Article

Artifice or integrity in the marketization of research impact? Investigating the moral economy of (pathways to) impact statements within research funding proposals in the UK and Australia

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A focus on academic performativity and a rationalizing of what academics do according to measurable outputs has, in the era of higher education's (HE) neoliberalization and marketization, engendered debate regarding the ‘authenticity’ of academic identity and practice. In such a context, a ‘performative’ prioritization of leveraging ‘positional goods’, such as external research funds, presents a specific challenge to the construction of academics’ identity where in being entrepreneurial they are perceived to compromise traditional Mertonian edicts of scholarship and professional ideals of integrity and ‘virtuousness’. In this article, we consider how academics sacrifice scholarly integrity when selling their research ideas, or more specifically, the non-academic impact of these, to research funders. We review attitudes towards pathway to impact statements – formal components of research funding applications, that specify the prospective socio-economic benefits of proposed research – from (n = 50) academics based in the UK and Australia and how the hyper-competitiveness of the HE market is resulting in impact sensationalism and the corruption of academics as custodians of truth.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... According to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC, 2017a), KM is "an umbrella term encompassing a wide range of activities relating to the production and use of research results including knowledge synthesis, dissemination, transfer, exchange and co-creation and co-production by researchers and knowledge users" (para. 4). 1 In spite of widespread institutional efforts that encourage engagement with publics outside of the academy (see, for example, Morton, 2011;Phipps, 2012), existing research identifies a number of barriers that prevent researchers from actually engaging in the practice of knowledge mobilization, such as the institutional structure of academia and lack of support and recognition for KM activities (Brady, 2004;Chubb & Watermeyer, 2016;Sa, Li, & Faubert, 2010;Walker, 2008). However, less attention has been given to the way in which KM is perceived and understood within the academy and to its impact on the research process. ...
... While many universities claim support for KM, a lack of professional recognition for KM activities indicates that this support is only partial. Further, many federal granting agencies require KM outputs to be detailed on grant applications, yet follow-up or accountability for pursuing public engagement is lacking (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2016;Sa et al., 2010). As such, it has been suggested that this element of the funding application (and research process) "may be more cursory than constitutive and more ambiguous than stable" (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2016, p. 3). ...
... Similar to previous scholarship, participants identified a number of institutional barriers to KM, yet unlike previous findings, the perception of these disadvantages were more broadly conceptualized in terms of potential risks to the institution and the individual researcher (Brady, 2004;Chubb & Watermeyer, 2016;Sa et al., 2010;Walker, 2008). Our participants identified risks surrounding the public's reception of criminological knowledge. ...
Article
In Canada there are growing discussions concerning the role of publicly funded universities and the impact of academic research. The integration of neoliberal practices and market rationalities place pressure on universities to “go public” in order to demonstrate relevance and accountability. Researchers are encouraged or even required to engage the public through knowledge mobilization activities. Our study provides an empirical analysis of knowledge mobilization in order to understand its perceived impact on public criminology, and more broadly the production and dissemination of criminological research. We argue that the institutional shift toward knowledge mobilization is perceived as a tool of institutional governance to demonstrate organizational accountability that shapes the production and dissemination of criminological knowledge.
... Even if most academics, then as now, would in fact accept the idea that academic research should hope to influence the world for the better (Chubb and Reed, 2017;Trowler, 2001), impact was regularly resisted as an academic mandate indicative of a structural move towards a more marketised higher education system (Holmwood, 2014;Watermeyer, 2016). A common reason for hesitation and resistance was a sense that the obligation to have such influence -or impact -might not be smoothly consistent with academics' wider roles as teachers, researchers and scholars as informed by, for instance, Mertonian norms or their allegiance to entrenched Enlightenment ideals (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017;Merton, 1942). A pursuit of impact, many argued, should not come at the expense of our fidelity to other academic values and freedoms (Holmwood, 2014;Ladyman, 2009). ...
... Researchers are increasingly required to promote and (to some extent) 'market' or 'sell' the value of their endeavour to non-academic groups, with the aim being to assure them of the worth of continuing investment in the academic sector. All this is consistent with the shift to an increasingly market-orientated audit culture in UK Higher Education (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017;Shore and Wright, 2003). Such tendencies, as described, easily spread to other national contexts: the United Kingdom and Australia, for instance, were engaged in policy borrowing concerning research impact from the start, with a focus on impact statements in funding applications (through the Australian Research Council) in the early days and trials in impact assessment (e.g. the Excellence in Innovation Assessment trial, 2012) and more recently the Excellent in Research Australia assessment. ...
... As a result, we propose that criticisms of the impact agenda must be respectful of its theoretical promise, but cognisant of the risks involved in its practical implementations. We, critics, should also consider how the impact agenda is related to other themes that are familiar in wider critical discourses about the current state of higher education -its 'culture of speed', for instance, or the creeping erosion of scholarly integrity in an arena of marketised competition (see, inter alia, Berg and Seeber, 2016;Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017;Olssen and Peters, 2005;Rhoads and Torres, 2006). All these things are related, but they should not be haphazardly conflated with one another, even if some of them -like the 'culture of speed' -have also been accused of being epistemically corrupting in the same sense at work in this article (Kidd, in press). ...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary epistemologists of education have raised concerns about the distorting effects of some of the processes and structures of contemporary academia on the epistemic practice and character of academic researchers. Such concerns have been articulated using the concept of epistemic corruption. In this article, we lend credibility to these theoretically motivated concerns using the example of the research impact agenda during the period 2012–2014. Interview data from UK and Australian academics confirm that the impact agenda system, at its inception, facilitated the development and exercise of epistemic vices. As well as vindicating theoretically motivated claims about epistemic corruption, inclusion of empirical methods and material can help us put the concept to work in ongoing critical scrutiny of evolving forms of the research impact agenda.
... Likewise, the academic practice within HEIs has experienced a deep transformation due to the shift in the public role of universities. Some countries, such as New Zealand, Australia or Hong Kong, have implemented performance-based research funding systems, following the UK's trail and its Research Excellence Framework (Watermeyer, 2014;Chubb & Watermeyer, 2016). In these systems, reporting the economic and societal impact of research is essential for academics to be funded and positively evaluated. ...
... In these systems, reporting the economic and societal impact of research is essential for academics to be funded and positively evaluated. Thus, the 'impact-agenda' changed the rules of the game, and academics found themselves trapped in a new dynamic where intellectual excellence is not enough to succeed (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2016;Watermeyer, 2016;Watermeyer & Tomlinson, 2021). In this context, PE has been recognised as relevant to capture and measure part of that societal impact (Reed et al., 2018). ...
... However, performing PE in a performance-based research funding system context has encountered discrepancies 'between the valuation of public engagement as a form of impact against engagement as a road to impact' (Watermeyer, 2012, p. 118) and barriers such as incompatibility with academic time compartmentalisation, intensive labour and conflict with organisational structures (Watermeyer, 2014(Watermeyer, , 2016. Notwithstanding, academics have increased their efforts when interacting with external communities (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2016) in order to fulfil research funders' and regulators' pressures, giving PE greater credence and tacit momentum (Watermeyer, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
As key elements in research and development systems, higher education institutions have been taking a leading role when it comes to communicating science and technology, but their performance has been inconsistent so far. In this critical and comparative study of the UK public engagement model and the Spanish scientific culture model, eighteen practitioners from higher education institutions across both regions were interviewed. A mixed qualitative data analysis has been performed identifying similarities and differences that unravelled the science communication management model in the two different higher education systems. This article provides evidence on how the institutionalisation of science communication is strongly influenced by key driving forces in the higher education context as well as the policies of administrations and other agents.
... Ball (2012: 18) reflects how academics now face a 'profound shift in our relationships, to ourselves, our practice, and the possibilities of being an academic'. There is an increased pressure on material quantities -publication output ('the publish or perish' mentality, Callaghan, 2016) and the generation of funding -rather than intellectual or educational qualities (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017). ...
... For instance, Curtis (2007) refers to academic professional power being displaced by a regime of performance management, such as the Research Excellence Framework (REF). 5 Academics are also facing pressure from the REF to marketise their research impact via impact statements (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017). Such measurements of performance are recent manifestations of the surveillance mechanisms dominating the purpose and direction of academic labour and call into question the authenticity of academic identity and practice (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017). ...
... 5 Academics are also facing pressure from the REF to marketise their research impact via impact statements (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017). Such measurements of performance are recent manifestations of the surveillance mechanisms dominating the purpose and direction of academic labour and call into question the authenticity of academic identity and practice (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Through a textual analysis of four episodes comprising the 2019 ITV 1 psychological thriller Cheat, this article explores a fictional representation of the United Kingdom (UK) Higher Education (HE) setting in a television drama. We discuss our analysis in the context of growing marketisation of UK HE, where academics are increasingly viewing students as powerful consumers. We focus on one of the central characters, final-year undergraduate student Rose Vaughan, and the staff with whom she interacts in a fictional HE institution-St. Helen's College. This article engages with the following themes: 'The powerful student consumer' and 'The commodified academic'. Insight gleaned through the textual analysis of this dramatised depiction of UK HE allows us to attempt to understand how both students and academics might be navigating the neoliberal university and negotiating place and status as (paying) students and (commercial) academics. Although heralded as powerful student-consumers in much literature, our analysis of this television drama shows how students can potentially disrupt the united front often attempted by HE institutions, but Special Section: Students in Marketised Higher Education Landscapes 2 Sociological Research Online 00(0) ultimately are faced with a 'the house always wins' 1 scenario. Our article offers an important contribution to the psycho-sociological literature into how the television drama depicts that the student experience has been transformed and impacted by HE's marketisation. This includes a reconsideration of how the television drama portrays what it means to be a student, by exploring how one student is conceptualised, understood, and represented in the psychological thriller.
... In the UK and Australian context the funders expect credible statements of how predicted impact will ensure economic and/or societal returns from their research. This requires "that academics demonstrate methodological competency in engaging with their research users, showing how research will be translated and appropriated in ways that most effectively service users' needs" (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017, p. 2362. Consequently, it is increasingly evident that all researchers must engage with the idea of impact and "learn new skills and behaviours and enter new networks" (Hall et al., 2019, p. 5). ...
... Some have considered the implications for scholarly moral conduct and unraveling of academic integrity to the extent of 'corrosion of character' in academic life when researchers are "selling their research ideas … . [and] … the non-academic impact of these, to research funders" (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017, p. 2360. The whole business of impact represents not only "the changing nature of competition but also the moral economy within higher education, where academics' public citizenship is not an inherent, but rather an incentivized component of their professional lives" (p. ...
... Within the arts and arts education there has been a tendency to see the rise of impact indicators and measurements as a threat to autonomy, emphasizing quantity over quality, and failing to recognize the distinctive features of the arts. Resistance to the impact assessment agenda also references the neoliberal turn in higher education (Thomas, 2018) and a general fear of academic researchers becoming too embroiled in public relations strategies about their work at the expense of their independence and integrity (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017). Katrakazis et al. (2018) argue that "existing indicators primarily based on publication citations provide a rather incomplete picture of impact", since for example, citation metrics may indicate awareness of new knowledge by other scholars but do not measure its uptake outside academic communities or indeed influence on practice" (p. ...
Article
Full-text available
Governments and funding agencies increasingly expect researchers to demonstrate the impact of their work not only within the academy but also for a range of stakeholders beyond academia. Whilst arts researchers have tended to resist impact measurement, in this article, we will describe one form of demonstrating impact, namely through writing impact narratives in order to argue that such writing can be effective in promoting learning and reflection on the researcher’s work in the society. We provide collaborative autoethnographic narrative accounts of our experiences as arts education researchers, located in Australia and Finland, of developing research impact narratives and consider the ways in which the development of impact narratives can shape researcher identities, research processes and epistemic cultures of disciplines. We suggest that impact narratives are inevitably retrospective but may also be future-oriented in the ways in which they structure ongoing research processes and future projects and their activities providing a space for ‘narrative learning’ and professional transformation. We also suggest that arts educators experiment with and explore the potential for narrative impact statements to inform and engage society beyond academia with research findings and outcomes.
... There has been so much talk about impact that sometimes they [researchers] have actually got the message that impact is important but we have to remind them that the REF isn't only about impact, you've still got to get the good [research] papers out first (Wilkinson, 2017, p. 12). Chubb and Watermeyer's (2017) work examining impact statements in research applications suggest they have prompted strong outcries for the integrity of academics, and the hyperinflation of impact claims may in fact jeopardize the interface between science and society rather than bring the applied benefits perhaps anticipated. According to the literature then, both deliberative and neoliberal ideas are influencing science communication simultaneously. ...
... The role of funders in the context of science communication was widely discussed in the interviews, often unprompted, suggesting, in response to research question 2, that funders' perspectives on the role of communication is having a considerable influence on researchers and communication professionals alike. The arising themes included both neoliberal marketization influences on cultures and communication practices (Davies and Horst, 2016), and desires for impact-generation (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017;Wilkinson, 2017) within the comments. ...
... Scepticism was a small but important theme regarding the funder's interest to follow up on the activity of grant holders, as well as comments reflecting the "artificial" nature of communication sections in grant applications. Professionals pointed to lightly written and audited communication agendas (Watermeyer and Lewis, 2018), weathering the academic community's respect for science communication, in a similar vein to the views expressed around the artificiality of some impact statements (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017). This could become a source of frustration and competition, whereby academic competition for resources may drive visibility attempts, and the creation of images to secure funding, which can feel in conflict with the traditional scientific discovery discourse. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper reports on research exploring the intersections between researchers and communication professionals' perspectives on the objectives, funders and organizational influences on their science communication practices. Design/methodology/approach Examining one context, the inter-organizational BCDC Energy Research project based at five different research organizations in Finland, this paper presents data from semi-structured interviews with 17 researchers and 15 communication professionals. Findings The results suggest that performance-based funding policies that drive the proliferation of large-scale research projects can create challenges. In particular, a challenge arises in generating a shared sense of identity and purpose amongst researchers and communication professionals. This may have unintended negative impacts on the quality and cohesiveness of the science communication which occurs. Research limitations/implications The study was exploratory in nature and focuses on one organizational and institutional environment. Further research with a wider number of projects, as well as funders, would be conducive to a greater understanding of the issues involved. Practical implications On a practical level, this research suggests that the creation of clearer communications awareness and guidance may be helpful in some large-scale projects, particularly involving broad numbers of organizations, individual researchers and funders. Originality/value This is one of the first studies examining the perspectives of both researchers and communication professionals working over one project, drawing together a range of different institutional and disciplinary perspectives. The results highlight the importance of the influences of funding on science communication aims, assumptions, cultures and structures. The article articulates the need for further research in this area.
... Numerous empirical studies report finding evidence of hype in a variety of fields, including stem cell research (Mason and Mazotti 2009;Caulfield 2010;Kamenova and Caulfield 2015), artificial intelligence (Hopgood 2003;Brennen, Howard, and Nielsen 2019), neuroimaging , nanotechnology (Maynard 2007), genetics and genomics research (Evans et al. 2011;Caulfield 2018), biobanking and personalized medicine (Petersen 2009 Marcon, Bieber, andCaulfield 2018) and nutrition (Garza et al. 2019). Research suggests that science hype occurs not only in popular news media, but also in grant applications (Chubb and Watermeyer 2017), human subject recruitment (Toole, Zarzeczny, and Caulfield 2012), conference presentations, peerreviewed journal articles and reports of clinical trials (Millar, Salager-Meyer, and Budgell 2019), institutional press releases (Bratton et al. 2019) and advertising (Caulfield and Condit 2012). The charge of hype has also been extended to ethicists, who may be guilty of exaggerating the promise and perils of particular studies or emerging technologies (Caulfield 2016). ...
... Understanding hype in this way also reveals why hype is problematic even if audiences are not always "taken in" by hype when it occurs. Indeed, a few studies have shown that audiences at least believe they can identify and disregard hype (e.g., Chubb and Watermeyer 2017;Peddie et al. 2009). But even if it is not believed, hype can undermine or erode warranted epistemic trust in scientists (or even scientific institutions) even if no one is actually taken in by hype. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several science studies scholars report instances of scientific “hype,” or sensationalized exaggeration, in journal articles, institutional press releases, and science journalism in a variety of fields (e.g., Caulfield and Condit 2012). Yet, how “hype” is being conceived varies. I will argue that hype is best understood as a particular kind of exaggeration, one that explicitly or implicitly exaggerates various positive aspects of science in ways that undermine the goals of science communication in a particular context. This account also makes clear the ways that value judgments play a role in judgments of “hype,” which has implications for detecting and addressing this problem.
... Several factors have been shown to influence grant-funding outcomes: adapting research content or approaches to prevailing funding conditions (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017;Franssen et al., 2018); understanding and managing the proposal process (Feng, 2011;Mehlenbacher, 1994;Tardy, 2003); addressing text-rhetorical constraints of the proposal (Connor, 2000;Cotos, 2019;Tseng, 2011); being taught proposal writing (Eissenberg, 2003;Lawrence et al., 2019); staying resilient . Being grant-funded reflects the researcher's participation in a structured system of interactions among funding stakeholders, policies, disciplinary specifics and documents (Tardy, 2003;Van Nostrand, 1997), and proposal writing is about navigating this system to negotiate legitimacy of their contribution to peer-certified disciplinary knowledge (Myers, 1990;Serrano-Velarde, 2018). ...
... En consecuencia, muchos investigadores atribuyen a la suerte su éxito en la consecución de fondos , mientras que algunos ni siquiera se deciden a solicitarlos (Bazeley, 2003), poniendo en peligro la continuación de su actividad investigadora. Se ha comprobado que existen diversos factores que influyen en los resultados de las propuestas de financiación: adaptar el contenido o el enfoque de la investigación a las condiciones prevalentes (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017;Franssen et al., 2018), comprender y gestionar el proceso de presentación de las propuestas (Feng, 2011;Mehlenbacher, 1994;Tardy, 2003), abordar las limitaciones textuales y retóricas de las propuestas (Connor, 2000;Cotos, 2019;Tseng, 2011), recibir formación en la redacción de propuestas de financiación (Eissenberg, 2003;Lawrence et al., 2019) y mostrar resiliencia . Conseguir financiación para un proyecto refleja la participación del investigador en un sistema estructurado de interacciones entre las distintas partes implicadas, las distintas políticas de financiación, las características específicas de cada disciplina y los documentos necesarios (Tardy, 2003;Van Nostrand, 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
Grant funding is critical to building a sustained research career. Yet in this climate of academic performativity little is known about how individual academics make their contribution to knowledge fundable. This in-depth longitudinal case study explores an approach evolved by an experienced Canadian scientist whose work is recognized for both scholarly and societal impact. We demonstrate how, over ten years, his agentive participation in academic interactions has contributed to continual development of his research and its funding through: his seeking and engaging with feedback; network-wide view of feedback sources; and drawing on feedback to inform his writing and research thinking. The article suggests a developmental view of the process in which, over time, researchers conceive, expand and draw on their feedback networks. Locating funding success within the social dimensions of knowledge and researcher development, the study sheds light on the role of agency and experiential learning in enabling contributions to frontline knowledge. Results suggest a novel, encompassing way for post-PhD researchers to build towards sustained grant funding.
... The risks associated with this "individualising" of impact activities is compounded by attitudes toward impact activity as a box-ticking exercise which detracts from key academic activities (e.g. Pearce and Evans 2018;Chubb and Watermeyer 2017;Smith and Stewart 2017). The risk of over-enhancing claims of impact achievements, the difficulty of tracing the impact that a particular piece of research has and the dedication of scarce resources (both time and money) to this tracing activity are identified as major concerns in numerous studies of academics' attitudes to impact activities (e.g. ...
... The risk of over-enhancing claims of impact achievements, the difficulty of tracing the impact that a particular piece of research has and the dedication of scarce resources (both time and money) to this tracing activity are identified as major concerns in numerous studies of academics' attitudes to impact activities (e.g. Pearce and Evans 2018;Chubb and Watermeyer 2017). In spite of such concerns about the impact agenda, the desire for societal or environmental good to come from research is an attitude generally shared by the majority of academics and is rather separate from the impact reporting activities driven by REF and "pathways to impact" requirement of research funding in the UK (Pearce and Evans 2018). ...
Article
This article provides an overview of the approach taken by the Marine Knowledge Exchange Network (M-KEN) and an assessment of its activities in valorizing and generating impact from research. M-KEN was formed in 2014 in response to a call for projects to accelerate impact generated from environmental research in the United Kingdom (UK). M-KEN was university-led and focused in the eastern region of the UK but its approach to fostering impact has had international reach. Over the course of its first five years, M-KEN has leveraged substantial additional funding; spawned numerous spin-off projects; influenced policy and practice; and supported a range of marine research projects in the delivery of their research to stakeholders. This article demonstrates that the reach of M-KEN has been international and has led to substantial ripples of activity radiating out from the core activity of the network. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the approach taken by M-KEN in the context of key research questions around Knowledge Exchange. Finally, we propose recommendations for endeavors from regional to global scale that wish to develop impact from a portfolio of research.
... The re-orientation of priorities of research outcomes from an emphasis of outcomes that have value inside, to those that have value 'beyond academia' has also resulted in rhetoric that holds academia accountable for its scientific achievements. These changes are already having a profound effect on academic practice and culture (Chubb and Watermeyer 2016). ...
... demia' has its roots in notions of research competitivity, accountability and transparency (Olssen 2016), and the increasing need for audits to increase productivity, and also represent a shift towards greater managerialism of universities through research(Chubb and Watermeyer 2016). Through evaluation mechanics provided to 'facilitate' the impact assessment process) such as definitions of impact, key insights into the national-led priorities for the role of research as a contributor within society are revealed. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper investigates whether Gender Studies can transcend boundaries and become part of the basic foundational body of knowledge in any given education institution. The answer is far more complex than merely stating that it can, because the issue is not as linear as one might assume. A trans-disciplinary approach to Gender Studies is indeed possible but is neither sustainable nor realistic unless it is embedded into the socio-economic and political context that shapes our education systems.
... While AI is seen as having huge potential to support interdisciplinary knowledge exchange, there may be deeper effects of using AI to further research policy and funders' agendas. These may challenge traditional notions of a university and what it means to be an academic (Chubb and Watermeyer 2017;Clegg 2008;Harris 2005) which may or may not have 'good' consequences. ...
... A focus on efficiency and productivity-speeding up to keep up with a fast moving knowledge base-might therefore weaken output quality as it obscures the use of human judgement to produce unexpected interpretations of data and literature. In turn, this might encourage deleterious consequences for particular individual and epistemic identities (Chubb and Watermeyer 2017). One theme, explicitly and implicitly made in the interviews was that AI will never be emotional. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite growing interest (UKRI 2021) the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in research as an enabler of new methods, processes, management and evaluation is still relatively under-explored (Cyranoki 2019; Royal Society 2018). This empirical paper explores (n=25) expert interviews on the potential impact of AI on research practice and culture. Our interviewees identify positive and negative consequences for research and researchers with respect to collective and individual use. AI is perceived as helpful with respect to information gathering and other narrow tasks, and in support of impact and interdisciplinarity. However, using AI as a way of ‘speeding up - to keep up’ with bureaucratic and metricised processes, may proliferate negative aspects of academic culture. The expansion of AI in research should assist and not replace human creativity. Research into the future role of AI needs to go further to address these challenges, and ask fundamental questions about how AI might assist in providing new tools able to question the values and principles driving institutions and research processes. We argue that to do this explicit research on the role of AI in research should be carried out considering the effects for research and researcher creativity. Anticipatory approaches and engagement of diverse and critical voices at policy level and across disciplines should also be considered.
... In addition, several interviewees flagged the importance of repeating messages over long periods. The extent to which this is actually possible, when researchers operate in a system which encourages researchers to chase new funding and move onto new research projects (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017), is open to debate. ...
... Given the importance of the media in the communication of research and that many incentives for impact are currently imposed from above, there is a risk that researchers and organisations succumb to the same pressures and fall into the same traps, undermining research quality and crucially, trust in researchers as a profession. One study looking at the UK and Australia has already claimed that "the hyper-competitiveness of the HE [Higher Education] market is resulting in impact sensationalism and the corruption of academics as custodians of truth" (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017, p.2360. This is particularly worrying because a recent UK poll (Ipsos MORI, 2018) shows that professors and scientists are amongst the most trusted professions in the country, whereas journalists were towards the bottom of the rankings, with advertising executives the least trusted professionals. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Sustainability researchers are facing increasing pressure to improve their scientific communication and to achieve impacts in wider society with their research. Knowledge mobilisation (KMB) is a key component of both challenges, as it relates to efforts undertaken by researchers to achieve impacts with their research. This study seeks to identify some of the KMB practices being undertaken by experienced researchers, the types of support that they are receiving from their organisations and what matters they think need to be included in debates going forward about KMB and research impact. For this study, experienced sustainability researchers, KMB experts and funding assessors based in the United Kingdom and Canada were interviewed. Sixteen interviews were conducted in total. In addition, the results of a survey circulated by Springer Nature, the academic publishing company, looking at attitudes and approaches to research impact are analysed and used to triangulate the data from the interviews. The study claims that KMB is far more complex and diverse than has traditionally been conceived, requiring key parties to investigate what is working and what is not (with respect to KMB) and that KMB is the responsibility of everyone, not just researchers and their organisations. Finally, the study offers nine recommendations for those interested in improving the KMB of sustainability research.
... While achievable in multi-disciplinary work, it difficult to do in empirical AI research as the potential impact of the research is not always obvious. The datafied academic is incentivised to attract funding and may be inclined to embellish and fabricate the benefit of work that they will do (Chubb & Watermeyer 2017). As such, the rules of the game state that research is genuinely impactful, so long as it sounds like it should be. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We grapple with the grand challenge of increasingly mutating and rhizomic ICTs systems as forms of 'power container of modernity' (Giddens) or power-knowledge (Foucault) that can both enable and constrain our ways of thinking and acting in the world. This paper reflects a transdisciplinary conversation between researchers coming out of very different disciplinary paradigms-an engineer, a data scientist, a philosopher and two journeyman-sociologists and historians with action orientations. Can we develop a common language or metaphors? Or in fact, is the problem one that is continual because digital technologies and their effects continue to evolve and impact in as things in themselves as agents in the world and even reaching comment understandings is a Sisyphean task? Each of us has written a position statement with ripostes and rejoinders from the others. We have everything in common as humans, but in some ways, our intellectual orientations and limitations fragment us. We ask each other: 'What are our intellectual and practical concerns?' What can do we bring them together to influence what we think is important?
... O, en otras palabras, otorgando mayor valor a la apariencia que a lo que realmente sucede en las universidades. Es de destacar que iniciativas como el REF han supuesto un cambio en las reglas del juego, lo que conlleva la pérdida de integridad intelectual y profesional de los académicos que se han visto obligados a satisfacer demandas externas y a cuestionar su forma de entender la investigación y su finalidad (Chubb y Watermeyer, 2017). A esto, hay que sumarle la vulnerabilidad emocional, intelectual y profesional sentida por los docentes universitarios expuestos al proceso y sus resultados (Watermeyer y Chubb, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo aporta una reflexión teórica sobre los retos asociados a las prácticas mer-cantilistas y la tendencia economicista de la educación superior. Se toma como referencia la experiencia universitaria inglesa para ilustrar cómo la disposición mercantilista trans-forma las relaciones entre participantes, funciones, organización y la forma de entender la educación superior. Para ello, el artículo se centra en tres elementos fundamentales que sirven para explicar el proceso de mercantilización de la educación superior inglesa. Primero, la transformación del estudiante en consumidor y la educación en un producto de mercado. Segundo, el concepto de empleabilidad, considerando sus implicaciones pedagógicas y la forma en que promueve concepciones instrumentalistas de la educación universitaria. Tercero, las prácticas asociadas a la evaluación e intensificación de la com-petitividad que se materializa a través de los sistemas utilizados para evaluar la actividad educativa e investigadora. Se proporciona un análisis crítico de estos tres elementos y se discuten ideas para reconfigurar la transformación mercantilista. Como alternativa a su negación, se propone una reorientación a partir de lo aprendido con la experien-cia inglesa para mitigar los aspectos más perniciosos de una tendencia, en auge, en los modelos universitarios europeos.
... Araştırmacılar oluşturulan sistemi bir şirket tipi üniversite modeline benzetmektedir. Ayrıca, bu araştırmacılar sistemin üniversite özerkliğine ve akademik özerkliğe engel olduğunu savunmakta ve bu sistemi akademik kapitalizm olarak adlandırmaktadır (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017;Gonzales, Martinez & Ordu, 2014;Münch, 2014;Paasi, 2015;Slaughter, 2014). Yüksel (2003) bu sistemin getirdiği sorunları "kaynakların giderek belirli gruplarda toplanması, üniversite araştırma projelerinin kısa dönemli ve ticari başarı beklentili ürün ve hizmetlere odaklanmalarının getirdiği kısıtlamalar, taraflar arasında giderek büyüyen çıkar çatışmaları, bilimsel araştırmaların fonlanma olanaklarında yaşanan daralmalar, sonuçların kamuoyuna mal olamaması" olarak belirtmiştir. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Özet Temel görevleri eğitim, araştırma, tüm evrene ve toplumlara fayda sağlamak olan üniversiteler, bilimsel bilginin üretiminde sorumluluk alan, bu üretim sürecini küresel bağlamdaki değişimin ortaya çıkardığı sonuçlar ile bütünleştiren, dünyayı ve bireyi ilgilendiren her tür probleme yönelik çözüm üretmesi gereken yükseköğretim kurumlarıdır. Üniversitelerin bu nitelikte kurumlar olarak adlandırılabilmesi ve değişimle rekabet edebilmesi için eğitim programlarının da sistem düzeyinde dönüştürülmesi gerekmektedir. Kurumların vizyon, misyon ve değerleri başta olmak üzere, tüm uygulamalarını yansıtan eğitim programlarının bu değişimi doğru yönetecek şekilde geliştirilmesi ve sürekli güncellenmesi, içerisinde bulunduğumuz zıtlık ve belirsizliklerle dolu çağın yarattığı problemlerle başa çıkmanın en doğru yoludur. Bu çalışmada incelenen proje tabanlı eğitim programları öğrenciler ve gerçek yaşam problemleri merkeze alınarak tasarlanmakta, problemlerin çözümü ve bilgi üretimi sürecine odaklanmaktadır. Çalışma, proje kavramını sadece bir öğrenme-öğretme yaklaşımı ya da yöntemi olarak değil, eğitim programlarının geliştirilmesinde merkeze alınarak oluşturulmuş bir eğitim felsefesi olarak görmektedir. Araştırmanın iki temel amacı bulunmaktadır. Birinci temel amaç Avrupa ve Amerika'da proje tabanlı eğitim programı uygulayan beş üniversitenin eğitim programlarını incelemek ve karşılaştırmak; ikinci temel amaç ise, Türk üniversitelerinde uygulanabilecek proje tabanlı eğitim programı bağlamında kavramsal bir model önermektir. Araştırmanın birinci temel amacı çerçevesinde, Aalborg, Roskilde, McMaster, Delft Teknik ve Worcester Politeknik Üniversitesi eğitim programlarının yapılandırılma, uygulanma ve değerlendirilme boyutları ile dokümanlar incelenerek ilgili özellikler belirlenmiş ve karşılaştırılmış; sonrasında ise bu üniversitelerde çalışan öğretim elemanlarından aynı boyutlara yönelik görüşler alınmıştır. Araştırmanın ikinci temel amacına yönelik olarak ise Türk üniversitelerinde uygulanabilecek kavramsal bir model önerilmiştir. Araştırma, programların yapılandırma, uygulama ve değerlendirme sürecini kendi koşulları içerisinde ve olduğu gibi açıklamaya çalıştığından, betimsel bir araştırmadır ve araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Bu araştırma, proje kavramını klasik bakış açısının dışında ele alması ve birbirinden farklı üniversitelerin uygulamalarını karşılaştırarak sistematik bir analiz ortaya koyması nedeniyle üniversitelere ve araştırmacılara uygulamaya dönük bilgiler sunmakta olduğundan önemlidir. Ayrıca, proje tabanlı eğitim programı ile ilgili olarak önerilen kavramsal model ile bu araştırma yükseköğretimde kurum düzeyinde yapılandırılmış proje tabanlı eğitim programı bağlamında Türkiye'de yapılmış ilk çalışmadır. Araştırmanın birinci temel amacı kapsamında ulaşılan bulgularına göre, çalışmada incelenen üniversitelerin eğitim programlarındaki uygulamalar arasında bazı farklılıklar olsa da tüm programlarda proje kavramı bir dersin işlenişinde kullanılan bir öğretim yaklaşımı ya da yöntemi olarak değil, kurum düzeyinde benimsenmiş bir eğitim felsefesi olarak görülmektedir. Tüm programlarda öğrenen merkezli ve problem merkezli program tasarım yaklaşımı benimsenmiş ve tüm programlar disiplinlerötesi anlayışa göre düzenlenmiştir. Bu bağlamda, programların yapılandırılması, uygulanması ve değerlendirilmesinde iç ve dış paydaşlar işbirliği içerisinde çalışmakta, projelerin gerçekleştirilmesinde evrene ve topluma fayda ölçütünü göz önünde bulundurarak kolektif bir şekilde hareket etmektedir. Proje tabanlı eğitim programı aracılığıyla öğrencilerin kazanması beklenen yeterlilikler, günümüzde iş yaşamının ihtiyaç duyduğu bilgi, beceri ve yetkinliklerdir. Bu nedenle, dünya çapında birçok üniversite dördüncü nesil üniversite anlayışına uygun olarak eğitim programlarını projeleri merkeze alarak yapılandırmakta ve bu programlar aracılığıyla ortaya koyduğu uygulamalarla dünya sıralamasında en başarılı üniversiteler arasında yer almaktadır. Bu bağlamda, Türk üniversitelerinin de proje ile ilgili sahip olduğu potansiyeli ortaya çıkarması, projeleri sadece bir Ar-Ge ürünü olarak değil, eğitim programlarının geliştirilmesinde kurumsal düzeyde benimsenen bir eğitim felsefesi olarak görmesi gerekmektedir. Çalışmada önerilen proje tabanlı eğitim programı kavramsal modeli Türk üniversitelerinin dönüşümüne ve öğrencilerin bilgi çağı niteliklerine uygun yeterliliklere sahip olmasına katkı sağlayacaktır. Abstract Universities, which mainly serve as to educate, research, benefit to the whole universe and societies in the world, are higher education institutions that take responsibility for the production of scientific knowledge, integrate this production process with the results of the change in the global context and produce solutions for all kinds of problems concerning the world and the individual. In order for universities to be named within this context and to compete with change, curricula they use need to be developed at the system level. The right way for universities to deal with the problems resulted from the era which is full of contrast and uncertainty is to continuously develop and update the curricula that reflect all of their practice, especially the vision, mission and values. The project-based curricula analyzed in this study are centered on students and real-life problems by focusing on the problem-solving and knowledge production process. The study considers the term "project" not only as a teaching and learning approach or method, but also as an educational philosophy that is fully based on certain PBL principles in the curriculum development process. The study has two main objectives. The first main objective is to analyze and compare the PBL curricula of five universities in Europe and America, and the second is to propose a conceptual PBL model that can be applied by Turkish universities. Within the framework of the first main objective of the study, the documents related to the PBL curricula of Aalborg, Roskilde, McMaster, Delft Technic University and Worcester Polytechnic Institute were examined and compared within the dimensions of the structuring, implementation and evaluation. In addition, interviews were conducted with the faculty members working at these universities. For the second main purpose of the study, a conceptual model is proposed to be implemented at Turkish universities. The research is a descriptive study as it aims to describe the structuring, implementation and evaluation process of the curriculum within their own context, and qualitative research methods are used. This study is important because it approaches the concept of project outside the classical point of view and presents a systematic analysis by comparing the practices of different universities. In addition, within the context of curriculum design in higher education, this is the first and only study in Turkey which proposes a conceptual PBL model structured through a university-wide curriculum change. According to the findings of the first main objective of the study, although there are some differences between the practices in the curricula of the universities examined in the study, the concept of project in all curricula is seen as an adopted educational philosophy, not as an instructional approach or method used in a classroom teaching context. All curricula adopt a learner-centered and problem-centered curriculum design approach and they are organized according to an interdisciplinary approach. In this context, both the internal and external stakeholders cooperate in the structuring, implementation and evaluation of the curricula, and act collectively during the project process taking into account the criterion that all projects should be beneficial to the whole universe and society. The qualifications expected to be gained by the students through the PBL curriculum are the knowledge, skills and competencies that business life needs today. For this reason, many universities around the world are structuring their curricula by putting the taking the projects to the center in accordance with the concept of fourth generation university, and they are among the most successful universities in the world with the practice they put through PBL curriculum. In this context, it is necessary for Turkish universities to fulfill their potential for project work and to consider projects not only as a research and development product but also as an educational philosophy adopted at institutional level in the development of curriculum. The conceptual model of the PBL curriculum proposed in the study will contribute to the transformation of Turkish universities in accordance with the information age characteristics and enable students to acquire the related competences.
... For example, marketing a research newsletter was considered necessary and justified because it is free of charge. Marketing and societal goals were intertwined in a similar vein to Chubb and Watermeyer's (2017) results on the marketization of research impact: ...
Article
Full-text available
In contemporary media discourses, researchers may be perceived to communicate something they do not intend to, such as coldness or irrelevance. However, researchers are facing new responsibilities concerning how popular formats used to present science will impact science’s cultural authority (Bucchi, 2017). Currently, there is limited research on the microlevel practices of digital science communication involving researchers as actors. Therefore, this qualitative study explores how digital academic discourse practices develop, using the tweeting and blogging of researchers involved in a multidisciplinary renewable energy research project as a case. The results of a thematic analysis of interviews with researchers (n = 17) suggests that the researchers’ perceptions form a scale ranging from traditional to progressively adjusted practices, which are labelled ‘informing,’ ‘anchoring,’ ‘luring,’ and ‘maneuvering.’ These imply an attempt to diminish the gap between science and the public. The interviewees acknowledge that scientific facts may not be interesting and that they need captivating means that are common in the use of new media, such as buzzwords and clickbait. It appears that trials and experimentation with hybrid genres helped the researchers to distinguish the contours of digital academic discourses. The implications support suggestions to broaden the trajectories of expertise and communication, including issues of culture and identity, trust, and the relevance of science. It is argued that scientists’ embrace of new media channels will refine some articulations of the mediatization processes, and these findings support recent suggestions that mediatization could also be conceptualized as a strategic resource.
... The evaluation of research impact in the UK has been criticised by scholars largely for its association with a 'market logic' (Olssen and Peters, 2005;Rhoads and Torres, 2005). Critics argue that a focus of academic performativity can be seen to "destabilise" professional identities (Chubb and Watermeyer, 2017), which in the context of research impact evaluation can further "dehumanise and deprofessionalise" academic performance (Watermeyer, 2019), whilst leading to negative unintended consequences (which Derrick et al., 2018, called "grimpact"). MacDonald (2017), Chubb and Reed (2018) and Weinstein et al. (2019) reported concerns from researchers that the impact agenda may be distorting research priorities, "encourag[ing] less discovery-led research" (Weinstein et al., 2019, p. 94), though these concerns were questioned by University managers in the same study who were reported to "not have enough evidence to support that REF was driving specific research agendas in either direction" (p. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on two studies that used qualitative thematic and quantitative linguistic analysis, respectively, to assess the content and language of the largest ever sample of graded research impact case studies, from the UK Research Excellence Framework 2014 (REF). The paper provides the first empirical evidence across disciplinary main panels of statistically significant linguistic differences between high- versus low-scoring case studies, suggesting that implicit rules linked to written style may have contributed to scores alongside the published criteria on the significance, reach and attribution of impact. High-scoring case studies were more likely to provide specific and high-magnitude articulations of significance and reach than low-scoring cases. High-scoring case studies contained attributional phrases which were more likely to attribute research and/or pathways to impact, and they were written more coherently (containing more explicit causal connections between ideas and more logical connectives) than low-scoring cases. High-scoring case studies appear to have conformed to a distinctive new genre of writing, which was clear and direct, and often simplified in its representation of causality between research and impact, and less likely to contain expressions of uncertainty than typically associated with academic writing. High-scoring case studies in two Main Panels were significantly easier to read than low-scoring cases on the Flesch Reading Ease measure, although both high-scoring and low-scoring cases tended to be of “graduate” reading difficulty. The findings of our work enable impact case study authors to better understand the genre and make content and language choices that communicate their impact as effectively as possible. While directly relevant to the assessment of impact in the UK’s Research Excellence Framework, the work also provides insights of relevance to institutions internationally who are designing evaluation frameworks for research impact.
... Recent literature has discussed factors that negatively impact the quality of research outputs, careers and workplaces. These studies have explored how the discourse around research performance contributes to an environment in which researchers feel intense pressure to publish, as well as creating working cultures that place more value on what is achieved and less on how it is achieved and the human costs associated with it (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017;Moore et al., 2017;Nature, 2018a, Nature 2018b, Nature 2019Parr, 2015;The Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2014;The Royal Society, 2017;Wilsdon, 2016;). ). ...
Article
Background: The current performance of UK research can be presented as highly successful, but evidence has emerged about issues with working culture in research and the impact this may have on people and their work. Wellcome commissioned market research agency Shift Learning to investigate current perceptions and experiences of research culture among the research community. Methods: This article presents key findings from two phases of this project: 94 qualitative interviews and a quantitative e-survey with 4267 usable responses. Interview invitations were sent out to UK-based research staff at various career stages. The survey was open to international respondents, but the majority of responses came from the UK. Respondents came predominantly from academia and the sample was intentionally skewed towards biological and biomedical sciences. Results: While participants considered the quality of research outputs to have generally remained high, many felt that issues impacting research culture were becoming more apparent and there was real concern about the future of research professions and the high personal cost for individuals. Factors identified as disruptive to research culture included chasing impact, increased competition, proliferation of metrics, job insecurity and rigid career pathways. Poor research culture manifested in workplace behaviours and practices, including problems with management and leadership and unhealthy power dynamics, such as patronage, bullying and harassment, discrimination and exploitation. These conditions were linked to a range of negative impacts on the researchers and the research outputs. Conclusions: The research ecosystem is characterised by increased levels of competition, lack of job security and insufficient career flexibility. A key takeaway is that the conditions in which research takes place are not inclusive and lack sufficient support mechanisms, which is negatively affecting researchers’ wellbeing, and work-life balance. Such research culture was perceived as unsustainable.
... The subjects of our research may disagree with the conclusions, but do they recognise the world described? If our work is to have 'impact', as is now increasingly required by research funding bodies (Chubb andWatermeyer 2017, Pearce andEvans 2018), then it must correspond in some way with the world under studyin this case, with the world as seen and experienced by the policing actors that we are trying to affect. ...
... Rarely consideredperhaps because they are hard to measureare long-term but potentially far-reaching influences (positive and negative) on the culture of research itself. Impacts may get overblown in an attempt to secure further fundinga phenomenon referred to as 'impact sensationalism' [35]. An insistent focus on measuring impact can mean that the collection of other equally important evidence, such as data on implementation processes, is compromised [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
As public involvement in the design, conduct and dissemination of health research has become an expected norm and firmly enshrined in policy, interest in measuring its impact has also grown. Despite a drive to assess the impact of public involvement, and a growing body of studies attempting to do just this, a number of questions have been largely ignored. This commentary addresses these omissions: What is the impact of all this focus on measuring impact? How is the language of impact shaping the debate about, and the practice of, public involvement in health research? And how have shifting conceptualisations of public involvement in health research shaped, and been shaped by, the way we think about and measure impact? We argue that the focus on impact risks distorting how public involvement in health research is conceptualised and practised, blinding us to possible negative impacts. We call for a critical research agenda for public involvement that [a] considers public involvement not as an instrumental intervention but a social practice of dialogue and learning between researchers and the public; [b] explores how power relations play out in the context of public involvement in health research, what empowerment means and whose interests are served by it, and [c] asks questions about possible harms as well as benefits of public involvement, and whether the language of impact is helpful or not.
... This approach is somewhat outdated, and is overly concerned with discerning general personality profiles for academics in specific disciplines (Helson & Crutchfield, 1970;Rushton, Murray, & Paunonen, 1983). Moreover, these studies do not account for the changes to the academic profession and work in recent decades, which have been strongly influenced by research assessments, institutional pressures towards performativity, 'publish or perish' dynamics and demands that research impact is evidenced (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017;Kenny, 2018;Martin-Sardesai, Irvine, Tooley, & Guthrie, 2017). These changes to the current working environment in academia are bound to influence academics' behaviours and strategies concerning their research agendas (e.g., Brew & Lucas, 2009;Horta & Santos, 2019;Leisyte, 2016). ...
Article
Research agendas are understudied, despite being key to academic knowledge creation. The literature suggests that the ways that academics determine their research agendas are conditioned by individual, organisational and environmental characteristics. This study explores the cognitive aspects of academics' research agendas in the social sciences by using a theory on thinking styles as an analytical framework. The results suggest that the research agendas of academics in the social sciences are significantly associated with their thinking styles. These findings aid understanding of how academics set their research agendas. This study also represents an important landmark in research on thinking styles, focusing on academic research work as a potential venue for further studies. The findings are relevant for policymakers, research funding agencies, university administrators and academics because they have implications for academic research development processes, outcomes, and for research and academic identity socialisation during doctoral studies. 尽管研究计划是创造学术知识的关键,但是它还未得到充分的研究。以往研究表明,学者确定其研究计划的方式取决于个人、组织和环境特征。本研究以思维风格理论为分析框架,从认知层面探讨了社会科学领域学者的研究计划。结果表明,社会科学领域学者的研究计划与他们的思维风格有显著相关。这些发现有助于理解学者如何确定他们的研究计划。本研究也是思维风格研究的一个重要里程碑 –未来的思维风格研究可以将学术研究作为一个进一步研究的对象。这些发现与政策制定者、研究资助机构、大学管理人员和学者有关,因为研究结果对学术研究的发展过程、结果,以及博士学习期间的研究和学术身份社会化均具有现实意义。
... One important side effect is that the system of allocating and accounting for research funding is becoming ever more complicated and burdensome, to the extent that costs may clearly outweigh benefits (Martin, 2011). The pressure to perform well in the provision of desired goods and 'selling' non-academic aspects of scientific ideas (e.g. to acquire external funding and highlight impact) raises tensions with ideals of scholarship and academic integrity where truth seeking should be the desired outcome (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017). Thus, the focus on narrowly defined performance criteria easily undermines other key academic values that support novelty and intellectual diversity (Hicks, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic points to the need for scientists to pool their efforts in order to understand this disease and respond to the ensuing crisis. Other global challenges also require such scientific cooperation. Yet in academic institutions, reward structures and incentives are based on systems that primarily fuel the competition between (groups of) scientific researchers. Competition between individual researchers, research groups, research approaches, and scientific disciplines is seen as an important selection mechanism and driver of academic excellence. These expected benefits of competition have come to define the organizational culture in academia. There are clear indications that the overreliance on competitive models undermines cooperative exchanges that might lead to higher quality insights. This damages the well-being and productivity of individual researchers and impedes efforts towards collaborative knowledge generation. Insights from social and organizational psychology on the side effects of relying on performance targets, prioritizing the achievement of success over the avoidance of failure, and emphasizing self-interest and efficiency, clarify implicit mechanisms that may spoil valid attempts at transformation. The analysis presented here elucidates that a broader change in the academic culture is needed to truly benefit from current attempts to create more open and collaborative practices for cumulative knowledge generation. © 2020 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society
... This is partly rooted in shifts in the academic climate, most notably the growth in the status of criminology and police studies since the 1960s (Rojek et al., 2015). Within academia, it is also rooted in the growing importance of university-community engagement, public criminology and evidence-based practice (Bartkowiak-Theron and Herrington, 2015; Loader and Sparks, 2010;Sherman, 1998), as well as in the need for social science research to make a demonstrable impact (Chubb and Watermeyer 2016;Pearce and Evans 2018). For the police, collaboration with academia has been stimulated by a lessening of the cultural divide between the police and researchers through growing police professionalisation (Canter, 2004;Greene and Skinns, 2018;Rojek et al., 2015). ...
Article
As a unique criminal justice organization, the police present challenges, but also opportunities for those who research them. These are examined, in terms of getting in, getting on, getting your hands dirty and getting through it, using data collected as part of a comparative multi-method study of police custody in large cities in Australia, England, Ireland and the US in 2007 and 2009. As this research took place on the cusp of the proliferation of research with the police, retrospective examination of field notes is used to reflect on how the research process is influenced not just by one’s social origins but also by the culture of academia and the politics of knowledge production. It is argued that whilst research with the police is becoming the norm, research on the police is still of value as part of a diverse police research agenda.
... Кроме того, они считают, что основополагающая роль университетов заключается в производстве научных знаний на благо общества. Исследователи считают, что эта университетская система похожа на модель компании, которая препятствует академической автономии, они называют эту систему академическим капитализмом [10,11]. ...
... AI also dovetails with broader drivers, encouraging closer and more collaborative relationships between the police and academics. These include academics' desire to make an impact with their research and police interest in evidence-based practice (Canter 2004, Marks et al. 2010, Bannister and Hardill 2013, Engel and Henderson 2013, Rojek et al. 2015, Chubb and Watermeyer 2017, Pearce and Evans 2018. Even though these police-academic partnerships may sometimes be 'uneasy alliances' and create challenges for academics in terms of maintaining the interdependent independence necessary for researchers to develop their own perspective and to offer, sometimes critical, insights, (Rock 1990, p. 39, Greene and Skinns 2018, Bacon et al. 2020, they have, at least for the time being, become increasingly normalised, suggesting a growing role for AI in police research in the future. ...
Article
Full-text available
Appreciative Inquiry is a methodology originating from organisational psychology, though it has since been used in criminal justice research including police studies. It is used to identify the actual and potential strengths of an individual or an institution, with a view to building on these strengths in the future. The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the value of Appreciative Inquiry for police research, where its use is potentially confounded by aspects of police culture. Drawing on an ESRC-funded study, the ‘good’ police custody study, we critically examine the role of Appreciative Inquiry in enabling access and data collection through appreciatively-informed interviews, examining this from the perspective of the police, the policed and police researchers. We also illustrate how Appreciative Inquiry contributed to the theorisation process and to the development of theoretically-informed recommendations and organisational reforms, matters that are neglected in other police and criminal justice research. We conclude that certain aspects of police culture hinder its use, for example, the cynicism of frontline police officers, whilst the storytelling features of police culture and growing collaboration between police and researchers help overcome these barriers. Appreciative Inquiry must still be used reflexively in police research, recognising for example the tendency towards naïve optimism and its impacts on vulnerable participants. Nonetheless, in light of Appreciative Inquiry dovetailing with growing expectations that the police and academics should work more closely together, there are grounds for appreciating Appreciative Inquiry as an important part of a diverse police research agenda in the future.
... As a consequence of the "cultural corporatization of higher education" (Aronowitz, 1998, p. 217), contemporary academic work has turned into a permanent liminal enterprise, with academics perpetually being betwixt and between managerial notions of knowledge production and traditional notions of scholarship (e.g., Aronowitz, 1994;Bettis et al., 2005;Clarke et al., 2012). Being an academic in a contemporary university, hence, often means being situated in between individually measured productivity and collaborative and democratic practice (Bosetti et al., 2008;Chubb and Watermeyer, 2016;Sousa and Brennan, 2014). Responding to the experience of the permanent liminality that is inherent in contemporary academic work, academics often anchor their identity in notions of scholarship as a professional and collaborative practice (e.g., Clarke et al., 2012;Harding et al., 2010;Kuntz, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the experiences of permanent liminality of academics and the associated multidimensional processes of identity negotiation. Design/methodology/approach The article draws upon a three-and-a-half-year at-home ethnography. The first author – as insider, participant and researcher – investigated the consequences of an organizational redesign that pushed members of a local university department into a situation of permanent liminality. Findings The paper describes how academics simultaneously followed multiple trajectories in their identity negotiation as a response to ongoing experiences of ambiguity, disorientation, powerlessness and loss of status. Practical implications Management decisions in higher education institutions based on administrative concerns can have adverse effects for academics, particularly when such decisions disturb, complicate or even render impossible identification processes. University managers need to realize and to respond to the struggle of academics getting lost in an endless quest for defining who they are. Originality/value The paper highlights the dual character of identity negotiation in conditions of permanent liminality as unresolved identity work through simultaneous identification and dis-identification. It further shows the multidimensionality of this identity work and argues that identity negotiation as a response to perpetual liminality is informed by notions of struggle and notions of opportunity.
... In terms of research, studies show that funding is an important resource that determines how academics conduct research, what their research topics are, and which skills are required to perform the research [32]. Academic expatriates likely feel the urge to explore research topics and approaches that are relevant to the local economy, and to develop the required research skills to obtain more access to funding. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the globalization of the academic labor market offers many advantages to academic institutions and their students, less is known about its (dis)advantages for academic expatriates’ careers. This paper seeks explanations of how academic expatriates aspire to invest in their careers in emerging economies by engaging both with the evidence of intelligent career theory, and with the literature on academic expatriation to emerging economies and on higher education. On the basis of these different streams of the literature, this paper identifies and outlines the institutional practices that could influence academic expatriates’ careers. This paper suggests that future research on academic expatriation to emerging economies can develop in at least three directions, namely, (a) the institutional practices at academic institutions in emerging economies, (b) the careers of academic expatriates, and (c) a reciprocal relationship between institutional practices and the individual careers of academic expatriates.
... Few researchers would reject attempts at demonstrating and evaluating the impact of academic research. However, the rise of the impact agenda has resulted in the growth of a bureaucratic machinery, set of metrics, and discourse around impact which has generally not been welcomed by researchers themselves (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017). In a short period of time, many universities in the UK and increasingly elsewhere have set up impact offices, issued impact directives, employed impact consultants and journalists, and elicited every kind of evidence -plausible or spurious -to demonstrate the impact of their work. ...
... For academics internationally, but particularly in the UK and Australia, the establishment of research excellence and impact assessments has driven a prioritisation of engagement and impact elements within researcher practice and development (Chubb & Watermeyer, 2017;Gunn & Mintrom, 2018). One aspect of this has been an emphasis on the use of social media to develop a higher profile for research and researchers, and more attention and support for researchers' engagement with broader audiences in digital spaces. ...
Article
Developing an institution’s research culture is a challenge that is especially pressing given its prioritisation in the context of contemporary university performance. This paper discusses how academic development teams working with researchers can build meaningful institutional research culture through conceiving of researcher cohorts as members of an organisation-wide community of practice. It focuses on supported development of social media knowledge and skills through a programme that synthesises digital practices, institutional and digital literacies, and identity formations. I argue that this informed, generative approach to building an academic community’s digital literacy acts as a catalyst to develop stronger institutional research culture.
... Nigeria has numerous research institutions, universities, polytechnics, and monotechnics that are owned by the federal, state, and private sectors (Supplementary Material S1), yet, are confronted with a series of challenges and brain drain. The greatest challenges affecting Nigerian researchers from development and survival in order to meet sustainable development goals (SDGs) are family challenges, financial constraints, inadequate research skills, inadequate motivation from employer, brain drain, inadequate training, too many administrative duties, inadequate mentoring, heavy workload (leaving little time for research), inadequate research grants, infrastructural inadequacy, research misconduct, lack of research funding, and inadequate information resources in the library (Chikwe et al., 2015;Kumwenda 2017;Emakoji and Otah 2018;Okoduwa et al., 2018;Fayomi et al., 2019;Ezeanolue et al., 2019). The research climate is an important factor that encourages integrity in research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The challenge of research funding constraints has brought to bear enormous pressure on researchers. Research productivity is relevant to prestige and career progression of academic staff. However, this study aimed to explore significant challenges associated with researchers’ productivity and the impact of non-funding of research in Nigerian research and tertiary institutions. Methods: This study adopted a qualitative exploratory design involving academics at various research and tertiary institutions across the six geographical regions in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was distributed electronically to all participants who consented to take part in this study. Exactly 4,159 questionnaires were administered and 2,350 were completely filled and returned. Pearson correlation matrices with logistic regression were used for data analysis and are presented in frequencies and percentages. Results: On challenges faced by respondents, 42.98% reported a lack of research funding, 17.11% mentioned brain drain challenge while 8.85% indicated a lack of motivation. Of the 23,927 publications reported, the number of those in sciences, engineering, and medical sciences averaged 9.6, 11.5, and 9.5 respectively. The average number of publications by women (10.8) was more than by men (9.7). Lecturers had the highest average research publication number (11.8) followed by researchers (10.2) and others (3.9). Men had the highest (11.9) average number of conferences compared to women (9.2). Participants in engineering had an average number of 13.8 conferences per respondents followed by those in education (11.2), sciences (11.1), and 10.9 for those in agricultural sciences. The result revealed a negative significant correlation between research publication and academic qualification at p < 0.01. Positive significant correlation was observed between research productivity and discipline at p < 0.05. Findings show that the combined influence of the independent variables on research productivity was significant using linear regression analysis. Conclusions: The failure to prioritize research has resulted in underdevelopment in Nigeria. It is therefore imperative that the federal government prioritize research and establish a functional Special Research Trust Fund to oversee research funding in Nigeria.
Article
Full-text available
This article explores our experiences of conducting feminist interpretive research on the British Army Reserves. The project, which examined the everyday work-Army-life balance challenges that reservists face, and the roles of their partners/spouses in enabling them to fulfil their military commitments, is an example of a potential contribution to the so-called ‘knowledge economy’, where publicly funded research has come to be seen as ‘functional’ for political, military, economic, and social advancement. As feminist interpretive researchers examining an institution that prizes masculinist and functionalist methodologies, instrumentalised knowledge production, and highly formalised ethics approval processes, we faced multiple challenges to how we were able to conduct our research, who we were able to access, and what we were able to say. We show how military assumptions about what constitutes proper ‘research’, bolstered by knowledge economy logics, reinforces gendered power relationships that keep hidden the significant roles women (in our case, the partners/spouses of reservists) play in state security. Accordingly, we argue that the functionalist and masculinist logics interpretive researchers face in the age of the knowledge economy help more in sustaining orthodox modes of knowledge production about militaries and security, and in reinforcing gendered power relations, than they do in advancing knowledge.
Article
The extent to which academic research informs both student learning and practice has been repeatedly debated in the management literature. Despite the supposed symbiotic relationship between research, learning, and practice, few studies have sought to identify the potential synergies between these relationships. Moreover, studies investigating these separate relationships have been largely confined to a single discipline. Based on perceptions of 47 practicing managers enrolled in accounting, law and international business courses within an Australian Executive MBA program, our findings suggest that the nature of the ‘gaps’ between research and learning, and research and practice are quite different. Although the value of academic research is recognised, barriers impeding its capacity to more effectively speak to and be utilised by students and practitioners are common to all three disciplinary areas. These barriers do not relate to the ‘use’ of research per se, but rather to the ways in which academic research findings are typically communicated, which thus impacts its ‘usefulness’. Our findings contribute to the literature on the relationship between research, practice, and learning, by suggesting how academic research may be positioned to more effectively impact learning and practice.
Article
Neoliberalism is invariably presented as a governing regime of market and competition-based systems rather than as a set of migratory practices that are re-setting the ethical standards of the academy. This article seeks to explore the way in which neoliberalism is shifting the prevailing values of the academy by drawing on two illustrations: the death of disinterestedness and the obfuscation of authorship. While there was never a golden age when norms such as disinterestedness were universally practiced they represented widely accepted aesthetic ideals associated with academic life. By contrast, neoliberal academics embrace a new set of assumptions and norms that stand in sharp relief to many of the values that were previously espoused. Practices that might have been regarded as ethically dubious by earlier generations of academics, such as grantsmanship, self-justificatory expressions of interestedness and tangential claims to authorship, are now regarded as legitimate and positive virtues in a more aggressive age of hyper-performativity.
Article
Justifying higher education is a political exercise in which representatives of universities advocate for resources from the state while also seeking autonomy to manage their own affairs. This analysis builds upon Collini’s identification of the conflict over the value of higher education in the UK. It sets out the ‘worlds of worth’ typology to explain the basis of conflicting justifications in UK higher education policy debates. It elaborates the six worlds of worth and links them to pragmatic justifications utilised in higher education, varying according to situated contexts. It explains the conflicts between the worlds and how they play out in practical ways in higher education policymaking. The Research Excellence Framework constitutes a compromise between multiple worlds of worth. Debates around ‘low value’ courses are centred around conflicts between the industrial and market worlds. It concludes that the worlds of worth model offers a productive framework for the analysis of pragmatic policy conflicts and illuminates political struggles about what universities are for, embedded in power struggles for autonomy and control.
Article
Aims Across higher education, systems and policies explicitly address the impact of research. This paper contributes to the impact and engagement discussion from a regional, rural and remote perspective. We focus on how impact and engagement fit with regional, rural and remote research and explore strategies that can be employed to enhance impact and engagement in a rural health research context. Context The impact agenda in Australia is a response to a worldwide call for demonstrable change or potential for change resulting from university research. As funding models evolve to integrate impact, there are increased pressures for universities and academics to plan for, evidence and report on it. The current lack of focus on impact in regional, rural and remote research may further disadvantage regional, rural and remote researchers’ prospects for career progression and funding opportunities. Approach Ignoring or avoiding impact will marginalise rural researchers and research. We discuss the definitions of impact and engagement as they apply to rural research and argue that engagement and impact must be commensurate with employment conditions. To platform regional, rural and remote impact, we provide strategies to assist researchers and administrators in building impact and engagement into their research and academic culture. Conclusion The message to researchers is that impact is here to stay. The high levels of rural engagement can lead to impact, but we need to be clever at providing clear evidence to make that visible.
Article
For decades there have been calls by concerned stakeholders to improve the quality of education research, and some progress has been made towards creating a more secure evidence base in some areas. More programmes and approaches that have a reasonable evidence base are now also being used in schools (but not in policy, and not necessarily because they have a reasonable evidence base). However, there has been no equivalent improvement in secure knowledge about how best to get that evidence into use, or even what difference it makes when such evidence is used. This paper looks at what little is already known about the different ways to get research evidence into use in education by summarising the results of a large‐scale review of the literature. A total of 323 of the most relevant studies were looked at across all areas of public policy, and judged for quality and contribution. Very few (33) were of the appropriate design and quality needed to make robust causal claims about evidence‐into‐use, and even fewer of these concerned education. This means that despite over 20 years of modest improvement in research on what works in education policy and practice, the evidence on how best to deploy these findings is still very weak. We consider studies in terms of several issues, including whether they look at changes in user knowledge and behaviour, or student outcomes, and how evidence is best modified before use. Providing access to raw research evidence or even slightly simplified evidence is not generally an effective way of getting it used, even if that evidence is presented to users by knowledge‐brokers, in short courses or similar. What is more likely to work for both policy and practice is the engineering of high quality evidence into a more usable format and presenting it actively or iteratively via a respected and trusted conduit, or through population measures such as legislation. Having the users actually do the research is another promising approach. Expecting each individual study they fund to have an impact is not the way forward, as this may encourage widespread use of ineffective or even harmful interventions. Publicly‐funded users, including policy‐makers, should be required to use evidence‐led programmes from those libraries providing them and which are appropriate and relevant to their aims. Research funders should support these approaches, and help to build up libraries of successfully tested programmes. Researchers need to be scrupulous, looking at their new evidence in the context of what is already known and not looking to obtain ‘impact’ from single studies. More and better research is needed on the best routes for evidence‐into‐use. However, the improvements required of all parties are as much ethical in nature as they are technical or scientific.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Using narratives from leading international academics and commentators, the authors chart four, possible, “universities of the future” models and discuss how current university management issues can enable or hinder them. Design/methodology/approach Deploying a Gioia methodology analysis of “University of the Future” narratives, the authors derive 12 categories of institutional properties and, ultimately, four distinct models. Findings The authors identify how current, classic and polytechnic institutions can adapt their operations and service delivery in order to transition into future-ready business models. Originality/value The authors interpret the opinions and predictions from world-leading experts in the higher education field in order to present the first, to our knowledge, typology of aspirational university models.
Chapter
Crowdfunding is a balance of risk versus reward. Crowdfunders take a public risk that they will fail to raise funds. Donors take the risk that the campaign will not be funded or that they will not see a return for their support. In an ideal world, both sides are rewarded through the development of something new. If the campaign is being run by a staff member at a large organisation, the organisation should consider a number of risks. These include legal risks such as corruption and misrepresentation, as well as reputational risks and risks relating to exploitation of staff. There is also the risk of funding foregone due to excessive caution regarding crowdfunding. This chapter uses universities in Australia as a case study to illustrate some of these risks. It analyses them through a framework for managing risk in business centric crowdfunding platforms. It contributes a new framework for ameliorating risk before, during, and after crowdfunding campaigns.
Chapter
Beginning in our own narratives about eating fish, Alison and Rita discuss broad issues related to environmental justice for the fishers who struggle to maintain their livelihoods against policies that promote private profit over sustainability. Our stories take us from Canada and continental Portugal to the Azorean Islands in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean where we have been doing research and community work in collaboration with artisanal and small-scale fishers for the past ten years. In discussing history of governance and politics of fisheries in Europe, we outline the struggles for fishing communities. Underneath these stories lie values and images, such as “alive and kicking”, that could support the sustainability of oceans and the well-being of fishing communities. Unfortunately, myths and stereotypes about fishers and categorizing industrial scale fishing as the same as that done by people who have deep connections with fish as living neighbours, not dead “resources”, are powerful and prevalent. Listening to the voices of fishers tell about living as part of ocean ecosystems while negotiating economic and political systems which champion unlimited growth is a useful way to deal with these complex issues in formal classroom teaching as well as informal and nonformal environmental education.
Article
Full-text available
El estudio se centra en conocer qué elementos de la movilización del conocimiento condicionan la relación entre teoría y práctica en investigación y docencia sobre educación inclusiva. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo en el que participan 27 investigadores de 10 universidades españolas, a través de cuatro grupos focales. Los resultados se centran en tres componentes de la movilización del conocimiento: orientación al cambio; co-construcción del conocimiento y comunicación horizontal efectiva. Las conclusiones apuntan a la necesidad de generar espacios híbridos de investigación y práctica, recuperando la misión emancipadora de la universidad, desde enfoques críticos y participativos de investigación y docencia, con claras implicaciones para las políticas educativas.
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of ‘impact’ as an element of assessment constitutes a major change in the construction of research evaluation systems. While various protocols of impact evaluation exist, the most articulated one was implemented as part of the British Research Excellence Framework (REF). This paper investigates the nature and consequences of the rise of ‘research impact’ as an element of academic evaluation from the perspective of discourse. Drawing from linguistic pragmatics and Foucauldian discourse analysis, the study discusses shifts related to the so-called Impact Agenda on four stages, in chronological order: (1) the ‘problematization’ of the notion of ‘impact’, (2) the establishment of an ‘impact infrastructure’, (3) the consolidation of a new genre of writing–impact case study, and (4) academics’ positioning practices towards the notion of ‘impact’, theorized here as the triggering of new practices of ‘subjectivation’ of the academic self. The description of the basic functioning of the ‘discourse of impact’ is based on the analysis of two corpora: case studies submitted by a selected group of academics (linguists) to REF2014 (no = 78) and interviews (n = 25) with their authors. Linguistic pragmatics is particularly useful in analyzing linguistic aspects of the data, while Foucault’s theory helps draw together findings from two datasets in a broader analysis based on a governmentality framework. This approach allows for more general conclusions on the practices of governing (academic) subjects within evaluation contexts.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the university sector globally. This article reports on the Australian findings from a large-scale survey of academic staff and their experiences and predictions of the impact of the pandemic on their wellbeing. We report the perceptions of n = 370 Australian academics and accounts of their institutions’ responses to COVID-19, analysed using self-determination theory. Respondents report work-related stress, digital fatigue, and a negative impact on work-life balance; as well as significant concerns over potential longer-term changes to academia as a result of the pandemic. Respondents also articulate their frustration with Australia’s neoliberal policy architecture and the myopia of quasi-market reform, which has spawned an excessive reliance on international students as a pillar of income generation and therefore jeopardised institutional solvency – particularly during the pandemic. Conversely, respondents identify a number of ‘silver linings’ which speak to the resilience of academics.
Chapter
Full-text available
Based on the findings of an international research project, the chapter reveals how an emphasis on relevance—generally discussed through the notion of an ‘impact agenda’—has not only become a central element of funding regimes but has also trickled down to influence political science more specifically. The introduction of incentives to deliver demonstrable evidence of non-academic impact leads the authors to develop the concept of ‘New Public Research’ which resonates with a broader shift from scholarly selectedRelevancescholarly selected to state-directed notions of relevanceRelevancestate-directed. Strikingly, the chapter finds very little concern among academics about this shift.
Chapter
This chapter scrutinises the rise of the impact criterion within research assessment and places it within a wider context of market-led cultural policy (1980–90s). Specifically, the chapter addresses the impact agenda of the 2014 REF by drawing upon a wider context of accountability in public museums. The discussion of the public museum demonstrates how, since the nineteenth century, cultural values are configured within a framework of national interests and regulated through mechanisms of accountability and assessment of public impact. The chapter draws from critical scholarship in the field of museology in order to provide a language with which humanities scholars can address the contemporary changes facing research assessment culture in higher education.
Article
Full-text available
Higher Education Institutions are increasingly called upon to demonstrate their real world impact, which, in many instances, remains elusive. We believe this is partly due to the under-counting and under-estimation of the importance of tacit knowledge by researchers and regulators. We propose this as a missing contingency in the research–impact relationship. To better acknowledge and utilize tacit research knowledge in the impact process, we emphasize processes of praxis, reflexivity and dialogical sense-making, which help externalize implicit tacit knowledge, and socialization processes, which facilitate enactment, emulation and feedback to develop inherent tacit knowledge. Examples from management research are used to exemplify these processes. The implications of accepting the importance of tacit knowledge in creating impact call for changes in how researchers, universities, funders, assessors and governments, fund, create and assess real world research impact.
Article
In the entrepreneurial university, epistemic governance is exerted through external pressures of market competition, funding, university rankings and research assessment and internal processes of organisational restructuring and mechanisms of corporate governance to re/produce epistemic injustices. Data from a study of three Australian universities illustrate the implications of these for the Humanities and Social Sciences, numerically feminised fields of research and practice and how, in the Australian context, political conservatism aligns with a particular Anglophone sensibility regarding science and society. Excluding the social and critical knowledge practices of the humanities and social sciences is dangerous to both the academy and democracies, particularly in post-truth times.
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on recent developments in UK health research policy, which place new pressures on researchers to address issues of accountability and impact through the implementation of patient and public involvement (PPI). We draw on an in-depth interview study with 20 professional researchers, and we analyse their experiences of competing for research funding, focusing on PPI as a process of professional research governance. We unearth dominant professional narratives of scepticism and alternative identifications in their enactment of PPI policy. We argue that such narratives and identifications evidence a resistance to ways in which patient involvement has been institutionalised and to the resulting subject-positions researchers are summoned to take up. We show that the new subjectivities emerging in this landscape of research governance as increasingly disempowered, contradictory and fraught with unresolved tensions over the ethical dimensions of the researchers’ own professional identities.
Article
Impact statements are increasingly required and assessed in grant applications. In this study, we used content analysis to examine the ‘comments on impact’ section of the postal reviews and related documents of Science Foundation Ireland’s Investigators’ Programme to understand reviewers’ ex ante impact assessment. We found three key patterns: (1) reviewers favoured short-term, tangible impacts, particularly commercial ones; (2) reviewers commented on process-oriented impact (formative) in a more concrete and elaborate manner than on outcome-oriented impact (summative); and (3) topics related to scientific impacts were widely discussed even though the impact section was to be used for evaluating economic and societal impacts. We conclude that for ex ante impact assessment to be effective, funding agencies should indicate the types of impact expected from research proposals clearly instead of a general ‘wish list’ and that more focus should be put on process-oriented impact than outcome-oriented impact.
Article
The reinvention of the university as a research-focused institution has transformed the way in which research is defined in practice. It is now widely explained in terms of a narrow set of performative expectations. This paper draws on historical literature to trace the hollowing out of research from a broad, though often sceptical, conception shaped by the liberal education tradition to one that is now expressed and evaluated almost exclusively in terms of publication, grant getting, and doctoral completions. In so doing it is argued that there is a need to challenge neo-liberal assumptions about the purposes of higher education and reclaim what Truscot referred to as the ‘spirit of research’. This is essential both for authentic higher education teaching and as a set of scholarly, epistemic virtues. Such a conception, compatible with both the liberal education and Humboldtian traditions of the university, values research awareness over research productivity and provides a more secure link between research and teaching.
Article
As a unique criminal justice organisation, the police present challenges, but also opportunities for those who research them. These are examined, in terms of getting in, getting on, getting your hands dirty and getting through it, using data collected as part of a comparative multi-method study of police custody in large cities in Australia, England, Ireland and the United States in 2007 and 2009. As this research took place on the cusp of the proliferation of research with the police, retrospective examination of field notes is used to reflect on how the research process is influenced not just by one’s social origins but also by the culture of academia and the politics of knowledge production. It is argued that while research with the police is becoming the norm, research on the police is still of value as part of a diverse police research agenda.
Chapter
Full-text available
The Browne report advocates, in effect, the privatisation of higher education in England. With the proposed removal of the current cap on student fees and the removal of state funding from most undergraduate degree programmes, universities are set for a period of major reorganisation not seen since the higher education reforms in the 1960s. This book brings together some of the leading figures in Higher Education in the UK to set out what they see as the role of the university in public life. The book argues for a more balanced understanding of the value of universities than that outlined in the Browne Report. It advocates that they should not purely be seen in terms of their contribution to economic growth and the human capital of individuals but also in terms of their contribution to the public. This book responds to the key debates that the Browne review and Government statements have sparked, with essays on the cultural significance of the university, the role of the government in funding research, inequality in higher education, the role of quangos in public life and the place of social science research. It is a timely, important and considered exploration of the role of the universities in the UK and a reminder of what we should value and protect in our higher education system. Book Summary / Abstract The Browne report advocates, in effect, the privatisation of higher education in England. With the proposed removal of the current cap on student fees and the removal of state funding from most undergraduate degree programmes, universities are set for a period of major reorganisation not seen since the higher education reforms in the 1960s. This book brings together some of the leading figures in Higher Education in the UK to set out what they see as the role of the university in public life. The book argues for a more balanced understanding of the value of universities than that outlined in the Browne Report. It advocates that they should not purely be seen in terms of their contribution to economic growth and the human capital of individuals but also in terms of their contribution to the public. This book responds to the key debates that the Browne review and Government statements have sparked, with essays on the cultural significance of the university, the role of the government in funding research, inequality in higher education, the role of quangos in public life and the place of social science research. It is a timely, important and considered exploration of the role of the universities in the UK and a reminder of what we should value and protect in our higher education system.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores ways in which the new preoccupation with “impact” - understood as “influence” beyond the academy - formalised in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF) in UK universities reshapes the working conditions and practices in which contemporary anthropology and sociology are produced and, ultimately, what these disciplines are able to be. It suggests that impact, in concert with broader changes in, what we might think of as, the “metricization” of higher education, reshapes the relationship between universities and government bringing new cultures of precarity to these disciplines. This paper ruminates on how impact - a new addition to the metric assemblages that now dominate universities - shapes the kinds of research we can do, as well as the conditions in which we do it. It notes the deepening competition, the narrowing of disciplines, and the emphasis on the visibility and performance of intellectual labour.
Article
Full-text available
Research, a major purpose of higher education, has become increasingly important in a context of global economic competitiveness. In this paper, we draw on data from email interviews with academics in Britain to explore responses to current research policy trends. Although the majority of academics expressed opposition to current policy developments, most were nevertheless complying with research imperatives. Informed by a Foucauldian conceptualisation of audit, feminist research on gendered performativity, and sociological and psycho-social theoretical resources on the affective, we discuss compliance, contestation and complicity in relation both to the data and to our own location as academics in this field.
Article
Full-text available
Anthropology as a profession is particularly dependent on universities, institutions that throughout the industrialized world have been undergoing major structural readjustments over the past two decades. Central to these reforms has been the introduction of mechanisms for measuring 'teaching performance', 'research quality' and 'institutional effectiveness'. baking British higher education as a case study, this article analyses the history and consequences of government attempts to promote an 'audit culture' in universities. It cracks the spread of the idea of audit from its original associations with financial accounting into other cultural domains, particularly education. These new audit technologies are typically framed in terms of 'quality', 'accountability' and 'empowerment', as though they were emancipatory and 'self-actualizing'. We critique these assumptions by illustrating some of the negative effects that auditing processes such as 'Research Assessment Exercises' and 'Teaching Quality Assessments' have had on higher education. We suggest that these processes beckon a new form of coercive and authoritarian governmentality. The article concludes by considering ways that anthropologists might respond to the more damaging aspects of this neo-liberal agenda through 'political reflexivity'.
Article
Full-text available
This paper is the latest in a short series on the origins, processes and effects of performativity in the public sector. Performativity, it is argued, is a new mode of state regulation which makes it possible to govern in an ‘advanced liberal’ way. It requires individual practitioners to organize themselves as a response to targets, indicators and evaluations. To set aside personal beliefs and commitments and live an existence of calculation. The new performative worker is a promiscuous self, an enterprising self, with a passion for excellence. For some, this is an opportunity to make a success of themselves, for others it portends inner conflicts, inauthenticity and resistance. It is also suggested that performativity produces opacity rather than transparency as individuals and organizations take ever greater care in the construction and maintenance of fabrications.
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between values and academic identity has received scant attention in the higher education literature with some notable exceptions (Churchman, 2006; Harley, 2002; Henkel, 2005). This paper contends that the perceived need to align all academics around corporate values and goals has given rise to academic identity schisms in higher education. Central to the academic identity schism is the notion of person–organisation values fit and the degree to which the ideologies and values of academics are congruent (the 'academic manager') or incongruent (the 'managed aca-demic') with the prevailing discourse of corporate managerialism. To reduce the prev-alence of academic disengagement and make it easier for academic managers to gain the support of the managed, the paper proposes two inter-related strategies for bridging identity schisms in academe.
Article
Full-text available
This paper revisits the question of the political and theoretical status of neoliberalism, making the case for a process–based analysis of “neoliberalization.” Drawing on the experience of the heartlands of neoliberal discursive production, North America and Western Europe, it is argued that the transformative and adaptive capacity of this far–reaching political–economic project has been repeatedly underestimated. Amongst other things, this calls for a close reading of the historical and geographical (re)constitution of the process of neoliberalization and of the variable ways in which different “local neoliberalisms” are embedded within wider networks and structures of neoliberalism. The paper’s contribution to this project is to establish a stylized distinction between the destructive and creative moments of the process of neoliberalism—which are characterized in terms of “roll–back” and “roll–out” neoliberalism, respectively—and then to explore some of the ways in which neoliberalism, in its changing forms, is playing a part in the reconstruction of extralocal relations, pressures, and disciplines.
Article
Full-text available
This paper 'joins in' and contributes to an emerging stream of ideas and conversations related to 'performativity' in education and social policyuwhich includes, among others, Jill Blackmore, Judyth Sachs, Erica McWilliam, John Elliott, Tricia Broadfoot and Bob Lingard. The paper attempts to look at both the capillary detail and 'the bigger picture' of performativity i,n .[.he public sector. Ideally it should be read in relation to the multitude of 'performative texts' and 'texts of performativity' with which we are continually confronted and which increasingly inform and deform our practice 2. The paper is intended to be both very theoretical and very practical, very abstract and very immediate 3. Let me begin by offering a working definition of performativity. Performativity is a technology, a culture and a mode of regulation, or a system of 'terror' in Lyotard's words, that employs judgements, comparisons and displays as means of control, attrition and change. The performances (of individual subjects or organisations) serve as measures of productivity or output, or displays of 'quality', or 'moments' of promotion (there is a felicititous ambiguity around this word) or inspection. They stand for, encapsulate or represent the worth, quality or value of an individual or organisation within a field of judgement. 'An equation between wealth, efficiency, and truth is thus established' (Lyotard 1984, p. 46). The issue of who controls the field of judgement is crucial. 'Accountability' and 'competition' are the lingua franca of this new discourse of power as Lyotard describes it. A discourse which is the emerging form of legitimation in post-industrial societies for both the production of knowledge and
Chapter
Full-text available
This volume offers an exploration of major changes in the way knowledge is produced in science, technology, social science, & humanities, arguing that a new mode of knowledge production promises to replace or radically reform established institutions, disciplines, practices, & policies. A range of features - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - associated with the new mode of knowledge production are identified to illustrate the connections between them & the changing role of knowledge in social relations. Methodological difficulties inherent in attempts to describe a new mode of knowledge production are discussed, & implications of this mode for science policy & international economic competitiveness, collaboration, & globalization are treated. The book is particularly relevant for those concerned with educational systems, the changing nature of knowledge, the social study of science, & the connections between research & development, & social, economic, & technological development. The book is presented in 7 Chpts with a Preface & an Introduction. (1) Evolution of Knowledge Production. (2) The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge. (3) Massification of Research and Education. (4) The Case of the Humanities. (5) Competitiveness, Collaboration and Globalisation. (6) Reconfiguring Institutions. (7) Towards Managing Socially Distributed Knowledge. References accompany each Chpt. 2 Tables. W. Howard (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Article
Full-text available
Bu araştırmada ilk olarak, dürtüsel davranma ile okulu terk etme riski arasındaki ilişkiye disiplin cezası almanın, antisosyal davranışların ve sigara-alkol kullanımının aracılık edip etmediği incelenmiştir. İkinci olarak, öğretmen desteği ve antisosyal davranış etkileşiminin okulu terk etme riski üzerindeki etkisi test edilmiştir. Araştırma grubunu 2009-2010 yılında Ankara İlinde genel liselere devam eden 478 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Sonuçlar okulu terk etme riskini aile ve arkadaş desteğinin azalttığını, dürtüsel davranmanın ise artırdığını göstermiştir. Ayrıca disiplin cezası, alkol-sigara kullanma ve antisosyal davranışlar okulu terk etme riskini artıran aracı değişkenlerdir. Antisosyal davranışlarla okulu terk etme arasındaki ilişki öğretmen desteğine bağlı olarak değişmektedir. Öğrencilerin cinsiyet ve başarıları ile okulu terk etme riskleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamaktadır.
Article
Full-text available
Changes within the higher education sector have had significant effects on the identity of the individual academic. As institutions transform in response to government-driven policy and funding directives, there is a subsequent impact upon the roles and responsibilities of those employed as educational professionals. Academic practices are changing as multiple roles emerge from the reshaping of academic work. Institutional pressures to produce specific research outputs at the same time as teaching and undertaking managerial/administrative responsibilities are creating tension between what academics perceive as their professional identity and that prescribed by their employing organisation. Reconciling this disconnect is part of the challenge for academics, who are now seeking to understand and manage their changing identity. Narratives obtained from research in a university with a polytechnic background and an institute of technology (aspiring to be a university), provide some subjective reflections for examining this issue.
Article
Full-text available
Incl. bibl., index, statistical annex.
Chapter
Academic identity is continually being formed and reformed by the institutional, socio-cultural and political contexts within which academic practitioners operate. In Europe the impact of the 2008 economic crisis and its continuing aftermath accounts for many of these changes, but the diverse cultures and histories of different regions are also significant factors, influencing how institutions adapt and resist, and how identities are shaped. Academic Identities in Higher Education highlights the multiple influences acting upon academic practitioners and documents some of the ways in which they are positioning themselves in relation to these often competing pressures. At a time when higher education is undergoing huge structural and systemic change there is increasing uncertainty regarding the nature of academic identity. Traditional notions compete with new and emergent ones, which are still in the process of formation and articulation. Academic Identities in Higher Education explores this process of formation and articulation and addresses the question: what does it mean to be an academic in 21st century Europe?
Book
Until very recently, American universities were led mainly by their faculties, which viewed intellectual production and pedagogy as the core missions of higher education. Today, as Benjamin Ginsberg warns in this eye-opening, controversial book, "deanlets"--administrators and staffers often without serious academic backgrounds or experience--are setting the educational agenda. The Fall of the Faculty examines the fallout of rampant administrative blight that now plagues the nation's universities. In the past decade, universities have added layers of administrators and staffers to their payrolls every year even while laying off full-time faculty in increasing numbers--ostensibly because of budget cuts. In a further irony, many of the newly minted--and non-academic--administrators are career managers who downplay the importance of teaching and research, as evidenced by their tireless advocacy for a banal "life skills" curriculum. Consequently, students are denied a more enriching educational experience--one defined by intellectual rigor. Ginsberg also reveals how the legitimate grievances of minority groups and liberal activists, which were traditionally championed by faculty members, have, in the hands of administrators, been reduced to chess pieces in a game of power politics. By embracing initiatives such as affirmative action, the administration gained favor with these groups and legitimized a thinly cloaked gambit to bolster their power over the faculty. As troubling as this trend has become, there are ways to reverse it. The Fall of the Faculty outlines how we can revamp the system so that real educators can regain their voice in curriculum policy.
Book
Addresses what educators, young people, and concerned citizens can do to reclaim higher education from market-driven neoliberal ideologies.
Book
Undoing democracy : neoliberalism's remaking of state and subject -- Foucault's birth of biopolitics lectures : the distinctiveness of neoliberal rationality -- Revising Foucault : homo politicus and homo oeconomicus -- Disseminating neoliberal rationality I : governance, benchmarks and best practices -- Disseminating neoliberal rationality II : law and legal reason -- Disseminating neoliberal rationality III : higher education and the abandonment of citizenship -- Losing bare democracy and the inversion of freedom into sacrifice.
Article
The rise of corporatism in the North American University was charted by Bill Readings in the mid nineteen-nineties in his book The University in Ruins. The intervening years have seen the corporate university grow and extend to the point where its evolution into a large business corporation is seemingly complete. Rolfe’s book examines the factors contributing to the transformation of the university from a site of culture and knowledge to what might be termed an ‘information factory’, and explores strategies for how, in Readings’ words, members of the academic community might continue to ‘dwell in the ruins of the university’ in a productive and authentic way.
Article
What does it mean to be truthful? What role does truth play in our lives? What do we lose if we reject truthfulness? No philosopher is better suited to answer these questions than Bernard Williams. Writing with his characteristic combination of passion and elegant simplicity, he explores the value of truth and finds it to be both less and more than we might imagine.Modern culture exhibits two attitudes toward truth: suspicion of being deceived (no one wants to be fooled) and skepticism that objective truth exists at all (no one wants to be naive). This tension between a demand for truthfulness and the doubt that there is any truth to be found is not an abstract paradox. It has political consequences and signals a danger that our intellectual activities, particularly in the humanities, may tear themselves to pieces. Williams's approach, in the tradition of Nietzsche's genealogy, blends philosophy, history, and a fictional account of how the human concern with truth might have arisen. Without denying that we should worry about the contingency of much that we take for granted, he defends truth as an intellectual objective and a cultural value. He identifies two basic virtues of truth, Accuracy and Sincerity, the first of which aims at finding out the truth and the second at telling it. He describes different psychological and social forms that these virtues have taken and asks what ideas can make best sense of them today.
Book
A good university is invariably assumed to be one which is managerially effective in terms of entrepreneurialism, self-promotion and competitive innovation. This book argues that in the majority of institutions these goals are being pursued to the exclusion of academic excellence and public service. It claims that there is a marked lack of intellectual leadership at senior management level within higher education institutions and that academic workers must assume responsibility for the moral purposefulness of their institutions. This will not be a retreat into the old values of an elitist 'ivory tower' but a rejection of the currently deeply stratified university system that prematurely selects students for differentiated institutional streams.
Book
The global financial crisis of 2008 revealed the extent to which the public realm has been eroded over the last thirty years and the inroads that privatization and commercialization have made into the higher education sector. This book explores the institutional and sector-wide implications of the financial crisis for higher education and the lessons to be learnt from that crisis and its aftermath for the university sector as a whole.
Article
This revised edition, first published in 1977, contains a new introductory section by Tibor Scitovsky. It sets out to analyze the inherent defects of the market economy as an instrument of human improvement. Since publication, it is believed to have been very influential in the ecological movement and hence is considered to be relevant today. The book tries to give an economist's answer to three questions: Why has economic development become and remained so compelling a goal even though it gives disappointing results? Why has modern society become so concerned with distributional processes when the great majority of people can raise their living standards through increased production? Why has the 20th century seen a universal predominant trend toward collective provision and state regulation in economic areas at a time when individual freedom of action is widely extolled and is given unprecedented reign in non-economic areas? The book suggests that the current impasse on a number of key issues in the political economy of advanced nations is attributable, in part, to an outmoded perspective on the nature, and therefore, the promise of economic growth. The critique has some important implications for policy and opens up a range of policy issues. -after Author
Article
Academic science is often described as having a moral economy underpinned by curiosity, creativity and a love of the subject. It is also described as having a political economy tied to national programmes for socio-economic growth. According to many writers, in recent decades those moral and political economies have become disconnected through greater managerial, audit and commercial practices pervading the academy. Classic ideals of professional norms and ethos have been eroded in these new economically incentivised environments. Biomedical scientists working at a major UK university echoed these sentiments, lamenting a lost ‘golden age’ of science characterised by intellectual freedom, serendipitous discovery and a love of doing science. In practice, their lamentation serves as a myth and expresses a key tension in pursuing science as a job and as a vocation. Playing a performative role in scientists' own self-understanding, the myth not only underwrites scientific identity, but also supports research management by demarcating ‘science’ from the practices that manage, measure and commercialise it. The ‘golden age’ emerges as a significant explanatory narrative in contemporary science. It embodies a moral economy that is detached from its institutional contexts, and thus unable to resolve the inequalities and tensions produced through the political economy that relies on it.
Article
Employing the interdisciplinary field of health inequalities as a case study, this paper draws on interviews to explore subjective accounts of academic identities. It finds widespread acceptance that academia is a market place in which research‐active careers require academics to function as entrepreneurs marketing ideas to funders. Beyond this, two contrasting aspirational identities emerged: academics seeking to work collaboratively with policy makers (‘policy facilitators’) and academics seeking to challenge dominant discourses (‘Shakespearean fools’). Most interviewees identified strongly with one or the other of these identities and few believed academia sufficiently supported their preference, although there was some consensus that recent changes were aiding ‘policy facilitator’ roles. In interviewees' accounts of trying to pursue ‘Shakespearean fool’ type roles in marketised environments, a further, chameleon‐like identity emerged (‘flexians’): academics producing malleable ideas that can be adapted for different audiences. In exploring these identities, the paper challenges the popular distinction between mode‐1 and mode‐2 research.
Article
This paper reviews recent culture-change in British higher education (HE) and an increasing emphasis on academics evidencing, in meaningful and measurable ways, the value and contribution of their work to national societies. Discussion focuses on what is purported to be a shift from a focus on academics rationalizing the benefits of their work in terms of public engagement to a more contentious signifier of research worth, “impact”. The primary argument herein is that an impact agenda, framed in terms of assessment and by the upcoming Research Excellence Framework 2014, has not eclipsed an engagement initiative for HE in the UK but actually provided greater credence and tacit momentum. Where public engagement “pre-impact” was viewed by sections of the academic community as frivolous, faddish and tokenistic, it is now elevated as an integral component of impact-capture work and in plotting the pathways between research producer and research intermediary/end-user/collaborator. Where “impact” is a statement of the value of academic work, engagement is the method of its articulation and the means by which impacts are mobilized.
Article
This article focuses on the lived experience of practising academics as part of an inquiry into the vexed question of ‘academic identities’. Identity is understood not as a fixed property, but as part of the lived complexity of a person's project. The article reports on data from a small study in one university. The data suggest that academic identity is complex and that, moreover, it cannot be read off from descriptions of teaching, research, or management roles. Respondents in all roles were able to maintain highly distinctive, strongly framed academic identities. Experiences of class, gender and the significance of family are reported as having continued salience in respondents' lives. Moreover, despite all the pressure of performativity, individuals created spaces for the exercise of principled personal autonomy and agency. The article concludes that paying detailed attention to how changes are being experienced is an important element in theorising trends in the sector.
Book
Preface 1. A peculiar institution 2. Basically, it's purely academic 3. Academic science 4. New modes of knowledge production 5. Community and communication 6. Universalism and unification 7. Disinterestedness and objectivity 8. Originality and novelty 9. Scepticism and the growth of knowledge 10. What then, can we believe? Bibliography Index.
Article
This review of business-university collaborationin the United Kingdom has three objectives: (1) to illustrate opportunitiesarising from changes in ways that business undertakes R&D and thatuniversities are collaborating with business partners; (2) to recognizebusinesses already collaborating with university departments, which are rolemodels for those without university links; and (3) to offer ideas andrecommendations to shape policy. Points out two new trends shaping business world-wide: Firms are doing lessresearch and development (R&D) of their own and instead seekingcollaboration; and business R&D is going global, and being located nearimportant markets. Three needs are identified: (1) that universities mustbetter identify their competitive research strengths; (2) that government mustbetter support business-university collaboration; and (3) that business mustlearn to exploit innovations being developed by universities. Comparatively, UK businesses have low research intensity. Analyzesthedemand for research from business, identifying the need to raisebusiness demand for research from all sources. Some proposals for buildingnetworks among research-intensive businesses and supporting business-universitycollaboration are offered. Also offers recommendations for encouragingcommunication between business people and academics, to support knowledgetransfer. Universities have the potential to transfer knowledge from their strongscience base to business in the form of intellectual property (IP). However, anumber of barriers to commercializing IP are discussed. First is lack ofclarity of IP ownership in collaborations; second is variable quality ofuniversity technology transfer offices; third, more emphasis should be put onlicensing technology and less on developing university spinouts. Because universities play increasing roles in regional economic development,this analysisrecommends English Regional Development Agencies shouldchange their targets to creating relationships between business anduniversities across regions and nations. The current dual support system of university funding had strengths andweaknesses. The analysissuggests that this system offersdisincentives to business-university cooperation. A number of principles toencourage business research are presented, and the UK government is urged toconsider the balance and fill the research funding gap. A voluntary code of governance for university management is suggested, asare strategies for improving professional and entrepreneurial skills forstudents. Overall, the report concludes that despite much good collaborativework, more remains to be done. Four appendixes identify the goals of thereport, give the draft code of governance, summarize its recommendations, andlist contributors to the report. (TNM)
Article
Teaching, research and service are the three conventional elements of academic practice, recognised on an international basis. However, evidence suggests that academic practice is rapidly disaggregating, or ‘unbundling’, as a result of a variety of forces including the massification of national systems, the application of technology in teaching and increasing specialisation of academic roles to support a more centralised and performative culture. This article will present an analysis of these changes linked to the emergence of the ‘para-academic’: staff who specialise in one element of academic practice. This includes the ‘up-skilling’ of professional support staff and the ‘deskilling’ of academic staff. The implications of this change for the quality of the student experience and the sustainablity of academic citizenship are considered.
Article
Whole issue. Incl. abstracts, bib. The ascendancy of neoliberalism and the associated discourses of 'new public management', during the 1980s and 1990s has produced a fundamental shift in the way universities and other institutions of higher education have defined and justified their institutional existence. The traditional professional culture of open intellectual enquiry and debate has been replaced with a institutional stress on performativity, as evidenced by the emergence of an emphasis on measured outputs: on strategic planning, performance indicators, quality assurance measures and academic audits. This paper traces the links between neoliberalism and globalization on the one hand, and neoliberalism and the knowledge economy on the other. It maintains that in a global neoliberal environment, the role of higher education for the economy is seen by governments as having greater importance to the extent that higher education has become the new star ship in the policy fleet for governments around the world. Universities are seen as a key driver in the knowledge economy and as a consequence higher education institutions have been encouraged to develop links with industry and business in a series of new venture partnerships. The recognition of economic importance of higher education and the necessity for economic viability has seen initiatives to promote greater entrepreneurial skills as well as the development of new performative measures to enhance output and to establish and achieve targets. This paper attempts to document these trends at the level of both political philosophy and economic theory.
Article
Incl. bibliographical notes and references, index
Article
A twentieth Century Fund Study Incluye bibliografía e índice
Article
This volume explores the complex relationships among universities, states, and markets throughout the Americas in light of the growing influence of globalization. It offers a biting critique of neoliberal globalization and its anti-democratic elements. In seeking to challenge the hegemony of neoliberal globalization, the authors highlight the ways in which corporate capitalism, academic capitalism, and increased militarization—both in the form of terrorism and in the international war against terrorism—are directing societies and institutions. Throughout this volume, the contributors—led by Noam Chomsky, Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Raymond Morrow, Sheila Slaughter, and Atilio Boron—argue that neoliberal globalization has changed the context for academic work, research and development, science, and social responsibility at universities. They examine issues of access and social mobility, and argue that the recent push toward privatization limits the democratic and emancipatory possibilities of universities. Finally, the book explores various forms of resistance and discusses globalization in terms of social movements and global human rights. Contributors: Estela Mara Bensimon Atilio Alberto Boron Andrea Brewster Noam Chomsky Ana Loureiro Jurema Ken Kempner Marcela Mollis Raymond Morrow Imanol Ordorika Gary Rhoades Robert A. Rhoads Boaventura de Sousa Santos Daniel Schugurensky Sheila Slaughter Carlos Alberto Torres