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Abstract

In this study, the authors examine one more aspect of the elderly consumer’s brand loyalty: resistance to brand switching. This study claims that elderly consumers are not only more likely to repurchase but also actively resist switching brands once they have established a favorite brand. This study looks at the unique cognitive psychology of elderly consumers likely to cause this behavior. A better understanding of such behavior can guide efforts of firms either trying to retain their existing consumers or attempting to convert customers of rival brands to their own brands.
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Resistance To Brand Switching:
The Elderly Consumer
Komal Gyani Karani, Lamar University, USA
Katherine A. Fraccastoro, Lamar University, USA
ABSTRACT
In this study, the authors examine one more aspect of the elderly consumer’s brand loyalty:
resistance to brand switching. This study claims that elderly consumers are not only more likely to
repurchase but also actively resist switching brands once they have established a favorite brand.
This study looks at the unique cognitive psychology of elderly consumers likely to cause this
behavior. A better understanding of such behavior can guide efforts of firms either trying to retain
their existing consumers or attempting to convert customers of rival brands to their own brands.
Keywords: Brand switching; marketing; elderly consumers; quality of life
INTRODUCTION
arketing firms have been long interested in retaining existing customers. It is well known that
acquiring a new customer costs much more than retaining existing ones. Therefore it makes sense
for firms to focus on their loyal customers and nurture those relationships. The elderly consumers
have long been considered to be more prone to repurchasing known brands. With the increase in the elderly
population due to the aging baby boomers, the elderly consumer group will become increasingly important to
businesses. This paper examines the likelihood that elderly consumers are more resistant to brand switching than
younger consumers and investigates the antecedents into the relationship.
Seniors typically have more disposable income than their children (Polyak 2000). At over $7 trillion,
seniors control 70 percent of the net worth of American households (Age Wave, LLC, 2000). With the first baby
boomers moving into their mid-60s, senior citizens are the fastest growing demographic group in the USA. In 2010
there are roughly 50 million people in the USA age 65 and over, and by 2030, this figure is expected to rise to 70
million (Polyak, 2000), or one in every five persons (Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics, 2000).
Brand loyalty has been usually measured by purchase behavior. For durables, purchase of the same brand
twice has been considered evidence of loyalty (May, 1967). Brand loyalty for packaged goods has been measured by
a buying unit‟s purchases going to one brand over a given period of time (Cunningham, 1961), sequences of brand
purchases (Brown, 1952) and the number of different brands bought.(Farley, 1964) However, studies have also
taken two different viewpoints of how the concept of brand loyalty can be applied. In one study of packaged goods,
households were classified as brand loyal if they said they bought the same brand regularly and that they would go
to another store or postpone purchase rather than buy another brand if their brand was out of stock. (Cunningham
Scott, 1967) In a study of a food product, attitude toward a brand and the proportion of total purchases going to it
were combined to measure loyalty (Day, 1969). These studies indicate that repurchase is not a sufficient measure of
brand loyalty. A more meaningful measure would be buyer resistance to persuasion to switch brands (Newman &
Werbel, 1973). The elderly consumer‟s resistance to brand switching has received little attention in the literature.
This study seeks to explaining the relationship between age and brand switching by taking brand loyalty a step
beyond brand repurchase and considering other factors which are conducive to brand switching and how the elderly
consumers are influenced by them.
M
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LITERATURE REVIEW
Two major factors must be considered when evaluating resistance to brand switching among the elderly
consumer: Brand switching and the unique cognitive psychology of the older consumer which makes them less
susceptible to brand switching and therefore more brand loyal.
THE ‘ELDERLY’ CONSUMER
Gerontology and psychology literature define „elderly‟ differently from marketing literature. Most
marketing studies used the term to describe all consumers over the age of 50. On the other hand, gerontology and
psychology studies define „elderly‟ as older than age 60 or 65. This study will use Schaie‟s (1996) categorization of
the elderly, distinguishing “young-old” (ages 60-74) from “old-old” (age 75 and older). It is predicted that the
“young-old” category of consumers will be closer to the middle-aged (ages 40-59) segment than the “old-old”.
Since the highly-educated baby boomers generation will soon be forming the bulk of the young-old category, this
distinction is important. The baby-boomers generation is unlike previous generations in that they are healthier, better
educated and wealthier as they near retirement. Therefore this study defines elderly consumers as belonging to the
“old-old” age group or 75 years and older and studies how they are different from those younger than 75 years.
BRAND SWITCHING
Marketing literature shows a variety of reasons for brand switching in different product and service
categories. However most of the work done is industry specific making generalizability difficult. Also, some studies
cite conflicting reasons given by customers for their switching. Some of the reasons commonly given by customers
of most categories are as follows (Keaveney, 1995):
1. Price. Price is one of the top reasons for many consumers to switch brands. In high price product
categories, customers switched when prices exceeded internal reference prices. Prices could be considered
too high relative to some internal normative price or too high relative to the value of the service or goods
received, or too high relative to the competition. In case of price increase, customers compared the new
increased prices to the prior reference price causing them to switch services or products. Customers‟
perception of unfair prices if they feel the price was unexpectedly high or greatly exceeded a quoted price
also causes them to switch.
2. Service or Product Failure. This includes mistakes, billing errors, and service catastrophes.
3. Inconvenient Hours or Location of store. Customers can switch if the store switches location or hours
making it inconvenient or inaccessible.
4. Competition. This involves customers switching because of competitor brands offering a better product or
service.
5. Ethical problems. Four sub categories of unethical behavior cited by customers as reasons for switching
are: dishonest behavior, intimidating behavior, unsafe or unhealthy practice, and/or conflicts of interest.
6. Involuntary switching. This occurs when the preferred brand is „out of stock‟ in the store. The customer
can respond by switching stores, postponing the purchase or switching brands.
7. Sales promotions. Several research studies have been carried out to study the effect of sales promotions.
A key result is that the majority of the sales promotion elasticity (approximately 74 percent on average) is
attributed to brand switching and the remaining is attributed to timing acceleration and quantity increases
(Van Heerde et al, 2003).
COGNITIVE DECLINE WITH AGE
Baddeley‟s theory of working memory explains that to solve a problem, we rely on working memory, a
critical component of an individual‟s information processing system consisting of a limited capacity work space that
can be divided between storage and processing functions. Although limited working area presents a constraint
regarding the amount of information a person can process while solving a problem for everyone, elderly consumers
face an especially limited working memory. This may lead to unreliable structures because the products of earlier
processing can be lost. This age-related decline in working-memory capacity seems to constrain performance
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especially on unfamiliar tasks (Salthouse, 1991). However when elderly adults solve familiar problems, they often
perform as well as or better than younger adults (Charness, 1981). Although working-memory capacity diminishes
with age, older adults can learn to compensate for such loss when they are familiar with the problem task (Smith and
Moschis, 1990).
Four possible mechanisms may explain the effects of aging on consumer behavior (Lambert-Pandraud et al,
2005): Biological Aging, Cognitive Decline, Socioemotional Selectivity, and Change Aversion. Biological Aging
indicates that physical capabilities decline with age; however, clear, biologically based slowdowns occur in daily
social life only after an advanced age of 80 years or more. A majority of people between ages 60-74 report no
serious problems relating to mobility. It‟s only after the age of 80 that more than half report that they shop only
occasionally due to problems walking or driving.
Cognitive Decline suggests that older consumers‟ memory limits their consideration set to known or
previously owned brands because they are no longer able to evaluate all the complex options available in minute
detail. Research in cognitive psychology shows how cognitive capacities such as working memory decline with age.
Working memory mediates the encoding of information in long-term memory and the conscious retrieval of recent
events. From the age 60, people may also experience a reduction in their explicit memory which is what makes it
possible to retrieve pieces of information and their sources consciously. Sorce (1995) suggests this is why older
people often rely on store loyalty or an advice seeking heuristic. Also, information that is well learned and/or highly
practiced also appears to be spared by aging. This may be another explanation for store and brand loyalty.
Socioemotional selectivity claims that older people who perceive their time horizon as limited place greater
emphasis on feelings and emotions, such that their interest in new information declines. They give priority to close,
well-known emotional contacts over new informative ones (Isaacowitz, Charles and Cartensen, 2000). This theory
can provide yet another explanation why older people prefer to stick to their tried and tested brands and stores. This
also explains why word -of -mouth from a trusted source will be more persuasive than any other form of publicity.
Change Aversion concerns how the elderly deal with changes. Elderly consumers show an aversion to
change even if they are not particularly satisfied with their current state. Botwinick (1966) suggests two hypotheses
to explain this. First, because of their intellectual decline, older people may avoid making decisions. Second, older
people may avoid the risk that is associated with a bad decision, especially one that may lead to a financial risk.
Thus, the purchase behavior of older consumers could be the consequence of change aversion, which could lead
them to resist switching brands.
However, cognitive neuroscience shows that older adults often employ compensatory mechanisms which
make up for some faculties which may be declining. Sometimes older adults may recruit additional resources to
bolster their limited cognitive abilities and/or adopt different strategies than younger consumers to process
information (Yoon et al, 2005).
QUALITY OF LIFE ISSUES
While little research has been conducted to assess consumption by the elderly with regard to quality of life,
the issues concerning quality of life may also impact the elderly consumers‟ resistance to brand switching.
Difficulties elderly consumers encounter with their daily lives may impact their life satisfaction and their ability to
purchase their brand of choice. Factors related to quality of life such as family, friends, self, residence, health, fun
and enjoyment, money, and job may affect their ability to participate in activities such as shopping as well as their
purchase habits. Karatas and Duyan (2008) found that life satisfaction levels for consumer that have difficulty
participating in activities that require physical effort is lower than those who do not have difficulty participating.
Likewise, they found that life satisfaction levels of elderly consumers who have financial difficulties are lower than
those who do not have financial difficulties. Given that ability to shop and the financial ability of the elderly
consumer may constrain their purchase choices, it is likely that consumers with lower quality of life are likely to
switch brands more than those with higher quality of life.
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HYPOTHESES
Price Sensitivity of the elderly consumers has been studied with varying and conflicting results over the
years. Mason and Bearden stated in 1978 that elderly shoppers tend to be economy minded and shop alternative
sources to find the best price. But a later study showed by Lumpkin and Greenberg (1985) showed that elderly
consumers actually placed less emphasis on price and sales than younger consumers. Most subsequent studies have
reinforced this viewpoint. One reason for this may be that prior to the 1980s, the older consumer was viewed as an
underprivileged segment of the population, having limited economic resources (Moschis, 2003). If this view was not
inaccurate, it is possible that elderly consumers in that time period were indeed more price sensitive. Since then, this
segment has become economically stronger having even more disposable income than their children. This could
result in reduced price sensitivity. Another reason could be that of risk reduction. The elderly consumers would
rather accept some degree of price increase of a known and liked brand than take on the risk associated with trying
out a new product.
H1: Elderly consumers are less likely than younger consumers (under 75 years of age) to switch brands because
of a price increase.
Another leading cause for brand switching is attractive promotions being offered by competitors. However
different studies show that sales promotions have limited appeal for the older consumer. For example, in a study of
elderly apparel customers, Dodge (1958) found that 65% of the sample said they would not wait for a clothes sale to
make their purchases. The reasons for this may be similar to the ones listed for the mature consumer‟s reduced price
sensitivity.
H2: Elderly consumers are less likely than younger consumers to switch brands due to promotions by
competitors.
A service or product failure makes it a risky repeat purchase. In the case of elderly consumers who are
significantly more risk averse than younger consumers, that is more likely to be an important consideration in their
purchase behavior. This is not because of „cautiousness‟ as is often assumed. Elderly consumers evaluate risk in a
similar manner as younger consumers. However, they are more likely to avoid making decisions which cause
internal conflict or dissonance (Yoon et al, 2005). Other factors which have not yet been studied include the possible
role of affect in decision making. Elderly consumers are known to be particularly influenced by affect when making
choice decisions. Work by Bechara et al, (1996) suggests that affective reactions to experiences with an object drive
the learning that subsequently guides choices. So, if the product or service failure and the subsequent recovery
efforts were such that they created a negative affective response, it is unlikely that the elderly consumer will want to
give the product another chance.
H3: Elderly consumers are more likely than younger consumers to switch brands because of a service or
product failure.
In an Australian study, elderly consumers rated carrying equipment and product layout as two of the top
three most relevant issues. Decreased muscle mass and frailty could be reasons why convenience of product layout
and easy accessibility is considered to be so important to elderly consumers (Pettigrew, Mizerski & Donovan, 2005).
Store lighting and temperature were also very important to this segment of customers (Mason and Bearden, 1978).
Barnes and Peters (1982) cited convenience as a major factor in deciding where to shop. Some components of
convenience are fast checkout and package carryout (Lambert, 1979), ease of entrance and exit (Mason and
Bearden, 1978), and knowledgeable sales personnel (Gelb, 1978).
H4: Elderly consumers are more likely than younger consumers to switch brands because of inconvenient
location or layout of stores.
Age is negatively correlated with fluid intelligence (i.e. intelligence required for new problems and
situations), but crystallized intelligence (i.e. intelligence based on prior experience and learning) remains intact
(Salthouse, 1991). The decline of fluid intelligence passes through performance thresholds. As noted before,
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working memory also declines with age. Therefore, the decline in working memory and fluid intelligence should
decrease the number of brands that older consumers consider and should increase their tendency to purchase familiar
options over new brands, especially when evaluating them requires extensive problem solving.
H5: Elderly consumers are less likely than younger consumers to switch brands because of new product
introductions by competitors where comparative analysis of options becomes cognitively difficult.
Older people share a sense of moral responsibility in their purchase behavior, and as a community are
willing to engage in affirmative purchasing and boycotting (Carrigan, Szmigin & Wright, 2004). One possible
reason for this has been given by Titus and Bradford (1996) is that of time constraints. Younger consumers are
prevented from being as sophisticated and ethical consumers as they would like because time constraints prevent
them from seeking and absorbing the information required for careful analysis of the marketplace‟s offerings. On the
other hand, older consumers have fewer time constraints due to retirement, empty nests etc. and may be more likely
to absorb and act on ethical considerations. Also, „green‟ products are often more expensive and since the older
consumers are indicated to be less price conscious and have more disposable incomes than younger consumers, they
may consider the additional expense more acceptable (Bainbridge, 1998). Also age, wisdom and experience as
consumers have been shown to create more discriminating older buyers which may translate into ethical behavior
(Corlett, 1998; Cowe & Williams; Silvers, 2001). It is not known yet if this arises from a sense of self actualization
or a desire to leave the world a better place for their children/grandchildren.
H6: Elderly consumers are more likely than younger consumers to switch brands because of ethical concerns
with the manufacturing or retailing firm.
Sloot et al (2005) carried out a study to study the variables present in a situation where the desired product
was out of stock. They found that the elderly consumer was more likely to switch stores rather than switch brands if
their preferred brand was out of stock. One reason may be that elderly consumers have more spare time to shop and
have fewer time constraints against switching stores to look for the brand of their choice. An older research by
Peckham (1963) also found that older shoppers were less inclined to accept a substitute brand than younger ones. He
found that 48% of shoppers over 50 years of age stated that they would not buy a substitute when the brand they
wanted was unavailable as compared with 41% in the 25-50 age range and 38% in the under 25 years bracket. This
study treated the entire age-range of over 50 years as one category. It seems reasonable to assume that the age range
of 75 years and above will be even more resistant to brand substitution.
H7: Elderly consumers are less likely than younger consumers to switch brands because of temporary out of
stock situations.
The mature market is open to new products but not because it is „trendy‟ or is being used by all their peers.
The older consumers have knowledge based on experience helping them form instant perceptions of the product or
service being offered. Rather than peer influence, they are more likely to try a product or service which satisfies a
real, personal need (Leventhal, 1997).
H8: Elderly consumers are less likely than younger consumers to switch brands due to peer influence.
Several of the hypotheses listed contain issues that are related to quality of life. Quality of life measures
assess the impact of one‟s family, friends, self, residence, health, fun and enjoyment, money, and job on his/her
satisfaction with life (Roberts and Clement, 2007). When elderly consumers are having difficulty with specific
aspects of their lives, it may affect their ability to remain loyal to certain products. For instance, if an elderly
consumer is having physical difficulty, it may impact their ability to shop for the products they would prefer. If an
elderly consumer is having financial difficulty, they may feel the need to switch to a lower priced product.
H9: Elderly consumers are more likely than younger consumers to switch brands due to lower quality of life.
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MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
It is now being widely accepted that the retiring boomers will be one of the most influential segments in the
market. Not only do they have more disposable income, they are also more brand loyal than the younger consumers,
making them ideal customers. Their loyalty is not limited to repurchase behavior of their preferred brands. They
are actually more resistant to brand switching which means it will be more difficult for competing firms to lure them
away. However, this study attempts to show that they cannot be taken for granted since they have strong preferences
for certain aspects of their shopping experience. By looking at which aspects affect them strongly enough to cause
them to switch away from their preferred brands, this study indicates which factors firms need to assess more
carefully.
AUTHOR INFORMATION
Komal Karani is currently an assistant professor of Marketing at Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas. She is
completing her PhD from LeBow College of Business, Drexel University, Philadelphia. Her research interests
include services marketing, satisfaction and quality, aging consumers and consumer behavior. She has published on
these issues in conference proceedings such as Academy of Marketing Science.
Katherine Fraccastoro received her Ph.D. from Louisiana State University and is currently an associate professor
of Marketing at Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas. Her research interests include consumer behavior issues
related to product pricing, cultural acceptance issues, entrepreneurship, and marketing education. She has published
several referred papers on these and related issues in conference proceedings and journals such as the Journal of
Consumer Behavior, Marketing Letters, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, and
Communications of the Association for Information Systems. Currently Dr. Fraccastoro is the William E. and
Katherine F. Fouts Faculty Scholar in Business.
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NOTES
... Moreover, research was conducted on Bangladeshi consumers to understand better consumers' switching behaviour concerning mobile phone operators (Al Jamil, Sunny, & Hasan, 2015;Aslam & Frooghi, 2018). The study explored no significant differences between brand loyal consumers and switchers about influencing factors except for supplementary services and value-added services (Karani & Fraccastoro, 2010;Munir et al., 2021). ...
... They use numerous marketing tactics and apply different strategies to position their product as the number one brand in the minds of potential consumers (Aslam & Frooghi, 2018;Ali et al., 2010). They aim to make consumers believe that switching to their brand will prove beneficial and favourable (Karani & Fraccastoro, 2010). ...
... Networksubscriberss who experience low signals in their locality is most likely to switch to another network (Kaapanda, 2011). In Karachi, there are some areas where a particular network operator enjoys a monopoly over and above other network operators due to network coverage (Karani & Fraccastoro, 2010;Munir et al., 2021). A cell phone is almost useless without a network. ...
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The restoration which are award with to the wireless mobile devices such as PDA mobile from wherever, at any time using Information Service and Application Provider are enhanced by mining and forecast of mobile user behaviors. We suggest a new data mining determine ability for a mobile exchange information foretaste to better replicate the customer perform patterns in the mobile business environment that presents Location Based Services (LBS) and an revolutionary mining model called Cluster based Temporal mining mobile sequential patterns. As a result, the intend and development of knowledgeable mining algorithms for information discovery in an MC surroundings whereas fully scrutinize the intrinsic affiliation between poignant and purchase patterns are taken as the purpose of this article. Conducting the mining on the rousing and purchase patterns of customers in an MC environment is called the mining of mobile chronological pattern. A dissimilar precedence on the factors connecting large item sets, traversal trails, Efficient and particular, Consumes less time then bearing in mind User clusters and time segmentation concurrently, complete information regarding personal mobile behaviors is predicted.
... Using such a positioning will help elderly to recognize that products offer benefits that match with their needs and wants, and will more likely lead to the formation of consumption intentions. Research findings claim that elderly consumers are not only more likely to repurchase but also actively resist switching brands once they have established a favourite brand (Karani & Fraccastoro, 2010 ...
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The proportion of older adults in the population is significantly growing. Based on Eurostat data in the European Union, almost one-fifth of the population was over 65 years in 2018. Their relative proportion in the population is expected to reach 28.5% until 2050. According to WHO data, CNDs (primarily cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes) are the leading cause of death (71% in 2016) worldwide. Therefore, the relationship between healthy ageing and nutrition has become an emerging scientific and social issue. Functional food products with a nutritional composition that may reduce the risk of diet-related diseases or enhance physiological functions could play an important role in disease prevention and mitigation. Consumers often use the ‘healthy food’ terms in relation to functional food products, although this term is not correct from neither academic, nor a legal point of view. The functional food market is one of the fastest growing area of the food industry. However, new products had a high failure rate, because most of them were not preceded by a deeper exploration of consumer needs. Although, increasing the well-being of older consumers has been a key consideration since the emergence of the concept of functional food, only few consumer research studies are available which focus on senior consumers. The present study is based on two quantitative consumer samples: a nationwide-representative sample (N = 1002; representative for the total adult Hungarian population in terms of sex, age and NUTS-2 geographical distribution according to the latest official census data) and a specific older adult large sample (N = 907; 60 years or over) were collected. The research followed an explorative approach focusing on the central areas of functional food development with supply chain approach. Hence, it covers nutrition claims, carrier types, health concerns, the acceptance of functional food for disease prevention and mitigation, other factors influencing the purchase decision, consumer knowledge, attitudes and socio-demographic factors. The research included a large number of variables from which factors were composed with PCA for better interpretation. Among older adults heterogeneity was identified in the preference of nutrition claims listed in the Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006, therefore, cluster analysis was conducted to form consumer segments. The present study contributes to literature with practical findings to support product development and preventive public health programmes. The findings of the representative survey highlight statistically significant differences in the preferences of older adults compared to other age segments. Based on the results, older adults tend to define the ‘healthy food’ term from a food safety point of view, while younger respondents described this category from nutritional aspects. Senior consumers generally accept functional foods. In case of most of the knowledge-related questions, younger respondents had a higher level of knowledge. Senior consumers preferred most of the listed nutrition claims more, especially to the following ones: increased vitamin, mineral, protein and fibre content. Older adults also preferred products with lower salt and sugar content, which were less relevant for other age groups. Products of fruit and vegetable origin and fish were distinguished as carriers of functional traits. Compared to other age groups, older adults accept products of animal origin (especially dairy products and honey) on a higher level. Most of the listed product benefits (e.g. domestic origin, small-scale product) were preferred by the older adults to a higher extent. It indicates that the combination of these product parameters with health and nutrition claims on the product label could bear a recognised value for senior consumers. The results of the present study indicate that the Hungarian population is mainly concerned about the following health problems: vision deficiencies and disorders; dental problems; and heart and cardiovascular diseases. According to the responses, functional foods were the most suitable for disease prevention and mitigation in case of digestive problems, high cholesterol level, lactose sensitivity and gluten sensitivity. In the vast majority of the cases where significant differences were detected, older adults were more concerned about the certain health problem. After filtering the sample only for the concerned consumers, less significant differences between age groups were detected. Where significant differences were found, younger and middle-aged adults are more likely to accept food as a solution to disease prevention and mitigation. According to these findings, health concerns are more influential in the acceptance of functional foods for disease prevention and mitigation than the consumers’ age. The results of the analysis of nationwide representative survey highlighted the importance of considering the well-being of older adults (especially consumers concerned about health problems) during product development. This investigation might be used for product differentiation between age groups, while explored differences between preferred shop types, communication channels and other factors influencing the purchase decision could also support the positioning of messages related to product promotion or intervention. The analysis contains a detailed data set about possible carrier types and nutritional claim combinations that might be used for subsequent academic studies and for field experts as well. According to the results of the analysis of the specific older adult sample, senior consumers primarily preferred claims indicating added nutritional value, while reduced nutritional content was preferred less. Three segments were identified and characterised based on their preference of nutrition claims: ‘nutrition-oriented’ (33%), ‘added nutritional value oriented’ (46.5%) and ‘nutrition sceptic’ (20.5%). Previous studies identified scepticism among older adults about functional food products. However, the results of the present study suggested that scepticism was not general among older adults. Eighty percent of the senior consumers could be an appropriate target group for functional food market actors, since 33% was generally nutrition-oriented, while 46.5% rather searches added value. Only one-fifth of senior consumers found to be resilient against functional food value offers. As an unexpected finding, age, income level, education and location of residence did not differentiate the groups significantly. However, the sex of the respondents was found to be significant factor: men were present in the highest proportion in the ‘nutrition sceptic’ segment. Older adults in the ‘nutrition-oriented’ segment were concerned about presented health problems at the highest rate in each case except in the case of digestive problems, where the ‘added nutritional value oriented’ segment demonstrated higher level of concerns. Consumers in the ‘nutritional sceptic’ group were the least concerned about the listed health problems. The proportion of overweight respondents was the highest in the ‘nutrition-oriented’ group, while the proportion of obese respondents was the highest in the ‘added nutritional value oriented’ segment. Significant differences in the acceptance of functional foods as a solution to disease prevention and mitigation were observed only in few cases. For heart and cardiovascular diseases, dental problems and digestive problems, the results suggested that the ‘nutrition-oriented’ segment had the highest rate of acceptance, followed by the ‘added nutritional value oriented’ segment, while the ‘nutrition sceptic’ consumer group was characterised by the lowest level of acceptance. The results suggest that older adults primarily pay attention to their nutrition due to existing health problems instead of prevention. To overcome this barrier, several practical findings were presented in terms of carrier types, attitudes, socio-demographic characteristics and other factors influencing purchase decisions. Considering that the prevention of CNDs and the well-being of older adults are serious social challenges, there are tasks for both the food business operators in development of accessible functional food products for older adults and policy makers in forming more effective preventive public health programmes to promote healthy ageing. Further studies focusing on older adults are needed to investigate possible product attribute combinations that meet the expectations of specified segments of senior consumers.
... Selain itu para lansia juga memiliki kecenderungan terikat dengan suatu merek. Jika lansia sudah memiliki merek favorit, maka terdapat kecenderungan bagi mereka untuk menolak merek-merek baru (Karani & Fraccastoro, 2010). Hal ini menyebabkan usaha promosi untuk produkproduk lansia tentu saja memiliki kekhasan yang dapat dikaji lebih lanjut. ...
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