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Silent Disco: Dancing in synchrony leads to elevated pain thresholds and social closeness

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Abstract

Moving in synchrony leads to cooperative behaviour and feelings of social closeness, and dance (involving synchronisation to others and music) may cause social bonding, possibly as a consequence of released endorphins. This study uses an experimental paradigm to determine which aspects of synchrony in dance are associated with changes in pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin release) and social bonding between strangers. Those who danced in synchrony experienced elevated pain thresholds, whereas those in the partial and asynchrony conditions experienced no analgesic effects. Similarly, those in the synchrony condition reported being more socially bonded, although they did not perform more cooperatively in an economic game. This experiment suggests that dance encourages social bonding amongst co-actors by stimulating the production of endorphins, but may not make people more altruistic. We conclude that dance may have been an important human behaviour evolved to encourage social closeness between strangers.

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... Moving in synchrony with somebody, whether spontaneous or imposed, has previously been shown to increase the sense of connection and liking (Hove and Risen, 2009;Tarr et al., 2015Tarr et al., , 2016 and boost individual perception of closeness and feelings of similarity (Paladino et al., 2010;Valdesolo et al., 2010;Vacharkulksemsuk and Fredrickson, 2012;Reddish et al., 2013;Tarr et al., 2016). Synchrony has also been shown to increase positive affect (Tschacher et al., 2014) and to improve memory recall of words spoken by the person that one synchronizes with (Macrae et al., 2008). ...
... Moving in synchrony with somebody, whether spontaneous or imposed, has previously been shown to increase the sense of connection and liking (Hove and Risen, 2009;Tarr et al., 2015Tarr et al., , 2016 and boost individual perception of closeness and feelings of similarity (Paladino et al., 2010;Valdesolo et al., 2010;Vacharkulksemsuk and Fredrickson, 2012;Reddish et al., 2013;Tarr et al., 2016). Synchrony has also been shown to increase positive affect (Tschacher et al., 2014) and to improve memory recall of words spoken by the person that one synchronizes with (Macrae et al., 2008). ...
... Our finding that synchrony increases perceived closeness fits with existing studies that have typically been conducted in person (Paladino et al., 2010;Vacharkulksemsuk and Fredrickson, 2012;Reddish et al., 2013;Fessler and Holbrook, 2014;Lumsden et al., 2014;Dong et al., 2015;Tarr et al., 2016). Taken together these results show that moving in synchrony makes people feel closer to each other and this is true both when participants met online and offline. ...
Article
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Moving together in time affects human social affiliation and cognition. However, it is unclear whether these effects hold for on-line video meetings and whether they extend to empathy (understanding or sharing others' emotions) and theory of mind (ToM; attribution of mental states to others). 126 young adult participants met through online video in unacquainted pairs. Participants either performed 3 min of synchronous arm movements paced by sounds ( n = 40), asynchronous movements ( n = 46) or a small talk condition ( n = 40). In a subsequent empathy task, participants engaged in a conversation. A video recording of this conversation was played back, and each participant rated, at predetermined time points, how they felt and how they thought their partner felt. From this we calculated empathic accuracy (accuracy of the estimation of the other's emotions) and emotional congruence (emotion sharing). ToM was measured by showing videos of geometrical shapes interacting and asking the participants to describe what happened, measuring the amount of intentionality. We found that participants in the synchrony condition rated feeling greater closeness and similarity to their partners relative to the asynchronous condition. Further, participants in the synchrony group tended to ascribe more intentionality to the abstract shapes than participants in asynchrony condition, suggesting greater ToM. Synchrony and asynchrony groups did not reliably differ in empathic accuracy nor emotional congruence. These results suggest that moving in synchrony has effects on social affiliation measures even in online encounters. These effects extend to ToM tendencies but not empathic accuracy or emotion sharing. These results highlight the potential of synchronous movement in online encounters to affect a subset of social cognition and affiliation measures.
... Such movements might plausibly trigger the endorphin system via these cochlear receptors, and so might account for the activation of the endorphin system while listening to (as opposed to performing) music and, through that, for our enjoyment of music. Full body motion during dancing is known to raise pain thresholds and enhance social bonding 29,30 , with the involvement of the endorphin system in this confirmed experimentally by administration of naltrexone (an endorphin antagonist) 18 . This provides a prima facie case for suggesting that head movements alone might enable this if endorphin activation is triggered by the cochlear SGNs. ...
... In two studies, we test whether head movement elevates pain thresholds in the same way as has been shown to be the case by full-body movement during dancing 17,29,30 . In this, we follow the widely employed validated practice of using changes in pain threshold as a proxy for endorphin activation in the brain 33,34 . ...
... Before and after taking part in the experiment, subjects had their pain threshold assessed using the Roman chair (or wall-sit) task that has previously been used in many similar experiments 29,30,35,36 . The duration subjects held the position was timed on a stopwatch. ...
Article
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The C-tactile (CLTM) peripheral nervous system is involved in social bonding in primates and humans through its capacity to trigger the brain’s endorphin system. Since the mammalian cochlea has an unusually high density of similar neurons (type-II spiral ganglion neurons, SGNs), we hypothesise that their function may have been exploited for social bonding by co-opting head movements in response to music and other rhythmic movements of the head in social contexts. Music provides one of many cultural behavioural mechanisms for ‘virtual grooming’ in that it is used to trigger the endorphin system with many people simultaneously so as to bond both dyadic relationships and large groups. Changes in pain threshold across an activity are a convenient proxy assay for endorphin uptake in the brain, and we use this, in two experiments, to show that pain thresholds are higher when nodding the head than when sitting still.
... Whenever people interact, their behaviour tends to become mutually coordinated in time, or synchronized. Interpersonal synchrony has been found to enhance relationship functioning, for example, by inducing greater levels of closeness, concentration, coordination, cooperation, affiliation, alliance, connection, or bonding; e.g., (Accetto et al. 2018;Hove and Risen 2009;Koole and Tschacher 2016;Ramseyer and Tschacher 2011;Tarr et al. 2016;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). Notably, the benefits of interpersonal synchrony include patterns of mutual adaptation both in the short term and in the long term. ...
... Interpersonal synchrony is often followed by a behavioural change or adaptation of mutual behaviour; e.g., (Accetto et al. 2018;Fairhurst et al. 2013;Hove and Risen 2009;Kirschner and Tomasello 2010;Koole and Tschacher 2016;Koole et al. 2020;Palumbo et al. 2017;Prince and Brown 2022;Tarr et al. 2016;Valdesolo et al. 2010;Valdesolo and DeSteno 2011;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). This adaptive shift in mutual behavioural coordination has been observed, for instance, in psychotherapy sessions. ...
... Much research on interpersonal synchrony has focused on short-term adaptive changes in interpersonal coordination (Accetto et al. 2018;Hove and Risen 2009;Tarr et al. 2016;Tichelaar and Treur 2018;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). However, several lines of research have observed effects of interpersonal synchrony on long-term adaptation as well. ...
Conference Paper
For a video presentation, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PRUzrkf1mW4. When people interact, their behaviour tends to become synchronized, a mutual coordination process that fosters short-term adaptations, like increased affiliation, and long-term adaptations, like increased bonding. This paper addresses for the first time how such short-term and long-term adaptivity induced by synchronization can be modeled computationally by a second-order multi-adaptive neural agent model. It addresses movement, affect and verbal modalities and both intrapersonal synchrony and interpersonal synchrony. The behaviour of the introduced neural agent model was evaluated in a simulation paradigm with different stimuli and communication enabling conditions. The outcomes illustrate how synchrony leads to stronger short-term affiliation which in turn leads to more synchrony and stronger long-term bonding, and conversely.
... Musical behaviors have adaptive functions beyond those exerted at group level Brown, 2000a;Bryant 2013;Cirelli et al., 2014Cirelli et al., , 2017Dunbar, 2004Dunbar, , 2012Fessler & Holbrook, 2016;Freeman, 2001;Hagen & Bryant, 2003;Hagen & Hammerstein, 2009;Kisrchener & Tomasello, 2009;Kogan, 1997;Lakens & Stel, 2011;Mehr et al., 2020;Merker et al., 2009;Reddish et al., 2013Reddish et al., , 2014Roederer, 1984;Savage et al., 2021;Tarr et al., 2016;Tungenc et al., 2015;Valdesolo et al., 2010;Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009 Generic social functions: Musicality supports group functions regarding within/between group cooperation or intergroup competition. ...
... The experimental evidence in support of the social bonding theory and the social cooperation theory is abundant, as musical behaviors, such as communal singing, chanting, dancing, and drumming, have a wide range of prosocial effects (Anshel & Kipper, 1988;Pearce et al., 2017;Reddish et al., 2013;Tarr et al., 2016;Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009) that fail to materialize when only passively listening to music (e.g., Dunbar, 2012). Moreover, these effects appear to be specifically triggered by the rhythmic components of music, as the prosocial effects of rhythmic synchronization extend beyond the context of music-making. ...
... Endorphin release has been linked to euphoric effects induced by physical exertion and rewarding activities such as having sex, laughing, and eating (Chaudhry & Bhimji, 2018). The role of the opioid system in the evolution of musicality-in particular, the role of endorphins-has been emphasized by proponents of the social bonding theory, based on evidence that rhythmically synchronized behavior seemingly implicates this neurochemical mechanism (Cohen et al., 2010;Dunbar et al., 2012;Tarr et al., 2015Tarr et al., , 2016. As such, active musical behaviors (e.g., communal singing, chanting, dancing and drumming) trigger endorphin release Tarr et al., 2015;Tarr et al., 2016), whereas passive listening to music does not (e.g., Dunbar et al., 2012). ...
Article
There has recently been a growing interest in investigating rhythm cognition and behavior in nonhuman animals as a way of tracking the evolutionary origins of human musicality – i.e., the ability to perceive, enjoy and produce music. During the last two decades, there has been an explosion of theoretical proposals aimed at explaining why and how humans have evolved into musical beings, and the empirical comparative research has also gained momentum. In this paper, we focus on the rhythmic component of musicality, and review functional and mechanistic theoretical proposals concerning putative prerequisites for perceiving and producing rhythmic structures similar to those encountered in music. For each theoretical proposal we also review supporting and contradictory empirical findings. To acknowledge that the evolutionary study of musicality requires an interdisciplinary approach, our review strives to cover perspectives and findings from as many disciplines as possible. We conclude with a research agenda that highlights relevant, yet thus far neglected topics in the comparative and evolutionary study of rhythm cognition. Specifically, we call for a widened research focus that will include additional rhythmic abilities besides entrainment, additional channels of perception and production besides the auditory and vocal ones, and a systematic focus on the functional contexts in which rhythmic signals spontaneously occur. With this expanded focus, and drawing from systematic observation and experimentation anchored in multiple disciplines, animal research is bound to generate many important insights into the adaptive pressures that forged the component abilities of human rhythm cognition and their (socio)cognitive and (neuro)biological underpinnings.
... In laboratory studies, interpersonal synchrony has been explored in a vast of forms. Some researchers have focused on spontaneous behavioral outputs, such as synchronized behavior during singing (Pearce et al., 2016), dancing (Tarr et al., 2016), drumming (Cohen et al., 2014), piano playing (Keller et al., 2007), eye movement (Richardson et al., 2005), pupil change (Kang & Wheatley, 2017), and body posture sway (Shockley et al., 2007). Others directly instructed two or more persons to synchronize their movements with the partner (e.g., walking, stepping, rowing, tapping finger, and rocking chair; Cohen et al., 2010;Jackson et al., 2018;Oullier et al., 2008;Richardson et al., 2007;Van Ulzen et al., 2008), or asked persons to move with the same stimulus (e.g., a piece of rhythm) so that they moved in sync (e.g., clapping, waving, and rocking body; Cirelli, Einarson, & Trainor, 2014;Lakens & Stel, 2011;Valdesolo & Desteno, 2011). ...
... Conceptual replications have shown that synchronized behavior promotes prosocial behaviors, such as helping , sharing (Rabinowitch & Meltzoff, 2017), and trust (Launay et al., 2013). Behaving synchronously also increases prosocial inclinations, such as liking (Hove & Risen, 2009), rapport (Vacharkulksemsuk & Fredrickson, 2012), affiliation (Bamford, 2017), empathy (Koehne et al., 2016), conformity (Paladino et al., 2010), obedience (Wiltermuth, 2012a), attention (Schilbach et al., 2010), memory (Miles et al., 2010), understanding (Baimel et al., 2015;Baimel et al., 2018), positive evaluations (Ye et al., 2020), the feeling of closeness (Tarr et al., 2016), the perception of similarity, the sense of community (Pearce et al., 2016), and compliance with a request to aggress (Wiltermuth, 2012b). These findings indicated that interpersonal synchrony generally promoted various prosocial behaviors and inclinations, named as the prosocial effects of interpersonal synchrony. ...
... Other studies have showed the association between interpersonal synchrony and individual sensory perception. It has been found that those who danced in synchrony experienced elevated pain thresholds, whereas those in the partial and asynchrony conditions experienced no analgesic effects (Tarr et al., 2016). Further, anti-phase synchrony during drumming had a significantly greater pain threshold change than both the solo and in-phase conditions (Sullivan & Blacker, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal synchrony, the time-matching behaviors, is pervasive in human interactions. This resonation of movements or other forms was generally considered as one of critical survival skills for humans, as the important consequences of synchronizing with other persons in review of the empirical data in this article. These include positive affects towards and between interacting partners, but also include complex effects on the individual level. The intrapersonal effects of interpersonal synchrony are varied with positive or negative ones, including cognitive style, attitude bias, mood state, self-regulatory ability, and academic performance. At the interpersonal level, synchronized movement consistently affects the interaction with the partner and his/her affiliations, but they can be eliminated or magnified by several moderators, such as physiological arousal, shared intentionality, group bias, and musical rhythm. Finally, the research discussed the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of interpersonal synchrony in psychological and biological aspects.
... Whenever people interact, their behaviour tends to become mutually coordinated in time, or synchronized. Interpersonal synchrony has been found to enhance relationship functioning, for example, by inducing greater levels of closeness, concentration, coordination, cooperation, affiliation, alliance, connection, or bonding; e.g., (Accetto et al. 2018;Hove and Risen 2009;Koole and Tschacher 2016;Ramseyer and Tschacher 2011;Tarr et al. 2016;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). Notably, the benefits of interpersonal synchrony include patterns of mutual adaptation both in the short term and in the long term. ...
... Interpersonal synchrony is often followed by a behavioural change or adaptation of mutual behaviour; e.g., (Accetto et al. 2018;Fairhurst et al. 2013;Hove and Risen 2009;Kirschner and Tomasello 2010;Koole and Tschacher 2016;Koole et al. 2020;Palumbo et al. 2017;Prince and Brown 2022;Tarr et al. 2016;Valdesolo et al. 2010;Valdesolo and DeSteno 2011;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). This adaptive shift in mutual behavioural coordination has been observed, for instance, in psychotherapy sessions. ...
... Much research on interpersonal synchrony has focused on short-term adaptive changes in interpersonal coordination (Accetto et al. 2018;Hove and Risen 2009;Tarr et al. 2016;Tichelaar and Treur 2018;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). However, several lines of research have observed effects of interpersonal synchrony on long-term adaptation as well. ...
Chapter
For a video presentation, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PRUzrkf1mW4. When people interact, their behaviour tends to become synchronised, a mutual coordination process that fosters short-term adaptations, like increased affiliation, and long-term adaptations, like increased bonding. This paper addresses for the first time how such short-term and long-term adaptivity induced by synchronisation can be modeled computationally by a second-order multi-adaptive neural agent model. This neural agent model addresses movement, affect and verbal modalities and both intrapersonal synchrony and interpersonal synchrony. The behaviour of the introduced neural agent model was evaluated in a simulation paradigm with different stimuli and communication enabling conditions. The outcomes illustrate how synchrony leads to stronger short-term affiliation which in turn leads to more synchrony and stronger long-term bonding, and conversely.
... To test hypothesis (3), I examine ten social institutions that, directly or indirectly, are likely to play a role in enhancing community cohesion -those that create a sense of belonging to the community. The focus is thus mainly on activities such as feasting, singing and dancing that are known to enhance social and community bonding (Tarr et al. 2015(Tarr et al. , 2016Pearce et al. 2016Pearce et al. , 2017Dunbar 2018Dunbar , 2019b, mechanisms for managing the behaviour of the more volatile males (men"s clubs, socially recognised leaders), and mechanisms for regulating marital arrangements (kinship, bridewealth, marital obligations, exogamy: Lévi-Strauss 1969;Fox 1983;Hughes 1988). I have deliberately avoided institutions that are mechanisms of control (e.g. ...
... Human dyadic and community bonding both rely on the same endorphin-based process (Depue Morrone-Strupinsky 2005;Dunbar 2010;Machin & Dunbar 2011;Loserth et al. 2014;Nummenmaa et al. 2016;Pearce et al. 2017Pearce et al. , 2018 that underpins social bonding in other primates (Keverne et al. 1989;Martel et al. 1993). It is therefore relevant that endorphin up-regulation and an enhanced sense of bonding is produced by many of the social activities that are commonly used for both within-and between-community bonding, including laughter (Manninen et al 2017;Dunbar et al. 2021), singing (Pearce et al. 2015(Pearce et al. , 2016, dancing (Tarr et al. 2015(Tarr et al. , 2016, feasting (Dunbar 2017;Dunbar et al. 2017;Nummenmaa et al. 2018), the rituals of religion (Charles et al. 2020(Charles et al. , 2021 and storytelling . It is conspicuous that these forms of bonding activity appear to play an important role, especially in larger communities (Fig. 5). ...
Article
Full-text available
Group-living is stressful for all mammals, and these stresses limit the size of their social groups. Humans live in very large groups by mammal standards, so how have they solved this problem? I use homicide rates as an index of within-community stress for humans living in small-scale ethnographic societies, and show that the frequency of homicide increases linearly with living-group size in hunter-gatherers. This is not, however, the case for cultivators living in permanent settlements, where there appears to be a ‘glass ceiling’ below which homicide rates oscillate. This glass ceiling correlates with the adoption of social institutions that allow tensions to be managed. The results suggest (1) that the transition to a settled lifestyle in the Neolithic may have been more challenging than is usually assumed and (2) that the increases in settlement size that followed the first villages necessitated the introduction of a series of social institutions designed to manage within-community discord.
... However, increased demand for bonding larger numbers of individuals when time to do so is severely limited has resulted in grooming being augmented by a variety of other behaviours that also trigger the endorphin system without need for physical contact, thereby allowing more individuals to be 'groomed' simultaneously [36,37]. These behaviours include laughter [38,39], singing [40], dancing [41,42], emotional storytelling [43]), feasting (social eating and alcohol consumption [44][45][46] and the rituals of religion [47], all of which elevate pain thresholds and/or endorphin uptake. Of these, all but laughter have also been shown to increase the sense of social bonding with specific individuals [40,43,[47][48][49][50]. None, however, have been directly tested to determine whether they also influence the likelihood of prosociality (generosity to others). ...
... These behaviours include laughter [38,39], singing [40], dancing [41,42], emotional storytelling [43]), feasting (social eating and alcohol consumption [44][45][46] and the rituals of religion [47], all of which elevate pain thresholds and/or endorphin uptake. Of these, all but laughter have also been shown to increase the sense of social bonding with specific individuals [40,43,[47][48][49][50]. None, however, have been directly tested to determine whether they also influence the likelihood of prosociality (generosity to others). ...
Article
Full-text available
Humans deploy a number of specific behaviours for forming social bonds, one of which is laughter. However, two questions have not yet been investigated with respect to laughter: (1) Does laughter increase the sense of bonding to those with whom we laugh? and (2) Does laughter facilitate prosocial generosity? Using changes in pain threshold as a proxy for endorphin upregulation in the brain and a standard economic game (the Dictator Game) as an assay of prosociality, we show that laughter does trigger the endorphin system and, through that, seems to enhance social bonding, but it does not reliably influence donations to others. This suggests that social bonding and prosociality may operate via different mechanisms, or on different time scales, and relate to different functional objectives.
... Development of such experiences has been directly connected to group music-making (e.g., Hallam, 2015;Savage et al., 2020), through the process of sound cocreation and collective aesthetic experiences, also known as "sonic bonding" (Turino, 2008), as well as through synchronic movement. Interpersonal synchrony research suggests when individuals move in sync, they get on better, even in challenging contexts (Erfer and Ziv, 2006), are more likely to perform prosocial behaviors toward each other (Kokal et al., 2011;Stupacher et al., 2017), and have greater perceptions of social bonding with them (Tarr et al., 2016). Similar effects have been observed in adolescents and children (e.g., Kirschner and Tomasello, 2010). ...
... Research from a range of disciplines consistently indicates that group musicmaking plays a crucial role in social bonding (Specker, 2017), and yet, even though missed, the sense of togetherness was still reported and even formation of new communities was recognized in our, as well as other, virtual group music-making communities. Similar observations have been made by (Onderdijk et al., 2021) research with adult choirs members, who rated perceived virtual connectedness above average, but this was not the case for perceptions of enabled synchronization, although the link between the two has been widely established in past research (e.g., Tarr et al., 2014Tarr et al., , 2016. Specker describes the importance of "practices of engaging with one another through singing, by way of a common goal, shared values, a safe environment, community interaction, and social infrastructure" (Specker, 2014, p. 87). ...
Article
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We know little about the psychological experiences of children and young people who have participated in virtual group music-making during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Adopting a mixed-methods design, we worked across three music education hubs in the UK, with a total 13 virtual music groups. These included a range of mainstream ensembles, inclusive ensembles targeting young people with special educational needs and/or disabilities, and inclusive music production spaces, targeting young people from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Reported progress in intra- and inter-personal psychological outcomes was investigated using quantitative and qualitative staff session reports, which were collected since before the pandemic (n1 for in-person sessions = 87, n2 for virtual sessions = 68), and surveys distributed to tutors, young people, and their parents during the first and second United Kingdom (UK) national lockdowns (n3 for qualitative responses = 240, n4 for quantitative responses = 96). Satisfaction of three basic psychological needs of self-determination theory and their relation to joint music-making in virtual spaces was also observed in real time by the researchers performing quantitative checklist observations on 16 separate occasions. Findings indicated that virtual music groups represented a meaningful psychological resource for the participating children and young people, especially considering the lack of opportunities offered by their schools and other extra-curricular activities. Through their participation with virtual group music-making activities, young people used music as a tool for self-expression and emotion management, restored lost musical identities and confidence, and preserved treasured social connections. Virtual alternatives to group music-making appear to indirectly nurture the sense of belongingness, mediated by supportive staff behaviors, but their direct connection, which has been widely reported for in-person group music-making experiences, has not been observed in virtual music groups.
... When two persons become synchronized in their behavior, they tend to experience a number of relation benefits such as more closeness, concentration, coordination, cooperation, affiliation, alliance, connection, and bonding (Accetto et al. 2018;Hove and Risen 2009;Hu, Cheng, Pan, Hu, 2022;Kirschner and Tomasello 2010;Koole and Tschacher 2016;Palumbo et al. 2017;Prince and Brown 2022;Ramseyer and Tschacher 2011;Sharpley at al. 2001;Tarr et al. 2016;Valdesolo et al. 2010;Valdesolo and DeSteno, 2011;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). In order for these relational benefits to emerge, it stands to reason that people are capable of detecting synchrony based on the (subjective) information; e.g., (Dhamala, Assisi, Jirsa, Steinberg, Kelso, 2007) that is available via sensing of their own actions and sensing the other person's actions. ...
... Interpersonal synchrony relates to behavioral adaptivity in the interaction and relationship between the synchronized persons; e.g., (Accetto et al. 2018;Hove and Risen 2009;Kirschner and Tomasello 2010;Koole and Tschacher 2016;Palumbo et al. 2017;Prince and Brown 2022;Tarr et al. 2016;Valdesolo et al. 2010;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). ...
Chapter
Interpersonal synchrony usually means that people mutually adapt their behavior to each other over time. Such behavioral adaptivity is assumed to be driven by some form of subjective internal synchrony detection. In contrast to objective synchrony detection by an external (third-party) observer, subjective synchrony detection relies solely on information that is perceived by each of the synchronizing persons. Simultaneous actions of the two persons in principle cannot be sensed instantaneously by one of the two persons, but will involve time lags. These time lags reflect the time differences between a person’s own actions and the sensing of the actions of the other person. In the computational agent model described in this paper, we explore the role of time lags in different types of subjective synchrony detection and its involvement in behavioral adaptivity. Multiple simulation experiments show expected types of patterns of subjective time-lagged synchrony detection and related behavioral adaptivity.
... Continuing in adulthood, research has found group singing to facilitate feelings of social connectedness (e.g., Kreutz, 2014;Pearce et al., 2015;Weinstein et al. 2016;Moss et al., 2017;Pearce et al., 2017;Giaever, 2019;Batt-Rawden & Andersen, 2020). The same holds true for dancing to music with others Tarr et al., 2014Tarr et al., , 2015Tarr et al., , 2016, or sharing concert experiences (e.g., Lonsdale & North, 2009;. ...
... A key element linked to socio-bonding in music that needs short highlighting is synchronization. Research has shown synchronization can positively influence prosocial behavior, feelings of connectedness, and feelings of unity specifically Kokal et al., 2011;Lakens & Stel, 2011;Launay et al., 2013;Launay et al., 2014;Edelman & Harring, 2015;Tarr et al., 2015Tarr et al., , 2016Tunçgenç & Cohen, 2016a, 2016bMogan et al., 2017;Heggli et al., 2019;Clayton et al., 2020;. Next to this, research shows that synchronization processes underlie the social nature of our musical interactions on a (neuro)physiological level (Vaitl et al., 2005;Lindenberger et al., 2009;Müller & Lindenberger, 2011;Babiloni et al., 2012;Sänger et al., 2012;Noy et al., 2015;Tschacher et al., 2021). ...
... dance (Tarr et al., 2015;Tarr et al., 2016), and is also a component of choirs (Himberg & Thompson, 2009;Müller & Lindenberger, 2011;Phillips-Silver & Keller, 2012;Weinstein et al., 2015). ...
... Those who sang and danced demonstrated increased pro-social behaviours compared with their peers, but it is difficult to determine whether singing or dancing (or both) was responsible for the enhanced pro-social behaviours. For example, social bonding benefits have previously been reported for synchronised movements (Hove & Risen, 2009;Tarr et al., 2016), so the difference may have been attributable to some aspect of the dancing. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Human musicality is a mystery. Theorists have proposed that it was evolutionarily adaptive through its ability to create a shared and positive emotional state, increase a sense of social cohesion, and encourage pro-social behaviours. This research found that group singing provides immediate socio-emotional wellbeing benefits but longer-term benefits are confined to emotional domains. These effects were not unique to group singing, but were similar across comparison groups. Wellbeing was facilitated by both group characteristics (music, movement, socialising) and individual mindset towards participation (motivation, flow), with greater benefits for exercise groups. Implications for social prescribing and similar interventions are discussed.
... When two persons become synchronized in their behavior, they tend to experience a number of relation benefits such as more closeness, concentration, coordination, cooperation, affiliation, alliance, connection, and bonding (Accetto et al. 2018;Hove and Risen 2009;Hu, Cheng, Pan, Hu, 2022;Kirschner and Tomasello 2010;Koole and Tschacher 2016;Palumbo et al. 2017;Prince and Brown 2022;Ramseyer and Tschacher 2011;Sharpley at al. 2001;Tarr et al. 2016;Valdesolo et al. 2010;Valdesolo and DeSteno, 2011;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). In order for these relational benefits to emerge, it stands to reason that people are capable of detecting synchrony based on the (subjective) information; e.g., (Dhamala, Assisi, Jirsa, Steinberg, Kelso, 2007) that is available via sensing of their own actions and sensing the other person's actions. ...
... Interpersonal synchrony relates to behavioral adaptivity in the interaction and relationship between the synchronized persons; e.g., (Accetto et al. 2018;Hove and Risen 2009;Kirschner and Tomasello 2010;Koole and Tschacher 2016;Palumbo et al. 2017;Prince and Brown 2022;Tarr et al. 2016;Valdesolo et al. 2010;Wiltermuth and Heath 2009). ...
Conference Paper
For a video presentation, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRfB0Pphi34. Interpersonal synchrony usually induces behavioural adaptivity concerning the interaction between people. Such behavioural adaptivity is assumed to be driven by some form of subjective internal synchrony detection. In contrast to objective synchrony detection by an external (third-party) observer, such subjective synchrony detection can solely rely on subjective information available within the person by sensing. However, interaction between two persons involves time lags between the own actions and the sensing of actions of the other. In the computational agent model described in this paper, we explore the role of time lags in different types of subjective synchrony detection and its involvement in behavioural adaptivity. Multiple simulation experiments show expected types of patterns of subjective time-lagged synchrony detection and related behavioural adaptivity.
... Charron, 2017). While attending real-life concerts is often socially motivated (e.g., Wilks, 2011), and live concert attendance can create and foster social bonds through shared emotional experiences and synchronous movement such as dancing (e.g., Tarr et al., 2016;Savage et al., 2020), it is not yet known whether such effects can also be obtained in online concert environments. However, research focusing on online social networking platforms has shown that social media use can yield many of the same benefits (such as felt social connection and perceived social support) as face-to-face social interaction, as long as the usage itself is active, meaningful, and connectionpromoting (Clark et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The popularity of virtual concerts increased as a result of the social distancing requirements of the coronavirus pandemic. We aimed to examine how the characteristics of virtual concerts and the characteristics of the participants influenced their experiences of social connection and kama muta (often labeled "being moved"). We hypothesized that concert liveness and the salience of the coronavirus would influence social connection and kama muta. We collected survey responses on a variety of concert and personal characteristics from 307 participants from 13 countries across 4 continents. We operationalized social connection as a combination of feelings and behaviors and kama muta was measured using the short kama muta scale (Zickfeld et al., 2019). We found that (1) social connection and kama muta were related and predicted by empathic concern, (2) live concerts produced more social connection, but not kama muta, than pre-recorded concerts, and (3) the salience of the coronavirus during concerts predicted kama muta and this effect was completely mediated by social connection. Exploratory analyses also examined the influence of social and physical presence, motivations for concert attendance, and predictors of donations. This research contributes to the understanding of how people can connect socially and emotionally in virtual environments.
... For example, they would like to enjoy themselves by listening to their preferred music. It is possible to consider using both 'Silent Disco' solutions [24,25], based on equipping each participant of the event (party) with their own headset. Another possibility is the use of solutions in the field of the so-called active agents [11]. ...
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The article is a subjective review of the problems that, according to the authors, should be considered when planning and designing smart urban areas in the context of the presence of sounds in the Smart City structure. In the introductory part, the preliminary assumptions underlying the research presented in the article are generally discussed, and the results of literature analyses focused on the recognition of studies devoted to the acoustic aspects of Smart Cities are presented. The preliminary analyses also included other publications devoted to various conditions taken into account in the planning, design and construction of buildings and groups of buildings. The second chapter presents the assumptions of the preliminary research, the results of which-as per intention of the authors of the article-will constitute the basis for direction and planning of further research. In particular, chapter three presents and discusses the preliminary results of the opinion poll of the residents of Polish cities on sounds in their surroundings, while chapter four presents selected results of the study of the current state of activity related to strategic noise maps implemented in Polish cities, legally obliged to create, update and use such maps. The research results were confronted-in the next chapter-with solutions that can be used in the area discussed in the article and described in the available literature resources, and with the authors' own subjective thoughts and concepts. In particular, the subjective list of components creating the acoustic environment and shaping the acoustic comfort of living in smart cities is shown. The summary briefly presents further research intentions.
... al, 2006). This study further investigates whether or not the reason for a feeling of fulfillment or unfulfillment of expectation is due to activating the human stress response (Tarr, et al. 2016). ...
... Another possible complementary explanation is related to the quality of social relationships between group members, such as affiliation and compatibility [50]. The relation between synchrony and affiliation is evident in humans [51] and other animals [52][53][54]. Spider monkeys' tendency to associate in subgroups with the most compatible group members [34] likely results in more shared activities. ...
Article
Group-living animals need to deal with conflicting interests to maintain cohesion. When the costs of doing so outweigh the benefits, the group may (temporarily) split into two or more subgroups. Conflicting interests can concern what activity to pursue or the direction of travel. Temporary group separation is a common feature in species with a high degree of fission–fusion dynamics. We investigated the role activity synchronization played in fission decisions in a spider monkey group living in the Otoch Ma'ax Yetel Kooh Nature Reserve, Yucatan, Mexico. For 21 months, we recorded every fission event occurring in the followed subgroup, as well as the subgroup activity. We classified the activity as ‘synchronized’ when at least 75% of subgroup members performed the same activity (resting, foraging, socializing or travelling); otherwise, we classified it as ‘non-synchronized’. We found that fission events occurred more often when the activity was non-synchronized. In addition, when the activity was synchronized, fission events occurred more often when spider monkeys were travelling than when they were engaged in other subgroup activities. Our findings highlight the role of conflicting interests over the activity to pursue and travel direction in fission decisions.
... L'écoute de musique a été démontrée pour procurer du plaisir mis en évidence par l'engagement du système de la récompense (Salimpoor et al., 2011(Salimpoor et al., , 2015Mas-Herrero et al., 2018;Ferreri et al., 2019). Cependant, la synchronisation interpersonnelle au rythme de la musique active également le système endogène opioïde lié à la douleur (Tarr, Launay, & Dunbar, 2016). Dans cette dernière étude, les participants par groupe de quatre écoutaient de la musique à travers des écouteurs et dansaient au rythme de la musique. ...
Thesis
Dans les interventions musicales réalisées auprès de personnes atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer ou de maladies apparentées, il est fréquemment demandé aux participants de bouger au rythme de la musique. La synchronisation au rythme musical, particulièrement en groupe, implique des réponses à différents niveaux (moteur, rythmique, social et émotionnel) et pourrait procurer du plaisir ainsi que renforcer les liens sociaux des patients et de leur entourage. Cependant, la synchronisation au rythme de la musique et le lien qui pourrait exister entre ces différents niveaux de la réponse à cette activité sont peu connus dans la maladie d’Alzheimer. L’objectif de cette thèse est d’examiner les différents aspects du comportement des personnes avec une maladie d’Alzheimer (ou maladies apparentées) et des participants avec un vieillissement physiologique ‘normal’ au cours d’une activité de synchronisation au rythme musical réalisée en action conjointe avec un musicien. L’approche préconisée dans ce travail se base sur une méthode pluridisciplinaire incluant les sciences du mouvement, la psychologie sociale et la neuropsychologie. En premier lieu, nous avons étudié l’effet du contexte social et de la musique (et de ses caractéristiques temporelles) sur les performances de synchronisation et sur l’engagement social, émotionnel, rythmique et moteur de personnes atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer dans cette activité (étude 1 chapitre 4 et 5). Les résultats ont montré que la présence physique d’une chanteuse réalisant la tâche de synchronisation avec le participant modulait différemment les performances de synchronisation et la qualité de la relation sociale et émotionnelle par comparaison à un enregistrement audio-visuel de cette chanteuse. Cet effet du contexte social était d’ailleurs plus important en réponse à la musique qu’au métronome et était modulé par le tempo et la métrique. De plus, nous avons trouvé que la musique augmentait l’engagement rythmique des participants par comparaison au métronome. Ensuite, nous avons comparé les réponses à la tâche de synchronisation dans le vieillissement pathologique et physiologique (étude 2 chapitre 6 et 7). Les résultats ont révélé que les performances de synchronisation ne différaient pas entre les deux groupes suggérant une préservation du couplage audio-moteur dans la maladie d’Alzheimer à travers cette tâche. Bien que la maladie réduisait l’engagement moteur, social et émotionnel en réponse à la musique par comparaison au vieillissement physiologique, un effet du contexte social était observé sur le comportement dans les deux groupes. Enfin, nous avons comparé les groupes de participants atteints de la maladie d’Alzheimer entre les deux études montrant que la sévérité de la maladie pouvait altérer la synchronisation et l’engagement dans l’activité (chapitre 8). En conclusion, ce travail de thèse a mis en évidence que le couplage audio-moteur est en partie préservé chez les personnes atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer et que l’action conjointe avec un partenaire module la qualité de la relation sociale ainsi que l’engagement à la musique. Les connaissances théoriques acquises par ce travail permettent de mieux comprendre l’évolution des comportements en réponse à la musique dans la maladie d’Alzheimer. La méthode mise au point par cette thèse offre ainsi l’opportunité d’évaluer les bénéfices thérapeutiques des interventions musicales à différents niveaux sur le comportement des personnes avec une maladie d’Alzheimer. De telles perspectives permettraient d’améliorer la prise en charge de ces personnes et de leurs aidants.
... However, part of the literature also studies what the effects are of being synchronized. It has been found that synchronisation leads to more closeness, mutual coordination, alliance, or affiliation between the synchronized persons; e.g., [30][31][32][33][34]. For example, this may be a main reason to let soldiers march. ...
Conference Paper
For a video presentation, see the Self-Modeling Networks channel at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VyVJanvbTmg. This paper introduces a new view on modelling expatriate integration by mapping connections between expats and between expats and the local community. The proposed adaptive social network model differs from existing integration models in that it considers both the bonding by homophily principle together with the interaction connects principle to model the adaptivity of the strength of social connections
... The universal presence of rhythmic behaviors such as joint music-making and synchronous moving suggests they play an important role in social bonding (Huron, 2001), a conclusion supported by an extensive literature (Hove & Risen, 2009;Rabinowitch & Knafo-Noam, 2015;Tarr et al., 2016). In both adults and children, rhythmic coordination facilitates subsequent cooperation and helping Kirschner & Tomasello, 2010;Rabinowitch & Meltzoff, 2017;Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009). ...
Article
Rhythmic activities such as joint music-making and synchronous moving are known to produce prosocial effects in both adults and children, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. One possible mechanism is that the time-locked, fine-grained coordination characteristic of rhythmic activities plays a key role in producing powerful prosocial effects. The present study investigated how coordination in a joint music-making task would influence kindergarteners' prosociality toward both coperformers and unaffiliated strangers. The study involved 138 Chinese children (72 girls, M = 5 years and 6 months, range = 5.0 to 6.0 years) from urban middle-class families. Participants were paired and instructed to play percussion instruments in alternation accompanying a song. In the fine-grained coordination condition, the dyad alternated every measure, resulting in a moment-to-moment coordinative experience; in the coarse-grained coordination condition where the coordination was sparser, the dyad alternated every eight measures. Children in the fine-grained coordination condition were subsequently more willing to help their partner complete a block-assembly task and more generous in sharing stickers with unknown children in a dictator game, compared with children in the coarse-grained coordination condition. These findings demonstrate that fine-grained coordination in rhythmic activities increases prosociality above and beyond having a shared goal of coperforming, supporting that coordination is an integral part of the prosocial mechanism. The prosocial effects of joint rhythmic activities generalized beyond the coperformers to anonymous strangers, indicating that the role of coordination may change from directing specific bonding in infancy to encouraging general prosociality from early childhood and onward. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... The prosocial effect of rhythmic coordination is now evidenced by a large body of literature. A number of joint rhythmic activities (e.g., singing, dancing, walking, rowing, moving in synchrony, etc.) have been found to enhance social cohesion and bonding behaviours among the participants, possibly by increasing the feeling of closeness and blurring the self-other boundary (Anshel & Kipper, 1988;Hove & Risen, 2009;Savage et al., 2021;Tarr, Launay, & Dunbar, 2016;Valdesolo, Ouyang, & DeSteno, 2010;Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009). Evidence from children also showed that rhythmic coordination increases cooperation, helpfulness and generosity among the moving partners (Good & Russo, 2016;Kirschner & Tomasello, 2010;Rabinowitch & Knafo-Noam, 2015;Rabinowitch & Meltzoff, 2017;Wan & Zhu, in press). ...
Article
Joint rhythmic activities are known to be able to enhance prosociality in both adults and children. A large body of research shows that rhythmic coordination could promote bonding and increase prosocial behaviours such as helping, cooperating and sharing, suggesting that rhythmic interaction could be an effective tool to promote children's prosocial development. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the prosocial effects of rhythmic activities remains under debate. In this brief paper, we review a selection of literature that examines this mechanism from the perspective of interpersonal coordination, discussing the roles mimicry, synchrony, coordination and shared intentionality play in the process. In the end, we provide recommendations for future work to advance our understanding of the effects of rhythmic interaction on prosociality and future practice to improve children's prosocial development.
... More specifically, square dance is an entertaining way for people to improve their physical health, such as flexibility, lower extremity strength, and coordination (Yu et al., 2020). In addition, older women who dance synchronously in a group are more resistant to pain and have elevated pain thresholds (Tarr et al., 2016). Therefore, the physical health benefits of square dance could help women meet their physical health needs partly. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Chinese square dance has become well known worldwide in recent years, and most participants are women who dance with a group in their communities. In particular, middle-aged women may have physical and mental health problems, and participating in square dance may increase women’s positive subjective well-being and decrease their negative emotions, which may improve their health over the long term. In addition, participating in square dance can promote group cohesion. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between the subjective exercise experience of participating in square dance and group cohesion and whether some variables (e.g., age, education, duration, income level, and work) play a role as mediators in the association with subjective exercise experience and group cohesion. Methods: In total, 1,468 Chinese women from 31 provinces and 82 cities participated in this study by completing an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a subjective exercise experience questionnaire and a group environment questionnaire. We analyzed the collected data and built a statistical model. Results: (a) Square dance satisfied women’s physical and psychological needs partly; (b) positive well-being (PWB) was positively correlated with group cohesion, and fatigue was negatively correlated with group cohesion; and (c) the income level was a partial mediator of the relationship between group cohesion and subjective exercise experience. Conclusion: Chinese women have different motivations for participating in square dance. Because this activity can help meet women’s physical and psychological needs, an increasing number of individuals worldwide participate in square dance. As women’s subjective well-being increases, group cohesion increases, and vice versa. Moreover, the subjective exercise experience remains a significant predictor of group cohesion after including income level as a mediator, suggesting that the model indicates partial mediation.
... From an evolutionary perspective, music is proposed to facilitate social cohesion by producing, strengthening, and maintaining affiliative connections with fellow group members (Savage et al., 2020). For example, individuals in rhythmic synchrony with others show increased prosocial behavior (Mogan et al., 2017) and dancing in synchrony results in reports of increased feelings of connectedness to the dancing group (Tarr et al., 2016). Importantly, compassion and prosocial decisions are fundamental psychological mechanisms underpinning positive social interaction (Goetz et al., 2010). ...
Article
Music is a human universal and has the ability to evoke powerful, genuine emotions. But does music influence our capacity to understand and feel with others? A growing body of evidence indicates that empathy (sharing another's feelings) and compassion (a feeling of concern toward others) are behaviorally and neutrally distinct, both from each other and from the social-cognitive process theory of mind (ToM; i.e., inferring others' mental states). Yet little is known as to whether and how these dissociable routes to feeling with and understanding others can be independently modulated. The goal of the current study was to investigate if emotional music has the potential to enhance social affect and/or social cognition. Using a naturalistic, video-based paradigm which disentangles empathy, compassion, and ToM, we demonstrate selective enhancement of social affect through music during the videos. Specifically, we found enhanced empathy and compassion when emotional, but not when neutral music was present during videos displaying emotionally negative narrations. No such enhancement was present for ToM performance. Similarly, prosocial decision making increased after emotionally negative videos with emotional music. These findings demonstrate how emotional music can enhance empathic responding, compassion and prosocial decisions as well as contribute to the growing evidence for separable processes within the social mind. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... As humans no longer have fur to socially groom, these receptors respond instead to stroking, caressing, touching, and hugging which we use as a means of expressing and strengthening intimate relationships (Dunbar, 2010;Löken and Olausson, 2010;Suvilehto et al., 2015). Even non-tactile behaviors such as laughing (Caruana, 2017;Manninen et al., 2017), singing (Pearce et al., 2015), dancing (Tarr et al., 2015(Tarr et al., , 2016, and emotional story telling in social contexts can facilitate the release of endogenous opioids. Thus, showing and receiving affection and intimacy activates neurobiological processes that reward and promote continued display of such behaviors. ...
Article
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In social species such as humans, non-human primates, and even many rodent species, social interaction and the maintenance of social bonds are necessary for mental and physical health and wellbeing. In humans, perceived isolation, or loneliness, is not only characterized by physical isolation from peers or loved ones, but also involves negative perceptions about social interactions and connectedness that reinforce the feelings of isolation and anxiety. As a complex behavioral state, it is no surprise that loneliness and isolation are associated with dysfunction within the ventral striatum and the limbic system – brain regions that regulate motivation and stress responsiveness, respectively. Accompanying these neural changes are physiological symptoms such as increased plasma and urinary cortisol levels and an increase in stress responsivity. Although studies using animal models are not perfectly analogous to the uniquely human state of loneliness, studies on the effects of social isolation in animals have observed similar physiological symptoms such as increased corticosterone, the rodent analog to human cortisol, and also display altered motivation, increased stress responsiveness, and dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine and limbic systems. This review will discuss behavioral and neuropsychological components of loneliness in humans, social isolation in rodent models, and the neurochemical regulators of these behavioral phenotypes with a neuroanatomical focus on the corticostriatal and limbic systems. We will also discuss social loss as a unique form of social isolation, and the consequences of bond disruption on stress-related behavior and neurophysiology.
... The range of success in interpersonal synchrony may depend on an interaction of the social context with the constraints introduced by intrinsic frequencies. Interestingly, people report increased social connection (Lumsden et al., 2014;Tarr, Launay, & Dunbar, 2016) and positive feelings (Hove & Risen, 2009) about a person with whom they engage in synchronous behavior. A possible explanation for the link between interpersonal synchrony and social interaction is that synchronization skills displayed by humans could be grounded in social interaction (e.g., Savage et al., 2021). ...
Preprint
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Important individual differences are observed in people's abilities to synchronize their body movements with regular auditory rhythms. We investigate whether synchronizing with a regular auditory cue is affected by each person's spontaneous production rate (SPR) and by hearing a partner's synchronization in a social context. Musically trained and untrained participants synchronized their tapping with an auditory cue presented at different rates (their own SPR or their partner's SPR) and in a Solo or Joint (turn-taking) condition. Linear and nonlinear oscillator models were fit to participants' mean asynchronies (signed timing differences between the cued onsets and taps). In Joint turn-taking, participants' synchrony was increased when the auditory signal was cued at the participant's own SPR, compared with their partner's SPR; in contrast, synchronization did not differ across rates in the Solo condition. Asynchronies in the Joint task became larger as the difference between partners' spontaneous rates increased; the increased asynchronies were driven by the faster partner who did not slow down to match the rate of their slower partner. Nonlinear delay-coupled models (with time delay, coupling strength, and intrinsic frequency) outperformed linear models (intrinsic frequency only) in accounting for tappers' synchronization adjustments. The nonlinear model's coupling value increased for musically trained participants, relative to untrained participants. Overall, these findings suggest that both intrinsic differences in partners' spontaneous rates and the social turn-taking context contribute to the range of synchrony in the general population. Delay-coupled models are capable of capturing the wide range of individual differences in auditory-motor synchronization.
... introduced by intrinsic frequencies. Interestingly, people report increased social connection (Lumsden et al., 2014;Tarr et al., 2016) and positive feelings (Hove and Risen, 2009) about a person with whom they engage in synchronous behavior. A possible explanation for the link between interpersonal synchrony and social interaction is that synchronization skills displayed by humans could be grounded in social interaction (e.g., Savage et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Important individual differences are observed in people’s abilities to synchronize their body movements with regular auditory rhythms. We investigate whether synchronizing with a regular auditory cue is affected by each person’s spontaneous production rate (SPR) and by hearing a partner’s synchronization in a social context. Musically trained and untrained participants synchronized their tapping with an auditory cue presented at different rates (their own SPR or their partner’s SPR) and in a Solo or Joint (turn-taking) condition. Linear and nonlinear oscillator models were fit to participants’ mean asynchronies (signed timing differences between the cued onsets and taps). In Joint turn-taking, participants’ synchrony was increased when the auditory signal was cued at the participant’s own SPR, compared with their partner’s SPR; in contrast, synchronization did not differ across rates in the Solo condition. Asynchronies in the Joint task became larger as the difference between partners’ spontaneous rates increased; the increased asynchronies were driven by the faster partner who did not slow down to match the rate of their slower partner. Nonlinear delay-coupled models (with time delay, coupling strength, and intrinsic frequency) outperformed linear models (intrinsic frequency only) in accounting for tappers’ synchronization adjustments. The nonlinear model’s coupling value increased for musically trained participants, relative to untrained participants. Overall, these findings suggest that both intrinsic differences in partners’ spontaneous rates and the social turn-taking context contribute to the range of synchrony in the general population. Delay-coupled models are capable of capturing the wide range of individual differences in auditory-motor synchronization.
... In these works, mirror-like coordination patterns emerged in affiliative and emotionally driven interactions. Anatomical coordination, on the other hand, arose in cognitively demanding situations that involved meeting new people or satisfying a specific role; just as imitation studies have previously found (Dunphy-Lelii, 2014;Tarr et al., 2016). Thus, also for micro-coordinations, different morphologies seem to serve different functions. ...
Article
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The temporal dimension of interpersonal macro- and micro-coordinations between young children and social partners, as well as its functions, has been well documented. However, the different morphologies that bodily micro-coordination can adopt during these interactions have received considerably less attention. This research studied the temporality and morphology of spontaneous child-adult micro-coordinations and their associated functions. For this purpose, three-year-old children (N = 35) were randomly assigned to storytelling sessions based on emotional or referential stories. Using motion capture technology, we traced rapid and spontaneous coordinations between torso movements, ranging from 0 to 1000 milliseconds. Results show that both mirror-like and anatomical coordinations spontaneously emerge in interactions between 3-year-old children and unfamiliar adults. Importantly, slightly delayed in time, mirror-like coordinations predominantly occur in emotional interactions, while zero-lag, anatomical coordinations occur in referential interactions. These results suggest that these morphologies might indeed inform different functions of coordination, as previously theorized in the literature. The evidence found could contribute to a better understanding of how interpersonal coordination shapes social interaction very early in development.
... Interpersonal synchronization occurs when individuals perform simultaneous or closely timed actions together. Research has shown that engaging in activities inducing interpersonal synchronization increases prosocial behavior and social bonding (Wiltermuth and Heath, 2009;Valdesolo and DeSteno, 2011;Pearce et al., 2015;Good and Russo, 2016;Mogan et al., 2017;Tarr et al., 2016;Dunbar et al., 2012). Such activities exist across cultures, and they are often used in rituals which increase group cohesion (Tonna et al., 2019). ...
Article
Inter-brain synchronization during social interaction has been linked with several positive phenomena, including closeness, cooperation, prosociality, and team performance. However, the temporal dynamics of inter-brain synchronization during collaboration are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, with collaboration increasingly happening online, the dependence of inter-brain phase synchronization of oscillatory activity on physical presence is an important but understudied question. In this study, physically isolated participants performed a collaborative coordination task in the form of a cooperative multiplayer game. We measured EEG from 42 subjects working together as pairs in the task. During the measurement, the only interaction between the participants happened through on-screen movement of a racing car, controlled by button presses of both participants working with distinct roles, either controlling the speed or the direction of the car. Pairs working together in the task were found to have elevated neural coupling in the alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands, compared to performance matched false pairs. Higher gamma synchrony was associated with better momentary performance within dyads and higher alpha synchrony was associated with better mean performance across dyads. These results are in line with previous findings of increased inter-brain synchrony during interaction, and show that phase synchronization of oscillatory activity occurs during online real-time joint coordination without any physical co-presence or video and audio connection. Furthermore, synchrony decreased during a playing session, but was found to be higher during the second session compared to the first. The novel paradigm, developed for the measurement of real-time collaborative performance, demonstrates that changes in inter-brain EEG phase synchrony can be observed continuously during interaction.
... In both studies, triads of participants interacted under different contextual conditions: In one task, participants drummed together in a structured manner without verbal communication, and in another study, they reached a unanimous group decision in ranking the order of several items that would aid their survival if they were stranded on a deserted island. As mentioned above, previous studies, including the drumming study from our own lab (Miles et al., 2011;Tarr et al., 2016;Gordon et al., 2020b) have shown initial evidence that group cohesion, as measured with a self-report questionnaire after the group interaction phase, was related to interpersonal synchronization. ...
Article
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A key emergent property of group social dynamic is synchrony-the coordination of actions, emotions, or physiological processes between group members. Despite this fact and the inherent nested structure of groups, little research has assessed physiological synchronization between group members from a multi-level perspective, thus limiting a full understanding of the dynamics between members. To address this gap of knowledge we re-analyzed a large dataset (N = 261) comprising physiological and psychological data that were collected in two laboratory studies that involved two different social group tasks. In both studies, following the group task, members reported their experience of group cohesion via questionnaires. We utilized a non-linear analysis method-multidimensional recurrence quantification analysis that allowed us to represent physiological synchronization in cardiological interbeat intervals between group members at the individual-level and at the group-level. We found that across studies and their conditions, the change in physiological synchrony from baseline to group interaction predicted a psychological sense of group cohesion. This result was evident both at the individual and the group levels and was not modified by the context of the interaction. The individual-and group-level effects were highly correlated. These results indicate that the relationship between synchrony and cohesion is a multilayered construct. We reaffirm the role of physiological synchrony for cohesion in groups. Future studies are needed to crystallize our understanding of the differences and similarities between synchrony at the individual-level and synchrony at the group level to illuminate under which conditions one of these levels has primacy, or how they interact.
... For instance, group membership affects both motor synchrony and emotional contagion; that is, people tend to synchronize 23 and catch the emotions 24 of ingroup rather than outgroup members. Additionally, both synchrony and emotional contagion were found to enhance feelings of closeness [25][26][27] . While this line of evidence supports the link between synchrony and emotional contagion during face-to-face interaction, the question of whether this association also exists in virtual settings has remained unanswered. ...
Preprint
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Although the link between synchrony and emotional contagion has been studied extensively during face-to-face interaction, the question of whether this association also exists in virtual settings has remained unanswered. Here, we examined whether this link exists during virtual social interactions and whether pro-social effects will be induced during those interactions. To this end, two strangers shared difficulties they have experienced due to the COVID-19 pandemic during a virtual social interaction. The findings revealed that spontaneous motor synchrony and emotional contagion can arise during a virtual social interaction between two strangers and that this kind of interaction has pro-social effects. It can thus be presumed that virtual social interactions may share similar characteristics and social effects with face-to-face interactions. Considering the tremendous changes COVID-19 epidemic has caused regarding social communication, these findings may provide grounds for developing new intervention protocols aiming at dealing with the consequences of social distancing.
... For instance, group membership affects both motor synchrony and emotional contagion; that is, people tend to synchronize 23 and catch the emotions 24 of ingroup rather than outgroup members. Additionally, both synchrony and emotional contagion were found to enhance feelings of closeness [25][26][27] . While this line of evidence supports the link between synchrony and emotional contagion during face-to-face interaction, the question of whether this association also exists in virtual settings has remained unanswered. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although the link between synchrony and emotional contagion has been studied extensively during face-to-face interaction, the question of whether this association also exists in virtual settings has remained unanswered. Here, we examined whether this link exists during virtual social interactions and whether pro-social effects will be induced during those interactions. To this end, two strangers shared difficulties they have experienced due to the COVID-19 pandemic during a virtual social interaction. The findings revealed that spontaneous motor synchrony and emotional contagion can arise during a virtual social interaction between two strangers and that this kind of interaction has pro-social effects. It can thus be presumed that virtual social interactions may share similar characteristics and social effects with face-to-face interactions. Considering the tremendous changes COVID-19 epidemic has caused regarding social communication, these findings may provide grounds for developing new intervention protocols aiming at dealing with the consequences of social distancing.
... Charron, 2017). While attending real-life concerts is often socially motivated (e.g., Wilks, 2011), and live concert attendance can create and foster social bonds through shared emotional experiences and synchronous movement such as dancing (e.g., Tarr et al., 2016;Savage et al., 2020), it is not yet known whether such effects can also be obtained in online concert environments. However, research focusing on online social networking platforms has shown that social media use can yield many of the same benefits (such as felt social connection and perceived social support) as face-to-face social interaction, as long as the usage itself is active, meaningful, and connectionpromoting (Clark et al., 2018). ...
... This shows that our results cannot simply be explained by video content differences between positive and neutral or negative conditions, and suggests that positive content does not just yield the absence of feelings of aloneness, but may induce a drive or desire to share positive events with others. This fits with behavioral co-viewing studies that show facilitation or partner convergence of socially communicative displays (i.e., smiling) during positive events that are not necessarily accompanied by an increase in positive emotional feelings (Fridlund, 1991;Golland et al., 2019), but which are associated with increased social motivation and partner bonding (Jolly et al., 2019;Pearce, Launay, & Dunbar, 2015;Tarr, Launay, & Dunbar, 2015;Wolf & Tomasello, 2020). ...
Article
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Sharing emotional experiences impacts how we perceive and interact with the world, but the neural mechanisms that support this sharing are not well characterized. In this study, participants (N = 52) watched videos in an MRI scanner in the presence of an unfamiliar peer. Videos varied in valence and social context (i.e., participants believed their partner was viewing the same (joint condition) or a different (solo condition) video). Reported togetherness increased during positive videos regardless of social condition, indicating that positive contexts may lessen the experience of being alone. Two analysis approaches were used to examine both sustained neural activity averaged over time and dynamic synchrony throughout the videos. Both approaches revealed clusters in the medial prefrontal cortex that were more responsive to the joint condition. We observed a time‐averaged social‐emotion interaction in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, although this region did not demonstrate synchrony effects. Alternatively, social‐emotion interactions in the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus showed greater neural synchrony in the joint compared to solo conditions during positive videos, but the opposite pattern for negative videos. These findings suggest that positive stimuli may be more salient when experienced together, suggesting a mechanism for forming social bonds. Participants watched emotional videos in an MRI either with a partner or alone. Social‐emotion interactions in the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus showed greater neural synchrony in the joint condition during positive videos, alongside reports of greater feelings of togetherness. These findings suggest that positive stimuli may be more salient when experienced together, suggesting a mechanism for forming social bonds.
Article
The evolutionary cognitive science of religion rarely strays far from strong individualistic principles despite a deep interest in the adaptive social bonding functions of religion. This raises serious problems for recent Christian theology, which favors concrete relational conceptions of individual personhood. Here, I argue that the wider evolutionary study of religion can mitigate this individualism by embracing recent research suggesting that religion's social bonding functions might be explained as much through energetic, endorphin stimulating, synchronous rituals as through cognitive mechanisms that increase prosocial behavior. The brain opioid theory of social attachment provides a helpful framework for understanding the evolutionary significance of such rituals. A close examination of research into the social effects of synchronous activity, I argue, reveals the need for a theoretically pluralistic explanation of how religion facilitates sociality, the major components of which are readily interpreted in terms that recognize the inherent relationality of individual personhood.
Article
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous multisystem autoimmune disease whereby its main pathological drivers of disability and damage are vascular injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fibrosis. These mechanisms result in diffuse and diverse impairments arising from ischemic circulatory dysfunction leading to painful skin ulceration and calcinosis, neurovascular aberrations hindering gastrointestinal (GI) motility, progressive painful, incapacitating or immobilizing effects of inflammatory and fibrotic effects on the lungs, skin, articular and periarticular structures, and muscle. SSc-related impairments impede routine activities of daily living (ADLs) and disrupt three critical life areas: work, family, social/leisure, and also impact on psychological well-being. Physical activity and exercise are globally recommended; however, for connective tissue diseases, this guidance carries greater impact on inflammatory disease manifestations, recovery, and cardiovascular health. Exercise, through myogenic and vascular phenomena, naturally targets key pathogenic drivers by downregulating multiple inflammatory and fibrotic pathways in serum and tissue, while increasing circulation and vascular repair. G-FoRSS, The Global Fellowship on Rehabilitation and Exercise in Systemic Sclerosis recognizes the scientific basis of and advocates for education and research of exercise as a systemic and targeted SSc disease-modifying treatment. An overview of biophysiological mechanisms of physical activity and exercise are herein imparted for patients, clinicians, and researchers, and applied to SSc disease mechanisms, manifestations, and impairment. A preliminary guidance on exercise in SSc, a research agenda, and the current state of research and outcome measures are set forth.
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Synchronization is a critical aspect of social bonding. We use our body to share information and get into sync with others. Predictability facilitates synchronization, which has been suggested as a mechanism for social bonding. This stands in contrast to our striving for interesting, novel, and challenging interactions. In this study we asked 100 dyads to play the mirror game, in which they had to move their hands with as much coordination as possible, and then report how much they liked each other. Using motion energy analysis, we extracted a time-series representing participants' velocity, and showed a positive relationship between liking and the level of synchronization, complexity, and novelty. Moreover, we found that people create novel and challenging interactions, even though they pay a price-being less synchronized. Thus, we propose that balancing between being synchronized and generating novel and challenging interactions, rather than merely maximizing synchronization, optimizes the interaction quality.
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Evolutionary psychiatry attempts to explain and examine the development and prevalence of psychiatric disorders through the lens of evolutionary and adaptationist theories. In this edited volume, leading international evolutionary scholars present a variety of Darwinian perspectives that will encourage readers to consider 'why' as well as 'how' mental disorders arise. Using insights from comparative animal evolution, ethology, anthropology, culture, philosophy and other humanities, evolutionary thinking helps us to re-evaluate psychiatric epidemiology, genetics, biochemistry and psychology. It seeks explanations for persistent heritable traits shaped by selection and other evolutionary processes, and reviews traits and disorders using phylogenetic history and insights from the neurosciences as well as the effects of the modern environment. By bridging the gap between social and biological approaches to psychiatry, and encouraging bringing the evolutionary perspective into mainstream psychiatry, this book will help to inspire new avenues of research into the causation and treatment of mental disorders.
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The hypothesis that music is well suited to facilitate social bonding (Savage et al., target article) is highly consistent with social psychological research on the need to belong. We explore how music is uniquely placed to increase feelings of connections to large collectives by increasing collective effervescence, providing narratives, reminding one of others, and providing social surrogates.
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The human propensity to synchronize their behaviors to one another seems to be an ever-present aspect of our social lives. While a breadth of approaches have been taken to explain this phenomenon, the benefit of individuals temporally aligning their behaviors to one another during an interaction remains to be precisely identified. Some have argued that by becoming synchronized to the movements and actions of another, one may become a better perceiver of that other’s internal attributes (Hoehl et al., 2021). The purpose of the present thesis was to explore this potential benefit of synchrony by examining its relation to one’s ability to accurately judge the personality traits and affective states of an interaction partner. A secondary purpose was to explore whether these two interpersonal processes central to face-to-face interactions, synchrony and interpersonal accuracy, would be hindered if they took place over a videoconferencing platform. Groups of two strangers (N = 196 participants, N = 98 dyads) logged onto a videoconferencing platform (Zoom) with an experimenter and were asked to engage in a five-minute long recorded “getting-to-know-you” interaction. Subsequently, participants were asked to complete a variety of questionnaires including judgments of their partner’s personality traits and affective states from the prior interaction. Accuracy for judgments of personality traits and affective states was operationalized as the correlation between participant’s judgments of their partners states and traits, and their partner’s self-reported states and traits. The recordings derived from these interactions underwent rigorous coding by eight trained research assistants in order to determine the extent to which interactants’ behaviors were synchronized with one another during the first 30-seconds, middle 30-seconds, and last 30-seconds of conversation. Results supported that dyads whose movements were more synchronized with one another during their interaction were subsequently more accurate judges of their interaction partner’s personality traits and affective states. However, this relationship was only significant when examined during the beginning of the interaction, indicating that becoming temporally aligned to an interaction partner within the first 30-seconds of conversation seems to be most important for facilitating accuracy for interpersonal judgments of that person. In addition, the predictive validity relationships observed between synchrony, interpersonal accuracy, and a collection of theoretically-related outcome variables suggested that individuals’ tendency to synchronize with one another, as well as form accurate judgments of another’s states and traits, was likely not substantially hindered by videoconferencing platforms. These findings not only help refine existing theoretical frameworks regarding synchrony and accuracy, but help to address core questions regarding the benefits of humans’ innate tendency to synchronize their behaviors with one another.
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We have retracted this article because it needs substantial reworking. One of the authors is on maternity leave and a final version of the article should therefore be available at the end of 2022. Religion and art have been incredibly important in human evolution but, we argue, are often not taken seriously as an important source of knowledge. In this article, we propose that the arts and religions are symbolic systems that capture subjective knowledge, or knowledge about the world that is specific to human experience or the human condition, both concerning the self (existential subjective knowledge) and others (social subjective knowledge). Forms of this knowledge comprise feelings, experiences, and beliefs, which can arise from naturally occurring experiences or can be induced through religious rituals and artistic performances. Subjective knowledge is processed through subjective cognition – experiential or intuitive thinking, narrative processing, and meaning-making. Individual differences in subjective cognition are proposed to lie in absorption, or the propensity of individuals to allow for a state of the experiential, more porous self, through reduced boundaries of the rational, bounded self. This in turn allows for an immersive focus on sensory inputs, and becoming connected to something bigger than oneself, a state that is especially conducive to providing meaning and new perspectives with regards to the human condition. Together, forms of subjective knowledge make up symbolic systems that feed into overarching subjective knowledge systems, or cultures and worldviews. Thus, religion and art has allowed for subjective knowledge to become represented in symbols and artefacts, which renders the subjective knowledge concrete, memorable and shareable.
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Augmenting online interpersonal communication with biosignals, often in the form of heart rate sharing, has shown promise in increasing affiliation, feelings of closeness, and intimacy. Increasing empathetic awareness in the professional domain and in the customer interface could benefit both customer and employee satisfaction, but heart rate sharing in this context needs to consider issues around physiological monitoring of employees, appropriate level of intimacy, as well as the productivity outlook. In this study, we explore heart rate sharing at the workplace and study its effects on task performance. Altogether, 124 participants completed a collaborative visual guidance task using a chat box with heart rate visualization. Participants’ feedback about heart rate sharing reveal themes such as a stronger sense of human contact and increased self-reflection, but also raise concerns around unnecessity, intimacy, privacy and negative interpretations. Live heart rate was always measured, but to investigate the effect of heart rate sharing on task performance, half of the customers were told that they were seeing a recording, and half were told that they were seeing the advisor’s live heart beat. We found a negative link between awareness and task performance. We also found that higher ratings of usefulness of the heart rate visualization were associated with increased feelings of closeness. These results reveal that intimacy and privacy issues are particularly important for heart rate sharing in professional contexts, that preference modulates the effects of heart rate sharing on social closeness, and that heart rate sharing may have a negative effect on performance.
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Although the fields of music psychology and music therapy share many common interests, research collaboration between the two fields is still somewhat rare. Previous work has identified that disciplinary identities and attitudes towards those in other disciplines are challenges to effective interdisciplinary research. The current study explores such attitudes in music therapy and music psychology. A sample of 123 music therapists and music psychologists answered an online survey regarding their attitudes towards potential interdisciplinary work between the two fields. Analysis of results suggested that participants’ judgements of the attitudes of members of the other discipline were not always accurate. Music therapists indicated a high degree of interest in interdisciplinary research, although in free text answers, both music psychologists and music therapists frequently characterized music therapists as disinterested in science. Music therapists reported seeing significantly greater relevance of music psychology to their own work than did music psychologists of music therapists. Participants’ attitudes were modestly related to their reported personality traits and held values. Results overall indicated interest in, and positive expectations of, interdisciplinary attitudes in both groups, and should be explored in future research.
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This paper introduces a new view on modelling expatriate integration by mapping connections between expats and between expats and the local community. The proposed adaptive social network model differs from existing integration models in that it considers both the bonding by homophily principle together with the interaction connects principle to model the adaptivity of the strength of social connections. In the results it was found that both principles have different influences on how well expats integrate with the local community; a combination of both principles showed to be stronger than their sum.
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The authors investigated children's automatic imitation in the context of observed shyness by adapting the widely used automatic imitation task (AIT). AIT performance in 6‐year‐old children (N = 38; 22 female; 71% White) and young adults (17–22 years; N = 122; 99 female; 32% White) was first examined as a proof of concept and to assess age‐related differences in responses to the task (Experiment 1). Although error rate measures of automatic imitation were comparable between children and adults, children displayed less reaction time interference than adults. Children's shyness coded from direct behavioral observations was then examined in relation to AIT scores (Experiment 2). Observed shyness at 5 years old predicted higher automatic imitation one year later. We discuss the latter findings in the context of an adaptive strategy. We argue that shy children may possess a heightened sensitivity to others’ motor cues and therefore are more likely to implicitly imitate social partners’ actions. This tendency may serve as a strategy to signal appeasement and affiliation, allowing for shy children to blend in and feel less inhibited in a social environment.
Conference Paper
Interpersonal synchrony is associated with better interpersonal affiliation. No matter how well-affiliated people are, interruptions or transitions in synchrony rebound to occur. One might intuitively expect that transitions in synchrony negatively affect affiliation or liking. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that time periods with interruptions in synchrony may favor affiliation or liking even more than time periods without interruptions in synchrony. This paper introduces a controlled adaptive network model to explain how persons’ affiliation might benefit from transitions in synchrony over and above mean levels of synchrony. The adaptive network model was evaluated in a series of simulation experiments for two persons with a setup in which a number of scenarios were encountered in different (time) episodes. Our controlled adaptive network model may serve as a foundation for more realistic virtual agents with regard to synchrony transitions and their role in affiliation.
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Purpose of review: Ageing, the accrual of molecular and cellular damage over a lifetime confers progressive physiologic dysfunction of bodily systems, leaving the body in a heightened state of vulnerability to biophysical and psychosocial stressors. The inflection point is frailty which easily leads to disability and death. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) creates biophysical and psychosocial stresses difficult for even optimally fit patients to cope with. With evolving ILD treatment pathways, people with ILD are living longer. Recent findings: ILD and ageing are bi-directionally influential: ILD, its treatments, complications, and collateral systemic extra-pulmonary damage (hypoxic and oxidative stress) wear on the ageing person and ageing impacts a person's tolerance of ILD. ILD extent may proportionally accelerate age-related vulnerabilities. ILD related to inflammatory systemic diseases, e.g. connective tissue diseases or sarcoidosis, exert an even more complex biophysical impact on the body. Summary: The present review stresses goals of preventing frailty in ILD and preserving general health and well being of people living with ILD of any age, from time of diagnosis and as they age. The development of a prediction score is proposed to classify those at risk of frailty and guide interventions that preserve successful ageing for all levels of ILD severity. Video abstract: http://links.lww.com/COPM/A32.
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Optimal navigation strategies might differ in different environments. In a closed environment (such as a corridor in a building) local cues at junctions would be best to learn a route. In an open environment distal cues allow a person to gain overall orientation, essential for identifying shortcuts and new paths. A lack of flexibility in strategy use will result in poor performance when navigating a varied environment. The aim of the current study is to examine how best to elicit flexible use of navigational strategies using a synchronous intervention shown to enhance prosocial behaviour. Sixty-eight undergraduate psychology students were trained to navigate a route through a virtual environment which contained both distal and local cues. They were tested from a novel start position to see if they used local or distal cues. Next participants were exposed to either a synchronous or asynchronous intervention where the experimenter moved either in or out of harmony with the participant. Before returning to the maze, participants were told the benefit of either their original cue-type or the alternative. When participants where re-tested in the maze, those in the synchronous group informed of the alternative cue-type switched more than those in the asynchronous group. This result of enabling more flexible navigation is crucial to the goal of improving spatial skills and the study demonstrates a novel use of synchrony in a spatial task to achieve this aim.
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Economic experiments are often used to study if humans altruistically value the welfare of others. A canonical result from public-good games is that humans vary in how they value the welfare of others, dividing into fair-minded conditional cooperators, who match the cooperation of others, and selfish noncooperators. However, an alternative explanation for the data are that individuals vary in their understanding of how to maximize income, with misunderstanding leading to the appearance of cooperation. We show that (i) individuals divide into the same behavioral types when playing with computers, whom they cannot be concerned with the welfare of; (ii) behavior across games with computers and humans is correlated and can be explained by variation in understanding of how to maximize income; (iii) misunderstanding correlates with higher levels of cooperation; and (iv) standard control questions do not guarantee understanding. These results cast doubt on certain experimental methods and demonstrate that a common assumption in behavioral economics experiments, that choices reveal motivations, will not necessarily hold.
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Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and reward-inducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 Â 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity.
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Understanding the nature and influence of social relationships is of increasing interest to behavioral economists, and behavioral scientists more generally. In turn, this creates a need for tractable, and reliable, tools for measuring fundamental aspects of social relationships. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the 'Inclusion of the Other in the Self' (IOS) Scale, a handy pictorial tool for measuring the subjectively perceived closeness of a relationship. The tool is highly portable, very easy for subjects to understand and takes less than 1 minute to administer. Across our three online studies with a diverse adult population (n = 772) we show that six different scales designed to measure relationship closeness are all highly significantly positively correlated with the IOS Scale. We then conduct a Principal Component Analysis to construct an Index of Relationship Closeness and find that it correlates very strongly (ρ = 85) with the IOS Scale. We conclude that the IOS Scale is a psychologically meaningful and highly reliable measure of the subjective closeness of relationships.
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Introduction Social relationships can have a significant impact on psychological wellbeing, health and human disease. For instance, it is well known that individuals with low levels of social support have higher morbidity and mortality rates, especially from cardiovascular disease [1-6]. The precise mechanisms by which social support affects morbidity and mortality are still unclear [3,5,7]. One proposal is that having others to turn to for help or to disclose personal problems may enhance subjective wellbeing directly and may also facilitate coping with stress. Although much of this research has been correlational in nature and is therefore subject to alternative interpretations, the consistency of results across studies of diverse populations has fostered an emerging consensus regarding the benefits of social ties. Indeed, there is evidence that social support appears to be linked with lower ambulatory blood pressure and lower cortisol levels [8]. Further, experimental work has shown that the presence of a friend in a stressful situation is associated with lower blood pressure [8], while embraces from a partner prior to a stressful event increases oxytocin (which acts as an endogenous analgesic) and reduces blood pressure in women [9]. Given the growing body of research on the relationship between psychological wellbeing, health and illness, it is perhaps surprising that this field has not yet been fully integrated into our current understanding of ego-centric social networks. Human social network analysis has recently become a useful and powerful tool for analyzing the collective thoughts and behaviors of large groups of individuals [10]. For example, a wide range of behaviors and psychological states can spread from person to person within social networks, including obesity [11], smoking [12], happiness [13], loneliness [14], and depression [15]. Furthermore, human social networks exhibit a complex organised structure. Ego-centric social networks appear to consist of a series of sub-groupings of personal acquaintanceship arranged in concentric circles [16,17], at the centre of which sits the network " owner " (conventionally denoted as 'ego'). A social network can be broken down into the following sub-groupings: the support group (core of 3-5 intimates), sympathy group (12-20 close friends or family), the affinity group (45-50 acquaintances), and the active network (150 familiar individuals) [17], these values being successively inclusive. The number 150 appears to be the typical limit on the number of individuals with whom a person can have meaningful relationships [18]. Moreover, it appears that there is a distinct upper limit on both the frequency of contacts and the emotional intensity of the relationship an individual can maintain with each contact in the network: as the number of contacts in the network increases, both the emotional closeness and the frequency of contact decreases [19]. Several studies of friendships and close relationships have distinguished different levels of relationship intimacy without focusing explicitly on network structure [20-22]. For example [20] compared close and casual friendships and found that close friendships showed more interactions during the week, and across a wider range of days, times, and locations than casual friendships. In terms of benefits received, close friends offered more emotional and instrumental support than casual ones. Indeed, the most commonly used classification in these studies is best, close and casual friend [21,22]. Oswald et al. (2004) assessed friendship in terms of different dimensions of friendship maintenance behaviours (positivity, supportiveness, openness and interaction), and Abstract Background: The present study investigated the effects of supportive social network ties on health in a sample of mothers with a young child. The aim of this study was to examine if Liverpool participants having a large supportive network of close relatives reported less cases of illness than participants without such social support.
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Synchrony—the matching of rhythmic behavior in time—is a common feature of many social practices. Although recent studies have demonstrated that synchrony promotes prosociality, it remains unclear whether prosociality extends to targets outside the synchronous group. Studies on the related phenomenon of mimicry (i.e., the non-conscious imitation of another's behavior) show that matching behavior in form amplifies prosociality to those outside the mimicked pair. While these studies suggest that synchrony might also evoke generalized prosociality, the minimal group paradigm predicts that any increase in prosociality will be confined to synchronous performers. Study 1 investigated the cooperative specificity of synchrony by comparing the effects of synchrony on prosociality directed to co-performers and to non-performers. We found that synchrony-induced prosociality was not restricted to fellow synchronous performers. These findings offer initial support for a generalized prosocial model of synchronous performances. Study 2 investigated whether generalized prosociality occurred when the prosocial target was conceived as another group, rather than another individual. Consistent with the first study, we found that synchronous movements were associated with greater prosociality towards a non-performance group when compared to the level of prosociality observed from the control group activity. Collectively these findings offer initial support that synchrony may amplify prosociality to non-participants, whether conceived as individuals or as groups.
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An experiment was conducted in order to test the hypothesis that music-induced motor coordination between individuals (as in dance) leads to increased person-perception. The experiment used 2-channel silent disco radio headphones, a marked-up dance floor, two types of music, and memory identifiers (sash colours and symbols). The dancers are split into two groups, A and B, with five dancers in each group. Each dancer wore radio headphones, and a different coloured sash and symbol. Using silent disco technology, one type of music was transmitted to group A, while at the same time another type of music was transmitted to group B. Pre-experiment, the dancers' faces were photographed. Post-experiment, the dancers were presented with photos of all the other dancers in turn and asked to recall each participant's sash colour and sash symbol. The results showed that dancing at the same tempo as other people significantly enhanced sash colour and sash symbol memory, and thus facilitated person perception.
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It has been suggested that a key function of music during its development and spread amongst human populations was its capacity to create and strengthen social bonds amongst interacting group members. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been fully discussed. In this paper we review evidence supporting two thus far independently investigated mechanisms for this social bonding effect: self-other merging as a consequence of inter-personal synchrony, and the release of endorphins during exertive rhythmic activities including musical interaction. In general, self-other merging has been experimentally investigated using dyads, which provide limited insight into large-scale musical activities. Given that music can provide an external rhythmic framework that facilitates synchrony, explanations of social bonding during group musical activities should include reference to endorphins, which are released during synchronized exertive movements. Endorphins (and the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in general) are involved in social bonding across primate species, and are associated with a number of human social behaviors (e.g., laughter, synchronized sports), as well as musical activities (e.g., singing and dancing). Furthermore, passively listening to music engages the EOS, so here we suggest that both self-other merging and the EOS are important in the social bonding effects of music. In order to investigate possible interactions between these two mechanisms, future experiments should recreate ecologically valid examples of musical activities.
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Paralleling behaviours in other species, synchronized movement is central to institutionalized collective human activities thought to enhance cooperation, and experiments demonstrate that synchrony has this effect. The influence of synchrony on cooperation may derive from an evolutionary history wherein such actions served to signal coalitional strength to both participants and observers-including adversaries. If so, then synchronous movement should diminish individuals' estimations of a foe's formidability. Envisioned physical size and strength constitute the dimensions of a representation that summarizes relative fighting capacity. Experiencing synchrony should therefore lead individuals to conceptualize an antagonist as smaller and weaker. We found that men who walked synchronously with a male confederate indeed envisioned a purported criminal as less physically formidable than did men who engaged in this task without synchronizing.
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Molecular Psychiatry publishes work aimed at elucidating biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and their treatment
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During conversation, interlocutors coordinate their behavior on many levels. Two distinct forms of behavioral coordination have been empirically linked with affiliation and cooperation during or following face-to-face interaction: behavior matching and interpersonal synchrony. Only the latter form constitutes behavioral entrainment involving a coupling between independent oscillators. We present the first study of the association between spontaneously occurring behavioral coordination and post-interaction economic game play. Triads of same-sexed strangers conversed for 10 min, after which each participant played an unannounced one-shot prisoner's dilemma (PD) toward each co-participant. When dyads had higher language style matching scores (LSM: Gonzales, A.L., Hancock, J.T., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2010). Language style matching as a predictor of social dynamics in small groups. Communication Research, 31, 3–19), the individuals evaluated each other more positively, but they were no more likely to cooperate in the PD. However, when dyads' speech rates (mean syllable duration) converged more strongly from the beginning to the end of the conversation, they were more likely to cooperate in the PD, despite no effect on interpersonal evaluations. Speech rate convergence, a form of rhythmic entrainment, could benefit interlocutors by mutually reducing cognitive processing during interaction. We suggest that spontaneous, temporally based behavioral coordination might facilitate prosocial behavior when the joint cooperative effort is itself perceived as a form of coordination.
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Previous research has shown that the matching of rhythmic behaviour between individuals (synchrony) increases cooperation. Such synchrony is most noticeable in music, dance and collective rituals. As well as the matching of behaviour, such collective performances typically involve shared intentionality: performers actively collaborate to produce joint actions. Over three experiments we examined the importance of shared intentionality in promoting cooperation from group synchrony. Experiment 1 compared a condition in which group synchrony was produced through shared intentionality to conditions in which synchrony or asynchrony were created as a by-product of hearing the same or different rhythmic beats. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. To examinef the importance of synchrony when shared intentionality is present, Experiment 2 compared a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce synchrony with a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce asynchrony. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. Experiment 3 manipulated both the presence of synchrony and shared intentionality and found significantly greater cooperation with synchrony and shared intentionality combined. Path analysis supported a reinforcement of cooperation model according to which perceiving synchrony when there is a shared goal to produce synchrony provides immediate feedback for successful cooperation so reinforcing the group's cooperative tendencies. The reinforcement of cooperation model helps to explain the evolutionary conservation of traditional music and dance performances, and furthermore suggests that the collectivist values of such cultures may be an essential part of the mechanisms by which synchrony galvanises cooperative behaviours.
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One universal of human music perception is the tendency to move in synchrony with a periodic beat (e.g., in dance). This response is not commonly observed in nonhuman animals, raising the possibility that this behavior relies on brain circuits shaped by natural selection for music. Consequently, if a nonhuman animal can acquire this ability, this would inform debates over the evolutionary status of music. Specifically, such evidence would suggest that this ability did not originate as an evolutionary adaptation for music. We present data from an experimental study of synchronization to music in a Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita eleanora), "Snowball", who spontaneously dances in response to certain music (see YouTube: "dancing cockatoo"). Snowball's preferred song was presented at different tempi (original, +/- 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%), and his rhythmic movements while dancing were quantified from video. The results reveal occasional bouts of synchronization at a subset of these tempi on ~20% of the trials. This demonstrates that a nonhuman animal can synchronize to a musical beat, though with limited reliability and tempo flexibility. These findings are consistent with the "vocal learning and rhythmic synchronization" hypothesis, which suggests that vocal learning provides the auditory-motor foundation for synchronization to a musical beat.
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Humans actively use behavioral synchrony such as dancing and singing when they intend to make affiliative relationships. Such advanced synchronous movement occurs even unconsciously when we hear rhythmically complex music. A foundation for this tendency may be an evolutionary adaptation for group living but evolutionary origins of human synchronous activity is unclear. Here we show the first evidence that a member of our closest living relatives, a chimpanzee, spontaneously synchronizes her movement with an auditory rhythm: After a training to tap illuminated keys on an electric keyboard, one chimpanzee spontaneously aligned her tapping with the sound when she heard an isochronous distractor sound. This result indicates that sensitivity to, and tendency toward synchronous movement with an auditory rhythm exist in chimpanzees, although humans may have expanded it to unique forms of auditory and visual communication during the course of human evolution.
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It has become an accepted paradigm that humans have "prosocial preferences" that lead to higher levels of cooperation than those that would maximize their personal financial gain. However, the existence of prosocial preferences has been inferred post hoc from the results of economic games, rather than with direct experimental tests. Here, we test how behavior in a public-goods game is influenced by knowledge of the consequences of actions for other players. We found that (i) individuals cooperate at similar levels, even when they are not informed that their behavior benefits others; (ii) an increased awareness of how cooperation benefits others leads to a reduction, rather than an increase, in the level of cooperation; and (iii) cooperation can be either lower or higher than expected, depending on experimental design. Overall, these results contradict the suggested role of the prosocial preferences hypothesis and show how the complexity of human behavior can lead to misleading conclusions from controlled laboratory experiments.
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The apparent paradox posed by the synchronization of mating displays by males competing to attract females has provoked considerable interest among evolutionary biologists1,3. Such synchronized sexual signalling has only been documented for communicationusing light flashes (bioluminescence) or sound. It has been suggested that the "fundamental reasons that might favour precise adjustments in signal timing relative to that of a particular neighbour could only be compelling for signallers using these two channels"1. Here we provide the first quantitative evidence for synchronous production of a conventional visual courtship signal, the movement of a body part.
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It is well known that music arouses emotional responses. In addition, it has long been thought to play an important role in creating a sense of community, especially in small scale societies. One mechanism by which it might do this is through the endorphin system, and there is evidence to support this claim. Using pain threshold as an assay for CNS endorphin release, we ask whether it is the auditory perception of music that triggers this effect or the active performance of music. We show that singing, dancing and drumming all trigger endorphin release (indexed by an increase in post-activity pain tolerance) in contexts where merely listening to music and low energy musical activities do not. We also confirm that music performance results in elevated positive (but not negative) affect. We conclude that it is the active performance of music that generates the endorphin high, not the music itself. We discuss the implications of this in the context of community bonding mechanisms that commonly involve dance and music-making.
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The existence of two nearly-orthogonal dimensions of positive and negative affect was established for a ten-item short form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule using confirmatory factor analytic techniques in a large probability sample (n=2651) spanning ages 18 to 79. The factor structure and factor correlations were found to be unchanged with age. A multiple indicators, multiple causes model was used to investigate differences in item responses according to age, sex, education, marital status and financial hardship that could not be accounted for by differences in affect levels between groups. Only one item, excited from the Positive Affect scale, was found to elicit differential responses. While improvements to the Positive Affect scale might be desirable, the Short PANAS can be recommended for use when measures of positive and negative affect are required.
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Behavioural game theory uses experimental regularities and psychology to model formally how limits on strategic thinking, learning, and social preferences interact when people actually play games. Emerging theories of behaviour in ultimatum and trust games (and others) focus on an aversion to inequality, reciprocity, or concern for social image. Learning models often focus on numerical updating of an unobserved propensity to choose a strategy (including fictitious play updating of beliefs as a special case). Models of limits on strategic thinking assume players are in equilibrium, but respond with error, or there is a cognitive hierarchy of increasingly sophisticated reasoning.
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Periodicity is a ubiquitous feature of all living things, and coupled biological oscillators entrain to each other readily. Despite this, humans are rare if not unique in their ability to entrain their musical motor output to that of others during singing, dancing, and playing in ensembles. This presents something of a paradox concerning human rhythmic entrainment and all that goes with it: why should a phenomenon seemingly so basic be (apparently) so rare in nature? The paradox, put simply, is this: if periodicity and entrainment are ubiquitous features of all living organisms, why can't dogs dance? This chapter examines this paradox from multiple comparative viewpoints, exploring similarities and differences between humans and other animals, between different aspects of music (harmony and rhythm), and between music and spoken language. It suggests that the 'paradox of rhythm' can be resolved by recognizing that human rhythmic behaviour comprises several different components, each with their own biological basis and evolutionary history. It identifies at least three separable components underlying the human capacity for rhythmic behaviour. These include periodic motor pattern generation itself (an ancient and ubiquitous phenomenon); pulse (or 'beat') extraction from complex patterns (a form of perceptual cognition that is shared with speech, at least); and entrainment of one's own motor output to this inferred 'beat' (which may be the most biologically unusual feature of human rhythmic behaviour).
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In this paper we describe and illustrate the pair-formation displays of the Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis), examining their structural variation, social contexts, and probable evolutionary origins and functions. Most displays are performed mutually by two or more individuals and occur in elaborate and predictable sequences or "ceremonies." One of these, the "Rushing Ceremony" is performed by either two males, a male and a female, or several males and a female. The "Weed Ceremony," on the other hand, occurs later in the pairing sequence and always involves a male and a female. Finally, the "Greeting Ceremony," used by pairs coming together after being separated, appears to be an abbreviation of the above two ceremonies with the energetic, core displays left out. We examine the temporal and spatial coordination between individuals involved in each of these ceremonies. Most displays and ceremonies of Western Grebes differ greatly from those described for other grebe species, which supports morphological evidence for retaining the Western Grebe in a separate genus. The similarity of the Weed Ceremony to that of some species of Podiceps supports morphological evidence for considering the Western Grebe more closely related to that genus than to any other.
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Human attachment behavior mediates establishment and maintenance of social relationships. Adult attachment characteristically varies on anxiety and avoidance dimensions, reflecting the tendencies to worry about the partner breaking the social bond (anxiety) and feeling uncomfortable about depending on others (avoidance). In primates and other mammals, the endogenous μ-opioid system is linked to long-term social bonding, but evidence of its role in human adult attachment remains more limited. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to reveal how variability in μ-opioid receptor (MOR) availability is associated with adult attachment in humans. We scanned 49 healthy subjects using a MOR-specific ligand [(11) C]carfentanil and measured their attachment avoidance and anxiety with the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised scale. The avoidance dimension of attachment correlated negatively with MOR availability in the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the frontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. No associations were observed between MOR availability and the anxiety dimension of attachment. Our results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may underlie interindividual differences in avoidant attachment style in human adults, and that differences in MOR availability are associated with the individuals' social relationships and psychosocial well-being. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Synchronization of behavior between individuals has been found to result in a variety of prosocial outcomes. The role of endorphins in vigorous synchronous activities (Cohen, Ejsmond-Frey, Knight, & Dunbar, 2010) may underlie these effects as endorphins have been implicated in social bonding (Dunbar & Shultz, 2010). Although research on synchronous behavior has noted that there are 2 dominant phases of synchrony-in-phase and antiphase synchrony (Marsh, Richardson, Baron, & Schmidt, 2006), research on the effect of synchrony on endorphins has only incorporated in-phase synchrony. The current study examined whether both phases of synchrony would generate the synchrony effect. Twenty-two participants rowed under 3 counterbalanced conditions-alone, in-phase synchrony and antiphase synchrony. Endorphin release, as measured by pain threshold, was assessed before and after each session. Change in pain threshold during the in-phase synchrony session was significantly higher than either of the other 2 conditions. These results suggest that the synchrony effect may be specific to just in-phase synchrony, and that social presence is not a viable explanation for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold.
Article
Emerging evidence has shown that social pain-the painful feelings that follow from social rejection, exclusion, or loss-relies on some of the same neural regions that process physical pain, highlighting a possible physical-social pain overlap. However, the hypothesis that physical pain and social pain rely on shared neural systems has been contested. This review begins by summarizing research supporting the physical-social pain overlap. Next, three criticisms of this overlap model are presented and addressed by synthesizing available research. These criticisms include the suggestions that (a) neural responses to social pain are indicative of conflict detection processes, rather than distress; (b) all negative affective processes, rather than social pain specifically, activate these pain-related neural regions; and (c) neural responses to social (and physical) pain reflect the processing of salience, rather than hurt. Implications of these findings for understanding social and physical pain are discussed, and key next steps are suggested. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 66 is November 30, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
Article
Recent research has shown that individuals tend to have higher pain tolerance after participating in a vigorous activity in synchrony with others compared to after they perform the same activity alone. The current study was designed to examine if the effect of this behavioral synchrony differs according to the social presence of teammates or strangers. Twenty-four individuals rowed on ergometers for 45 min in both individual and group conditions. Half the participants rowed in the group condition with teammates, whereas the other half rowed them with confederates. ANOVA procedures revealed pain tolerance was significantly higher after participating in a group condition than in an individual condition, and that there was no significant difference between a group of strangers and teammates. This higher pain tolerance has been inferred as an indicator of endorphin activity, which may be related to behavioral synchrony.
Article
Previous studies have demonstrated that synchronising movements with other people can influence affiliative behaviour towards them. While research has focused on synchronisation with visually observed movement, synchronisation with a partner who is heard may have similar effects. We replicate findings showing that synchronisation can influence ratings of likeability of a partner, but demonstrate that this is possible with virtual interaction, involving a video of a partner. Participants performed instructed synchrony in time to sounds instead of the observable actions of another person. Results show significantly higher ratings of likeability of a partner after moving at the same time as sounds attributed to that partner, compared with moving in between sounds. Objectively quantified synchrony also correlated with ratings of likeability. Belief that sounds were made by another person was manipulated in Experiment 2, and results demonstrate that when sounds are attributed to a computer, ratings of likeability are not affected by moving in or out of time. These findings demonstrate that interaction with sound can be experienced as social interaction in the absence of genuine interpersonal contact, which may help explain why people enjoy engaging with recorded music.
Conference Paper
The reliability of connector is depending on the contact force, generated by the spring in terminals of connectors. The springs are formed by stamping from a strip of spring material. Therefore, the prediction of its springback after stamping and force-displacement relation by the finite element (FE) simulation is important for the design of terminals. The mathematical model of stress-strain (s-s) responses of the materials is required for the simulation. When the materials are deformed in forward and the following reverse directions, almost all the spring materials show different s-s responses between the two directions, due to the Bauschinger effect. This phenomenon makes the simulation difficult because the s-s response depends on the prior deformation. The authors reported that s-s responses of copper-based spring materials under cyclic tension and compression deformations could be expressed accurately by the Yoshida-Uemori model, which is a constitutive model describing the Bauschinger effect. In this paper, experimental and simulated springback after stamping will be presented. The simulation results using Yoshida-Uemori model were good agreements with the experimental. The use of this model for the FE simulation would be recommended for the more accurate prediction of springback.
Article
Recent studies suggest that laughter plays an important role in social bonding. Human communities are much larger than those of other primates and hence require more time to be devoted to social maintenance activities. Yet, there is an upper limit on the amount of time that can be dedicated to social demands, and, in nonhuman primates, this sets an upper limit on social group size. It has been suggested that laughter provides the additional bonding capacity in humans by allowing an increase in the size of the “grooming group.” In this study of freely forming laughter groups, we show that laughter allows a threefold increase in the number of bonds that can be “groomed” at the same time. This would enable a very significant increase in the size of community that could be bonded.
Article
Humans engage in a wide range of social ac- tivities. Previous research has focused on the role of higher cognitive functions, such as mentalizing (the ability to infer others' mental states) and language processing, in social exchange. This article reviews recent studies on action perception and joint action suggesting that basic percep- tion-action links are crucial for many social interactions. Mapping perceived actions to one's own action repertoire enables direct understanding of others' actions and sup- ports action identification. Joint action relies on shared action representations and involves modeling of others' performance in relation to one's own. Taking the social nature of perception and action seriously not only con- tributes to the understanding of dedicated social processes but has the potential to create a new perspective on the individual mind and brain. KEYWORDS—perception and action; action perception; joint action; social cognition; social neuroscience mediate way of social understanding and social interaction, based on the close link between perception and action. For ex- ample, when one observes another individual performing a particular action, this activates the representations in one's own action system that one uses to perform the observed action. Taking the social functions of perception and action seriously might help to better understand disorders of social functions, including autism and certain symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions of control. In this article, we discuss recent findings from two research domains that shed new light on the social nature of perception and action. Research on action perception demonstrates that individuals rely on their bodies and the action system moving their bodies to understand others' actions and to identify their own actions. Research on joint action has revealed how indi- viduals share representations, predict each other's actions, and learn to jointly plan ahead.
Article
Music is regarded in biological terms as originating in the brain, so that most explanations concentrate on the ways in which brains process information. Recent studies of the nonlinear dynamics of the primary sensory cortices have shown that the patterns that are constructed by chaotic nonlinear dynamics in cortical neuropil replace stimulus driven activity. This finding supports the concept that knowledge in brains is entirely constructed within them without direct transfer of information from outside. As knowledge increases by learning, brains of individuals grow progressively apart. The separation results from the uniqueness of the knowledge that is constructed within each brain. The resulting condition of isolation is known among philosophers as epistemologic al solipsism. This view is reinforced by the tenets of aesthetics, which emphasize the deeply personal experiences of individuals, not as active listeners but as passive recipients of beauty in music and other arts. Neither conventional neuroscience nor aesthetics can explain the deep emotional power of music to move humans to action. An alternative view is presented, in which human brains are seen to have evolved primarily in response to environmental pressures to bridge the solipsistic gulf between individuals, and to form integrated societies. An evolutionary origin is found in the neurohumoral mechanisms of parental bonding to altricial infants. A case is made that music together with dance have co-evolved biologically and culturally to serve as a technology of social bonding. Findings of anthropologis ts and psychiatrists are reviewed to show how the rhythmic behavioral activities that are induced by drum beats and music can lead to altered states of consciousness , through which mutual trust among members of societies is engendered. "All arts, we must remember, are phases of the social mind. We are so much in the habit of thinking of them in terms of art products that we forget that the arts themselves are groups of ideas and acquisitions of skill that exist only in the minds, muscles, and nerves of living men. " Giddings (1932):