Book

# Space Syntax methodology

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## Abstract

Space Syntax methodology is a highly readable and accessible textbook on understanding network representations of space for the purpose of architectural and urban research and design. The textbook addresses Space Syntax theory, both as a conceptual framework and as a tool for thinking the relationship between space and society via the UCL Depthmap programme. The authors give clear explanations of the concepts underlying spatial analyses models and descriptions of how these analyses are applied in the context of architecture and urban research without much reference to complex mathematical formulae. The textbook takes students from the basics of spatial analyses techniques, observation methods and data modelling through to more advanced agent-based modelling. Theoretical introductions for each chapter explain the representations, models and constructs of measurement. Exercises and tips throughout the book allow students to practice using UCL Depthmap. The platform training website launched by Space Syntax Ltd. provides further information on the different terminologies as well as on the application side of Space Syntax in design and consultation.
... The ease of pedestrian movement and navigation between spaces within this network of lines and intersections can be quantitatively measured by converting into a segment map where the axial lines are broken at their intersections into segments and each segment represents a section of a street or path (axial line) that lies between two points of intersection. Segment angular analysis is a technique used to assess the accessibility of a street network based upon the shortest angular journey through the spatial network and is particular powerful when the street pattern is a uniform grid or when linear streets cross regular streets diagonally (Al-Sayed et al., 2014). ...
... Depth refers to the number of angular turns to move from one space to another so ATD 400 , the Angular Total Depth, is the sum of the depths from one segment to all other segments within the defined radius and ACH 400 is the corresponding angular choice measure. A 400 m radius, which represents a walking distance of 5 minutes, is used as the radius as recommended in Al-Sayed et al. (2014). Segment angular integration represents how close a segment is to all others and is measured as the sum of the angular changes made on the routes between segments. ...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between use and investor diversity, spatial accessibility, and high street retail rents. Spatial quantitative analysis of the high street retail sector remains an underdeveloped area so this paper seeks to bridge this gap and contribute to the debate on the adaptability of urban retailing centres by adopting a spatial fixed-effects panel modelling approach. The empirical findings reveal that diversity and richness in property use tend to have a significant positive impact on retail rental values. The influence of ownership richness on rents is positive implying that rents tend to be higher on streets where there is a greater range in the type of landlords. Walkability, as a measure of spatial accessibility, is found to have a negative relationship with market rents. This is perhaps surprising as it had been expected that the most walkable streets in retailing centres to be the most connected and have the highest rents. This contrary finding may be due to large developments interrupting the street network and restricting the choice and movement of pedestrians. Location on the prime retail pitch has a significant positive relationship with shop rents, whereas proximity to transportation nodes has a less consistent influence.
... http://bvpb.mcu.es/es/consulta/registro.cmd?id=423028 9 Para más detalles acerca del proceso de rectificación y transcripción del Plano de Olavide consultar Algarín Vélez 2000. 10 Para más detalles ver "Depthmap 4. A researcher´s handbook" (Turner 2004) y "Space Syntax Methodology" (Al Sayed et al. 2018). El software Depthmap genera los mapas axiales con tres posibles representaciones: i) verificamos manualmente las líneas axiales. ...
... Patricia Ferreira-LoPes 7 formando un grafo en el que cada cambio espacial representa un nivel de profundidad: los espacios segregados presentan grafos más profundos, mientras que los espacios integrados son menos profundos, llegando a otros espacios con pocos cambios de nivel (Al Sayed et al. 2018;Hillier et al. 2012). La profundidad total angular (TD) se define como el total acumulado de los trayectos angulares más cortos a todos los demás (Turner 2004: 29). ...
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Este trabajo presenta un análisis comparativo aplicando técnicas de la sintaxis espacial en dos ciudades históricas que durante los siglos XVI y XVII fueron, entre otras, los principales núcleos de la península ibérica: Lisboa y Sevilla. Las principales fases metodológicas del trabajo fueron: 1) adquisición y digitalización de datos históricos; geo-procesamiento de las fuentes de datos; 2) preparación del modelo de mapa axial; 3) generación del mapa axial; 4) generación del mapa de segmentos; 5) estudio y análisis de los parámetros; 6) visualización e interpretación de los mapas. La aplicación de los análisis a partir de mapas de segmentos ha permitido el cálculo de variables más relacionadas con la accesibilidad, movimiento y actividad urbana: la elección angular normalizada (NACH) y la integración angular normalizada (NAIN). Este artículo demuestra que el modelo computacional proporciona un enfoque eficaz para realizar estudios comparativos de ciudades históricas.
... Las calles, por ejemplo -entendidas no como la calzada sino como el vacío que dejan los bloques de edificios-, forman parte de esa red y son vectores de conexión en la sucesión de espacios abiertos. La estructura espacial resultante tiene una geometría y configuración que para los creadores de Space Syntax tiene tanto que ver con los "vacíos" que deja lo construido, como con las actividades que las personas realizan en esos espacios, pues el movimiento y la ocupación de la red de espacios (que no es otra que la estructura urbana) son la razón de ser de la misma (Al-Sayed, Turner, Hillier, Iida & Penn, 2014). ...
... Las distancias pueden calcularse tanto en términos métricos, como topológicos (número de quiebres o cambios de dirección de la línea) y angulares. El funcionamiento de la red axial se puede entonces realizar a partir de la observación de varias medidas tales como conectividad, integración, control y elección (Al-Sayed et al., 2014). ...
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Este trabajo examina la relación entre la accesibilidad de una vivienda con su entorno y su precio. A partir de un modelo de precios hedónicos se analiza el valor que le asignan las personas a tener accesibilidad a elementos de su entorno como equipamientos y redes de transporte. Los resultados indican que las personas valoran más habitar en lugares en los que puedan acceder a otros lugares que están a una distancia mayor a 12 000 m, pero a la vez valoran su privacidad, lo cual hace que prefieran viviendas más apartadas (en un radio menor a 500 m) de redes viales transitadas. Este resultado es relevante para la planeación urbana, porque sugiere que una política de desarrollo urbano podrá generar mayores beneficios para la población en tanto se enfoque a proveer mayor accesibilidad a mayores niveles de integración; a niveles menores es mejor que los propios agentes definan la configuración del entorno.
... The formal analysis of visibility of architectonic and urban spaces is one of the main lines of research in space syntax theory. Visibility plays a major role in the theoretical grounding of its spatial partitioning nuclear elements: convex spaces and copresence as inter-visibility, axial lines and movement as long lines of sight, and isovists and visual affordances as viewsheds (Al-Sayed et al., 2014). In space syntax the visuo-spatial analysis of the built environment implies the passage from empirical point/localized or path analysis, to field analysis, into graph analysis where its configurational structure can be explored. ...
... These can be global or local measures, and computed at several radii, and most of them have a counterpart in centrality and smallworlds measures in network theory. For VGA analysis, the main standard measures are Connectivity (degree centrality), Visual Integration (closeness centrality), Control and Cluster Coefficient (Al-Sayed et al., 2014). Dalton (2010) adapts and make extensive use of the revelation concept in his thesis on the spatial grounds of neighbourhood places, generalizing this concept to axial analysis and relating it with space syntax notions of synergy and intelligibility. ...
Conference Paper
This paper explores the visual dynamics of the morphology of public open spaces. Resorting to space syntax concepts, visual graph analysis (VGA), and the innovative use of its standard tool Depthmap, a set of case studies is analysed under the perspective of visual opportunity fields and building upon the established concept and metrics of Revelation. A series of related novel measures and visualizations are developed, which are only possible, in Depthmap environment, by the advanced use of its scripting language: SalaScript. Despite Depthmap being the standard tool among the space syntax community, there is a lack of references to the explicit use of SalaScript. One major objective of this paper is to illustrate, and document, its possibilities to a broad audience by extending, customizing and introducing a more interactive approach in handling VGA maps. We present SalaScript functionalities and its use in the development of visual analysis scripts that allow the study of revelation, which we then apply to a set of real public open spaces case studies. INTRODUCTION The formal analysis of visibility of architectonic and urban spaces is one of the main lines of research in space syntax theory. Visibility plays a major role in the theoretical grounding of its spatial partitioning nuclear elements: convex spaces and copresence as inter-visibility, axial lines and movement as long lines of sight, and isovists and visual affordances as view-sheds (Al-Sayed et al., 2014). In space syntax the visuo-spatial analysis of the built environment implies the passage from empirical point/localized or path analysis, to field analysis, into graph analysis where its configurational structure can be explored. Although, the interplay between local ego-centric and global systemic approaches is of most importance , and both may be studied resorting to visibility graphs. A comparative study of the use of graphs in space modelling in both cognitive sciences and ar-Data-CITY INFORMATION MODELLING AND GIS-Volume 3-eCAADe 37 / SIGraDi 23 | 277 chitecture can be found in (Franz, Mallot, & Wiener, 2005). Franz & Wiener (2005), exploring isovist-based correlates of spatial behaviour and experience, identify four main theory-based spatial qualities: spa-ciousness, openness, complexity and order. These were translated into isovist measures, and for that purpose they developed the concept of revelation, which they associate to openness (prospect, opportunity and defensible space). Revelation, and its associated measure revelation coefficient , expresses the affordances in terms of new visible space if one moves to a neighbouring location, potentially increasing visual information and possibility of movement or social interaction. It is a dynamic and more behaviourally oriented measure, not part of the standard space syntax set of measures, nor implemented in its standard tool Depthmap. The focus of Franz & Wiener is in interior architectural space and, in this paper, we apply this concept to public open spaces by its implementation in Depthmap. Our objectives are: (i) to document the possibilities of SalaScript and show the implementation of existing and novel revelation related metrics in Depthmap, (ii) to investigate the morphology of public open spaces as visual opportunity fields analysing a set of case studies in the perspective of revelation, and (iii) investigate the relations between space syntax and revelation measures. Next, we will expand on the background of the used theories and concepts; expose methodological aspects on both SalaScript and the implementation of revelation metrics; introduce our case studies and process; present some commented results, and final conclusions.
... Las calles, por ejemplo -entendidas no como la calzada sino como el vacío que dejan los bloques de edificios-, forman parte de esa red y son vectores de conexión en la sucesión de espacios abiertos. La estructura espacial resultante tiene una geometría y configuración que para los creadores de Space Syntax tiene tanto que ver con los "vacíos" que deja lo construido, como con las actividades que las personas realizan en esos espacios, pues el movimiento y la ocupación de la red de espacios (que no es otra que la estructura urbana) son la razón de ser de la misma (Al-Sayed, Turner, Hillier, Iida & Penn, 2014). ...
... Las distancias pueden calcularse tanto en términos métricos, como topológicos (número de quiebres o cambios de dirección de la línea) y angulares. El funcionamiento de la red axial se puede entonces realizar a partir de la observación de varias medidas tales como conectividad, integración, control y elección (Al-Sayed et al., 2014). ...
Article
This paper examines the relationship between the price of dwellings and their accessibility to their surroundings. Based on a hedonic price model, we analyze the value that people assign to having access to elements of their environment such as social infrastructure and transport networks. The results indicate that people prefer living in connected places, meaning that they can easily go to places located in a radius greater than 12 000 m, but at the same time, value their privacy, which makes them prefer more isolated housing (in a radius of less than 500 m) of road networks. This result is relevant for urban planning, because it suggests that an urban development policy can generate greater benefits for the population as it focuses on providing greater accessibility to higher levels of integration, and at lower levels it is better that the agents themselves define the configuration of the environment.
... 18 • Visual Integration: is a measure usually indicative of how many people are likely to be in space and is thought to correspond to rates of social encounters and retail activities. 19 5. Case Study: ...
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Urban public spaces, including downtown plazas, are important for communities, as places to practice different activities that help meeting users' functional, psychological and social needs. El-Tahrir Complex Plaza is one of the most important downtown plazas, as along with its role as an outlet for the surrounding areas, it played an important political role during 2011 revolution. Today, the plaza is rarely used except as a transitional space for people moving from a place to another and does not seem to play any roles beyond that. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the interrelationship between spatial configurations of El-Tahrir Complex Plaza and user behavior, that is to study the impact of plazas’ spatial configuration on the effectiveness of activities within the open urban plaza. with identifying physical, syntactical aspects that affect users’ behavior, which led to space underutilization, and dispersal of users within the plazas. Space Syntax techniques were used along with various observational methods, including gate counts, and movement traces to identify the spatial and social properties of the plaza by measuring the accessibility and visibility values.
... 18 • Visual Integration: is a measure usually indicative of how many people are likely to be in space and is thought to correspond to rates of social encounters and retail activities. 19 5. Case Study: ...
... 18 • Visual Integration: is a measure usually indicative of how many people are likely to be in space and is thought to correspond to rates of social encounters and retail activities. 19 5. Case Study: ...
Article
1. Abstract: Urban public spaces, including downtown plazas, are important for communities, as places to practice different activities that help meet users' functional, psychological and social needs. El-Tahrir Complex Plaza is one of the most important downtown plazas in Cairo, due to its strategic location. However, few people use the plaza for activities except as a transitional space for people crossing it on their way from a place to another, and does not seem to play any roles beyond that. Therefore, the study aims to investigate the interrelationship between spatial configurations of El-Tahrir Complex Plaza and users' behavior. In other words, this study investigates the impact of plazas' spatial configuration on user's activities within the plaza, aiming to identify physical and syntactical aspects that affect users' behavior, and led to space underutilization, and dispersal of users within the plazas. Space Syntax techniques were used along with various observational methods, including gate counts, and movement traces to identify the spatial and social properties of the plaza by measuring the accessibility and visibility values.
... The low levels of social mobility and education are obstacles to the propulsive effects of an expansionist movement based on greater national integration and the reduction of internal inequalities. 1 It studies the arrangement of morphological elements in the urbanized environment: streets, squares, plots, buildings, etc. -is, in fact, the science that studies the physical form of cities, as well as the main attractors and transformation processes that shape urban space. 2 The approaches of these theorists converge and present possible complementarities. The observation of the existence of weak propulsive effects defined by Myrdal (1968) : ...
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The use of statistical and geo-referenced tools helps to explain the differentiation of urban mobility given the pre-existing urban configuration in cities. The city of Campina Grande-PB, object of this study, is characterized by the prevalence of dualist elements such as the growing demographic explosion and the new layout of urban strata in terms of the smart cities concept. That said, the analysis on screen comprises the existing mobility system, demonstrating how the current space influences the potential of movement in different social strata through the Theory of Spatial Syntax. The research used the Geographic Information System-GIS, processed through Depthmap® and QGIS, in the production of spatial syntactic measures in neighborhoods combined with socioeconomic variables. In this study, it was concluded that the method identified in central areas, with a high concentration of middle and high income, a format more conducive to car use, while in neighborhoods with a higher concentration of vulnerable population, a system that favors the walkability and the use of bicycles and motorcycles. The public transport system presented a more efficient coverage, as it presents itself as a restrictive factor in the circular causation of local poverty, although it has the potential to be a driver of local economic dynamism to favor increased income in the most vulnerable and segregated locations spatially.
... Došel k závěru, že ulice se smíšeným využitím a vysokou komplexitou představují jedny z nejdůležitějších míst v celém městě. 24 Space Syntax využívá kvantitativní analýzu a prostorovou výpočetní technologii (Hillier, 2014). Tento nástroj byl vyvinut již v 70.-80. ...
Chapter
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Liveability je koncept, který se soustředí na zlepšení životních podmínek ve městech a rozvoj vitálních životaschopných městských center. Vzhledem k přetrvávající závislosti na automobilové dopravě a nutnosti vyvažovat ekonomický rozvoj a cíle budování komunit je zvyšující se důraz kladen na liveability v městských oblastech. Prostřednictvím komplexní literární rešerše byla vytvořena kategorizace nejčastěji používaných faktorů a indikátorů řazených podle fyzických, dopravních, funkčních a sociálních charakteristik ulic. Následně jsou představeny příklady přístupů a metod ke studiu ulic na různých prostorových úrovních (makroúroveň, mezoúroveň, mikroúroveň). Cílem kapitoly je usnadnit další výzkum a praktické intervence v oblasti urbánního designu a plánování z pohledu konceptu liveability.
... Therefore, in the planning and renewal of traditional settlements, we must fully consider the lives of the people and ensure the stability of people's lives (Takalou et al. 2015). Therefore, the author has studied the theory of space syntax research, and found out the rational planning of traditional settlement method, and applied this method to detect whether the space planning design by the method and building are the effective update ways (Al-Sayed et al. 2014) (Wu et al. 2015). The rest of this paper is arranged accordingly. ...
Article
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With the rapid development of economy, China's cities and villages have been changing with each passing day. The planning and updating of traditional settlements have become an important topic in the development of our country. By studying the theory of space syntax, the author extracted the technical method of updating traditional settlements. We chose a traditional settlement as the research object. Based on the regional function of traditional settlements, the spatial structure of the region has been used to plan and update the area. The method designed in this paper can effectively update and transform traditional settlements. This is of practical significance to the progress and construction of our society.
... Those can be found in large quantities in the subject literature (e.g. Hillier & Hanson 1984;Turner 2001;Turner, Penn & Hillier 2005;Al-Sayed et al. 2014;Van Nes & Yamu 2018). ...
Article
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The article presents selected issues within the field of space syntax, its theoretical assumptions, and application possibilities, taking into account, especially, works in the field of social and economic geography, and spatial management. The article attempts to present Polish works in the field of space syntax as related to the wider spectrum of its global applications. In Poland, the theory and research tools of space syntax are rarely used. It appears that there are two factors that influence the current marginalisation of space syntax. The first one is the relative complexity of the research procedure, which requires knowledge of specialist computer software. The second arises directly from the fact that, in reality, only occasional use of space syntax tools has been attempted within the Polish arena. This determines the actual lack of a native space syntax community that would support subsequent researchers who are ready to conduct such studies.
... Analiz, farklı yarıçaplar için yazılım tarafından otomatik hesaplanır. Yani tercih analizi, bir sistemdeki bir segmetin hareket potansiyelini ifade etmektedir (Al Sayed, 2018). ...
... The inverse number of the RRA value is an IV (Eq. 16.4) (Sayed et al. 2014): ...
Chapter
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The determinants of residential, office and commercial rent are each analyzed by taking the 10 min walking distance area around Shibuya Station in Tokyo as the research target area. Conventional physical and quantitative factors such as distance from the nearest station, the width of the frontal road, age of the building, the number of floors, total floor area, contracted floor area, building structure etc. are included in the multiple-regression analysis as well as qualitative factors such as the visible area representing visibility on a main street and the integration value representing street network centrality—easy accessibility from other locations such as any intersection points—based on the space syntax measures (SS measures) used in the analysis by Jake Desyllas from University College of London. It is shown that both SS measures affect the rent for all the residential, office and commercial uses with the statistically significant level of 5%. It is quantitatively confirmed that the residential rent increases in a secluded location, and the office and commercial rent rise in a location with high street network centrality and good access, which would suggest that the SS measures are crucial important rent factors for residential, offices, and commercial uses in other places in Japan.
... The weight is defined so that the distance gain is 1 when the rotation is at a right angle or 90°, 2 if the angular rotation is 180°, and 0 if two Research, Society and Development, v. 10, n. 1, e54810111791, 2021 (CC BY 4.0) | ISSN 2525-3409 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i1.11791 5 segments remain straight. This notation can be described mathematically as (AL-SAYED, 2018): ...
Article
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The article presents the profile of the city of Campina Grande, Brazil, from the perspective of the Space Syntax of the Theory of Social Logic of Space. In the methodology adopted, we used the model that starts from the Road Centre Line (RCL) map elaboration, which served as a basis for obtaining the Angular Segment Analysis, via Depthmapand QGIS software, generating the syntactic measures presented in the results. The objectives proposed in this study were achieved, for the results show that in the city there are spaces with organic and planned characteristics, which reflect socio-cultural aspects of occupation and settlement of the area along its predominantly heterogeneous formation. As for the urban form, there is a configuration composed of an integrating nucleus, located in the urban center; as for the scores presented, there are average values of NAIN (1.007), NACH (0.911) and INCH (12,213) measures, in which 48% with 40%, 54% and 48%, respectively, of the neighborhoods with average scores higher than the index presented by the city's configurational analysis. Most of the territory presents values above the average values for the city and for the Brazilian territory. Thus, it is concluded that the central regions seem to present, according to the data obtained, a more favorable configuration for mobility and accessibility, having in the peripheral neighborhoods segregationist aspects that can explain the restriction of movement of individuals regarding the access of goods and services in the city.
... To address this limitation, this study proposes to enhance the use of the Space Syntax methodology for game level assessment [7]. Space Syntax [7] is a set of theories and techniques to analyze spatial configurations, which suggests the analysis of the space by a network of choices and breaking it down into smaller components [8]. There is an increasing interest in Space Syntax among researchers working on game development in the last decade [9]. ...
Article
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Procedural content generation (PCG) has been an essential catalyzer in the last decade with its efficiency in creating game elements such as textures, game levels, and maps. Despite being successfully applied in various studies, new reliable evaluation tools are still needed to assess the quality of the generated game content. One example limitation of procedurally generated game worlds is the lacking spatial configuration. To address this issue, in this study, an assessment method was developed to evaluate the spatial quality of procedurally generated game worlds. For this purpose, Space Syntax was used, which incorporates a set of methods to analyze spatial configurations and movement. The analyses were applied to a new game developed by the authors —the Haunted House— and the performance was evaluated in terms of integration, connectivity, and depth distance. Results show that changing the room dimensions (i.e., 15x15, 25x25, and 35x35 units) modifies the performance measures as well as game design parameters —number of the spawning points (ranging from 1 to 4), critical axes (1 to 5), to name a few. The proposed approach is a first attempt to create various improved spatial configurations and provide an evaluation tool to analyze the PCG algorithms in level design.
... (Jacobs, 1961;Jacobs, 1993;Hillier, 2003). Έρευνες έχουν δείξει ότι το η πλειοψηφία των ροών κίνησης οφείλεται στην δομή του ίδιου του δικτύου (Hllier, 2014). Αυτό δεν σημαίνει ότι ο χώρος καθορίζει την ατομική κίνηση αλλά ότι όταν οι άνθρωποι κινούνται με ελεύθερη βούληση κάποιοι χώροι καταλήγουν να χρησιμοποιούνται περισσότερο από κάποιους άλλους. ...
Conference Paper
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The Athens Urban Region has been continuously sprawled and expanded, resulting in distant and car-dependent suburbs. The city of Alimos is an inner suburb of Athens that is heavily car-dependent and also has the particularity of a significantly diverse character. The southwest neighbourhood of Alimos has the functional and morphological characteristics of an upper middle-class suburb while its northeast part has these of a typical Athens commuter suburb, and the zone between them, simulates a high-class bedroom suburb. A significant amount of research supports that cities can be approached as self-organising systems that evolve from collections of buildings to vibrant cities, with busy and quiet zones through the interaction of network structure and activities. Thus, the methodology framework presented in this paper, combines the land-use distribution and space syntax analysis for analysing and evaluating activity centres. More specifically, a two-stage methodological framework is being applied which combines space syntax and land-use pattern analyses in a Geographical Information System (GIS) framework in order to identify centralities, analyse their typology and evaluate their dynamic and potential. A key finding of this study is that, even in a residential suburb like Alimos, centrality is mainly generated by the coexistence of different functions, as important city-centres are comprised by diverse activities. Another finding is that, older and already fully established centres in Alimos have been developed without regard for the syntactic centrality while their evolution and newer centres are being developed in syntactically central areas.
... Základní paradigma vychází z předpokladu, že sociokulturní procesy jsou ovlivňovány organizací a uspořádáním struktury, kde k nim dochází (zejména domů, ulic, náměstí), a zároveň že konfigurace prostoru je výsledkem sociokulturních procesů, resp. společenského uspořádání (Al-Sayed et al., 2014). A to nejen blízkými strukturami, ale i odlehlými, které jsou součástí daného celku (Hainc, 2015). ...
Preprint
Vliv suburbanizace na prostorovou konfiguraci uliční sítě malých sídel je tématem výzkumu, který se zabýval analýzou metropolitní oblastí Prahy a Brna. Byla zkoumána sídla, jejichž počet obyvatel a domů se za uplynulých 30 let zdvojnásobil. Pomocí indikátoru integrace metody Space syntax byla identifikována poloha nejvíce integrovaných míst. Ta byla porovnána s jejich polohou před rokem 1989, a následně bylo prověřováno, zda dochází k naplňování potenciálu těchto míst přítomností komerční vybaveností. Vlivem rozvoje v těchto sídlech došlo k přesunu nejintegrovanějších míst z původních center. Nová místa však většinou nevyužívají svého potenciálu, a komerční občanská vybavenost tak zůstává zachována v původních centrech. Výsledky mohou být inspirací k řešení územně plánovacích dokumentací na lokální úrovni v rozmisťování komerční vybavenosti, ale i v optimalizaci stávajícího stavu této vybavenosti. Výsledky také ukazují potřebu prověřovat možné dopady plánovaného rozvoje v územních studiích. Studie by tak mohly řešit vliv návrhu na systém uspořádání uliční sítě sídla a jeho veřejných prostranství.
... 223 gauging spots from the daily flow data of Seoul in 2009. Closeness Centrality index was used for the correlation tests between the analysis results and the pedestrian movement data. Regarding the radius for calculation of Closeness Centrality index, existing studies mainly used a radius of 400m for the analysis of pedestrian movement pattern. (Al_Sayed et. al., 2014) However, in this study, to check the various analysis results in a wider range of situations, we varied the radius value by 100m in the range of 200 ~ 1,000m, and calculated the Closeness Centrality value from axial segment analysis by each radius value. Correlation tests between the Closeness Centrality values and the pedestrian moveme ...
Conference Paper
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It has been recognized that metric factor does not contribute to the prediction of axial segment analysis on human movement behaviour in spatial structure as compared to topological factor or geometrical factor. (Hillier & Iida, 2005; Turner, 2007) However, recent studies show that there has been a problem with the method of applying the metric factor as weighting, and it has been found that by modifying the method, the metric factor can partly contribute to the improvement in the prediction on human movement behaviour in the spatial structure. (Kim & Piao, 2017) In this study, we investigate how metric factor can be applied as weighting to improve the predictive power of axial segment analysis and how it can be combined with topological factor or geometrical factor. This research is expected to be a new beginning of the discussions of advanced spatial analysis methodology with metric weighting.
... It is calculated by counting the number of times each street segment falls on the shortest path between all pairs of segments within a selected distance. The 'shortest path' refers to the path of least angular deviation (namely, the straightest route) through the system [19]. The combi-nation of the data from the LCE and the spatial analysis provides the accessibility scenario during the emergency. ...
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Italy is one of the most earthquake prone areas in Europe and one of the countries with the richest cultural legacy in the world. A series of seismic events occurred in the last decades caused considerable casualties and damage to historic centres, highlighting the need of undertaking protective measures to limit the impact of any potential earthquake. The complex morphology of historical city centres with their century-old built environment contribute to the high vulnerability and exposure in the areas. This research introduces an interdiscipli-nary approach to implement the seismic emergency management for historical centres in Italy and consequently to address their preventive planning. A procedure combining vulnerability analysis and urban spatial techniques allows defining a ranking of priority interventions to be included into a preventive plan in order to ensure free escape routes and clear access for the emergency services during the post-seismic phase. The first step of this work is the survey of the present-day configuration of historic centres, with their historical assets, aggregates, critical infrastructures, urban functions and strategic activities. Then, a key aspect regards the vulnerability assessment of the urban fabric in order to predict post-seismic damage scenarios. By considering the interference of the buildings' vulnerability with the street network, it is possible to develop mitigation strategies to improve the emergency management.
... Since Bill Hillier suggested that spatial form predetermines the function of space and human activities (Hillier, 1996), people began to conduct objective analyses of space to tackle practical problems. Based on isovist concept and Space Syntax theory, a collection of algorithms and tools including Axial Map Analysis, Convex Map Analysis, Visibility Graph Analysis, Segment Map Analysis and Multi-Agent Simulation have been developed and applied to a wide range of scales of spaces and compatible occasions (Al-Sayed et al, 2014). These analysis tools exclude social, functional and other factors to reveal the impacts that space imposes on man to pursue objective and quantitative outcomes. ...
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Supermarket floor layout has influence on customers shopping behaviour and movement path. However, past findings are mainly concentrated on layout patterns identification, lacking computational evaluation of real world layouts. In former research, algorithms in Depthmap such as VGA (Visibility Graph Analysis) and MAS (Multi-Agent Simulation), based on the core concept of isovist, are proved effective in quantitative evaluation of spatial traversability and attractiveness. These algorithms could be new approaches for evaluating supermarket floor layouts. This paper is intended to verify the application of VGA and MAS in supermarket layout analysis by comparing their calculation results with both sales experiences and real world data. Firstly, typical layout patterns are analysed with the two algorithms to verify their consistencies with sales experiences. Secondly, calculations of an experiment supermarket are conducted with parameters adjusted according to the actual environment; tracking points of customers are also collected with a high-precision indoor tracking system. Correlations between the calculation results and real world collected data are demonstrated. The main conclusion is that VGA has its value in position evaluation however cannot predict people flow, while MAS result can be an important reference to both layout evaluation and customer flow prediction. Additionally, applications and some possible refinements of the existing algorithms are also suggested for future studies.
... The same metrics of integration and choice remain as key indicators but are calculated in a slightly different way. It is necessary to point out here that the segment analysis with metric radius is found to be instrumental in detecting major to-and through-movement routes in a street network (Al-Sayed et al, 2014). Moreover, it has been proved that the normalized angular choice (NACH) and normalized angular integration (NAIN) can effectively eliminate the interference from system scale and enable the comparison between street systems of different sizes (see Hillier, 2012). ...
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Ye ZHANG1, Xiangya XIE2, Jie ZHANG2 1 Department of Architecture, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566 2 School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084, P. R. China E-mail: akizy@nus.edu.sg; xiexy15@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; zjzhangjie@tinsghua.edu.cn Keywords (3-5): urban transformation, small and medium-sized historical Chinese cities, big data While an increasing number of research on transformation and conservation of historical areas of major Chinese cities have been witnessed in recent years (e.g. Whitehand et al, 2011; Whitehand et al 2014; Whitehand et al 2016, among many others), endeavours to studying more ordinary and small and medium-sized historical towns in China are rare. In the near future, those historical towns will be confronted with a new wave of developments, given that urbanisation of small and medium-sized cities and towns is high on China’s 13th five-year plan (2016-2020). This will pose a serious challenge to the conservation of their already vulnerable traditional urban fabric. This study aims to develop an accurate description of the transformation of built form, in particular street and block patterns, of the small and medium-sized historical towns, and how this is associated with the change of spatial distribution of urban activities. A total number of 36 towns in Zhejiang province, China are selected as case studies. Transformation of the urban fabric is examined based on cartographical maps of different historical periods using combined methods of urban network analysis and field survey. A large amount of user-generated geo-referenced open data, such as social media reviews, point-of-interest mapping, microblogs and night time illumination maps, are harnessed to produce a detailed description of urban activity patterns, of which the relationships to the transformation of urban form are investigated using multi-variate regression models. The results show how basic built form parameters such as spatial integration, between-ness centrality, block size and block depth can effectively and accurately describe the transformation of the small and medium-sized historical towns and how the formal changes are linked to the geographical shift of different urban activities. In which ways the findings can inform decision making in urban conservation practice to better address the tension between conservation and developments is discussed at the end.References: Whitehand Jeremy WR, Gu Kai, and Whitehand Susan M. (2011). "Fringe belts and socioeconomic change in China." Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 38 (1):41-60 Whitehand Jeremy WR, Gu Kai, Conzen Michael P, and Whitehand Susan M. (2014). "The typological process and the morphological period: a cross-cultural assessment." Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 41 (3):512-533. Whitehand Jeremy WR, Conzen Michael P, and Gu Kai. 2016. "Plan analysis of historical cities: a Sino-European comparison." Urban Morphology 20 (2):139-158.
Chapter
Immersive augmented reality (AR) is an exciting medium for locative narrative. Immersive AR experiences are largely custom-made and site-specific, however: we lack generic tools that help authors consider interactions between physical layout, viewer perspective, and story progression, for specific sites or for locations unknown to the author. In this paper we evaluate Story CreatAR, a tool that incorporates spatial analysis techniques used in architecture, planning, and social sciences to help authors construct and deploy immersive AR narratives. We worked with three authors over several months, moving from script writing and story graph creation to deployment using the tool. We conduct a thematic analysis of each author’s actions, comments, generated artifacts, and interview responses. Authors faced a steep learning curve, sometimes misinterpreting spatial properties, and found it difficult to consider multi-site deployment. Despite these challenges, Story CreatAR helped authors consider the impact of layout on their stories in ways their scripts and graphs did not, and authors identified several additional areas for spatial analysis support, suggesting that tools like Story CreatAR are a promising direction for producing immersive AR narratives. Reflecting on author experiences, we identify a number of features that such tools should provide. KeywordsSpace syntaxStorytellingProxemicsStory CreatARAugmented reality
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The impact of natural disasters on price fluctuations in the real estate market has become an increasingly important field of study since the climate crisis is driving the sustained growth of expected risk in property buying. In Mexico City, for historical, geological, and soil reasons, earthquake damage is one of the most alarming risks perceived by property buyers. With data from real estate listing prices in the city (before and after the 2017 earthquake) and using a spatial difference-in-differences model, this work analyzes how closing the information gap on seismic risk affects properties prices. We found that a price discount on risky properties existed before the earthquake and increased in the short term after the event. This finding suggests that an adequate risk awareness policy can protect potential consumers and reduce market failures. However, the results have a limited scope since the database contains information on properties located in high-middle income areas. A similar study focused on low-income areas of the city should be done to inform public policy for the most vulnerable consumers.
Chapter
Processes of urbanization, market liberalization and exploitation of heritage can engender the fragmentation and deterioration of historical urban landscapes. Cultural paths are a central aspect of policies of cultural heritage valorisation. Hence, this study proposes the Cultural Paths Assessment Tool (PAST) as a methodological framework for individuating a network of paths connecting cultural heritage components and for assessing their usefulness. The relevance of the PAST lies in the combination of Space Syntax techniques, GIS analytic tools and qualitative analysis within a Multi-criteria analysis framework. The proposed methodology—applied to the analysis of the historical district of Marina in the city of Cagliari (Italy)—addresses the need to establish methodologies and analytic tools that support decision making processes for conserving, managing and valorising historic Urban landscapes.
Chapter
Real estate values and housing prices are undoubtedly among the most reliable indicators of the positional prominence of urban areas, suitable for dynamically registering and reproducing the trend of their appeal over time. Based on the assumption that the configurational state of an urban grid is the primary element in the phenomena that occur within a settlement, this research is aimed at exploring the correlation between the distribution of property prices, as they are observed in the actual real estate market, and the configurational indices, resulting from the spatial analysis of the grid. Furthermore, on the same basis it will be argued that any significant transformation of the urban settlement, focused on some material change in its structure, as well as in its topology, is likely to strongly influence also the distribution of economic values. Such thesis will be put to concrete test in some compelling case studies, so as to demonstrate that a significant infrastructural transformation entails much more than a mere spatial and morphological variation: as modifying the distribution of configurational variables, it will also affect the socio-economic structure of the settlement. What affects the tangible city—the grid of its open spaces, the blocks and building that define them, and the physical networks that connect them—cannot but reflect on the intangible social components of the settlements—the behavioral pattern, the mutual interactions, the distribution of movement flows, the attractiveness of places-, of which real estate values prices are the most evident and straightforward clues. What planning cannot afford to ignore or disregard.
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The Landscape Architecture Foundation (LAF) advocates evaluating built landscape projects’ performance and collecting evidence to guide future practice. However, in the first few years of landscape performance research, various case studies, while quantifying a number of desirable outcomes, failed to evaluate projects’ performance against their original goals. Therefore, they did not sufficiently establish relationships between goals, design solutions, and performance. This paper aims to demonstrate the need for goal-driven performance evaluation through an urban park study in Florida, USA. We evaluate Depot Park’s level of accomplishment regarding four design goals and discuss experiences and lessons learned during the process. The results show that although it is feasible to conclude whether a project is making progress towards its goals, determining whether the goals are achieved or the level of accomplishment can be difficult. Precisely defined goals, performance benchmarks, and comparative studies are needed for future performance studies.
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This monograph focuses on the concept of ‘liveable streets’ in China, which has been overlooked in the existing literature. This research has firstly developed an analytical framework with a hierarchy of liveability qualities, factors, and specific indicators for Shanghai. The framework was initially informed by the literature and then refined through questionnaires and interviews with urban development professionals in China (n = 107). Interviews with residents (n = 242) on residential streets were also conducted. The research applied and tested the framework’s usefulness in practice on fifteen selected street segments. Some street segments are rooted in the Chinese tradition, while others showcase strong international influences. According to their historical-morphological characteristics, the selected streets are categorised as S, M, L, XL, and XXL streets. Each category includes three parallel street segments that carry different volumes of vehicular traffic. The study reveals many physical and functional characteristics of streets that are conducive to vibrant social life, particularly manifested in the S and M streets in Shanghai. The analytical framework developed through this research informs a localised definition of liveable streets. Among six definitory liveability qualities, ‘social interaction’ and ‘sense of belonging’, reinforced by ‘local economic activities’ are specific to Shanghai and distinct from the Western context. The three other qualities include a ‘local humanised environment’, ‘facilities and mixed-uses’, and ‘safety’, which are also vital for liveable streets in Chinese cities. This research sheds light on contextualising liveability qualities and informs the design and planning of liveable streets in China.
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Nowadays, there is an increasing recognition of the value of knowledge management in the construction projects and ontology-based semantic modelling is seen as an important means of addressing this problem, even if a knowledge-base which maps the construction planning and scheduling domains, in a formal and machine-readable way, is still missing. Addressing this issue, the book is divided in two parts. Part I, theory, is a theoretical introduction of on ontologies concepts and expert systems. Part II, application, presents a research of ontologies development for semantic modelling of construction scheduling, workspace, product and time domains. The last chapter presents the architecture of an ontology-based expert system, to show how ontologies can support automated planning mechanisms.
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This research explores how to understand the concept of ‘liveable streets’ in the context of Shanghai. It follows the Chinese State Council’s call (2015) for ungated communities and dense street networks, meant to improve liveability in cities. Factors of liveability have been extracted from the international and Chinese literature and refined through locally-administered online questionnaires (n=95) and semi-structured interviews (n=12) with a sample of urban studies professionals. The outcome of this research is an analytical framework consisting of qualities, factors and indicators to assess and distinguish what constitutes a liveable street in Shanghai. A set of 28 indicators is proposed to facilitate the straight-forward application of the framework in fast-growing urban settings. This research reveals the importance of contextualizing liveability factors and their relevance in informing policy-making and the practice of urban design and planning in Chinese cities.
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When considering location—an important aspect—in real estate evaluation, the visible area indicates the location’s visibility and the Integration Value (IV) indicates the location’s ease of access. We believe that the quantification of real estate location evaluation can be advanced by analyzing rent factors using the visible area and the IV as Space Syntax (SS) indices. In this paper, we performed a multiple regression analysis on office rent, targeting the area within a 10-min walking distance of Kanda Station, Tokyo by adding the visible area and the IV to the other candidate factors. A model with the minimum value of the Akaike information criterion was selected using a stepwise variable increase/decrease method, and the fitness of the model was considered. The robustness of the SS index was also examined by comparing this paper to a previous study on Shibuya Station.
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The current research set out to measure the moderating effect that urban design may have on bicyclist physiology while in transition. Focusing on the hilly City of Wuppertal, Germany, we harnessed bicyclists with mobile sensors to measure their responses to urban design metrics obtained from space syntax, while also adjusting for known traffic, terrain, and contextual factors. The empirical strategy consisted of exploratory data analysis (EDA), ordinary least squares (OLS), and a local regression model to account for spatial autocorrelation. The latter model was robust (R² = 68%), and showed that two statistically significant (p < 0.05) urban design factors influenced bicyclist physiology. Controllability, a measure of how spatially dominated a space is, increased bicyclist responses (i.e., decreased comfortability); while integration, which is related to accessibility and connectivity, had the opposite effect. Other noteworthy covariates included one-way streets and density of parked automobiles: these exerted a negative influence on bicyclist physiology. The results of this research ultimately showed that nuanced urban designs have a moderate influence on bicycling comfort. These outcomes could be utilized by practitioners focused on implementing appropriate interventions to increase bicyclist comfort levels and this mode share.
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The vision and mission of research under the banner of Ubiquitous Computing has increasingly moved from focusing on the realm of "artifacts" to the realm of "environments". We seek to scrutinize this very transition, and raise questions that relate to the specific attributes of built environments that set them inherently apart from artifacts. How does an interactive environment differ from an interactive artifact, a collection of artifacts, or an integrated suite of artifacts? Consequently, we ask what are the new user experience dimensions that HCI researchers should merge into their considerations, for example, by supplementing us-ability and engagement with occupants' comfort across multiple dimensions, and shifting attention from (often) short lifespan and discretionary to durable and immersive experiences? In this contribution, we bring arguments from the literature of environmental psychology and architecture that highlight the points of divergence between artifacts and architecture, and then translate them into challenges for Human-Computer Interaction, and particularly for the emerging domain of Human-Building Interaction.
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This paper presents a linear representation of the built environment called "continuity line". A continuity line is the aggregation of several axial lines to represent an urban path in its longest extension, respecting a maximum sinuosity previously defined. It is based on two main arguments: first, that the notion of continuity is already embedded in the axial system; and second, that the continuity lines reinforce the relationship between configurational properties and the hidden geometry of the axial maps.
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A Family of new measures of point and graph centrality based on early intuitions of Bavelas (1948) is introduced. These measures define centrality in terms of the degree to which a point falls on the shortest path between others and therefore has a potential for control of communication. They may be used to index centrality in any large or small network of symmetrical relations, whether connected or unconnected.
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GIS databases representing urban layouts according to road centerlines spanning between intersection nodes (at road junctions) can be analyzed syntactically based on the concept of angular fractional depth.
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In July 1995, the Tate Gallery commissioned the Unit for Architectural Studies to carry out a study of the spatial design and patterns of space use in the existing Tate Gallery, as an aid to evaluating proposals for a new masterplan with a basement level entrance. The study was to comprise four stages: computer modelling and analysis of the existing layout using 'space syntax' techniques; observations of current patterns of movement and space use; correlation of the spatial analysis and observations to provide a detailed picture of how the Tate is currently working; computer simulation of the new design proposals in light of findings of the study in order to evaluate the likely effects of changes in the layout on the pattern of movement and space use in the Gallery. The observation study was carried out during the week of 7th August. Because Room 20 was closed at this time until 4th September, further observations in and around this space were carried out after this date to see how far the closure had affected the pattern of movement and space use. The lower ground gallery was not open during the first observation period, and was therefore also observed during this later period. Full reference: Tate Gallery, Millbank: A Study of the Existing Layout and New Masterplan Proposal (B. Hillier, M.D. Major, J. Desyllas, K. Karimi, B. Campos, T. Stonor). Unit for Architectural Studies Report, 1995, 31 pp.
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The environment is defined as a collection of visible real surfaces in space. An isovist is the set of all points visible from a given vantage point in space and with respect to an environment. The shape and size of an isovist is liable to change with position. Numerical measures are proposed that quantify some salient size and shape features. These measures in turn create a set of scalar isovist fields . Sets of isovists and isovist fields form an alternative description of environments. The method seems relevant to behavioral and perceptual studies in architecture, especially in the areas of view control, privacy, 'defensibility', and in dynamic complexity and spaciousness judgements. Isovists and isovist fields also shed light on the meaning of prevalent architectural notions about space . In the latter role it is hoped that an information-field theory such as the one presented can help provide fruitful common ground for designers and researchers.
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Existing theories relating patterns of pedestrian and vehicular movement to urban form characterise the problem in terms of flows to and from 'attractor' land uses. This paper contains evidence in support of a new 'configurational' paradigm in which a primary property of the form of the urban grid is to privilege certain spaces over others for through movement. In this way it is suggested that the configuration of the urban grid itself is the main generator of patterns of movement. Retail land uses are then located to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the passing trade and may well act as multipliers on the basic pattern of 'natural movement' generated by the grid configuration. The configurational correlates of movement patterns are found to be measures of global properties of the grid with the 'space syntax' measure of 'integration' consistently found to be the most important. This has clear implications for urban design suggesting that if we wish to design for well used urban space, then it is not the local properties of a space that are important in the main but its configurational relations to the larger urban system.
Book
The book presents a new theory of space: how and why it is a vital component of how societies work. The theory is developed on the basis of a new way of describing and analysing the kinds of spatial patterns produced by buildings and towns. The methods are explained so that anyone interested in how towns or buildings are structured and how they work can make use of them. The book also presents a new theory of societies and spatial systems, and what it is about different types of society that leads them to adopt fundamentally different spatial forms. From this general theory, the outline of a 'pathology of modern urbanism' in today's social context is developed.
Conference Paper
Correlations are regularly found in space syntax studies between graph-based configurational measures of street networks, represented as lines, and observed movement patterns. This suggests that topological and geometric complexity are critically involved in how people navigate urban grids. This has caused difficulties with orthodox urban modelling, since it has always been assumed that insofar as spatial factors play a role in navigation, it will be on the basis of metric distance. In spite of much experimental evidence from cognitive science that geometric and topological factors are involved in navigation, and that metric distance is unlikely to be the best criterion for navigational choices, the matter has not been convincingly resolved since no method has existed for extracting cognitive information from aggregate flows. Within the space syntax literature it has also remained unclear how far the correlations that are found with syntactic variables at the level of aggregate flows are due to cognitive factors operating at the level of individual movers, or they are simply mathematically probable network effects, that is emergent statistical effects from the structure of line networks, independent of the psychology of navigational choices. Here we suggest how both problems can be resolved, by showing three things: first, how cognitive inferences can be made from aggregate urban flow data and distinguished from network effects; second by showing that urban movement, both vehicular and pedestrian, are shaped far more by the geometrical and topological properties of the grid than by its metric properties; and third by demonstrating that the influence of these factors on movement is a cognitive, not network, effect.
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Drawing on more than four decades of experience as a researcher and teacher, Howard Becker now brings to students and researchers the many valuable techniques he has learned. Tricks of the Trade will help students learn how to think about research projects. Assisted by Becker's sage advice, students can make better sense of their research and simultaneously generate fresh ideas on where to look next for new data. The tricks cover four broad areas of social science: the creation of the "imagery" to guide research; methods of "sampling" to generate maximum variety in the data; the development of "concepts" to organize findings; and the use of "logical" methods to explore systematically the implications of what is found. Becker's advice ranges from simple tricks such as changing an interview question from "Why?" to "How?" (as a way of getting people to talk without asking for a justification) to more technical tricks such as how to manipulate truth tables. Becker has extracted these tricks from a variety of fields such as art history, anthropology, sociology, literature, and philosophy; and his dazzling variety of references ranges from James Agee to Ludwig Wittgenstein. Becker finds the common principles that lie behind good social science work, principles that apply to both quantitative and qualitative research. He offers practical advice, ideas students can apply to their data with the confidence that they will return with something they hadn't thought of before. Like Writing for Social Scientists, Tricks of the Trade will bring aid and comfort to generations of students. Written in the informal, accessible style for which Becker is known, this book will be an essential resource for students in a wide variety of fields. "An instant classic. . . . Becker's stories and reflections make a great book, one that will find its way into the hands of a great many social scientists, and as with everything he writes, it is lively and accessible, a joy to read."âCharles Ragin, Northwestern University
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Since The social logic of space was published in 1984, Bill Hillier and his colleagues at University College London have been conducting research on how space features in the form and functioning of buildings and cities. A key outcome is the concept of ‘spatial configuration’ — meaning relations which take account of other relations in a complex. New techniques have been developed and applied to a wide range of architectural and urban problems. The aim of this book is to assemble some of this work and show how it leads the way to a new type of theory of architecture: an ‘analytic’ theory in which understanding and design advance together. The success of configurational ideas in bringing to light the spatial logic of buildings and cities suggests that it might be possible to extend these ideas to other areas of the human sciences where problems of configuration and pattern are critical.
Article
This paper is taken from the forthcoming book, "Space is the Machine" (CUP 1996) which brings together some of the recent developments in applying configurational analysis to issues of architectural and urban theory. The paper reports a fundamental research finding: that movement in the urban grid is, all other things being equal, generated by the configuration of the grid itself. This finding allows completely new insights into the structure of urban grids, and the way these stuctures relate to urban function. The relation between grid and movement in fact underlies many other aspects of urban form: the distribution of land uses such as retail and residence, spatial patterning of crime, the evolution of different densities and even the part-whole structure of cities. The influence of the fundamental grid-movement relation is so pervasive that cities are conceptualized here as 'movement economies', in which the structuring of movement by the grid leads, through multiplier effects, to dense patterns of mixed use encounter that characterize the spatially successful city.
Article
Pedestrian movement studies in real environments have shown consistent statistical relationships between ‘configurational’ properties of spatial layouts and movement flows, facilitating prediction of movement from designs. However, these studies are at an aggregate level and say nothing about how individuals make the micro-scale decisions producing these emergent regularities. They do not therefore ‘explain’ movement. Progress on this is difficult since decision-making mechanisms are hard to observe in the real world and the ‘experimenter effect’ is ever-present. Could the study of movement in immersive virtual environments help? If it could be shown that movement in virtual environments was analogous to movement in real environments then microbehaviour data (head movement, direction of gaze, visual search behaviours) could be obtained through virtual experiments. The aim of this thesis is to explore this possibility by constructing experimental worlds with spatial properties varied to reflect those known to relate to movement in the real world, and asking individuals navigate through them immersively. Powerful analogies are initially demonstrated between virtual and real behaviour. Two types of micro-scale analysis are then performed: linear analysis, examining how routes are formed and how far linearity is conserved, using measurements of cumulative angular deviation along a path, string-matching algorithms to determine average routes, and analysis of isovist attributes along routes; and positional analysis, focussing upon pausing behaviour, including examining where subjects pause along routes, what choices are made at junctions, how isovist properties of pauselocations compare with an environment’s overall isovist attribute distribution, and correlating pause-point and isovist data. In each analysis, ‘subjective’ movement behaviour is related to ‘objective’ properties of environments. The experiments show results strongly suggesting how noted aggregate regularities are produced: linearity is strongly conserved, usually following long sight-lines, with pauses in configurationally ‘integrated’ locations offering strategic visual properties, long lines of sight, and large isovist areas.
Article
Simple 'space syntax' techniques are used to explore the problem of spatially typing a sample of vernacular farmhouses in Normandy. It is suggested that such techniques can demonstrate that cultural ideas are objectively present in artefacts as much as they are subjectively present in minds.
Space Syntax: A brief introduction to its logic and analytical techniques
• S Bafna
Bafna, S., 2003, " Space Syntax: A brief introduction to its logic and analytical techniques ". Environment and Behavior, 35(1): 17-29. http://eab.sagepub.com/ content/35/1/17.short?rss=1&ssource=mfr
Automated viewshed analysis for configurational analysis of retail facilities
• D Chapman
• F Kontou
• A Penn
• A Turner
Chapman, D, Kontou, F, Penn, A, Turner, A, 1999, " Automated viewshed analysis for configurational analysis of retail facilities ", In Proceedings 19th International Cartographic Conference, Ottawa, Canada. http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/101755/
Axial maps and visibility graph analysis: a comparison of their methodology and use in models of urban pedestrian movement
• J Desyllas
• E Duxbury
Desyllas, J., Duxbury, E., 2001, " Axial maps and visibility graph analysis: a comparison of their methodology and use in models of urban pedestrian movement ". In Proceedings 3rd International Symposium on Space Syntax, Georgia Institute of Technology, GA, May 2001.
Continuity lines: Aggregating axial lines to predict vehicular movement patterns
• L Figueiredo
• L Amorim
Figueiredo, L., Amorim, L., 2004, " Continuity lines: Aggregating axial lines to predict vehicular movement patterns ", Proceedings, 3rd Great Asian Streets Symposium, Singapore, National University of Singapore.