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Sharing economy and prospects in tourism research

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  • EHL Hospitality Business School
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... Several aspects of the sharing economy have been researched in the pre-COVID period revealing the nature of the challenges faced by SE firms. These include (a) regulatory challenges, such as lack of laws to regulate the SE sector (Gonzalez-Padron, 2017;Hartl et al., 2016;Hou, 2018;Katz, 2015;Leighton, 2016), evasion of taxes by SE firms (Heo, 2016;Kathan et al., 2016), and use of advocacy to gain legitimacy and control (Marchi & Parekh, 2015;Zvolska et al., 2019); (b) competition with traditional incumbents, which often placed the incumbents at a price disadvantage (Hou, 2018) as SE firms benefitted from reduced running costs (Kathan et al., 2016) and often engaged in deep discounting due to infusion of funds by affluent institutional investors (Murillo et al., 2017), thus being labeled as unfair competition for the traditional incumbents (Ranchordas, 2015); (c) adverse impact on the society due to the unhindered growth of some SE firms (Acquier et al., 2017), for instance, the destruction of communities due to the expansion of Airbnb (Gutiérrez et al., 2017;Wisniewska, 2019) and labor issues arising due to the rise of temporary workers (Collier et al., 2017;Conger, 2020b;Leung et al., 2019); and (d) prosumer concerns related to safety and security (Barann et al., 2017); concerns about data privacy (Chaudhry, 2019;Hill, 2019;Marshall, 2019), and physical safety (Abbruzzese, 2019). ...
... Another important reason for the lack of regulations was that sharing economy companies could not be classified neatly into traditional legal categories (Katz, 2015). SE companies often evaded taxes (Heo, 2016). Uber, for instance, was often accused of exploiting loopholes to evade taxes (Kathan et al., 2016). ...
... Sharing economy companies have been welcomed by some governments, at least till they proved beneficial, while other governments have framed strong regulations against them (Cheng, 2016). This caused a lot of uncertainty for SE firms in the pre-pandemic phase (Heo, 2016). The relationship between the SE companies and the governments were often confrontational (Hagemeier, 2018). ...
Article
The unbridled propagation of the sharing economy halted abruptly with the onset of the pandemic, forcing sharing economy companies to respond to the new set of challenges faced by them. There were marked differences between the pre-and post-COVID challenges. Post-COVID, sharing economy companies designed novel response strategies including tempering ambitions, adapting business models, designing new standard operating procedures, displaying empathy towards employees and partners, building trust, and sharing information with stakeholders. This signified a reorientation of sharing economy companies in the hypercon-nected world where there is a blurring of boundaries as brand experiences and meanings are cocreated by stakeholders. Sharing economy companies would need to focus on different set of values to attain competitive advantage in the post-COVID world-partnership instead of confrontation, nurturing instead of destructive, open and sharing instead of closed, and empathetic instead of uncaring. This can help create meaningful differentiation and provide competitive advantage. ARTICLE HISTORY
... This idea overlaps significantly with concepts such as solidarity economy, social economy, access economy, platform economy, and community economy [5][6][7][8][9]. At the same time, the term itself and the scope of its application are not the subject of scientific consensus and cover a wide variety of disciplines, such as business modelling, psychology, economics, innovation, law, management, marketing, sociology, and sustainable development [5,10]. ...
... The authors have found that the sharing economy is compared to the peer-to-peer economy (P2P) in scientific publications [5,[11][12][13][14]. This can be explained by the service provider's analysis, which is more often characterized by a horizontal network of participants' economic self-organizations, ensuring the production, exchange, distribution, and consumption of tangible and intangible goods without a hierarchical management regime [10,15]. Inspired by a study by Daniel Schlagwein et al. in 2019, the authors agree with their definition of a sharing economy [16]. ...
... Analyzing the sharing economy, Gibbs et al. [31] used the theory of hedonic prices, since the prices of goods and services in the sharing economy depend not only on the product itself, but also on its characteristics. The logic of the service economy, according to Heo [10], is the most relevant for explaining the phenomenon of the sharing economy. In the work of Cheng [32], sharing economics is considered from the standpoint of the theory of social presence and the methodology of multilevel analysis. ...
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The overwhelming goal of large-scale cross-country research is to evaluate consumers’ perception of a sharing economy. The research was limited by the number of respondents, as well as by the countries represented in the survey. Latvia, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus were mostly represented, and only these responses (757) were analyzed. The study used multilevel modelling of sharing economy elements (dependent variable) in relation to personal characteristics (age, gender, income, industry) nested by the self-assessed level of eco-friendliness (a key predictor for the attitude towards sharing economy). Findings: The key personal characteristics, which influence a person’s intention to be involved in the sharing economy practices, are level of income, education, and also self-perceived ecological friendliness. The sharing economy is not only a topic for investigation among academicians, but also an issue on the agenda of the European Commission, because it is considered as a driver for growth and job creation in the European Union. Despite an increasing interest and many studies, there is a limited number of studies focused on difference in perception of sharing economy depending on personal characteristics of respondents. This indicates the necessity of conducting such surveys, involving participants from different European countries. The given paper could be used as a methodological framework for other European researchers who are interested in the exploration of the topic regarding perception of the sharing economy.
... This concept creates new markets (European Parliament, 2017) and has received attention both in the business world and in the academic world as an important research topic (Kim, Lee, Koo & Yang, 2017). An example of the prominent importance of the sharing economy in the business world is the case of the tourism industry (Cheng, 2016, European Parlament, 2017Heo, 2016;Stors & Kagermeier, 2015). Considered one of the most important economic activities in the world (Aleksandrov & Fedorova, 2018;European Parlament, 2017), this sector, has been influenced and transformed by this new type of economy (Aleksandrov & Fedorova, 2018;Cheng, 2016;Guttentag, 2015;Heo, 2016;Tussyadiah & Pesonen, 2016). ...
... An example of the prominent importance of the sharing economy in the business world is the case of the tourism industry (Cheng, 2016, European Parlament, 2017Heo, 2016;Stors & Kagermeier, 2015). Considered one of the most important economic activities in the world (Aleksandrov & Fedorova, 2018;European Parlament, 2017), this sector, has been influenced and transformed by this new type of economy (Aleksandrov & Fedorova, 2018;Cheng, 2016;Guttentag, 2015;Heo, 2016;Tussyadiah & Pesonen, 2016). One of these recent effects is the increasing number of individuals who are willing to share temporarily what they own with tourists (e.g. the house or car) or what they do (e.g. ...
... meals or excursions) (European Parlament, 2017). This type of behaviour of the supplier associated with the need for a greater authenticity of the experiences lived by the tourists (Paulauskaite, Powell, Coca-Stefaniak & Morrison, 2017;Stors & Kagermeier, 2015) permits this type of economy to continue to grow at a steep pace in tourism (Heo, 2016). ...
Article
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Globalization and rapid technological developments have contributed to the emergence of a new economic system-the sharing economy. A prominent example of this new type of economy lies in the tourism industry. This sector has been influenced and transformed by this economy with important consequences for tourism, tourist destinations, and sustainability. This article, through a systematic review of the literature, endeavours to systematize current knowledge of this relationship and investigate its evolution, the relationship between this new form of economy and the sustainability in tourism as well as the areas that have not yet been explored for possible future research. For this, a study of 45 articles was subsequently analysed in the light of content analysis. The results show although it is an area of growing interest, given the number of recent articles, there are few studies concerned in the relation between sharing economy and sustainability in the tourism sector. There are four major areas of current studies with quantitative methods dominating investigations. The impacts that this type of economy has on tourism and also on the sustainability of the destinations remain dubious and there are areas whose results are not consensual among authors. There is thus a need to consolidate the knowledge and to explore several ways of research since it is a subject that is still in the embryonic stage.
... Cluster 1 includes (Gutiérrez et al., 2017;Guttentag et al., 2018;Guttentag & Smith, 2017;Heo, 2016) introducing Airbnb as a form of the SE. In this cluster, researchers describe some general characteristics of the SE, especially Airbnb as a pioneer of this phenomenon. ...
... According to their results, there are five practical motivations, besides five users' segmentations, as mentioned before. Heo (2016) considered the existing flows of the SE and ride-sharing. He pointed out sharing actions as renting, lending, trading, bartering, swapping goods, services, transportation solutions, space, and money in the car, house, and toy sharing context. ...
... Guttentag, 2015, v15= (D. A. Guttentag & Smith, 2017), v16= (D. Guttentag et al., 2018), v17= (Hellwig et al., 2015), v18= (Heo, 2016), v19= (Lamberton & Rose, 2012), v20= , v21= (Malhotra & Van Alstyne, 2014), v22= (Martin et al., 2015), v23= (Martin, 2016), v24= (Matzler et al., 2015), v25= (Möhlmann, 2015), v26= (Ozanne & Ballantine, 2010), v27= (Priporas et al., 2017), v28= (Tussyadiah, 2016b), v29= (Tussyadiah, 2016a), v30= (Zervas et al., 2017). ...
Article
Even though academics and practitioners extensively apply the notion of the sharing economy (SE), the conceptualization and the literature construction remained disjointed and dispersed due to the lack of a rigorous attempt to understand the core concept of the SE. This concept is multidimensional, which makes its investigation essential for practitioners and academics. Based on a 15-year data set collected from the Web of Science database, our paper seeks to provide a pervasive science plot of the intellectual structure of the SE field. A bibliometric review method was used by studying documents published from 2005 to 2020, using the VOSviewer, Bibexcel, SPSS, and GunnMap2 software. Providing an overview of articles, authors, the most influential journals, and themes of research, we contribute to the literature on the SE by identifying and proposing six research groups in MDS analysis, six research clusters in HCA analysis, and future study directions. Eventually, the research acknowledges the theoretical contribution, the limits of the present study, and recommends further study directions.
... These accommodations offer discounts of up to 40% off the price of a hotel room (Yung, 2014). Many studies (Guttentag, 2015;Heo, 2016;Lehr, 2015;Nica & Potcovaru, 2015;OECD, 2016;Oskam & Boswijk, 2016;Tussyadiah, 2016;Weber, 2014;Zervas, Proserpio, & Byers, 2016) also found that Airbnb is cheaper than hotels, which is an attractive factor to young people, families, and people with low travel budgets (Varma, Jukic, Pestek, Shultz, & Nestorov, 2016). However, Poon andHuang (2017, p. 2438) found that Airbnb is 'less preferred when traveling with family,' which shows the need for further research from the perspective of family users. ...
... They noted that experience is the key element of the hospitality and tourism industry. Social interaction between tourists and hosts may be considered a key factor that determines the perceived value, enjoyment (Tussyadiah, 2016), and satisfaction of tourists (Heo, 2016). Their social interaction with local hosts may be an important channel that promotes their experiences to others. ...
... Technology has offered also new business opportunities that can be exploited by ordinary individuals. A great number of online platforms, in fact, have developed with the aim of sharing goods and services among individuals, providing new ways for end-users to generate income from their possessions (Heo, 2016). ...
... An important argument is about the differences between the sharing economy and collaborative consumption (Belk, 2014;Botsman, 2014). Researchers and scholars have also discussed the impact of the sharing economy on the tourism sector (Kannisto, 2017;Azenha et al., 2015;Dredge & Gyimóthy, 2015;Ejarque, 2016;Heo, 2016;Ivanova, 2015;Cheng, 2016;Rodriguez Anton et al., 2016), in order to consider both the impediments as well as the incentives to share both tangible and intangible goods (Belk, 2007). Another relevant issue is related to the legal aspects of the sharing economy, since it is still not clear how sharing platforms operate in terms of regulation according to the specific laws of the countries in which they are active (Edelman & Geradin, 2016;Tham, 2016). ...
Chapter
The sharing economy is at the centre of current debates involving new technologies, sustainability, big data and stakeholder engagement. This edited volume encourages new theoretical and empirical development on sharing economy studies in the service industries field.
... In recent years, tourism and tourist behaviour have been affected by the emergence and growth of digital platforms (Boros et al., 2018;Dolnicar, 2020;Gyódi, 2019;Heo, 2016) and the so-called 'platform economy' (PE) (del Romero Renau, 2018;Ferreri & Sanyal, 2018;Ortuño & Jiménez, 2019). Among the factors that account for the popularity of these digital platforms are the development of Information Technologies (IT) and the democratization of access to the Internet, thus facilitating a better match between tourism demand and supply (Werthner & Klein, 1999). ...
... The rapid growth of STR presents challenges for policy makers in tourist destinations (Bakker & Twining-Ward, 2018). The impact on the sector has led many researchers to investigate this issue (Heo, 2016). ...
Article
Accommodation is one of the main sectors affected by the emergence of platform economies. This issue has been addressed by many researchers, but they have mainly focussed on Airbnb and large cities. Thus, there is a need for research on medium-sized cities and how they have been affected by the growth of short-term rental (STR) homes. Using official data, we analysed the spatial distribution of holiday rental homes in four Andalusian cities: Cordova, Granada, Malaga, and Seville. Using tourist density and intensity indicators, we created maps showing the concentration of STRs in historic centres, which matches the spatial distribution pattern of traditional tourist accommodation (TA). The analysis also identified areas in each city into which STRs may expand in the future. The results of this study may help policymakers and institutions responsible for territorial and tourism planning to better understand how the emergence of platform economies is impacting tourist destinations. They should also assist policymakers in making informed decisions on regulating this phenomenon.
... These statements illustrate the importance of adapting to changes arising from technology advancement and economic volatility within the tourism industry (Ibrahim et al., 2007). The rapidity of such change has signalled the emergence of the sharing economy, resulting in the disruption of existing infrastructure, regulations and cultures within tourism (Belk, 2014;Heo, 2016;Möhlmann, 2016). Newcomers are causing technological disruptions within the tourism industry leverage on the network effects by taking economic advantage and consequently, cause an increase in the commoditization of tourism products . ...
... Braun (2002) highlighted the importance of collaboration between regional tourism enterprises as the increase in information flow through regional cooperative e-marketing campaigns would significantly benefit the firms and destinations by enhancing their market presence, global positioning, and gaining an advantage in the new economy. Collaboration is also known as a network of communities for creation and idea development, and therefore, is conceptualised as part of co-creation (Heo, 2016). Literature also suggests that collaboration and partnerships allow the collective achievement of organisational goals while boosting development; enhance economic gains, and encourages community cohesion (Pyo, 2010;Önder, Wöber and Zekan, 2017). ...
Thesis
The advancement of technology has revolutionised the tourism industry. However, Destination Management Organisations (DMOs), in general, have yet to undertake holistic technological solutions in addressing their expected roles and responsibilities, particularly with regards to its role in supporting online collaborations. Greater understanding is required on the functional capabilities needed by both business stakeholders and visitors to provide holistically integrated applications for digital collaborations. Therefore, this research aims to critically discuss the roles and mechanisms in which DMOs become points of consolidation and collaboration for tourism businesses through digital platforms and the functionalities for end-user experience creation. Hence, identifying the characteristics and operational capabilities that enhanced digital platforms of DMOs need to have as part of their functions. A design-based research approach with three phases was used for the research. Phase 1 explored the understanding and usage of current digital offerings as well as existing collaboration practices. Findings from Phase 1 were used to guide the development of a digital trial platform in Phase 2. The subsequent platform testing in Phase 3 was conducted to further strengthen the understanding of digital collaborations and to establish the needed functionalities for enhanced digital platforms. Data were collected primarily through qualitative methods (interviews and focus groups) with the support of quantitative and visual methods using an eye-tracker device. Findings demonstrate the need for DMOs to provide distinct value propositions of experience creation on their digital platform for business stakeholders and visitors. Therefore, an enhanced digital platform must be equipped with the functionalities for knowledge exchange, networking and marketing for business stakeholders, and personalisation of itineraries and travel information for visitors. The functional capabilities of digital collaboration are underpinned by the concepts of trust, control, leadership, and the willingness to collaborate. As such, the research contributes to the existing knowledge on technology influenced DMO management.
... […] zbudowany przez platformy system standaryzacji funkcjonuje efektywnie, trudno byłoby wyobrazić sobie inne standardy jakości od przyjętych przez platformę, możliwości realnego wdrożenia tego typu standardów są mocno ograniczone, a ich wdrożenie wiązałoby się z ograniczeniem wielkości i efektywności rynku" 47 . ...
... Ridesharing to sposób podróżowania polegający na oferowaniu przez kierowców przewozu innym osobom. Może mieć dwie postacie: przewozów krótkodystansowych, które są alternatywą dla taksówek i odbywają się zazwyczaj w zasięgu 47 komfort jazdy, pewność, że można zapłacić kartą, wygodna aplikacja, w której klient może śledzić kierowcę, szybki sposób zamawiania pojazdu, wymaganie od kierowcy wysokiego standardu obsługi wzmacniane poprzez system oceny kierowcy przez pasażera" 54 . ...
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Niniejsza publikacja składa się z trzech rozdziałów. Pierwszy z nich został poświęcony problematyce gospodarki współdzielenia. Dokonano w nim przeglądu definicji tego terminu i odniesienia do innych terminów. Zaprezentowano podstawowe rozwiązania gospodarki współdzielenia występujące w usługach noclegowych, transporcie, gastronomii i przewodnictwie turystycznym. Przedstawiono też różne dylematy, które są związane z funkcjonowaniem sharing economy. Z uwagi na to, że, jak już wspomniano, koncepcja ta jest konsekwencją i przejawem trendów społeczno-konsumenckich, drugi rozdział został poświęcony właśnie analizie najważniejszych trendów i ich odniesienia do rynku turystycznego. W ostatnim rozdziale przedstawiono wyniki własnych badań empirycznych. Główny nacisk położono na doświadczenia respondentów w zakresie korzystania z ofert turystycznych w ramach gospodarki współdzielenia. Określono też skłonność respondentów do korzystania z takich ofert w przyszłości. Jako zmienne różnicujące, poza zmiennymi demograficznymi, przyjęto częstotliwość realizacji podróży turystycznych oraz znaczenie wybranych czynników w planowaniu wyjazdów turystycznych. Dla pełnego zobrazowania badanego zjawiska posłużono się wymienionymi wcześniej miarami statystyki opisowej.
... In 2015 the term sharing economy was been added inside the Oxford Dictionary (Heo, 2016). Similarly the accurate writing to interpret the definition is moderately new (Michelini, Principato, & Iasevoli, 2018). ...
... Table 1 show the following term for sharing economy. Regardless many terms used to describe the 'sharing economy'mostly used term in the research or literature are 'sharing economy' (Heo, 2016) and not all the other term used can properly express every aspect in the sharing economy. ...
Article
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Their rise of a sharing economy in accommodation industry has changed the way people practice to own a lodging place. In 2017, 81% of Airbnb listing in Malaysia are entire houses and 18% are private room. At the same time 1.5 million inbound guests use Airbnb in Malaysia at the same year. This data show people now start with shifting from hotel industry toward peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodation industry for some reason. This paper will investigate the relationship of service quality toward customer loyalty in P2P accommodation plus either customer satisfaction plays an important factor in customer loyalty. A survey question will be spread, and answer will be taken from a nonprobability sample of 300 respondents who experience usingP2P accommodation customer in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is selected asit is the most tourist destinations to visit in Malaysia. This study will unidentified the relationship between P2P service quality and loyalty in P2P accommodation. Beside thatthis study will analyses arecustomer satisfaction factor will be mediators of the relationship between P2P service quality toward customer satisfaction. Besides that, the result will help P2P host and hotel player to understand, learn and get a recommendation on how to enhance customer experience thus it will benefit the development of lodging industry in Malaysia.
... According to UNWTO (2019), 1.4 billion people traveled in 2019 and travel has become one of the most common leisure activities for people around the world. Meanwhile, travelers are increasingly looking for alternative travel experiences that are more indepth, home-like, authentic, low-cost, and interactive with local residents (Guttentag et al., 2018;Heo, 2016;Paulauskaite et al., 2017;Tussyadiah and Zach, 2017). Supported by information technologies, a new wave of sharing economy operations appeared in lodging (e.g., Airbnb), restaurant service (e.g., BonAppetour), tour guide service (e.g., Vayable), and transport service (e.g., Zipcar) entering the 21st century (Tussyadiah and Zach, 2017). ...
Article
Customers choosing Airbnb over a traditional hotel are looking for a different experience. Despite the popularity of Airbnb in China, little research has been devoted to examining customers’ perception and experience with this nascent form of accommodation. Through the lens of the expanded Experience Economy Model, and based on 7606 customer comments for 294 listed Airbnb accommodations in Hangzhou, China, this study explored eight aspects of customer experience—namely, entertainment, education, esthetics, escapism, interaction, home-feeling, tangible-sensorial and localness—regarding Airbnb experiences in China. Findings of this study suggested that although all eight aspects were present, there is in general a lack of entertainment and escapist experience in Airbnb accommodations in Hangzhou, suggesting meaningful directions that Airbnb accommodations need to work on. The study contributes to customer experience literature, particularly to the Experience Economy Model and also has important empirical significance.
... The service-dominant (S -D) logic that Vargo and Lusch [17] propose claims the co-creation of value through joint efforts of consumers and service providers [18], conceptualizing "value" as a process integrating operand and operant resources. As operant resources, consumers actively participate in the design, production, and consumption processes that determine value [19]. ...
Article
This study examines the complexity of consumer experiences in the sharing economy (SE) from the perspective of the level of interaction between consumers and service providers. Consistent with service-dominant logic, the joint efforts of consumers and service providers co-create value. In the context of accommodation-sharing, this means not just the room that guests seek but, rather, the authentic local experience they co-create with their hosts. This study proposes a text-analytics framework to extract important service dimensions directly from consumer reviews. The results indicate that the importance of service dimensions, on which consumers focus in reviews, varies with levels of interaction. To better understand the complex nature of consumer experiences in the SE, the framework integrates text analytics with fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), to shift attention from individual service dimensions to service-dimension configurations. Drawing on complexity theory, this study examines the service-dimension configurations that lead to positive and negative sentiment. The fsQCA results reveal that the causal recipes for sentiment differ for various interaction mechanisms. This is the first study to integrate topic modeling, sentiment analysis, and fsQCA, framing service-provider decision support for responding to consumers' needs.
... In relationship to P2P accommodations, prospect theory has been found to influence repurchase intention (Mao & Lyu, 2017). The preference of P2P accommodation, as well as the intention to repurchase P2P accommodation, is closely related with perceived value that P2P accommodation is often associated with (Heo, 2016). Particularly, functional value-defined as the utilitarian and physical performance of a product or service that reflects its quality (Sheth et al., 1991)-those P2P accommodations offer is a significant value proposition for P2P travelers, particularly for those who travel in groups (e.g. ...
Article
While researchers recognize the impact of tourism on restaurants, the impact of peer-to-peer accommodations on restaurants has been under-researched. While staying at a peer-to-peer accommodation is inherently choosing local over corporate business, does this behavior hold through to the choice of restaurant? COVID-19's influence on peer-to-peer accommodation guests' dining behaviors is also yet to be studied. Does this accommodation mode affect restaurant employment? Thus, this study examines the impact of peer-to-peer accommodations on restaurant employment, the antecedents of restaurant choice (chain vs. local restaurant) of peer-to-peer guests, and the impact of COVID-19 regulations on this choice. We used ten years of AirDNA and publicly available restaurant employment earnings data in the U.S. to measure the economic impact of peer-to-peer accommodations on restaurant employment. We surveyed 479 peer-to-peer accommodations guests who had traveled in the last two years and analyzed that data using SEM. Authenticity, perceived value, and star ratings impact the choice of chain or local restaurant. Adherence to COVID-19 regulations impacted this choice and risk perception mediated this decision. Guests were more likely to choose chain restaurants after COVID-19.
... Therefore, both non-economic and economic motives have been identified. Cost-savings and convenience (i.e., efficient access to goods and services) are classified as economic (Heo, 2016;Tussyadiah and Pesonen, 2016). The need for social interaction, the intrinsic and hedonic enjoyment of sharing, and intentions to help others and/or protect the environment are classified as non-economic. ...
... Youtube ve Facebook gibi internet servisleri, bireyleri çeşitli şekillerde paylaşmaya teşvik etmektedir. Paylaşım ekonomisi ve paylaşma terimleri ilk defa 2005 yılında Oxford sözlüklerine eklenmiştir (Heo, 2016 (Ünlüönen & Akyol, 2020). ...
... Youtube ve Facebook gibi internet servisleri, bireyleri çeşitli şekillerde paylaşmaya teşvik etmektedir. Paylaşım ekonomisi ve paylaşma terimleri ilk defa 2005 yılında Oxford sözlüklerine eklenmiştir (Heo, 2016 (Ünlüönen & Akyol, 2020). ...
Chapter
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Araştırma, UNWTO (2019) verilerine göre Dünya’nın en çok turist alan ilk on ülkesinin destinasyon pazarlama sürecinde resmi web sitelerini gastronomi turizmi açısından değerlendirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden doküman inceleme tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın kapsamını dünyanın en çok turist alan ilk on ülkesinin resmi web sitelerinde yer alan gastronomi turizmine yönelik pazarlama ve tanıtım çalışmaları oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamda veriler, 1 Aralık 2020 ile 10 Ocak 2021 tarihleri arasında ilgili ülkelerin İngilizce dilindeki resmi turizm web sitelerinden metin, fotoğraf ve video şeklinde toplanmıştır. Elde edilen verilere içerik analizi uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları incelenen ülkelerin tamamının gastronomiyle ilgili bir sayfası veya kategorisi bulunduğunu, bazı ülkelerin ciddi eksiklikleri olmasına rağmen genel olarak değerlendirildiğinde dünyanın en çok turist ağırlayan ilk on ülkesinin destinasyon pazarlama sürecinde resmi web sitelerinde gastronomi turizmine yönelik tanıtım ve pazarlama çalışmaları yaptıklarını göstermektedir.
... Different from traditional business, the sharing economy's success relies on the collaboration of multiple stakeholders. Thus, a comprehensive understanding is needed of the underlying mechanism that drives stakeholders to collaborate for destination sustainability (Geissinger et al., 2019;Heo, 2016). However, a holistic approach to systematic assessment and integration of sustainability impacting all stakeholders in the sharing economy is generally missing (Frenken & Schor, 2017), especially in the tourism and hospitality literature. ...
Article
The introduction of the sharing economy has been seen as a potential pathway to destination sustainability. However, without a holistic measurement, its impact on destination sustainability is unclear. This study introduces the capital theory approach to define destination sustainability via four capitals: natural, manufactured, human, and social. Each capital is further deconstructed into five stakeholders, their assets, and co-created service values supported by well-established theories (stakeholder theory, resource theory, and service-dominant logic) to fit the context. Based on a layer-by-layer analysis, a comprehensive conceptual framework is proposed to delineate the relationship between the sharing economy and destination sustainability from a destination capital’s perspective. The framework provides knowledge advancement and practical guidance for destination sustainability in the sharing economy.
... The scientific literature dealing with SE is relatively new, even though the term was first added in oxford dictionary in 2015 [Heo, 2016]. The term sharing economy has its origin in technology enabled interactions in between users on internet [Botsman, Rogers, 2010] having the potential of transitioning the society into post-ownership economy [Belk, 2014]. ...
Article
Sharing economy is a system which functions successfully provided that technological and social subsystems complement each other forming an indivisibly combined cohesive structure. The premise of balancing social and technological aspects is proposed in the socio-technological theory. Social issues call for social innovation to fulfil the needs and requirements of the society as well as individual citizens. The goal of this paper is to fill the gap in the extant literature by proposing a comprehensive framework of sharing economy based on the socio-technological theory. This study carried out a systematic literature review of works on sharing economy and socio-technological theory in order to develop a conceptual framework. There were identified different social motives associated with each of the subsystems; interplay between them was established. This study contributes to the increasing research by presenting a holistic view of sharing economy through the theoretical lens of socio-technology keeping society as well as consumer needs and requirements at its focal point.
... Cooperative interactions between customers and service providers play a critical role in peer-to-peer services (Dolnicar, 2019;Heo, 2016;G. Zhang et al., 2020) because such interactions can make customers experience feelings of home (Y. ...
Article
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This study aims to contribute to the growing literature on peer‐to‐peer services by investigating the relationships among three relevant aspects of such services, namely customers' identification with service providers, customers' feelings of psychological ownership toward the service setting (i.e., the providers' resources), and customers' interaction with service providers. Two empirical studies that investigate real peer‐to‐peer hospitality service experiences demonstrate that identification with service providers engenders a sense of psychological ownership of the service setting, which, in turn, enhances customers' attitudinal and behavioral loyalty. Notably, this effect occurs only when customers engage in cooperative interactions with their service providers.
... Liang et al. (2017, p. 78) defined perceived value as "the consumers' overall assessment of the net values of booking accommodations via Airbnb". Tourism and sharing economy studies show that perceived value can influence consumers' attitude and repurchase intention (Heo, 2016;Nguyen, 2016;Mao and Lyu, 2017;Zhu et al., 2019). One of the ways of approaching perceived value is looking at it through the lens of IJCHM value for money or monetary value (So et al., 2018), which implies consumers' cost-benefit analysis of a product or a service (Razli et al., 2016). ...
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Purpose Adopting Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour theoretical framework, this paper aims to explore repurchase intentions among short-term rental users and changes in determinants of repurchase intention in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach Data for the research was collected via a cross-country quantitative survey (N = 1,433) in five European countries: Croatia, Italy, Spain, Turkey and the UK during 2020. Trust, perceived value, authenticity and perceived risk were incorporated into the structural equation model as part of an integrated analysis of antecedents of repurchase intention. Findings Perceived value and authenticity are the key drivers of a positive attitude to repurchase of short-term rentals even after the pandemic. The pandemic modified the role of perceived risk in determining attitude towards short-term rentals as perceived risks could negatively affect attitude and repurchase intention after COVID-19. Trust in the platform and the host became a significant determinant of repurchase intentions after the spread of COVID-19. Research limitations/implications The analysis has shown the link between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and repurchase intention, and has thus demonstrated a successful application of the theory of planned behaviour to short-term rental users. Originality/value The results of this study suggest a possible reconceptualisation of repurchase determinants due to the pandemic. The study offers a timely contribution to the research on the impact of the pandemic on the determinants of tourists’ repurchase intentions.
... Youtube ve Facebook gibi internet servisleri, bireyleri çeşitli şekillerde paylaşmaya teşvik etmektedir. Paylaşım ekonomisi ve paylaşma terimleri ilk defa 2005 yılında Oxford sözlüklerine eklenmiştir (Heo, 2016 (Ünlüönen & Akyol, 2020). ...
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, kültürel miras turizmi amacıyla kültürel miras alanlarını ziyaret eden turistlerin memnuniyeti ve hizmet kalitesi ile alanı tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti arasındaki ilişkiyi araştırmaktır. Bu amaçla, 2019 yılı Ağustos ayında Bergama kültürel miras alanlarını ziyarete gelen toplam 400 yerli ve yabancı turiste anket tekniği uygulanarak araştırmanın verileri elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada, turist memnuniyeti ve hizmet kalitesinin, turistlerin kültürel miras alanını tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti ile arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemeye yönelik hipotezler geliştirilmiştir. Geliştirilen hipotezlerin analizinde iki yönlü ki-kare bağımsızlık testinden faydalanılmıştır. Çalışmanın bulguları değerlendirildiğinde, turistlerin harcadığı masraflara ve zamana göre memnuniyetin kültürel miras alanını tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti ile ilişkisi olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Diğer bir bulgu da hizmet kalitesi ile kültürel miras alanını tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti arasında ilişkinin bulunmasıdır. Sonuç olarak, turistlerin tekrar ziyaret etme niyeti ile istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişkisi bulunan turist memnuniyetinin ve hizmet kalitesinin sağlanması, turistik destinasyon olan kültürel miras alanlarının temel amaçlar arasında olmalıdır.
... As profit-based online platforms for the peer-to-peer sharing of consumer goods and services came into being, new ways for end-users to generate income from their possessions were provided. The growth of commercial internet platforms for P2P sharing such as Uber, Airbnb, Lyft, Housetrip, or HomeAway has switched the way people travel and is of great importance and a threat to the traditional tourism industry (Heo, 2016). The development of home-sharing platforms, particularly Airbnb, is often regarded among the most significant effects of the popularity of sharing economy (Füller & Michel, 2014;Horn & Merante, 2017;Wegemann & Jiao, 2017;Di Natale et al., 2018;Żemła et al., 2021). ...
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The main research question raised in this research was, to what extent CBE can be acknowledged as livelihood diversification strategy by the local community in Sabah, Malaysia. In order to enrich the current body of knowledge on livelihood diversification in CBE development, this study investigates the host community’s perceptions regarding the current livelihood diversification through CBE and their motivations to participate in ecotourism in Sukau, a pioneering ecotourism destination in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. By adopting the constructivist research paradigm as the researcher’s world view, this study employed the qualitative research design to investigate the host community’s perceptions towards CBE as a livelihood diversification strategy and their motivations for participation. All the data gathered in this study were analysed using content analysis techniques. The key findings from the study unveils interesting insights based on two themes: (1) perceptions of the host community towards CBE as a livelihood diversification strategy and (2) motivations of participation in CBE by the host community.
... entertainment, education, escapism and esthetics). This framework was widely adopted to conceptualize hospitality experiences until Walls et al. (2011) called for expansion, especially when the sharing economy rewrote the rules of experimental design (Heo, 2016). Whether the experience economy is applicable to the sharing economy remains doubtful (Mody et al., 2017) because the sharing economy boasts an appealing experiential value proposition (Oskam and Boswijk, 2016). ...
Purpose In view of the intense competition between businesses in the sharing economy and the conventional hospitality industry, this study aims to compare consumers’ private social dining and restaurant dining experiences. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews with 29 private social diners were conducted to yield 10 dining experiential domains, which were then validated using online survey data from 840 diners across four sample groups – local (Hong Kong) private social diners, local (Hong Kong) restaurant diners, overseas private social diners and overseas restaurant diners – to empirically examine a mechanism through which the dining experience influences diners’ psychological and behavioral responses. Findings The significant differences emerged among the four sample groups in their evaluations of dining experiences. The mediating role of memorability appeared weaker in overseas settings than in local settings. Practical implications The findings suggest restaurateurs be creative and open-minded in designing dining experiences that go beyond food-related satisfaction. Destination marketers should also find the findings insightful because they can diversify their catering offerings by differentiating private social dining with conventional restaurants. Originality/value The study presents a novel angle on experiential consumption in the sharing economy to focus on food-sharing activities, which is thought to complement the currently skewed research focus in the sharing economy. A theoretically driven mechanism was also validated to explain the experiential differences between conventional restaurants and private social dining.
... People have different motivations to travel, which leads them to choose new tourism products, which, as a result, leads to their need to be offered new experiences (Martín and Recio 2006), such as, new accommodation options closer to the experiences of the locals. In fact, when someone is received into the home of a local inhabitant, they are likely to experience the local culture in a different way (Heo 2016). ...
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Purpose-The research focuses on analysing the service quality in tourist accommodation in households. The aim of this paper is to determine whether there are statistically significant differences in the perception of quality service (technical and functional quality aspect), with emphasis on quality improvement. Methodology-The research was based on a structured questionnaire, which was carried out during the summer months of 2020, on a sample of 168 tourists who stayed in tourist accommodation in households. According to the type of data obtained, statistical differences between multiple groups are examined using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H Test in IBM SPSS Statistic software. Findings-The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences in the perception of service quality with regard to socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Foreign guests visiting Croatia and staying in tourist accommodation in households rate the quality of service at a higher rate compared to domestic guests. Regarding the differences based on qualification levels and age, individuals with university degrees, and those in the age group 60-77 tend to give statistically significantly higher ratings to quality elements. Contribution-The scientific contribution of the research is seen in widening the knowledge on service quality as well as the development of a measuring instrument for measuring service quality taking into account tourist accommodation in households. Its practical contribution can be seen in the comparison of service quality dimensions, taking into account socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, based on which improvement of quality can be made in this segment of accommodation offer.
... SE is driven by the simple principle of sharing rather than owning resources in ways that help build trust with the community and improve the environment (Hossain, 2020). It has allowed tourists to organize their travel plans in a different way by booking rooms through Oyo, booking cabs through Ola and Uber, traveling around the city with Zoom cars or Vogo/ Bounce bikes, ordering local cuisines through Swiggy and Zomato while enjoying local attractions at a lower price (Heo, 2016;Zhou et al., 2020). Researchers posit this concept as a disruptive phenomenon, that focuses on serving underutilized resources while promoting efficiency, ensuring societal upliftment and implementing sustainable business practices (Cheng et al., 2020;Geissinger et al., 2019), with the latter being a key concern for businesses (Muduli et al., 2020). ...
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Purpose Taking a retrospective view, the present study aims to investigate the resilience of shared facilities (accommodation) across India in the post-pandemic period. More specifically, it explores the issues and challenges in implementing sustainable practices in the long run taking a dual perspective of both consumers and service providers. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-method study was pursued in exploring the future resilience of the shared facilities in the post-pandemic period. A multi-method triangulation approach was adopted involving both data collection and data analysis. Primary data was collected through focus group sessions and analysed through a grounded theory study. Whereas, secondary data was extracted from Twitter and processed through textual data mining using the NVivo (12 Pro) software. Critical themes and sentiments were explored through the dual study and a corroboration process was followed thereon to support the findings. Findings The dual study extracted major themes pertaining to the present pandemic scenario wherein recovery strategies are at the top priority for all tourism service providers. Among the major themes tourists 2019 passiveness towards the environment existing misconceptions with shared facilities and situational perspective emerged as critical issues worrying service providers in the post-pandemic period. Furthermore the sentiment analysis indicated a positive start to the recovery measures wherein both tourist and tour operators are confident to embrace and restore the shared facilities/business respectively with additional care and responsibilities. Originality/value The novelty of the study lies in the identification of critical themes and sentiments concerning the future resilience of the shared economy businesses post-pandemic period in Indian tourism which can have a generalized effect across the world. Moreover, the study corroborated the findings of the dual study where similarities among the themes were observed.
... As profit-based online platforms for the peer-to-peer sharing of consumer goods and services came into being, new ways for end-users to generate income from their possessions were provided. The growth of commercial internet platforms for P2P sharing such as Uber, Airbnb, Lyft, Housetrip, or HomeAway has switched the way people travel and is of great importance and a threat to the traditional tourism industry (Heo, 2016). The development of home-sharing platforms, particularly Airbnb, is often regarded among the most significant effects of the popularity of sharing economy (Füller & Michel, 2014;Horn & Merante, 2017;Wegemann & Jiao, 2017;Di Natale et al., 2018;Żemła et al., 2021). ...
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Even though Oman is major tourist destination it is faced with a number of sustainability issues. This research examines unsustainable issues associated with Oman’s tourism destination management. The study also involves investigation of components that involve improvement in the conservation efforts, cultural and environmental education as well as ethics and responsibility.The study was conducted using different techniques of qualitative research: primary data collection (interviews) and secondary data collection. The interviews were used to identify the Oman’s major tourist attractions and sustainability issues affecting the industry. The secondary data collected from the literature review were used to identify ways in which sustainable tourism development in the Omani tourism industry can be achieved. The result shows that there is lack of sufficient community involvement in tourism activities. The result also shows that there is lack of proper control of waste generation at the attraction sites. The results also indicate that thereare laws and policies in place help in preservation and conservation tourism facilities. However, further strengthening is needed to increase the number of natural reserves from the available 15. The results of the analysis also show that in Oman, there is great tourism potential, because of the great management and conservation of natural resources.
... As profit-based online platforms for the peer-to-peer sharing of consumer goods and services came into being, new ways for end-users to generate income from their possessions were provided. The growth of commercial internet platforms for P2P sharing such as Uber, Airbnb, Lyft, Housetrip, or HomeAway has switched the way people travel and is of great importance and a threat to the traditional tourism industry (Heo, 2016). The development of home-sharing platforms, particularly Airbnb, is often regarded among the most significant effects of the popularity of sharing economy (Füller & Michel, 2014;Horn & Merante, 2017;Wegemann & Jiao, 2017;Di Natale et al., 2018;Żemła et al., 2021). ...
... Benefits of collaboration includes an increase in competitive advantage (Braun, 2002;Goerzen, 2007), community cohesion (Zapata Campos, 2014), and value creation (Hjalager, 2010), through knowledge sharing (Dussauge, Garrette, Mitchell, & Wiley, 2000), co-creation (Heo, 2016), and resource pooling (Bornhorst, Brent Ritchie, & Sheehan, 2010). The internet has now enabled collaboration to evolve and move on to digital spaces. ...
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Digital Collaboration: A Solution for Destinations This research aims to explore the elements of next-generation digital collaborative platforms for Destination Management Organisations (DMO) from the perspective of both businesses and visitors, allowing a more comprehensive understanding of digital platforms. The research is conducted in partnership with Visit Surrey (regional DMO) and Minted Box (bespoke platform developer). Preliminary results from interviews and focus groups indicate the need for DMOs to play an active role in facilitating business collaboration and knowledge sharing on the supply side of the digital platform. This process will aspire to then provide a more personalised experience on the visitors' end.
... Airbnb has managed to promote traveling to different parts of the world, living in accommodation provided by locals and acquiring an understanding for the local ways of life as a unique experience, since it brings people together and creates a new type of tourist, the "urban tourist " (Nieuwland, Van Melik, 2020). This has been made possible as Airbnb has blurred the boundary between residents and accommodation service providers (Heo, 2016). A visitor "hosted" by a local has the opportunity to talk to them and feel like a temporary resident of the area, as opposed to spending a night in the usually more expensive option, a hotel (Madera et al., 2017;Ioannides et al., 2019). ...
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The monograph presents the results of research conducted in Poland and Greece. The originality of the monograph is also evidenced by its interdisciplinarity – it combines issues related to the enterprise sector and financial institutions, indicating opportunities for and threats to their development. The book consists of three main parts divided into thirteen chapters. The first part of the book is titled The macroeconomic factors of businesses development and analyses the conditions for implementing a capital market union in the light of the realities of the external environment and the European Union itself, the importance of gold as a safe haven asset in the international monetary system and in last part of this chapter was compare two taxes which affect corporations, especially financial institutions. The second part of the book is titled The development of financial institutions and examines the relationship between economic growth and internet infrastructure in selected countries, the impact of an extreme dividend policy on prospects of Greek bank development, changes in the NPL (Non-Performing Loans) ratio of non-financial corporations and its main determinants in the Polish banking sector, the relationship between shares in the insurance market and the financial results of insurance companies, and the issues of appropriate selection and use of information in the decision-making process of insurance companies. The third part of the book is titled The development of enterprises and presents the impact of business activities (sector) on the enterprise competing, the measures of the orchestrator’s ability to create value added meeting the requirements of an aggregated long-term assessment of GBN (Global Business Networks) competitiveness, benefits from the use of integrated IT systems in enterprises, the key factors of start-up success and failure in Poland, and the new forms of accommodation chosen by travellers in recent years, with the main point of reference being the case of Airbnb. This monograph may be of considerable interest to scholars and business practitioners concerned with the problems of development of financial institutions and enterprises.
... The first of these review studies was published in 2016 by Cheng (2016b), who examined 66 publications on the sharing economy, with only 10 of those related to hospitality and tourism. This was followed by Heo's (2016) review study, which was not empirical in nature; rather, it was based on a discussion of selective academic discourse on the sharing economy. Following these two early studies, as academic research on the topic proliferated, researchers began to use larger and more updated data sets to examine the state of sharing economy literature. ...
Purpose This study aims to conduct a critical review of the research on the sharing economy to identify its key intellectual foundations and their evolution and offers thematic and methodological recommendations for future research to advance the domain. Design/methodology/approach A tri-method approach using bibliometric (co-citation) analysis, thematic content analysis and a quantitative systematic literature review was conducted on sharing economy research in hospitality and tourism journals, up to and including May 2020. Findings The findings from the three methods were coherent and provide a clear picture of the fact that while research on the sharing economy in hospitality and tourism has achieved significant depth, the breadth of the understanding of this area remains somewhat limited. Each of the three periods of research on the sharing economy identified in the study were marked by a focus on specific thematic areas, with largely Western-situated researchers demonstrating limited theoretical engagement and using a limited range of methods and perspectives (disciplinary, stakeholders and sectors) to examine these themes. Research limitations/implications Recommendations for future thematic research opportunities are provided using a multi-level perspective. The present review does not include research that incorporates the impacts of COVID-19, which has significantly disrupted the hospitality and tourism industry and is the focus of current research in the field. However, the review represents the largest and most comprehensive assessment of the state of research on the sharing economy prior to COVID-19, and, as such, can serve as a valuable baseline for future reviews of sharing economy research during and after the pandemic. Originality/value In contrast with previous literature reviews, the present review is comprehensive in its scope, methodology and temporal coverage of sharing economy research. It also examines the evolution of research on the topic, enabling a more nuanced identification of gaps and future thematic and methodological research opportunities.
... The sharing economy is generally referred to as the collaborative consumption or peer-to-peer economy in the hospitality literature and defined as "a socioeconomic system enabling an intermediated set of exchanges of goods and services between individuals and organizations which aim to increase efficiency and optimization of under-utilized resources in society" (Muñoz and Cohen, 2017: 1). The sharing economy platforms provide to co-create tourist experiences and evolve their experiences in terms of value, travel motivation, purposes, and reasons (Heo, 2016). Moreover, some of these platforms provide travellers to communicate with other travellers by sharing their experiences, ideas, and opinions (Ketter, 2019). ...
Article
Despite the increasing popularity of family travels and the importance of the daily local tours in the sharing economy, there is no research combining both and it is still very much lacking. Hence, this paper seeks to explore family experiences of the daily local-guided tours offered on a sharing economy platform, Withlocals, utilizing online narratives. To attain this aim, this study applies netnography approach and involves a total of 867 family experience reviews. As a result of the analysis, eight components revealed: local guides' attributes, awe, learning, memorable, child-friendly activities, engaging tour members, family-friendly tips, and novelty. The outcomes serve as indicators for local guides in addressing the essentials and expectations in family local-guided experience. As well as having practical implications, the results yield valuable theoretical insights for family tourism literature by opening a new door for future studies.
... Paylaşım ekonomisi ilk olarak internet destekli elektronik ortamlar olarak hayata geçirilmiştir ve insanların hemen hemen her sektörde kullanmadıkları çeşitli varlıklarını paylaşmalarını sağlamaktadır. Paylaşım ekonomisi ve paylaşmak terimlerinin ilk kez Oxford Sözlüğüne eklendiği tarih ise 2005'tir (Heo, 2016). Paylaşım ekonomisine verilebilecek en yaygın örneklerden bazıları; konaklama sektöründen Airbnb, araç ihtiyacı için ise Blablacar, Zipcar, Kangaride ve Peerby olarak verilebilir (Böcker ve Meelen, 2017;Habibi vd., 2017). ...
Article
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Dünya genelindeki nüfus artışı ve nüfus yoğunluğunun büyük şehirlerde toplanması kıt kaynakların dikkatli kullanımını ve mevcut sistemlerin sürdürülebilirliğini en önemli kavramlar haline getirmiştir. Bireylerin daha konforlu yaşamak ve çalışmak için şehirleri seçmesi şehirlerin nüfus yoğunluğunu artırmaktadır. İnsanoğlu ömrü boyunca sahip olduğu en değerli varlığı olan zaman ve doğal kaynakları verimli kullanmak için yeni çözümler aramaktadır. Bu çerçevede yüksek nüfuslu şehirlerde ulaşımda yenilikçi bir yaklaşım getiren elektrikli scooterın kullanımı gittikçe yaygınlaşmaktadır. Bu araştırma, yenilikçi bir ürün olan elektrikli scooterın bireyler tarafından yaygın kullanılma niyetini etkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Tüketiciler tarafından algılanan fayda ve yenilikçiliğin kullanma niyeti üzerindeki rolünü test etmek için literatüre dayanan 2 temel hipotez geliştirilmiş ve bu kapsamda ampirik bir çalışma gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında 311 kişiden veri toplanmış, yapısal eşitlik modellemesi ile tüketici yenilikçiliğinin ve kullanım sırasında algılanan faydanın elektrikli scooter kullanma niyeti üzerindeki etkileri test edilmiştir. Elde edilen araştırma bulguları
Conference Paper
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of the concept of shadow destinations. What added value do shadow destinations create for the main attraction in a region? How can a shadow destination create a value of its own? Methodology – The study was constructed as a qualitative multiple-case study. Five different shadow destinations in Sweden were selected based on stratified selection. Sweden was divided into five regions, and one destination from each region was identified. Data were collected through interviews, observations and written materials during 2019–2020. Findings – The findings show that shadow destinations are highly dependent on some sort of main attraction in the region. The results also show that there exist different types of relationships between the shadow destinations and the main attractions. The results also show that shadow destinations can create value for tourists in order to become more important for tourism in the region, as well as to become main destinations by themselves. Contribution – The theoretical contribution from this study shows that the concept of shadow destinations has not been addressed to any great extent in tourism research and that this concept requires further studies. This study makes a contribution to tourism development of shadow destinations.
Chapter
The sharing economy is at the centre of current debates involving new technologies, sustainability, big data and stakeholder engagement. This edited volume encourages new theoretical and empirical development on sharing economy studies in the service industries field.
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The study focuses on service co-creation in the sharing economy, where platform operators mediate the relationship between customers and potential service providers. Service co-creation consists of information sharing, interaction, and responsible behavior that customers undertake voluntarily or willingly to create an experience of value. Based on S-D logic, a theoretical model of service co-creation was developed and tested through structural equation modeling using survey data from 627 respondents in Sydney, Australia. The results provide strong empirical support for the hypothesized relationships between service co-creation, its determinants and impact on customer satisfaction. The implications on theory development and for property owners and platform operators are discussed.
Chapter
Presents theories, methods and results for enhancing techniques for more sustainable marketing and explores how sharing practices in business raises new social challenges and the ethical questions that arise as a consequence.
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Turizm sektöründe gün geçtikçe etki alanı genişleyen paylaşım ekonomisi modeli tartışmaları da beraberinde getirmiştir. İlgili akademik araştırmaların öznesi ise büyük oranda Airbnb platformudur. Bu çalışma Airbnb arzına yönelik çeşitli destinasyonlardaki toplumsal muhalif tutumun İstanbul’da olmadığı varsayımı ile gerçekleştirilmiş ve bu durumun sebepleri üzerinde durulmuştur. Yorumlayıcı bir yaklaşımın benimsendiği araştırmada öncelikle İstanbul Airbnb arzı ortaya koyulmuş ve sonrasında literatür destekli bir tartışma yürütülmüştür. İstanbul Airbnb arzı Beyoğlu, Şişli, Fatih, Kadıköy ve Beşiktaş ilçelerinde yoğunlaşmış durumdadır ve buralarda dahi bir muhalif tavrın olmadığı varsayımı, kent kültürünün eksikliği ve karar mercileriyle beraber yerel halkın ekonomik bakış açısı ile ilişkilendirilmiştir. Nihai olarak Airbnb arzını sınırlandırarak ve kent geneline yayarak olası tartışmaların engellenmesi adına öneriler sunulmuştur. Bu öneriler; çekicilik çeşitlendirmesi ile turizm hareketliliğinin kente yayılması, Airbnb girişimlerine yasal düzenlemeler getirilmesi, küçük ve orta büyüklükteki otel işletmelerinin hizmetlerinde revizyona gidilmesi şeklindedir.
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The paper deals with hospitality services provided on the principles of sharing economy. One of the advantages of food sharing via online platforms is the authenticity and face-to-face contact with domestic providers and thus a real and deep gastronomic experience of visitors. Following, the visitors as consumers of these services, are more likely to recommend the tourism destination to their friends and relatives and to visit it repeatedly. However, the period of restrictions and lockdowns connected with the COVID-19 pandemic hindered most of these opportunities. The paper focuses on services provided via the biggest online platform EatWith and the existing and potential demand for these services in Slovakia. The aim of this paper is to analyze the demand for hospitality services provided on the principles of sharing economy on the platform EatWith and to reveal factors influencing demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results emerging from primary research based on a questionnaire survey conducted in the first quarter of 2021 characterize typical consumers foodies. Positive and negative motivation factors are defined by 415 respondents.
The peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing accommodation practice has experienced exponential growth in the number of users in recent years. The aim of this paper is to profile the demand of P2P accommodation based on the motivational factors for choosing this type of lodging in Portugal. An online survey to collect information regarding the motivation of P2P guests was carried out. The study identifies four homogenous groups of P2P accommodation users, resorting to a hierarchical cluster analysis. The findings demonstrate interesting differences between the identified clusters in terms of personality traits, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results reveal the importance of differentiated strategies for groups of users to meet their motivations, improving their experience, and thus leading to higher satisfaction levels.
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Cross sectional studies focusing on a single setting are typically not sufficient in explaining how/why residents arrive at certain perceptions of impacts and attitudes towards tourism. This study aims to explore how the impacts of tourism are perceived by local residents over time (2009–2019), potentially shaped by the transient global and local contexts (economic crisis, Airbnb expansion); and frequency of exposure to tourists, explained via the Mere Exposure Theory (MET). MET suggests that repeated exposure to a stimulus or people, is a condition for the enhancement of the attitude towards it. Targeting Kavala residents in Greece, survey data were collected in three different points in time (2009, 2011, 2019), coupled with 21 in-depth interviews with local residents conducted in 2019. Results revealed that residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts are dynamic and fluid, greatly affected by the macro and micro economic environment; the rapid expansion of Airbnb in residents’ living areas; and the subsequent increasing interaction with tourists. Implications for theory and practice along with limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
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Due to its global standards and brand recognition, Uber has become an important form of transportation and is now found throughout the world. It has played a role in transforming local mobilities in many cities, particularly those lacking efficient public transportation options. Uber has played a particularly important role in increasing mobilities in places with security concerns, such as South Africa, due to their competitive rates, the accountability of drivers, and their innovative security features. Uber promotes itself as a peer-to-peer platform that connects drivers to riders, calling drivers ‘partners’, and vehemently dismissing any claims that it is an employer. The company advocates the ability of Uber to increase economic upliftment, particularly in the Global South. South Africa has staggering urban un-and-underemployment rates and, therefore, Uber can be seen as a potential tool for job creation or a means of supplementing low and inconsistent wages. A critical analysis of these claims demonstrates the manner in which Uber has emerged as an employment mechanism in South Africa within a ‘decent work’ framework. The findings are based on an analysis of detailed questionnaires distributed to Uber drivers based in South Africa as well as ethnographic research. It also draws on secondary sources, such as driver forums, newspaper articles and the Uber South Africa website. The findings demonstrate the many challenges faced by Uber drivers such as long working hours, low fares, subcontracting of drivers and concerns over driver safety. The paper introduces primary research in the form of driver surveys and questions the discourse propagated by the company as a mechanism for economic upliftment. In particular, the results show that working for Uber, according to these results, should not be considered decent work.
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As places are greatly shaped and reshaped by tourism, the way residents perceive their place and their knowledge of tourism gradually transform and become more complex and influential. Drawing on the social exchange and social representations theory, this research aimed to explore the effect residents' place image and knowledge of tourism have on perceived tourism impacts, which were subsequently expected to predict residents' support for tourism development and their word-of-mouth (WOM) intentions. Data were collected from 484 residents in Seville, the third most visited destination in Spain. The findings suggest that place image shaped residents' perceptions of the economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts, while knowledge of tourism affected only the economic ones. Additionally, place image and support for tourism determined residents' WOM intentions. The study extends current knowledge in mature destinations on the way residents' attitudes are shaped, whereby additional emphasis on place based and resident informed policies is needed. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
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Sharing economy research has risen exponentially during the last 4 years. Although several theoretical revisions on this topic have been developed, a conceptual analysis based on bibliometric techniques and science mapping tools is lacking. Within this framework, this article has two aims: (i) to carry on a performance analysis to identify the outstanding themes and (ii) to visually present the scientific structure by topics of research in sharing-collaborative economy as well as its evolution to identify future directions. The resources in the Web of Science Citation Index were used. Intelligent techniques and, more specifically, the SciMAT tool (based on co-word analysis and h-index analysis) were applied using a sample of 940 indexed papers from 2010 to 2020 (with 10.652 global citations). Our results show that the new post-pandemic era requires the sharing economy industry to investigate alternative ways: to improve trust, to innovate, to search for authenticity and experiences, to attend tourist motivations based on sustainability, and to use big data and manage overtourism.
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The chapter explores shared accommodation platforms such as Airbnb and the primary motivations for its customers. This research will be based on the deductive process, which is focused on primary and secondary research. This research aims to analyze the motivation towards either the Airbnb platform or traditional hotel from different perspectives, such as economic, environmental, and social. Additionally, after secondary data research, the questionnaire has been constructed to understand the main concepts of the P2P platform and its customers' needs. The investigation tried to notice what are the motivations which drive individuals to use P2P accommodation service. Through the survey, it was possible to see the motivations mainly related to the economic factor and environmental. Primarily due to the lower price of Airbnb, there is a more significant intent to book through this specific platform.
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In recent years, home sharing has gone from a “disruptive innovation” to a major industry, with platforms such as Airbnb creating a range of impacts for users, competitors and members of affected communities. The social licence to operate concept offers a way to understand these impacts and design strategies to enhance social acceptability. This article presents a home-sharing social licence framework co-created through a participatory research process in New South Wales, Australia. Insights from the mining sector are relevant to home-sharing, such as a focus on local communities and the role of distributional fairness, procedural fairness and confidence in governance in building trust. Modifications are also required to account for contextual and proxy factors in home sharing.
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The rapid growth of the so-called sharing economy in recent years has challenged traditional economies in many countries around the globe
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While the environmental benefits of car sharing have been highlighted, the motivations for people deciding whether or not to use a car-sharing service remain unclear. This study aims to fill the research gap by proposing and testing a comprehensive model that includes utilitarian (economic benefits and individual reputation) and altruistic (environmental concerns and community belonging) motivations. In addition, this research considers the direct and moderating effects of perceived power, which refers to a perceived psychological ownership leading to a “can-do” state, which has not been examined by previous research. A survey was conducted among 372 individuals who had or had not used car sharing, and data were analyzed using logistic regression. The suggested model had high predictive power for respondents’ reported use or non-use of car-sharing services. Economic benefits, environmental concerns and the interaction between perceived power and economic benefits emerged as significant predictors of the use of car-sharing services. The implications for managers of car-sharing platforms, managers of traditional automobile businesses and public policymakers are discussed.
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Sharing has been subjected to continuous re-imagination and positioning throughout networked culture's history. Recently, there has been specific emphasis on user-generated content and social media platforms. Particular social actors, such as social media platforms, attempt to cultivate an imaginary of sharing in networked culture. They do this by appropriating positive social values associated with common understandings of sharing, such as community, generosity, shared values of cooperation, and participation. While there has been a recent surge of interest in sharing, conceptual gaps remain. Though sharing is a central concept of networked culture, in this paper I show how its boundaries with other social theories of exchange have not been sufficiently established nor has the concept itself been adequately critiqued. Most significantly, this paper problematizes how sharing is implicated and positioned in studies of networked culture. I argue that a framework for a theory of sharing is needed and identify three distinct perspectives in the literature: sharing as an economy driven by social capital; sharing as a mode of scaled distribution; and sharing as a site of social intensification. It is shown how the use of the term sharing in the description of practices in networked culture is fraught with ambiguity. The paper concludes by elucidating how a focus on sharing practices can advance the field.
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Marketing inherited a model of exchange from economics, which had a dominant logic based on the exchange of “goods,” which usually are manufactured output. The dominant logic focused on tangible resources, embedded value, and transactions. Over the past several decades, new perspectives have emerged that have a revised logic focused on intangible resources, the cocreation of value, and relationships. The authors believe that the new per- spectives are converging to form a new dominant logic for marketing, one in which service provision rather than goods is fundamental to economic exchange. The authors explore this evolving logic and the corresponding shift in perspective for marketing scholars, marketing practitioners, and marketing educators.
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Since the introductory article for what has become known as the “service-dominant (S-D) logic of marketing,” “Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing,” was published in the Journal of Marketing (Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004a)), there has been considerable discussion and elaboration of its specifics. This article highlights and clarifies the salient issues associated with S-D logic and updates the original foundational premises (FPs) and adds an FP. Directions for future work are also discussed. KeywordsService-dominant logic-New-dominant logic-Service
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Due to the rise of businesses utilizing the sharing economy concept, it is important to better understand the motivational factors that drive and hinder collaborative consumption in the travel and tourism marketplace. Based on responses from 754 adult travellers residing in the US, drivers and deterrents of the use of peer-to-peer accommodation rental services were identified. Factors that deter the use of peer-to-peer accommodation rental services include lack of trust, lack of efficacy with regards to technology, and lack of economic benefits. The motivations that drive the use of peer-to-peer accommodation include the societal aspects of sustainability and community, as well as economic benefits. Based on the empirical evidence, this study suggests several propositions for future studies and implications for tourism destinations and hospitality businesses on how to manage collaborative consumption.
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This article explores the emergence of Airbnb, a company whose website permits ordinary people to rent out their residences as tourist accommodation. The company was just recently established, but it has grown extremely rapidly and is now selling many millions of room nights annually. This rise is examined through the lens of disruptive innovation theory, which describes how products that lack in traditionally favoured attributes but offer alternative benefits can, over time, transform a market and capture mainstream consumers. The concepts of disruptive innovation are used to consider Airbnb's novel business model, which is built around modern internet technologies, and Airbnb's distinct appeal, which centres on cost-savings, household amenities, and the potential for more authentic local experiences. Despite Airbnb's growing popularity, many Airbnb rentals are actually illegal due to short-term rental regulations. These legality issues and their corresponding tax concerns are discussed, with an overview of the current state of regulatory flux and a possible path for resolution. Thereafter, the article considers Airbnb's potential to significantly disrupt the traditional accommodation sector, and the positive and negative impacts Airbnb may have on destinations. Finally, numerous questions for future research are proposed.
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Destination marketing is increasingly becoming extremely competitive worldwide. This paper explains the destination concept and attempts to synthesise several models for strategic marketing and management of destinations. It provides an overview of several techniques widely used and illustrates examples from around the world. The paper also explains that marketing of destinations should balance the strategic objectives of all stakeholders as well the sustainability of local resources. Destinations need to differentiate their products and develop partnerships between the public and private sector locally in order to co-ordinate delivery. Taking advantage of new technologies and the Internet also enables destinations to enhance their competitiveness by increasing their visibility, reducing costs and enhancing local co-operation. Destination marketing must lead to the optimisation of tourism impacts and the achievement of the strategic objectives for all stakeholders.
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Sharing is a phenomenon as old as humankind, while collaborative consumption and the “sharing economy” are phenomena born of the Internet age. This paper compares sharing and collaborative consumption and finds that both are growing in popularity today. Examples are given and an assessment is made of the reasons for the current growth in these practices and their implications for businesses still using traditional models of sales and ownership. The old wisdom that we are what we own, may need modifying to consider forms of possession and uses that do not involve ownership.
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Sharing is an alternative form of distribution to commodity exchange and gift giving. Compared to these alternative modes, sharing can foster community, save resources, and create certain synergies. Yet outside of our immediate families, we do little sharing. Even within the family, there is increased privatization. This article addresses impediments to sharing as well as incentives that may encourage more sharing of both tangible and intangible goods. Two recent developments, the Internet and intellectual property rights doctrines, are locked in a battle that will do much to determine the future of sharing. Businesses may lead the way with virtual corporations outsourcing the bulk of their operations. Whether virtual consumers sharing some of their major possessions are a viable counterpart remains an open question.
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This research examines issues concerning the collaborative approach towards tourism planning, with a focus on Cusco, Peru. The research begins with a review of key themes related to collaborative tourism planning, and then explores four issues in relation to collaborative tourism planning in Cusco. These are the vision of tourism development among tourism stakeholders; collaboration and coordination between the multiple parties involved in tourism; input from the tourism industry and other interest groups in tourism planning; and constraints to and facilitators of collaboration and coordination. The research indicates that despite an awareness of the benefits of collaboration in tourism planning generally, collaboration is not yet a major part of the tourism development process in Cusco. The main reasons for the lack of collaboration are outlined using the views of the main stakeholders, as well as suggestions for ways in which future collaboration can be developed.
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The meanings of brand and branding have been evolving over the past several decades. This evolution is converging on a new conceptual logic, which views brand in terms of collaborative, value co-creation activities of firms and all of their stakeholders and brand value in terms of the stakeholders’ collectively perceived value-in-use. The authors argue that this new logic parallels and reflects the related, evolving service-dominant (S-D) logic in marketing. They provide an historical account of the branding literature, organize it into eras, and connect it to the evolution in marketing as captured by S-D logic. The analysis provides further support for the S-D logic of marketing and suggests a related research agenda for furthering the understanding of brand and branding. It also suggests that marketing managers might benefit from investing resources in building strong brand relationships with all of their stakeholders and a service-dominant firm philosophy built around brand value co-creation.
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Marketing inherited a model of exchange from economics, which had a dominant logic based on the exchange of "goods," which usually are manufactured output. The dominant logic focused on tangible resources, embedded value, and transactions. Over the past several decades, new perspectives have emerged that have a revised logic focused on intangible resources, the cocreation of value, and relationships. The authors believe that the new per- spectives are converging to form a new dominant logic for marketing, one in which service provision rather than goods is fundamental to economic exchange. The authors explore this evolving logic and the corresponding shift in perspective for marketing scholars, marketing practitioners, and marketing educators.
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Full-text available
Sharing is a fundamental consumer behavior that we have either tended to overlook or to confuse with commodity exchange and gift giving. Sharing is a distinct, ancient, and increasingly vital consumer research topic that bears on a broad array of consumption issues ranging from sharing household resources versus atomized family possessions to file sharing versus intellectual property rights. This theoretical review distinguishes between sharing in and sharing out, and suggests that sharing in dissolves interpersonal boundaries posed by materialism and possession attachment through expanding the aggregate extended self. However, such sharing is challenged by growing market commoditization. Implications for consumer theory and research are considered. (c) 2009 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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Purpose - The paper proposes enhancing the understanding of the complex challenges inherent in the development of tourism destination brand slogans. Design/methodology/approach - Prior to completing a tourism marketing PhD, the author spent almost two decades working in the tourism industry, mostly in destination marketing organisations (DMOs). In this paper he laments a significant gap in the literature in the area of tourism destination branding, a field that has only attracted academic attention since the late 1990s. Findings - While interest in applications of brand theory to practise in tourism is increasing, there is a paucity of published research with which to guide DMOs. There has been relatively little discussion on the complexity involved in capturing the essence of a multi-attributed destination with a succinct and focused brand position, in a way that is both meaningful to the multiplicity of target audiences of interest to stakeholders and effectively differentiates the destination from competitors. Practical implications - The paper will be of interest to tourism practitioners with a vested interest in the marketing of their destination, as well as research students and supervising academics interested in destination marketing. Originality/value - The paper summarises six issues that make the application of branding theory to destinations a complex undertaking, and which are worthy of increased research attention.
Purpose – This paper aims to present a review of the literature associated with co-creation and higher-order customer engagement concepts and poses critical questions related to the current state of research. Additionally, the paper presents a framework for customer engagement and co-creation with relevance to hospitality transactions. Design/methodology/approach – Earlier research on co-production, co-creation, consumer engagement and service-dominant logic are discussed and synthesized. Based on this synthesis, links and contrasts of these varying research streams are presented providing an articulation of key characteristics of each and how these might be applied within a hospitality context. Findings – Modalities in service transactions vary among traditional production, co-production and co-creation based on changes in attitudes, enabling technologies and the logic or ideology supporting the change. Transaction characteristics vary among manufacturing, quasi-manufacturing and services based on several key categories including differences in boundary conditions, enablers, success requirements, sustainability requirements, the dominant logic used and key barriers/vulnerabilities. When creating experiential value for consumers, firms should consider several aspects ex-ante, in-situ and ex-post of the change and during the change process. Research limitations/implications – Firms need to move toward higher-order customer engagement using co-creative modalities to enhance value creation. Current practices in the hotel industry may not in their entirety support this notion. Ex-ante, in-situ and ex-post considerations for creating experiential value need to be used as part of a checklist of questions for firms to pose in order to move toward managing customer experiences using the service-dominant logic as part of the firm’s orientation toward its market. This would give it the required thrust to create superior engagement platforms that use co-creative modalities while addressing the barriers to higher-order customer engagement as identified in the literature. Originality/value – The hospitality and tourism literature on co-creation and higher-order customer engagement is still in its infancy. A synthesis of these early studies provides support for the need for future research on co-creation that more clearly articulates the modality firms could use to move toward co-creation. This paper develops a dynamic framework using characteristics of co-creation that integrate the various stages of value creation (i.e. input, throughput and output).
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Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach was first published in 1984 as a part of the Pitman series in Business and Public Policy. Its publication proved to be a landmark moment in the development of stakeholder theory. Widely acknowledged as a world leader in business ethics and strategic management, R. Edward Freeman’s foundational work continues to inspire scholars and students concerned with a more practical view of how business and capitalism actually work. Business can be understood as a system of how we create value for stakeholders. This worldview connects business and capitalism with ethics once and for all. On the 25th anniversary of publication, Cambridge University Press are delighted to be able to offer a new print-on-demand edition of his work to a new generation of readers.
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Collaboration among key players is a fundamental ingredient in sustainable development efforts. To this end, this article discusses stakeholder theory and its application as a normative planning model, and introduces the relationship/transaction strategy continuum as a tool for applying this theory in development. In this application, planning authorities are directed to identify and proactively consider the transaction vs relationship orientations of key stakeholders. Congruency across this orientation increases the likelihood of collaboration in service delivery. In presenting case instances of tourism efforts, the application of the proposed stakeholder orientation matrix is illustrated. The article concludes with market segmentation strategies designed to promote alignment of the stakeholder orientations.
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Collaborative consumption, often associated with the sharing economy, takes place in organized systems or networks, in which participants conduct sharing activities in the form of renting, lending, trading, bartering, and swapping of goods, services, transportation solutions, space, or money. In this paper, a framework on the determinants of choosing a sharing option is developed and tested with two quantitative studies by applying partial least squares path modeling analysis. In study 1, users of the B2C car sharing service car2go (N = 236), and in study 2, users of the C2C online community accommodation marketplace Airbnb (N = 187) are surveyed. The results reveal the satisfaction and the likelihood of choosing a sharing option again to be predominantly explained by determinants serving users' self-benefit. Utility, trust, cost savings, and familiarity were found to be essential in both studies, while service quality and community belonging were identified solely in study 1. Four proposed determinants had no influence on any of the endogenous variables. This applies to environmental impact, internet capability, smartphone capability, and trend affinity. Finally, research and managerial implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The perceptions of tourism stakeholders regarding the effects of tourism development in their communities are essential in ensuring the proper design and implementation of sustainable tourism development strategies in an area. We designed a survey to gather data about the attitudes of three stakeholders: tourists, residents, and business owners. The respondents were from the island of Sao Vicente in the African archipelago of Cape Verde, which is currently under expansion. The results showed that the three groups positively view increased tourism development in the area, with virtually no differences found between business owners and the other groups, although tourists had a more favourable opinion than residents. Engaging the three groups is essential for the success of tourism development.
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Airbnb is an online community marketplace facilitating short-term rentals ranging from shared accommodations to entire homes that has now contributed more than ten million worldwide bookings to the so-called sharing economy. Our work addresses a central question facing the hospitality industry: to what extent are Airbnb stays serving as substitutes for hotel stays, and what is the impact on the bottom line of affected hotels? Our focus is the state of Texas, where we identify Airbnb's impact by exploiting significant spatiotemporal variation in the patterns of adoption across city-level markets. Using a dataset we collected spanning all Airbnb listings in Texas and a decade-long panel of quarterly tax revenue for all Texas hotels, we develop a nuanced estimate of Airbnb's material impact on hotel revenues. Our baseline estimate is that a 1% increase in Airbnb listings in Texas results in a 0.05% decrease in quarterly hotel revenues, an estimate compounded by Airbnb's rapid growth. To further isolate Airbnb's impact, we employ hotel segments that consumers are less likely to substitute for Airbnb stays as additional control groups. We find that the impacts are distributed unevenly across the industry, with lower-end hotels and hotels not catering to business travelers being the most affected. Finally, by simulating various regulatory interventions informed by current events, such as limiting Airbnb hosts to a single listing, we find only a moderate mitigating impact on hotel revenues.
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Access-based consumption, defined as transactions that can be market mediated but where no transfer of ownership takes place, is becoming increasingly popular, yet it is not well theorized. This study examines the nature of access as it contrasts to ownership and sharing, specifically the consumer-object, consumer-consumer, and consumer-marketer relationships. Six dimensions are identified to distinguish among the range of access-based consumptionscapes: temporality, anonymity, market mediation, consumer involvement, the type of accessed object, and political consumerism. Access-based consumption is examined in the context of car sharing via an interpretive study of Zipcar consumers. Four outcomes of these dimensions in the context of car sharing are identified: lack of identification, varying significance of use and sign value, negative reciprocity resulting in a big-brother model of governance, and a deterrence of brand community. The implications of our findings for understanding the nature of exchange, consumption, and brand community are discussed.
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At the heart of urban tourism promotion lies a triad of powerful players—the city, the hotels, and the destination marketing/management organization (DMO). This article explores the relationships between the DMO, charged with crafting and executing destination promotion, and its two most powerful stakeholders—the city (or urban government) and hotels (or accommodation sector). Empirical insights are derived from an examination of three major North American city destinations. In each setting, in-depth key informant interviews were conducted with leaders of each member of the triad (the city, the hotels, and the DMO). The triad is found to be asymmetrical with each member bringing a unique and complementary resource. The extent to which members of the triad can effectively relate to one another and combine their complementary resources is posited to be an important determinant of success in destination promotion.
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The present study was designed to assess and segment local residents with respect to their attitudes, interests, and opinions toward tourism. An analysis of AIO data from a mail survey of 415 Florida residents uncoveredfive clusters of differing degrees of attitudes toward the state's tourism efforts. A strong anti-tourism, anti-growth segment in the state seems to indicate that state government should devote a portion of the state's tourism promotion efforts toward enlightening the residents regarding the positive multiplier effects of tourism. Additionally, some recommendations are discussed that could encourage this effort.
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This article presents conclusions from a 10-year research program, the purpose of which has been to develop a framework and methodology, grounded in the reality of corporate behavior, for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. There are three principal sections: (a) a summary of the approaches, models, and methodologies used in conducting more than 70 field studies of corporate social performance from 1983-1993; (b) a discussion of the principal conclusions derived from the data that (1) corporations manage relationships with stakeholder groups rather than with society as a whole, (2) it is important to distinguish between social issues and stakeholder issues, and (3) it is necessary to identify the appropriate level of analysis in order to evaluate CSP; and (c) a discussion of propositions and areas for further research.
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The traditional system of company-centric value creation (that has served us so well over the past 100 years) is becoming obsolete. Leaders now need a new frame of reference for value creation. In the emergent economy, competition will center on personalized co-creation experiences, resulting in value that is truly unique to each individual. The authors see a new frontier in value creation emerging, replete with fresh opportunities. In this new frontier the role of the consumer has changed from isolated to connected, from unaware to informed, from passive to active. As a result, companies can no longer act autonomously, designing products, developing production processes, crafting marketing messages, and controlling sales channels with little or no interference from consumers. Armed with new tools and dissatisfied with available choices, consumers want to interact with firms and thereby co-create value. The use of interaction as a basis for co-creation is at the crux of our emerging reality. The co-creation experience of the consumer becomes the very basis of value. The authors offer a DART model for managing co-creation of value processes.
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Sharing systems are increasingly challenging sole ownership as the dominant means of obtaining product benefits, making up a market estimated at over $100 B annually in 2010. Consumer options include cell phone minute sharing plans, frequent flyer mile pools, bike sharing programs, and automobile sharing systems, among many others. However, marketing research has yet to provide a framework for understanding and managing these emergent systems. The present paper conceptualizes commercial sharing systems within a typology of shared goods. Three studies then demonstrate that beyond cost-related benefits of sharing, the perceived risk of scarcity related to sharing is a central determinant of its attractiveness. Results suggest that managers can use perceptions of personal and sharing partners’ usage patterns to affect risk perceptions and subsequent propensity to participate in a commercial sharing system.
Article
While the literature on anti-consumption is rich and growing, there is still a lack of understanding among consumer researchers regarding why consumers choose to avoid consumption. This study seeks to extend the literature by exploring whether a group of consumers who reduce consumption through choosing to share rather than own are motivated by anti-consumption reasons. The authors use quantitative data from 397 toy library members to explore why members choose to participate in this form of sharing. The study reveals four groups – Socialites, Market Avoiders, Quiet Anti-Consumers and Passive Members. The Socialites enjoy the social benefits of active participation in their library. The Market Avoiders also perceived social and community benefits, are interested in sharing and are the least materialistic of the groups. The Quiet Anti-Consumers feel a sense of belonging to their toy library and hold strong anti-consumption, frugality and sharing values. The Passive Members are not socially involved, nor did they hold strong anti-consumption values. Thus, the authors find evidence that sharing may be one possible alternative market structure that may be adopted by anti-consumption consumers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This paper applies a stakeholder theory analysis to the empirical study of chief executive officers of tourism destination management organizations. A map reveals a great diversity of varyingly important stakeholders. They are specifically analyzed within a typology according to their potential to threaten and cooperate with the organizations, then prescribing a management strategy specific to each. These strategies are compared to the actual approaches the respondent chief executive officers reported using. The paper concludes with an agenda for future empirical research with specific emphases on the relationship between destination management organizations and their stakeholders.RésuméActeurs clés des destinations: une exploration de l’identité et de la saillance. Cet article applique une analyse de la théorie des acteurs clés à l’étude empirique des directeurs généraux des organisations de gestion de destinations de tourisme. Un schéma révèle une grande diversité des acteurs clés de différents niveaux d’importance. On les analyse spécifiquement dans une typologie selon leur potentiel pour menacer et coopérer avec les organisations afin de prescrire une stratégie de gestion spécifique à chacun. Ces stratégies sont comparées aux approches réelles que les directeurs généraux interrogés ont dites avoir utilisées. L’article conclut par un programme pour des recherches empiriques futures avec une orientation spécifique sur la relation entre les organisations de gestion de destinations et leurs acteurs clés.
Article
This paper demonstrates the usefulness of the policy network approach to describe, analyze, and explain the dynamics of the tourism policy domain with its vast variety of actors and complex web of interactions. This is achieved by focusing on stakeholders in the policymaking process, their relationships, and the structural context in which these take place. In the network study presented here the focus is on issue-specific influence reputation, cooperation, and communication, which underlie the formulation process of a particular tourism masterplan. These parameters are used to map the intensity and density of relational constellations and to assess if and how stakeholders take each other into account in their actions.RésuméPolitique du tourisme en voie de création: une étude de réseau australienne. Cet article démontre l’utilité de l’approche de réseau de politique pour décrire, analyser et expliquer la dynamique du domaine de la politique de tourisme, avec son énorme variété d’acteurs et son complexe réseau d’interactions. On y parvient en se concentrant sur les parties prenantes du processus de décision, leurs relations et le contexte structurel décisionnaire. L’étude de réseau présentée ici est axée sur l’influence, la réputation, la coopération et la communication spécifiques au problème et à la base du processus de formulation d’un schéma directeur particulier dans le tourisme. On utilise ces paramètres pour schématiser l’intensité et la densité des constellations relationnelles et évaluer si et comment les parties prenantes se tiennent mutuellement en compte dans leurs actions.
Article
This paper applies the theoretical constructs of collaboration to tourism destinations and offers insight into interorganizational collaboration for one specific tourism domain, the planning and development of local, community-based tourism destinations. Drawing primarily from the literature on interorganizational relations, the theoretical constructs of collaboration are discussed first. Challenges and considerations in the planning and development of local tourist destinations are then summarized, followed by examples of community-based collaboration research. Propositions are presented for guiding collaborative initiatives and for investigating the application of collaboration theory to the planning and development of tourism destinations, from a community-involvement perspective.RésuméL'article applique les constructions théoriques de la collaboration aux destinations touristiques et jette de la lumière sur la collaboration interorganisationnelle pour un domaine particulier du tourisme: la planification et le développement communautaire des destinations touristiques locales. On discute d'abord les constructions théoriques de la collaboration en faisant appel à la littérature sur les relations interorganisationnelles. On résume les défis et les considérations de la planification et du développement des destinations touristiques locales, et on donne ensuite des exemples de recherches sur la collaboration communautaire. On présente des suggestions pour guider des initiatives collaboratives et pour investiguer l'application de la théorie de la collaboration à la planification et au développement des destinations touristiques dans un contexte communautaire.
Article
Tourism planners are being asked to use greater community participation in tourism planning. There are two reasons for this. First, the impacts of tourism are felt most keenly at the local destination area and, second, community residents are being recognized as an essential ingredient in the ‘hospitality atmosphere’ of a destination. However, while many planners rush towards involving various publics in their work they do so without a full consideration of the progress of public participation techniques employed in other aspects of planning. Moreover, while many authors advocate greater public involvement few have tested or evaluated methods appropriate to secure local residents' interest and support for tourism planning. This paper reports on a research programme for Huron County, Ontario (Canada), that sought to apply and evaluate a three-stage participation programme for county residents.
Article
This paper introduces the concept of service-dominant logic as a research paradigm in marketing management. It does so in the context of tourism management’s need to engage with wider debates within the mainstream management literature. Moreover it demonstrates the importance of service-dominant logic in uncovering the role played by co-production and co-creation in the tourism industry. These ideas are developed in detail through a case study of the UK hotel industry that draws on new empirical research undertaken by the authors.
Article
In recent years, tourism has been playing a more significant role in the economies of several African countries, including Ghana. The purpose of the paper is to examine attitudes of residents of two of its towns toward tourism development. Factor analysis of scaled items measuring their attitudes resulted in seven tourism-related factors: social interaction with tourists, beneficial cultural influences, welfare impacts, negative interference in daily life, economic costs, sexual permissiveness, and perception of crowding. Results indicate residents' expectations from tourism development were not met and also individuals working in related businesses have negative attitudes toward the industry.RésuméLes attitudes des habitants envers le développement du tourisme. Depuis quelques années, le tourisme joue un rôle de plus en plus significatif dans l'économie de certains pays africains, y compris le Ghana. Le propos de l'article est d'examiner l'attitude des habitants de deux villes ghanéennes envers le développement du tourisme. Une analyse factorielle d'une échelle d'attitudes a mesuré les réponses dans sept catégories de questions: interaction sociale avec les touristes, influences culturelles favorables, impacts sur le bien public, l'intrusion dans la vie quotidienne, coûts économiques, relâchement des mœurs et perception de trop de monde. Les résultats indiquent que le tourisme ne répond pas aux espérences des habitants et que ceux qui travaillent dans des secteurs connexes ont des attitudes négatives envers l'industrie du tourisme.
Co-creation and higher order customer engagement in hospitality and tourism services: A critical review
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Chathoth, P. K., Ungson, G. R., Harrington, R. H., & Chan, E. S. W. (2016). Co-creation and higher order customer engagement in hospitality and tourism services: A critical review. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(2), 222-245.
Airbnb and the unstoppable rise of the share economy
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The legal landscape of the sharing economy
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Kassan, J. & Orsi, J. (2012). The legal landscape of the sharing economy. Working paper.
How do sharing service providers create value? Working paper
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Kohda, Y. & Masuda, K. (2013). How do sharing service providers create value? Working paper.
Webster's new world dictionary of media and communications
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Weiner, R. (1996). Webster's new world dictionary of media and communications. New York: Macmillan.
Tourism: Critical concepts in the social sciences
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William, S. (2003). Tourism: Critical concepts in the social sciences. London: Routledge.
The rise of the sharing economy: Estimating the impact of Airbnb on the hotel industry, Boston University School of Management research paper no
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A first look at online reputation on Airbnb, where every stay is above average. Social Science Research Network SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2554500
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