exploration ability and nature inspired BAT algorithm (BA) with good exploitation feature. In JBA, both JA and BA help each other to get away from local optimum solution and converge towards best optimal solution. The proposed algorithm when applied to different benchmark functions shows enhanced performance in comparison to other state-of-the-art metaheuristic techniques available in literature. Reconfiguration of transmission parameters for cognitive radio (CR) user supporting data transmission mode is carried out with a purpose of minimizing the power consumption while supporting different QoS requirements. The solutions show that the constrained optimization by cognitive decision module using JBA provides better results as compared to BA and JA based optimization techniques. It proves the potential of JBA as an efficient technique to be used for power consumption minimization problem in CR networks.
... A common communication arrangement consists of an oscillator (usually nearly sinusoidal), whose waveform is converted to rectangular by some kind of square wave forming circuit often followed by digital frequency dividers. An important present-day example is the local oscillator frequency synthesis in highly integrated receivers for cognitive and software radio applications where the wide range of frequencies needed is obtained by relatively narrow range PLLs followed by frequency divider chains [1][2][3]. The Square Wave (SW) may not physically exist. ...
Oscillators are often followed by square wave forming circuits and frequency dividers. Traditionally, the level of the phase noise, transferred from the oscillator outputs to the square waves obtained is calculated ignoring the correlations in the oscillator phase noise spectrum. In this paper, accurate expressions are derived, taking into account the phase noise mechanisms in the oscillators. The phase noise power spectral densities are calculated in both the traditional way and by using the proposed expressions and they are compared. The situations where the proposed expressions can be useful are identified.
Dense and homogeneous BaTi1-xSnxO3 (BTS, x=0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3) thin films are prepared by sol-gel and spin-coating soft chemistry, which is a simple, repeatable and quality-controlled method. The effects of Sn content on the structure and dielectric properties are systemically studied. The BTS thin film with 0.25 mol% Sn is found to exhibit a moderate dielectric constant of 225-398, a high tunability of 43.3% under a low bias electric field of 8 kV/mm, and a corresponding leakage current density of 6.2×10⁻⁸ A/cm². These improvements are a result of the enhancement in relaxor characteristics, the good crystallization conditions leading to a denser and more uniform structure, as well as the inhibition of oxygen vacancies resulting from the suppression of electronic transition from Ti⁴⁺ to Ti³⁺. The findings reported in this work provide a simple and effective way to prepare excellent tunable thin films that show great potential for the development of electrically tunable components and devices.
The current research efforts on Fifth Generation (5G) of wireless communication systems have identified the need for large extent improvements in accessibility and reliability of communication services. In this respect, Cognitive Radio (CR) has been envisioned as a key 5G enabler that allows dynamic spectrum access without causing interference to licensed (primary) users and can tackle the challenge of ultra reliable communication. Channel failures, which are generally caused due to hardware and software failure and/or due to intrinsic features such as fading and shadowing, can easily result in network performance degradation. In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), the connections of unlicensed (secondary) users are inherently vulnerable to breaks due to channel failures as well as licensed users’ arrivals. To explore the advantages of channel reservation and retrial phenomenon on performance improvement in error-prone channels, we propose and analyze dynamic spectrum access (DSA) scheme by also taking balking and reneging behavior into account. Moreover, since 5G networks should comprise heterogeneous applications that may have different Quality of Service (QoS), thus the present study facilitates the arrival of heterogeneous secondary users with access privilege variations. In addition, most previous works have studied the stationary performance of CRNs, however, those may not be adequate in practice, notably when the time horizon of operations is finite. This paper investigates the transient dynamics from the perspectives of dependability theory in CRNs. Furthermore, the whole system is modeled using a multi-dimensional continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) and numerical results illustrate the potential of the proposed scheme to achieve major gains in the performance of error-prone CRNs.
Cognitive radio (CR) technology enables adaptation of transmission parameters according to the operating environment and different quality of service (QoS) requirements. This feature can be applied to realise green radios as recent research trends are focused on improving the energy efficiency of wireless communication systems. A power amplifier (PA) is found to consume a major portion of energy in radio-frequency circuits for medium- and long-range transmissions. Thus, minimising PA power consumption is one of the major challenges to realise green radios. In this study, mathematical formulation of total system power consumption at CR transmitter with Class B PA is shown and its optimisation is done by parameter reconfiguration for data transmission scenario employing recently proposed nature-inspired optimisation techniques. Performance of ant lion optimiser, grasshopper optimisation algorithm, Grey wolf optimiser, Moth-flame optimisation and Whale optimisation algorithm (WOA) is compared for solving this problem in terms of different performance metrics. Simulation results show the effectiveness of WOA in minimising the system power consumption by parameter adaptation in multicarrier CR system while satisfying different QoS constraints.
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During the past one and a half decade, cognitive radio networks (CRNs) have received tremendous attention from both academia and spectrum regulatory bodies in order to promote efficient spectrum utilization by allowing unlicensed users exploit the vacant frequency bands of the licensed spectrum. The concept of CRN has inspired innumerable research ideas and efforts to explore dynamic spectrum access (DSA) strategies to provide satisfactory performance for both primary and secondary networks. The objective of this doctoral dissertation is two folds, as 1) to design and analyze DSA schemes under different network scenarios; and 2) to assess the reliability aspect of DSA from a dependability perspective. To design and analyze DSA schemes, this dissertation focuses on providing more channel access opportunities for secondary networks (SNs) by employing four techniques: channel aggregation; priority-based queuing; spectrum leasing; and channel reservation. In particular, two priority-based queuing schemes are proposed for DSA strategies supported by channel aggregation. It is shown that, by introducing queues with appropriate sizes, the overall performance of the SN is improved. Next, considering the willingness of primary networks (PNs) to lease a part of their licensed spectrum to the SN, both static and dynamic spectrum leasing schemes are proposed in CRNs. Associated with them, a pricing scheme is also introduced to estimate the leasing cost in order to provide incentives to the PN. The proposed leasing cost function is monotonically increasing with the number of leased channels as well as the achieved QoS level in the SN. Furthermore, an optimal number of leased channels is identified under the QoS constraints of the PN. Due to various interruptions such as priority users' arrivals and random link failures, ongoing services may be terminated. In this thesis work, channel reservation is studied as an effective technique to ensure service completion of ongoing transmissions in CRNs. Both static and dynamic channel reservation schemes are proposed and analyzed under several network scenarios, including both homogeneous and heterogeneous failures. It is demonstrated that when an optimal number of channels are reserved, a significant performance improvement of the SN can be achieved without sacrificing PN's QoS level. So far, the analysis of the reliability aspect of CRNs from a dependability perspective still remains as a nearly un-chartered topic. To fill this gap, we first introduce a set of reliability and availability metrics including system times, retainability and network unserviceable probability in accordance with the ITU-T recommendations and dependability theory. Based on the developed continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) analytical models, the thesis examines channel availability, mean channel available and unavailable times and a few other reliability performance metrics for existing DSA schemes. In addition, an analytical approach is proposed to calculate the probability of not meeting a given availability requirement, by applying a uniformization based method in a CTMC. The heterogeneity of channel bandwidth, multiple types of services with distinct QoS requirements and different failure types are also considered in the mathematical models developed in this thesis, considering potential applicability of those models in real-life networks. Moreover, the validity of the proposed analytical models is verified through extensive simulations carried out by employing various probabilistic distributions for traffic arrivals and service departures. Overall, we believe that the proposed DSA schemes, techniques for CRN performance enhancement and the reliability assessment framework in this dissertation contribute positively towards future deployment of CRNs.
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a novel design of a reconfigurable miniaturized planar spiral monopole antenna suitable for TVWS applications. The proposed antenna is designed on a FR4 epoxy substrate fed by a microstrip line over a partial ground plane. This antenna, designed for the high frequency of the UHF band (600-800 MHz), operates with 1dB transmission gain. By inserting a tunable inductor on the spiral monople and modifying its inductance, frequency reconfigurability is attained, and the antenna can operate at different bands in the 600-800 MHz range. These bands range between 15 to 20MHz which is suitable for TVWS applications.
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This paper presents a high efficiency Doherty power amplifier suitable for TV band applications. A class AB power amplifier is firstly implemented using a commercial GaN HEMT from Cree Incorporation , achieving a high power-added-efficiency of 77.78% and a 40.593 dBm output power with an associated gain of 21.65 dB. The Doherty amplifier has then been designed following the previous class AB scheme for the main amplifier and a class C scheme for the peak one. This amplifier attained a high power-added-efficiency of 81.94%, a 42.77 dBm output power, an associated gain of 21.32 dB, and an operating frequency bandwidth between 550 and 1000 MHz (58.06% fractional bandwidth) which made it suitable for TV band applications.
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Cognitive radios are expected to play a major role towards meeting the exploding traffic demand over wireless systems. A cognitive radio node senses the environment, analyzes the outdoor parameters, and then makes decisions for dynamic time-frequency-space resource allocation and management to improve the utilization of the radio spectrum. For efficient real-time process, the cognitive radio is usually combined with artificial intelligence and machine-learning techniques so that an adaptive and intelligent allocation is achieved. This paper firstly presents the cognitive radio networks, resources, objectives, constraints, and challenges. Then, it introduces artificial intelligence and machine-learning techniques and emphasizes the role of learning in cognitive radios. Then, a survey on the state-of-the-art of machine-learning techniques in cognitive radios is presented. The literature survey is organized based on different artificial intelligence techniques such as fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, neural networks, game theory, reinforcement learning, support vector machine, case-based reasoning, entropy, Bayesian, Markov model, multi-agent systems, and artificial bee colony algorithm. This paper also discusses the cognitive radio implementation and the learning challenges foreseen in cognitive radio applications.
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Spectrum sensing has been identified as the key step of the cognition cycle and the most important function for the establishment of cognitive radio. In this paper, a blind cyclostationary feature detector, which is based on the symmetry property of cyclic autocorrelation function (SP-CAF), is implemented and tested using universal software radio peripheral platform and GNU Radio open-source software development toolkit. Performance of the SP-CAF is compared to the classical energy detector via various tests conducted in real scenarios where both detection algorithms are employed to blindly sense the spectrum for opportunistic access. This study shows that the blind cyclostationary feature detector outperforms the classical energy detector while guaranteeing acceptable complexity and low sensing time. Moreover, different experimental results indicate that the blind sensing detector can achieve high detection probability at a low false alarm probability under real channel conditions and low signal-to-noise ratio.
Conference Paper
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Spectrum sensing is the key element in the implementation of a cognitive radio equipment allowing the utilization of vacant bandwidth unused by the primary users such as broadcasting white spaces. To implement suitable spectrum sensing techniques, RF front end is mandatory at the secondary devices. However, these front-ends are usually low cost devices implying then some RF impairments which may affect the properties and characteristics of the received signal hence the performance of the spectrum sensing. In this paper, we analyze the effect of three main imperfections on the spectrum sensing capabilities of a CR receiver: the carrier frequency offset, the IQ mismatch and the phase noise. We show that the energy detector is not sensitive to any of these errors while the cyclostationnarity detector is only sensitive to the phase noise while its performance is independent of the carrier frequency offset and IQ mismatch values.
Conference Paper
In this paper, a broadband frequency/radiation patterns reconfigurable antenna is proposed for cognitive radio. The antenna consists of two branches, of which a transmission line and a dipole are integrated. Switches are used to connect branches to a feeding microstrip, and to tune the resonant frequencies of the antenna. Measurement and simulation results show that the proposed antenna offers multiple broadband, covering a frequency range from 2.41 GHz to about 6.88 GHz. Furthermore, by controlling the switches, current distribution on the transmission lines can be changed. This results in changing antenna radiation patterns. Thus, reconfigurability in radiation pattern can be also achieved.
Conference Paper
Concurrent communication and sensing is a vital cognitive radio (CR) functionality for real-time and accurate monitoring of the radio spectrum that totally depends on the ability of isolating the communication path from the sensing path to a level which ensures that the local transmissions do not overload the sensing unit. Upon discussing the basic challenges that restrain CR from simultaneously sensing the spectrum while transmitting in the same band, the paper presents a novel antenna cancellation approach that promises to empower CRs with concurrent transmission and sensing capabilities. The idea is to equip the CR with redundant transmit antennas to form a spatial filter that selectively cancels the transmit signal in the sensing direction. Such antenna cancellation resulted in an isolation level of 60dB that can be further increased when combined with active power cancellation in the RF or baseband stage.
Conference Paper
In this paper, a frequency-tunable microstrip antenna, for cognitive radio applications, is proposed. The approach, presented herein, is based on electronically adjusting the resonant frequency of a band-pass filter, which is integrated into a wideband antenna, to achieve a tunable narrowband frequency operation for the antenna. For this sake, the design of open loop resonator (OLR) based band-stop filter, and its transformation to a band-pass filter, is investigated. A prototype of each filter is fabricated and measured. A credible agreement between Ansoft HFSS-simulated and measured patterns is obtained. The incorporation of an OLR based band-pass filter, into a wideband antenna, is then looked into. The assembled structure is found to resonate at the same operating frequency of the contained bandpass filter. The proposed filter-antenna (filtenna) is designed and simulated using Ansoft HFSS. An SMV1405 varactor is used to adjust the electrical length of the OLR contained in the bandpass filter, and thus, attaining frequency tunability for the filtenna. The computed reflection coefficient, for each case, is less than -10 dB over the operating frequency. A prototype of the designed filtenna is fabricated and measured. A good analogy between simulated and measured S11 plots is witnessed. Besides the higher gain figure at 4.18 GHz, a minimally distracted omnidirectional radiation pattern is also revealed at the same frequency.