Article

Anti-obesity effects of artificial planting blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) anthocyanin in high-fat diet-treated mice

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  • Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants
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Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of artificial planting blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) anthocyanin (BA) in high-fat diet-induced obese male C57BL/6 mice. BA at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg was supplemented in the daily food of obese C57BL/6 mice during an 8-week experiment. Our findings indicate that consumption of BA at high doses reduced body weight by 19.4%, whereas both low and middle doses did not affect the body weight. Furthermore, BA supplementation at high dose could effectively decrease serum glucose, attenuate epididymal adipocytes, improve lipid profiles, and significantly down-regulate expression levels of TNFα, IL-6 PPARγ, and FAS genes. Therefour, BA might alter bodyweight by suppressing fatty acid synthesis and alleviating inflammation.

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... Anthocyanins activated AMPK ( Fig. 2) with subsequent suppression and reduced activity of liposomal enzymes FAS in vitro [23,27] and in vivo [32,35], acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in vitro [23,27] and in vivo [32], and SCD-1 in vitro [27], reducing lipogenesis and oxidative stress. ...
... Additionally, cyanidin acted as a PPAR-a agonist-a gene involved in the activation of AMPK-induced lipolysis (Fig. 2) [28]. Anthocyanins inhibited C/EBPa-binding protein and (C/EBPb potentiation-binding protein in vitro [22,23,25À27,31] and in vivo [35]. As a result, there is an inhibition of PPAR-g expression (Fig. 2), resulting in the inhibition of fibroblast differentiation in adipocytes. ...
... Some of the studies in this review used drugs to compare the effect of anthocyanins on obesity. The effect of blueberry anthocyanins at three dosages was compared with that of tetrahydrolipstatin in vivo, and a similar effect was observed at 200 mg/kg body weight [35]. An in vitro study [28] used purified cyanidin (CY) at 100 mM. ...
Article
Studies have shown that anthocyanins attenuate obesity. In this review, we confirm these effects and explain the possible mechanisms underlying them. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases using obesity as the main term along with anthocyanins and the main anthocyanidins, including articles in Portuguese, English, and Spanish without any restriction as to year. The review was carried out by peers following PRISMA recommendations: 1980 studies were identified, and 19 articles were analyzed. The studies varied in relation to time, pathways, cells used, and anthocyanin types. The positive effects were observed in 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathways and mitochondrial biogenesis and in a reduction in inflammation and oxidative stress. Anthocyanins can improve the metabolic control involved in obesity by reducing lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This can boost the speed of lipolysis and thermogenesis, regulate satiety, and reduce body fat accumulation. In addition, anthocyanins have shown promising effects on controlling obesity compared with the standard of care.
... However, in cafeteria-fed rats, GSPE reduced adipocyte size and increased the number of adipocytes without affecting the weight of the body fat [16]. Anthocyanins have been reported to reduce the weight of the adipose tissue and suppress fatty acid synthesis genes in obese mice [17]. CLA has been shown to increase EE and the browning of the WAT of obese mice [18]. ...
... The results of previous studies realized by our research group and other researchers suggest that GSPE, anthocyanins, CLA, and CFH could have a positive effect by counteracting the different ailments related to obesity [15][16][17][18][19]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ...
... The results of previous studies realized by our research group and other researchers suggest that GSPE, anthocyanins, CLA, and CFH could have a positive effect by counteracting the different ailments related to obesity [15][16][17][18][19]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of these four ingredients in the form of a mix on the expanded adipose tissue of obese rats. ...
Article
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Scientists are focusing on bioactive ingredients to counteract obesity. We evaluated whether a mix containing grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), anthocyanins, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and chicken feet hydrolysate (CFH) could reduce body fat mass and also determined which mechanisms in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brown adipose tissue (BAT) were affected by the treatment. The mix or vehicle (VH) were administered for three weeks to obese rats fed a cafeteria (CAF) diet. Biometric measures, indirect calorimetry, and gene expression in WAT and BAT were analyzed as was the histology of the inguinal WAT (IWAT). The individual compounds were also tested in the 3T3-L1 cell line. The mix treatment resulted in a significant 15% reduction in fat (25.01 ± 0.91 g) compared to VH treatment (21.19 ± 1.59 g), and the calorimetry results indicated a significant increase in energy expenditure and fat oxidation. We observed a significant downregulation of Fasn mRNA and an upregulation of Atgl and Hsl mRNA in adipose depots in the group treated with the mix. The IWAT showed a tendency of reduction in the number of adipocytes, although no differences in the total adipocyte area were found. GSPE and anthocyanins modulated the lipid content and downregulated the gene and protein levels of Fasn compared to the untreated group in 3T3-L1 cells. In conclusion, this mix is a promising treatment against obesity, reducing the WAT of obese rats fed a CAF diet, increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation, and modifying the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of the adipose tissue.
... Additionally, the lack of bioavailability studies in the majority of these studies hinders the identification of the putative bioactive compounds (BACs) that might be responsible for the observed biological activities. [6][7][8][9] Finally, further research is needed in order to clarify the mechanisms of action of the potential anti-obesity activity of both berries, which may be relevant to understand their impact and possible application on the prevention of metabolic diseases. ...
... Some studies performed with blueberry extracts have suggested their potential role in inhibiting high-fat (HF) diet-induced body weight gain and reducing adiposity. However, most studies were conducted using blueberry-based products, parts of the berries' plant, 23,28 or phenolic-purified extracts of this berry, 9,29,30 and not with products containing the whole-berry content, showing very contradictory results. [6][7][8][9]23,29,[31][32][33][34] A study performed in obese Zucker rats demonstrated that supplementation of both low-fat diet and high-fat diet with a 2% of a freeze-dried whole blueberry powder reduced abdominal fat mass and decreased triglycerides 33 but, contrary to our result, the effect over total body weight depended on the type of diet and rats used. ...
... However, most studies were conducted using blueberry-based products, parts of the berries' plant, 23,28 or phenolic-purified extracts of this berry, 9,29,30 and not with products containing the whole-berry content, showing very contradictory results. [6][7][8][9]23,29,[31][32][33][34] A study performed in obese Zucker rats demonstrated that supplementation of both low-fat diet and high-fat diet with a 2% of a freeze-dried whole blueberry powder reduced abdominal fat mass and decreased triglycerides 33 but, contrary to our result, the effect over total body weight depended on the type of diet and rats used. While blueberry supplementation did not alter total body weight in obese rats, it significantly Table 4 Body-related, tissue and biochemical measurements obtained in expt-2 (male Wistar rats fed with control, HFS or FDSB-supplemented HFS diet for 56 days) ...
Article
Obesity and type 2-diabetes are becoming a worldwide health problem, remarking the importance of alternative therapies to tackle their progression. Here, we hypothesized that supplementation of diet with 6 % w/w of a freeze-dried strawberry-blueberry (5:1) powder (FDSB) could exert beneficial metabolic effects in Wistar rats. FDSB-supplemented animals experienced significantly reduced body weight gain, food efficiency and visceral adiposity accumulation in two independent experiments. FDSB supplementation also contributed to lower area under the curve after an intraperitoneal GTT and reduced serum insulin levels and insulin resistance index (IR-HOMA) in HFS diet-fed animals, together with reduced plasma MCP-1 inflammation marker concentrations. Gene expression analysis in retroperitoneal adipocytes from experiment 1 and 3T3-L1 cells showed that FDSB inhibited adipogenesis and lipogenesis through down-regulation of Pparg, Cebpa, Lep, Fasn, Scd-1 and Lpl gene expression. Untargeted metabolomics identified the cis isomer ofresveratrol-3-glucoside-sulphate as a metabolite differentially increased in FDSB-treated serum samples, which corresponds to a strawberry metabolite that could be considered a serum biomarker of FDSB-intake. Our results suggest that FDSB powder might be useful for treatment/prevention of obesity-related diseases.
... The anti-obesity property of blueberry anthocyanins was demonstrated in high-fat diet (45% calories from fat) supplemented mice [51]. The supplementation of a high concentration of blueberry anthocyanins (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the weight gain in high-fat diet supplemented mice. ...
... TC, TG, and lipids content were reduced in blueberry anthocyanins supplemented diet-induced obese mice. The results suggested that the supplementation of a high concentration of blueberry anthocyanins might protect the mice from diet-induced obesity-related consequences [51]. Likely, the supplementation of mulberry and cherry anthocyanins (200 mg/kg) prevented weight gain and nullified oxidative damages in high-fatdiet-induced (45% calories from fat) obese mice. ...
Article
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Anthocyanins are water-soluble plant pigments, and based on their chemical structure (nature, position, and the number of sugar moieties attached; the number of hydroxyl groups; acylation of sugars with acids) about 635 different anthocyanins have been identified and reported from plants. Cyanidin, peonidin, pelargonidin, petunidin, and malvidin are the commonly found anthocyanidins (aglycon forms of anthocyanins) in edible plants out of almost 25 anthocyanidins that are identified (based on the position of methoxyl and hydroxyl groups in the rings) in nature. Anthocyanins are known for numerous health benefits including anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory bowel disease, anti-cancer, etc. Obesity can be defined as excessive or abnormal adipose tissue and body mass, which increases the risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, etc. The manuscript summarizes the recent updates in the effects of anthocyanins supplementation on the health status of obese subjects, and briefly the results of in vitro and in vivo studies. Several studies confirmed that the consumption of anthocyanins-rich food improved obesity-associated dysbiosis in gut microbiota and inflammation in adipose tissue. Anthocyanin consumption prevents obesity in healthy subjects, and aids in maintaining or reducing the body weight of obese subjects, also improving the metabolism and energy balance. Though preclinical studies proved the beneficial effects of anthocyanins such as the fact that daily intake of anthocyanin rich fruits and vegetables might aid weight maintenance in every healthy individual, Juҫara pulp might control the inflammatory status of obesity, Queen garnet plum juice reduced the blood pressure and risk factors associated with metabolic disorders, and highbush organic blueberries improved the metabolism of obese individuals, we don’t have an established treatment procedure to prevent or manage the over-weight condition and its comorbidities. Thus, further studies on the optimum dose, duration, and mode of supplementation of anthocyanins are required to develop an anthocyanins-based clinical procedure.
... 4,5 Nowadays, anthocyanins from dark fruits, cereals, and vegetables are attracting wide interest due to their health-promoting properties in humans. [6][7][8] Anthocyanins from blueber-ries, 9,10 mulberries, 11,12 black elderberries, 13 blackcurrants, 14 black rice, 15,16 soybeans, 17 strawberries, 18 purple corn, 19 red cabbage microgreens, 20 and purple sweet potatoes 21 prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese animal models. It appears that several signaling pathways and adipocytokine (adiponectin and leptin), AMP-activated protein kinase, tumor necrosis factor, and γ-amino butyric acid receptor are involved; 7 however, the mechanisms whereby anthocyanins exert anti-obesity effects are still not fully understood. ...
... Prior et al. found that black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3xylosylrutinoside) did not alter the development of obesity in mice fed with a high fat diet. 29 Wu et al. reported that anthocyanins (mainly petunidin-3-arabinoside and delphinidin-3galactoside) 9 and honeysuckle anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside) 43 obtained from artificially planted blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) prevent diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Chang and coworkers have indicated that mulberry anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-glucoside) 11 inhibit oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation via the reduction of lipogenesis and promotion of hepatic lipid clearance. ...
Article
Evidence indicates that raspberry has beneficial effects on chronic diseases. The objective of the current study is to examine the beneficial effects of raspberry anthocyanin (RA) on high-fat diet induced obesity and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were administered low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet supplemented with RA at dose of 200 mg/kg of food for 12 weeks. RA reduced the body weight gain by 63.7%. Furthermore, RA significantly elevated serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities, and fecal butyric acid levels, remarkably reduced serum and hepatic lipids profiles, markedly down-regulated expression genes of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nuclear factor кB (NF-кB). Metabolomics analysis using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) indicated that RA administration promoted the recovery of metabolites involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, insulin signaling pathway and glutathione metabolism in the livers of obese mice. These findings suggest that RA might ameliorate diet-induced obesity by alleviating oxidative stress and modulating lipid metabolism.
... The key molecules of lipid metabolism are fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). ACNs from different dietary sources could downregulate mRNA and protein levels of FAS and SREBP1, reducing hyperglycemia and inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis (Tsuda et al., 2003;Hwang et al., 2011;Qin and Anderson, 2012;Park et al., 2015;Wu et al., 2016a). ...
... Blueberry-derived ACNs were effective in reducing body weight and serum glucose and in improving lipid profile in high-fat-fed mice (Wu et al., 2016a), while ACNs derived from adzuki bean decreased lipid accumulation and triglyceride/ cholesterol levels in mice fed with high-fat and highcholesterol diet . ...
Article
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Anthocyanins are natural phenolic pigments with biological activity. They are well-known to have potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, which explains the various biological effects reported for these substances suggesting their antidiabetic and anticancer activities, and their role in cardiovascular and neuroprotective prevention. This review aims to comprehensively analyze different studies performed on this class of compounds, their bioavailability and their therapeutic potential. An in-depth look in preclinical, in vitro and in vivo, and clinical studies indicates the preventive effects of anthocyanins on cardioprotection, neuroprotection, antiobesity as well as their antidiabetes and anticancer effects.
... The key molecules of lipid metabolism are fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). ACNs from different dietary sources could downregulate mRNA and protein levels of FAS and SREBP1, reducing hyperglycemia and inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis (Tsuda et al., 2003;Hwang et al., 2011;Qin and Anderson, 2012;Park et al., 2015;Wu et al., 2016a). ...
... Blueberry-derived ACNs were effective in reducing body weight and serum glucose and in improving lipid profile in high-fat-fed mice (Wu et al., 2016a), while ACNs derived from adzuki bean decreased lipid accumulation and triglyceride/ cholesterol levels in mice fed with high-fat and highcholesterol diet . ...
Article
Full-text available
Anthocyanins are natural phenolic pigments with biological activity. They are well-known to have potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, which explains the various biological effects reported for these substances suggesting their antidiabetic and anticancer activities, and their role in cardiovascular and neuroprotective prevention. This review aims to comprehensively analyze different studies performed on this class of compounds, their bioavailability and their therapeutic potential. An in-depth look in preclinical, in vitro and in vivo, and clinical studies indicates the preventive effects of anthocyanins on cardioprotection, neuroprotection, antiobesity as well as their antidiabetes and anticancer effects.
... C, corn starch diet-fed rats; CDP, corn starch diet-fed rats supplemented with Davidson's plum powder; H, high-carbohydrate, highfat diet-fed rats; HDP, high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats supplemented with Davidson's plum powder. synthesis and adipogenesis (Wu, Jiang, Yin, Long, & Zheng, 2016). ...
... Our results showed that Davidson's plum did not lower blood glucose concentrations in HDP rats. This finding is different from previous studies where cyanidin 3-glucoside supplementation in high-fed diet rats improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity (Bhaswant et al., 2015(Bhaswant et al., , 2017Poudyal et al., 2010), however a much higher dose of 160-300 mg anthocyanin/kg body weight/day was used in other studies (Guo et al., 2012;Wu et al., 2016). In addition, we found a reduction in liver glycogen concentration in CDP rats showing the potential utilisation of glycogen to generate glucose for energy mimicking a fasting mechanism. ...
... Consumption of BA at 200 mg/kg reduced 19.4% body weight gain in mice. BA could effectively attenuate epididymal adipocytes, improve lipid profiles, and down-regulate the expression levels of FAS genes (Wu, Jiang, Yin, Long, & Zheng, 2016a). BCAO increased gene expressions of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1) and PPAR-α involved in fatty acid oxidation and decreased mRNA expressions of FAS and SREBP-1c associated with fatty acid synthesis (Park et al., 2015). ...
... BE suppressed gene expression levels of major inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and MCP-1 in white adipose tissue (Kanamoto et al., 2011). BA down-regulated the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and PPARγ (Wu et al., 2016a). Also, CACN and MACN down-regulated the gene expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, and NF-кB genes (Wu et al., 2016b). ...
Article
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Background Obesity is a serious health problem and the cause for social and economic burdens. Currently, there is still no cure for obesity, while the investment of time and money for one is huge. Recent years, the possibility of developing natural products from fruits and vegetables with bioactivities into anti-disease agents has become a hot spot in research. Thus, anthocyanins are increasingly causing more attention, as they have been proved to show anti-obesity effects. Furthermore, recent advances in biosynthesis of anthocyanins in microorganisms have illustrated a promising way in producing these valuable compounds in large scales. Scope and approach Anthocyanins have great importance in developing a cure for obesity and biosynthesis in microorganisms has high potential in their massive production. This review therefore highlights the recent advances in the anti-obesity effects of anthocyanins and their biosynthesis in microorganisms. We have comprehensively discussed the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-obesity effects of anthocyanins, the physicochemical and physiological properties of anthocyanins, the suitability of anthocyanins in anti-obesity therapies as well as the possibility of biosynthesis in microorganisms in future application. Key findings and conclusions Anthocyanins have shown anti-obesity effects through multiple mechanisms, and biosynthesis of anthocyanins in microorganisms could have extensive applications. Inhibiting lipid absorption, regulating lipid metabolism, increasing energy expenditure, suppressing food intake and regulating gut microbiota are major mechanisms involved. Moreover, anthocyanins are promising candidates in developing anti-obesity therapies. Further studies are required to explore therapeutic uses of anthocyanins in treating obesity and application of biosynthesis of anthocyanins in microorganisms in industries.
... Epidemiological studies have shown that polyphenols penetrate particularly the tissues in which they are metabolized, such as the liver and the gastrointestinal tract [Cutler] while the anthocyanins' blueberries are able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier by acting directly on the brain [9,10] and their excretion occurs through urine and bile [8]. A significant number of studies demonstrated the antioxidant, antiinflammatory impact of their 'aggressive' polyphenols, competing oxidative stress [11][12][13] and relevant diseases, such as cardiovascular disease [14,15] diabetes [16,17] high blood pressure [18,19] cancer [20] autoimmune diseases [21], [22], premature aging [23], memory [24], Alzheimer disease [25], obesity [26,27] as well as preventing urinary tract infections [28,29] LDL lipoproteins [30] and muscle recovery after exercise [31] etc. However, the protection provided by the consumption of these fruits will have to be further investigated in humans, as numerous studies are based on animal experiments [32][33][34][35][36][37]. ...
... Yield of the antioxidant capacity of berries in the phenolic compounds Yield of the antioxidant capacity of blueberries in the phenolic compounds [26] Healthy male (n= 21), 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after consumption of blueberry containing 766, 1278, and 1791 mg total blueberry polyphenols -In vivo Improvement of vascular function [29] Postmenopausal women (n = 48), daily consumption of 22 g freeze-dried blueberry powder for 8 weeks -In vivo Improvement of blood pressure and arterial stiffness [15] Men and postmenopausal women (n= 25) aged 18-50 years, daily consumption of a portion of 250g blueberries for 6 weeks -In vivo ...
Article
Background: The ever-growing concern about achieving quality of life and longevity leads scientists to the search of natural wellness resources. Also, prevention of diseases through food is considered as the driving force of the organism. The beneficial effects of superfoods, such as blueberries, on human health are expected to be proved, putting these effects under the microscope. Objective: Evaluating the effect of blueberries consumption in humans, in order to draw relevant conclusions for their beneficial effect and thus develop food policies and launch target in future searches. Methods: Comprehensive review of published studies of the last decade, using keyword combinations which are derived from the available database. Results: Based on the cited studies, that blueberries consumption reduces degenerative damage caused by free radicals, increases the natural killer cells and inflammatory cytokines, and provides evidence for cellular antioxidant defense against DNA damage, playing also an important role in the anti-cancer nutritional preventive treatment. Moreover, the blueberries consumption protects the elderly from neurodegenerative diseases, which are associated with oxidative stress and aging, improves gait performance, vascular function and insulin sensitivity. It also benefits school-age children’s cognitive function. The blueberries consumption also positively influences certain bifidobacterial populations, affects the recovery of visual acuity and operates as a complementary therapeutic factor to reduce the severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Conclusion: The consumption of blueberries is a supplementary function to prevent and cure chronic inflammatory diseases, providing an admirable medical therapy support in order to reduce degenerative damage. However, further studies conducted on larger populations are strongly recommended.
... Similarly, other researchers have not shown alterations in body weight gain and white adipose tissue weight in mice fed a high-fat diet after the ingestion of blueberry juice (1887 mg/mL ACN) in place of drinking water over a period of 72 days [65]. However, consumption of high doses (200 mg/kg) of blueberry ACNs by high-fat diet induced obese male mice over 8 weeks reduced their body weight by 19.4%; decreased serum glucose levels; attenuated epididymal tissue; improved lipid profiles; and significantly down-regulated tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFa), interleukin 6, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARc), and fatty acid synthesis (FAS) gene expression levels [69]. ...
... ACNs can reduce the expression of PPARc, FAS, and ChREBP [69,73], and differentiation of preadipocytes from the Gut microbiota might be involved in energy storage. Environmental factor such as gut microbiota may regulate energy storage by providing lipogenic substrates (SCFA, monosaccharides) to the liver, increasing hepatic lipogenesis and/or by suppressing the FIAF in the gut, which increase LPL. ...
Article
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Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and a number of metabolic disorders. Distal gut microbes' content (microbiota) is not yet fully understood but evidence shows that it is influenced by internal and external factors that modulate its composition and function. The evidence that gut microbiota composition can differ between healthy and obese individuals, as well as for those who maintain specific dietary habits, has led to the study of this environmental factor as a key link between the pathophysiology of obesity and gut microbiota. Data obtained about the role of anthocyanins (ACNs) in microbiota may lead to different strategies to manipulate bacterial populations and promote health. Anthocyanins have been identified as modulators of gut microbiota that contribute to obesity control and these bioactive compounds should be considered to have a prebiotic action. This review addresses the relevance of knowledge about the influence of anthocyanins-rich food consumption on microbiota, and their health-promoting potential in the pathophysiology of obesity. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017.
... As shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the active ingredients of blueberry can exhibit potential health benefits through acting as ligands for nuclear receptors, such as PPARs Rozanska and Regulska-Ilow, 2018;Seymour et al., 2011). Blueberry anthocyanins effectively reduced blood glucose and epididymal adipocytes, improved blood lipids by downregulating the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, PPARα, and Fas genes (Wu et al., 2016). In addition, blueberry anthocyanins also showed the effect of hypotensive by adjusting the levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and its promoters endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PPARγ (Huang et al., 2020). ...
... In addition, blueberry anthocyanins also showed the effect of hypotensive by adjusting the levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and its promoters endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and PPARγ (Huang et al., 2020). In vivo studies have demonstrated that consumption of blueberry anthocyanin reduces body weight in C57BL / 6 mice at dose-dependent (Wu et al., 2016). Blueberry pterostilbene treatment resulted in a significant increase in the gene expression of ACO, CPT-1, and PPARα under certain concentrations . ...
Article
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Background Blueberry is rich in bioactive substances and has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, and other activities. Blueberry has been shown to treat diseases by mediating the transcription of nuclear receptors. However, evidence for nuclear receptor-mediated health benefits of blueberry has not been systematically reviewed. Purpose This review aims to summarize the nuclear receptor-mediated health benefits of blueberry. Methods This study reviews all relevant literature published in NCBI PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar by January 2022. The relevant literature was extracted from the databases with the following keyword combinations: "biological activities" OR "nuclear receptors" OR "phytochemicals" AND "blueberry" OR "Vaccinium corymbosum" as well as free-text words. Results In vivo and in vitro experimental results and clinical evidence have demonstrated that blueberry has health-promoting effects. Supplementing blueberry is beneficial to the treatment of cancer, the alleviation of metabolic syndrome, and liver protection. Blueberry can regulate the transcription of PPARs, ERs, AR, GR, MR, LXRs, and FXR and mediate the expressions of Akt, CYP 1Al, p53, and Bcl-2. Conclusion Blueberry can be targeted to treat various diseases by mediating the transcription of nuclear receptors. Nevertheless, further human research is needed.
... Anthocyanidins regulate lipolysis, FAO, lipogenesis and adipose tissue development [76,[109][110][111]. They affected the adipokines secretion [112], modified the adipocytes-gene expression [33,113,114]. Moreover, anthocyanins are able to improve WAT functionality, to induce browning in WAT [33,57,82,115] or to increase the BAT mass or its activity [57,109,115], thus regulating energy expenditure [59,73]. ...
... The anti-inflammatory effects have been also achieved with sweet cherry anthocyanins and blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) anthocyanins. These anthocyanins reduced the body weight gain, the size of adipocytes and the leptin secretion in HFDfed mice but also expression of Il-6 and Tnfa genes, thus indicating an amelioration of the deleterious effects of a HFD [114,120]. ...
Article
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The prevention and treatment of obesity is primary based on the follow-up of a healthy lifestyle, which includes a healthy diet with an important presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. For many years, the health benefits of polyphenols have been attributed to their anti-oxidant capacity as free radical scavengers. More recently it has been described that polyphenols activate other cell-signaling pathways that are not related to ROS production but rather involved in metabolic regulation. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge in this field by focusing on the metabolic effects of flavonoids. Flavonoids are widely distributed in the plant kingdom where they are used for growing and defensing. They are structurally characterized by two benzene rings and a heterocyclic pyrone ring and based on the oxidation and saturation status of the heterocyclic ring flavonoids are grouped in seven different subclasses. The present work is focused on describing the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic impact of flavonoids in obesity and obesity-related diseases. We described the effects of each group of flavonoids in liver, white and brown adipose tissue and central nervous system and the metabolic and signaling pathways involved on them.
... Reduce fasting blood glucose level; prevent obesity [70] Juice Blueberry and Mulberry Obese mice fed with high fat diet Decrease body weight gain and serum cholesterol level; reduce insulin resistance, lipid [64] accumulation and leptin secretion Powder Blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei) Obese male mice under high fat diet Decrease serum glucose; improve lipid profile [71] Powder Blueberry Female mice fed with high fat diet Supplement prevent glucose and insulin tolerance in obese post-menopausal mice [61] Spraydried (CellBerry ® ) Chokeberry Rats fed with high fructose-rich diet ...
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Insulin resistance is an abnormal physiological state that occurs when insulin from pancreatic β-cells is unable to trigger a signal transduction pathway in target organs such as the liver, muscles and adipose tissues. The loss of insulin sensitivity is generally associated with persistent hyperglycemia (diabetes), hyperinsulinemia, fatty acids and/or lipid dysregulation which are often prevalent under obesity conditions. Hence, insulin sensitizers are one class of drugs currently employed to treat diabetes and associated metabolic disorders. A number of natural products that act through multiple mechanisms have also been identified to enhance insulin sensitivity in target organs. One group of such compounds that gained interest in recent years are the dietary anthocyanins. Data from their in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies are scrutinized in this communication to show their potential health benefit through ameliorating insulin resistance. Specific mechanism of action ranging from targeting specific signal transduction receptors/enzymes to the general antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of insulin resistance are presented.
... It is well recognized that fat accumulation in obesity results in altered expression of several hormones and adipokines. Otherwise, dietary interventions with polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids, isolated or in the food matrix, reduce adiposity with consequent improvement in metabolic parameters, especially on biomarkers associated with cardiovascular protection [42][43][44]. ...
Article
Adipose tissue inflammation has been proposed as a central mechanism connecting obesity with its metabolic and vascular complications due to the imbalance in the expression of several hormones and adipokines. Berries rich in polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids have been able to prevent both obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, improving metabolic functions in human subjects and animal models of obesity. Juçara has been considered a super fruit owing to its nutritional composition and relevant biological activities with an interesting response in animals. Thus, we aimed to verify the potential anti-obesogenic of juçara supplementation in humans. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with 35 adults with obesity of both sexes. They were assessed for resting metabolic rate; anthropometry and body composition; blood pressure; metabolic parameters; and adipokines. Subsequently, they were randomized into 2 groups to use or not (placebo) of 5 g lyophilized juçara for 6 weeks. Supplementation with juçara was significantly effective in reducing body fat, increasing HDL-c, and doubling serum adiponectin. Besides, juçara supplementation, HDL-c, and neck circumference were predictors to explain the enhancement in adiponectin. Juçara supplementation was determinant to improve adiponectin levels, and it may be considered a novel strategy for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases.
... Since blueberries contain a distinct amount of anthocyanins, this has attracted several research studies on their health benefits. High fat diets containing blueberry-fed mice have shown reduced body weight and blood glucose levels as well as TNF-α and IL-6 levels than that of high fat diet-fed control mice [63]. In addition, another study demonstrated that whole blueberry improved high fat diet-induced insulin resistance, and decreased TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, CD11c+, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) [64]. ...
Article
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Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity, due to its associated chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Thus, targeting inflammation is an attractive strategy to counter the burden of obesity-induced health problems. Recently, food-derived bioactive compounds have been spotlighted as a regulator against various chronic diseases due to their low toxicity, as opposed to drugs that induce severe side effects. Here we describe the beneficial effects of dietary anthocyanins on obesity-induced metabolic disorders and inflammation. Red cabbage microgreen, blueberry, blackcurrant, mulberry, cherry, black elderberry, black soybean, chokeberry and jaboticaba peel contain a variety of anthocyanins including cyanidins, delphinidins, malvidins, pelargonidins, peonidins and petunidins, and have been reported to alter both metabolic markers and inflammatory markers in cells, animals, and humans. This review discusses the interplay between inflammation and obesity, and their subsequent regulation via the use of dietary anthocyanins, suggesting an alternative dietary strategy to ameliorate obesity and obesity associated chronic diseases.
... R. Prior and R. L. Prior et al. reported that consuming a blueberry extract significantly reduces body weight in dietinduced obese C57BL/6 mice, while the intake of wild blueberry powder or blueberry juice does not alter body weight in obese mice [34,35]. Wu et al. suggested that artificially planted blueberry, mulberry, and honeysuckle anthocyanins mitigate body weight gain [36][37][38]. In addition, Johnson et al. reported that an alcohol-free blueberry-blackberry beverage prevents the development of obesity and attenuates fasting blood glucose in C57BL/6J mice [39]. ...
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Many studies indicate that an anthocyanin-rich diet has beneficial effects preventing metabolic disease. In the present study, the molecular mechanism underlying the antiobesity effect of consuming blackberry anthocyanins (BLA) and blueberry anthocyanins (BBA) was investigated in high-fat-diet- (HFD-) fed C57BL/6 mice. Sixty mice were administered a low-fat diet (LFD), a HFD, or a HFD plus orlistat, and BLA or BBA in their daily food for 12 weeks. As a result, the consumption of BLA and BBA inhibited body weight gain by 40.5% and 55.4%, respectively, in HFD-fed mice. The BLA and BBA treatments markedly reduced serum and hepatic lipid levels and significantly increased hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. In addition, the treatments effectively increased fecal acetate and butyrate levels and significantly attenuated expression of tumor necrosis factor TNF- α , interleukin-6, and nuclear factor-kappaB genes. Moreover, gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectroscopy results suggested that BLA and BBA significantly affected the hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, including glycerophospholipid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and the insulin-signaling pathway. Therefore, BLA and BBA ameliorated diet-induced obesity by alleviating oxidative stress and inflammation and accelerating energy expenditure.
... HD-induced obesity is characterized by the significant accumulation of excess adipose tissue in animals and humans, and body weight reduction is the recommended first-line treatment. 27 GLP have been proven to be potent antioxidants capable of scavenging/neutralizing an array of reactive oxygen species, including hydroxyl anions, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. Previous work reported that GLP mediate apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116, activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitochondrial pathways. ...
Article
The mechanisms underlying the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) polysaccharides (GLP) on obesity are not clear. In this study, GLP were found to attenuate the oleic acid-induced cell viability loss and apoptosis dose dependently in splenic lymphocytes in vitro. The effects of GLP on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HD) were determined. GLP administration (200 and 400 mg/kg bw) significantly lowered the body-weight increases; liver, heart, and white adipose tissues indexes; serum lipid accumulation; and serum and small intestine oxidative stress in mice fed a HD. Moreover, GLP inhibited HD-induced apoptosis by decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and suppressing caspase-3 activation in splenic lymphocytes. These findings indicate that GLP can exert hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects in HD-induced obese mice.
... Anthocyanins (ACNs) are widely found in a lot of berry fruits, such as cherry, mulberry, blueberry, strawberry, cranberry, and waxberry, which have become an indispensable part of human diet [13,14]. It is generally accepted that ACNs possess multiple biological activities including antioxidation, antiinflammation, antidiabetes, obesity control, cardiovascular disease prevention, and visual and brain function enhancement [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. Sweet cherry (Prunusauiun L.) is a nutritious food with relatively low caloric content and large amounts of important bioactive food factors such as cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidine-3-rutinoside [23]. ...
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic disease that threatens human health, and present therapies remain limited due to the lack of effective drugs. Lipid metabolic disturbance and oxidative stress have strong links to the development of NAFLD, while autophagy was generally accepted as a key regulatory mechanism on these steps. Our previous studies indicated that cherry anthocyanins (CACN) protected against high fat diet-induced obesity and NALFD in C57BL/6 mice, while the underlying molecule mechanism is still unclear. Thus, in this study, we show that CACN protect against oleic acid- (OA-) induced oxidative stress and attenuate lipid droplet accumulation in NAFLD cell models. According to the results of a transmission electron microscope (TEM), western blot, immunofluorescence (IF), and adenovirus transfection (Ad-mCherry-GFP-LC3B), autophagy is in accordance with the lipid-lowering effect induced by CACN. Further studies illustrate that CACN may activate autophagy via mTOR pathways. In addition, an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), was applied and the result suggested that autophagy indeed participates in the lipid clearance process in OA-induced lipid accumulation. All these results indicate that the positive effects of CACN on OA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation are mediated via activating autophagy, showing a potential target for the therapeutic strategy of NAFLD.
... 8 In recent years, anthocyanins have attracted scientific interest because of their health-promoting properties in humans. 9,10 Anthocyanin-rich extracts from purple corn, 11,12 black soybean, 13,14 purple sweet potato, 15 black rice, 16 blueberry, 17,18 mulberry, 19,20 cherry 21 and blackcurrant 22 prevent bodyweight gain and metabolic aberrations in diet-induced obese animal models. In spite of the numerous publications, the information regarding the antiobesity mechanisms of anthocyanin is still not fully understood. ...
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Epidemiological evidence indicates that anthocyanin consumption reduces the incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether black rice anthocyanin (BRA), black soybean anthocyanin (BSA), and purple corn anthocyanin (PCA) could mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation associated obesity in C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet. BRA, BSA, or PCA were administered at doses of 200 mg/kg throughout the 12-week experiment and reduced the body weight by 9.6%, 13.3%, or 16.6%, respectively. Furthermore, BRA, BSA or PCA administration could effectively increase fecal butyric acid levels, elevate hepatic SOD and GPX activities, decrease lipid peroxidation, and downregulate the gene expression levels of TNFα, IL-6, iNOS, and NF-кB. Hence, BRA, BSA, or PCA might ameliorate diet-induced obesity by alleviating both oxidative stress and inflammation.
... The GFA was dissolved in 0.05% carboxymethylcellulose-Na and the 200-and 400-mg/ kg doses were administered intragastrically for ten consecutive days. We determined the dose of GFA according to the literature and previous pre-experiments (Wu et al., 2016;Jiang et al., 2016;Miyazaki et al., 2008). On the seventh day, in addition to the control group, the remaining three groups were given a onetime cisplatin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection to complete the acute kidney injury model. ...
Article
Cisplatin is an effective anticancer chemotherapeutic agent, but the use of cisplatin in the clinic is severely limited by side effects. Nephrotoxicity is a major factor that contributes to the side effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. The aim of this research was to survey the nephroprotective effects of anthocyanin from the fruits of Panax ginseng (GFA) in a murine model of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. We observed that pretreatment with GFA attenuated cisplatin-induced elevations in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and histopathological injury induced by cisplatin. The formation of kidney malondialdehyde, heme oxygenase-1, cytochrome P450 E1 and 4-hydroxynonenal with a concomitant reduction in reduced glutathione was also inhibited by GFA, while the activities of kidney superoxide dismutase and catalase were all increased. GFA also inhibited the increase in serum tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β induced by cisplatin. In addition, the levels of induced nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were suppressed by GFA. Furthermore, GFA supplementation inhibited the activation of apoptotic pathways by increasing B cell lymphoma 2 and decreasing Bcl2-associated X protein expression. In conclusion, the findings from the present investigation demonstrate that GFA pre-administration can significantly prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which may be related to its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and antiinflammatory effects. Copyright
... The reduction in inflammation is particularly appealing, as persistent lowgrade chronic inflammation associated with obesity can cause a number of chronic metabolic diseases. Anthocyanin treatment inhibited the expression of PPARγ and FAS in highfat diet-induced obese mice (Wu et al., 2016). In vitro, Frontiers in Physiology | www.frontiersin.org ...
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Flavonoids, naturally-occurring compounds with multiple phenolic structures, are the most widely distributed phytochemicals in the plant kingdom, and are mainly found in vegetables, fruits, grains, roots, herbs, and tea and red wine products. Flavonoids have health-promoting effects and are indispensable compounds in nutritional and pharmaceutical (i.e., nutraceutical) applications. Among the demonstrated bioactive effects of flavonoids are anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial in a range of research models. Through dietary formulation strategies, numerous flavonoids provide the ability to support bird health while improving the nutritional quality of poultry meat and eggs by changing the profile of fatty acids and reducing cholesterol content. A number of such compounds have been shown to inhibit adipogenesis, and promote lipolysis and apoptosis in adipose tissue cells, and thereby have the potential to affect fat accretion in poultry at various ages and stages of production. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties contribute to animal health by preventing free radical damage in tissues and ameliorating inflammation in adipose tissue, which are concerns in broiler breeders and laying hens. In this review, we summarize the progress in understanding the effects of dietary flavonoids on lipid metabolism and fat deposition in poultry, and discuss the associated physiological mechanisms.
... Accordingly, many anthocyanin rich plant products have been tested, such as purple corn, blueberries, purple sweet potato, black soybean, blackberries, strawberries, etc. (Han et al., 2006;Jayaprakasam, Olson, Schutzki, Tai, & Nair, 2006;Kaume, Gilbert, Brownmiller, Howard, & Devareddy, 2012;Kwon et al., 2007;Zafra-Stone et al., 2007;). Anti-obesity effects in mouse from anthocyanin treatments were demonstrated with decreased body weight in 8 weeks (Wu, Jiang, Yin, Long, & Zheng, 2016). ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the crude extracts from three anthocyanin rich plants for fat reduction in shrimp meat. The types of anthocyanin plentiful in local plants included delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside derivative from butterfly pea petals, delphinidine-3-sambubioside from roselle calyx, and cyanidin-3-glucoside from malabar fruit. These were mixed in formulated feed at 5% (weight/weight dry basis) substitution levels. Farmed white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (25.78±0.71g) were subjected to a feed experiment for 45 days of rearing. The results show no effects on growth performance. The cyanidin-3- glucoside derivatives from malabar fruit were accumulated the most in the experimental shrimp, with a highly significant difference (p
... Accordingly, purple sweet potato was macerated and stirred with methanol/water/formic acid (90:9:1, v/v/v). Then, the extract was purified through an Amberlite XAD-7 column (Rohm & Haas) with 1% formic acid (Wu et al., 2016). Finally, the concentrated and lyophilized eluent was purified with ethyl acetate, and the yield of purple sweet potato anthocyanins was about 0.25 g from 100 g raw purple sweet potato. ...
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Purple sweet potatoes extract (PSPE) have been used as a natural food antioxidant with high anthocyanin concentrations. Research investigated the lifespan and the mechanisms of PSPE on female Drosophila melanogaster. Supplementation of PSPE extended the lifespan by 16.3% and had a protective effect on injury by oxidative stress. PSPE treatment enhanced the endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Furthermore, PSPE significantly up-regulated foxo-related genes, inhibited mTOR mRNA expression, and activated autophagy to maintain intestinal homeostasis. Meanwhile, PSPE improved intestinal barrier dysfunction by 22.86%, decelerated the abnormal proliferation rate of intestinal stem cell (ISCs) by 23.77%, and improved intestinal integrity in geriatric D. melanogaster. In conclusion, PSPE may maintain intestinal homeostasis, and improve the antioxidant and stress resistance capacity through the insulin and rapamycin pathway, thereby extending the lifespan. Therefore, it provides active support to the development and application of PSPE in functional food. Practical applications In recent years, with the increase of age, age-related complications have generally increased and seriously affected people’s healthy life. Purple sweet potato is a nutrient-rich substance, which not only has a unique color but also contains rich anthocyanins, so it has many potential biological and pharmacological functions. Our results showed that the PSPE had a good effect of maintaining the intestinal homeostasis of the older adult, and provided a favorable theoretical basis for the development of PSPE functional products and scientific academic research.
... The pyloric end was then isolated and ligated, followed by suturing of the abdominal wall. To determine the in vivo effects of BE, 18 mice were randomly divided into three groups (six for each group): the control group included healthy mice; in the LPS group, mice were subjected to gavage of LPS 20 μg/day for three consecutive days and then to pyloric ligation for 1 day before sacrifice using overdose (200 mg/kg BW) pentobarbital sodium; in the BE group, mice were gavaged with 50 mg/(kg body weight) of BE for 7 days [12][13][14], subjected to gavage of LPS 20 μg/day for 3 consecutive days and then subjected to pyloric ligation for 1 day before sacrifice using overdose (200 mg/kg BW) pentobarbital sodium. The administration dose was selected based on the dose transition between mice and human, the dose of 50 mg/kg body weight in mice equals a consumption of 5.6 mg/kg body weight in human (dose transition between human and mice: 1:9) [15]. ...
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Purpose Anthocyanins are well-characterized by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. Peptic ulcers contribute to the development of severe gastric disorders. In the current study, the effects of blueberry anthocyanin extracts (BE) on the Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peptic epithelium injures were assessed and the associated mechanism driving the effects was explored by focusing on MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Methods Peptic injures were induced in a mouse model using LPS plus ligation method and then the mice were treated with BE. Then changes in gastric histology, inflammatory response, and MAPK/NF-κB axis were detected. To reveal the role of MAPK/NF-κB axis in the effects of BE, human gastric epithelial cells (HGECs) were further subjected to co-treatment of BE, LPS, and MAPK activator. Results The assays of mouse model showed that BE attenuated gastric epithelial injuries by improving epithelial structure and suppressing gastric inflammatory response, which was associated with the inhibition of MAPK/NF-κB axis. In in vitro assays, BE suppressed viability and production of cytokines, and induced apoptosis in LPS-treated HGECs. The re-activation of MAPK pathway counteracted the effects of BE by re-inducing cell viability and suppressing cell apoptosis. Conclusions The protective effects of BE against LPS-induced injuries in mouse stomach depended on the inhibition of both MAPK pathway and the downstream NF-κB signaling.
... The anthocyanins stand out among the compounds that represent antioxidant capacity; they are water-soluble pigments that provide colors from red to blue (Sigurdson et al., 2017). Additionally, therapeutic properties for diseases such as cancer (Mazewski et al., 2018) and obesity (Wu et al., 2016), as well as the protective effects against cardiovascular disorders (Warner et al., 2018), have been attributed to these compounds. This is the reason why we have seen the use of raw materials rich in anthocyanins, either for the formulation of functional foods (Hornedo-Ortega et al., 2016) or the generation of natural dyes (Gordillo et al., 2018). ...
... This effect was especially noticeable in the group receiving the higher dose of the extract, where the weight increase was lower by almost 24% compared to the weight increase in the group fed with a cholesterol diet. Weight loss or reduction of weight gain as an effect of iridoids [29][30][31][32] and anthocyanins [33][34][35][36] were also observed in other research models. This also applied to models in which compounds from active extract groups were tested, e.g., loganic acid [37], cyanidin [38] or pelargonidin [39]. ...
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Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits possess potential cardiovascular, lipid-lowering and hypoglycemic bioactivities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of resin-purified cornelian cherry extract rich in iridoids and anthocyanins on several transcription factors, intima/media ratio in aorta and serum parameters, which determine or are valuable indicators of the adverse changes observed in the course of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. For this purpose, male New Zealand rabbits were fed a diet enriched in 1% cholesterol for 60 days. Additionally, one group received 10 mg/kg b.w. of cornelian cherry extract and the second group 50 mg/kg b.w. of cornelian cherry extract. PPAR-α and PPAR-γ expression in the aorta, LXR-α expression in the liver; cholesterol, triglycerides, adipokines, apolipoproteins, glucose and insulin levels in serum; the intima and media diameter in the thoracic and abdominal aorta were determined. Administration of cornelian cherry extract resulted in an enhancement in the expression of all tested transcription factors, a decrease in triglycerides, leptin and resistin, and an increase in adiponectin levels. In addition, a significant reduction in the I/M ratio was observed for both the thoracic and abdominal aorta. The results we have obtained confirm the potential contribution of cornelian cherry extract to mitigation of the risk of developing and the intensity of symptoms of obesity-related cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis or metabolic syndrome.
... Blueberry anthocyanin extracts at both a low dose and a high dose significantly decreased the body weight gain, the total adipose tissue weight, the liver weight, and the liver lipids in HFD-fed mice. The present results were in agreement with the two previous reports showing that the blueberry anthocyanins could reduce the adipose tissue weight in mice [26] and strawberry anthocyanin pelargonidin 3-glucoside could reduce the abdominal fat and abdominal circumference in rats [27]. Such benefit is probably associated with the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis [28,29]. ...
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Purpose Blueberry and cranberry are rich in anthocyanins. The present study was to investigate the effects of anthocyanin extracts from blueberry and cranberry on body weight and gut microbiota. Methods C57BL/6 J Mice were divided into six groups (n = 9 each) fed one of six diets namely low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD with the addition of 1% blueberry extract (BL), 2% blueberry extract (BH), 1% cranberry extract (CL), and 2% cranberry extract (CH), respectively. Results Feeding BL and BH diets significantly decreased body weight gain by 20–23%, total adipose tissue weight by 18–20%, and total liver lipids by 16–18% compared with feeding HFD. Feeding CH diet but not CL diet reduced the body weight by 27%, accompanied by a significant reduction of total plasma cholesterol by 25% and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by 38%. The metagenomic analysis showed that the supplementation of blueberry and cranberry anthocyanin extracts reduced plasma lipopolysaccharide concentration, accompanied by a reduction in the relative abundance of Rikenella and Rikenellaceae. Dietary supplementation of berry anthocyanin extracts promoted the growth of Lachnoclostridium, Roseburia, and Clostridium_innocuum_group in genus level, leading to a greater production of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Conclusions It was concluded that both berry anthocyanins could manage the body weight and favorably modulate the gut microbiota at least in mice.
... Blueberry anthocyanins also showed anti-obesity effects. Indeed, their administration at doses of 200 mg/kg during one month showed the ability to reduce the body weight of obese C57BL/6 mice by 19.4% and also diminish the glucose and pro-inflammatory levels, improve the lipid profile, and suppress the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, FAS genes, and fatty acid synthesis over a 16-week treatment in contrast to the untreated group [204]. These results were similar as those reported by Kwon et al. and Wu et al. regarding the oral ingestion of anthocyanins from black soybean, black rice, and purple corn by obese rats [16,205]. ...
Article
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In recent years, the consumption of natural-based foods, including beans, fruits, legumes, nuts, oils, vegetables, spices, and whole grains, has been encouraged. This fact is essentially due to their content in bioactive phytochemicals, with the phenolic compounds standing out. Among them, anthocyanins have been a target of many studies due to the presence of catechol, pyrogallol, and methoxy groups in their chemical structure, which confer notable scavenging, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities, being already recommended as supplementation to mitigate or even attenuate certain disorders, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurological pathologies. The most well-known anthocyanins are cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside. They are widespread in nature, being present in considerable amounts in red fruits and red vegetables. Overall, the present review intends to discuss the most recent findings on the potential health benefits from the daily intake of anthocyanin-rich foods, as well as their possible pharmacological mechanisms of action. However, before that, some emphasis regarding their chemical structure, dietary sources, and bioavailability was done.
... Compared to conventional drugs, herbal medicines show less potentially dangerous side effects. Many plant compounds, such as ginsenoside, caffeic acid, berberine, anthocyanin, and capsaicin, have been shown to inhibit adipogenesis (33)(34)(35). Obesity is commonly caused by an excessive increase of adipocytes. Adipogenesis is a complex regulated cellular differentiation process involving many signaling pathways and related molecules (36,37). ...
Article
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Obesity is currently an important health problem and is associated with an increased likelihood of various diseases. The efficacies of various natural treatments have been assessed for their utility in treating obesity. Alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxides) is considered the major component of garlic and has a wide range of natural antioxidant properties. However, the direct effects of alliin on obesity have not been well clarified. The present study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of alliin on adipocyte differentiation. The 3T3-L1 cells were treated with alliin (0-40 µg/ml) during adipogenic differentiation. The effect of alliin on lipid accumulation was evaluated by Oil red O staining. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was performed to investigate the expression levels of adipogenic differentiation-related genes. The accumulation of lipid droplets was markedly inhibited following alliin treatment. The expression levels of multiple adipogenic transcription markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β, C/EBP α and peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor γ, were markedly decreased following treatment with alliin during adipogenic differentiation. Expression levels of several adipocyte-related genes were subsequently suppressed. Additionally, alliin suppressed PKB/Akt and PI3K expression. These results suggested that alliin exhibits anti-adipogenic activity by downregulating major adipogenic differentiation-related genes and Akt/PI3K expression. Alliin may have a potential therapeutic effect on metabolic disease.
... Blueberry (V. corymbosum and V. ashei) containing anthocyanins were responsible for the reduction of glucose levels, triglyceride, cholesterol and leptin in high fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice (DeFuria et al. 2009;Wu et al. 2016a). Red cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and red cabbage microgreen (were harvested without roots, shipped overnight with specialized clamshell containers) supplementation reduced low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol in high fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice (Huang et al. 2016a). ...
Article
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Anthocyanins are naturally occurring water-soluble plant pigments belonging to the flavonoids chemical class. The red, blue and purple colours of leaves, flowers and fruits of plants confirm that they are rich sources of anthocyanins. Many in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that anthocyanins have different health beneficial effects such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, antihypertensive and anticancer properties. Major benefits of anthocyanin administration are owing to their potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Recent investigations have revealed that anti-inflammatory activities of anthocyanins follow the inhibitory pathways of NF-кB-mediated decline of inflammatory cytokines production. Inhibition of the anti-inflammatory pathways also influences the modulation of arteriolar disorders and cardiovascular complications due to anthocyanin administration. Moreover, anthocyanins improve diabetes, obesity and cancer pathology by inhibiting NF-кB-mediated inflammatory pathways. However, considerable variations in activities do exist among structurally diverse anthocyanins. This review appraises the recent literature regarding the health benefits of anthocyanins and their molecular mechanisms in various oxidative stress related pathophysiological conditions.
... In addition, the diet with sweet cherry anthocyanins decreased the dimensions of epididymal adipocytes and levels of serum lipids in 3T3-L1 cells about 30% as mentioned by Wu et al., (2014). In another study, it was found that the bodyweight of the mouse was reduced by approximately 19% by consuming currant anthocyanins (Wu et al., 2016a). ...
Article
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Anthocyanins have a great potential for human health, as a sub-group of phenolic compounds. Interactions of anthocyanin involved in digestion and thus in obesity consist of inhibition of pancreatic lipase, regulation of lipolysis and lipogenesis, activation of an activated protein kinase enzyme, controlling of digestion hormones (leptin, insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, GIP, GLP-1). Anthocyanins are the compounds that can control metabolic syndrome and obesity by ameliorating lipid metabolism, increasing energy expenditure, suppressing food intake and inhibiting lipid absorption. In addition, the interactions with other compounds during the processing and/or in the intestinal canal can change their absorption capability and bioavailability. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, inflammatory cytokines signaling, free-radical scavenging activity are among the primary functions of anthocyanins playing role in the basic metabolic pathways. Anthocyanins also interact with gut microbiota that plays a role in many metabolic pathways. In the review, the effects of anthocyanins on the obesity-associated mechanisms in the metabolism are considered and summarized under the light of recent researches.
Chapter
Anthocyanins are the potential bioactive compounds that exerted a protective effect against metabolic disease. In this book chapter, we discussed the interplay between microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disease as well as accumulated the recent updates of the metabolic modulatory effect of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich food. Based on our findings, anthocyanins showed metabolic modulatory effects via exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, pro-apoptotic, and autophagy effect. In addition, the modulatory effects of anthocyanins are partly attributed to gut microbiota communities. Further studies are warranted to understand the involvement of gut microbiota with anthocyanin effect. Thus, the consumption of anthocyanins is recommended to combat metabolic disease. Furthermore, intake of berry fruits is also suggested for preventing metabolic disease because of the rich source of anthocyanins.
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Microbial fermentation of grape‐skin extracts is found to synthesize anthocyanin oligomers (AO), which are more active than the monomeric anthocyanins that are effective for some metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. This study investigated the functional role of AO in 3T3‐L1 white adipocyte metabolism, with a focus on inducing browning. To achieve this, we determined the expressions of core genes and protein markers responsible for browning and lipid metabolism in response to AO treatment of 3T3‐L1 white adipocytes. AO exposure significantly increases the expressions of beige‐specific genes (Cidea, Cited1, Ppargc1α, Prdm16, Tbx1, Tmem26, and Ucp1) and brown‐fat signature proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC‐1α), and suppresses the expressions of lipogenic marker proteins while enhancing the protein levels of lipolysis in white adipocytes. The mechanistic study revealed stimulation of white fat browning via activation of the β3‐AR/PKA/p38 axis and ERK/CREB signaling pathway subsequent to AO treatment. In conclusion, our current findings indicate the beneficial effects of AO for the treatment of obesity with interesting properties such as regulating the browning of adipocytes and increasing thermogenic activity. Although further research based on animal models or clinical trials remains, AO treatment can bring more insights into the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
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This study aimed to determine whether black wolfberry (Lycium ruthenicum Murr.) anthocyanin (BWA) consumption can alleviate oxidative stress and reduce inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the present study, BWA at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg kg⁻¹ were supplemented in the daily food of obese rats during an eight-week experiment. Consumption of BWA at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg kg⁻¹ reduced bodyweight gain by 17.4%, 18.7 and 38.3%, respectively, in HFD-fed SD rats. BWA could effectively decrease Lee's index, improve the biochemical profiles, elevate superoxide dismutase activities and fecal fatty acid content, but significantly reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) production and down-regulate the expression of the TNFα, IL-6, NF-κB, IFN-γ and iNOS genes. Therefore, BWA potentially prevents diet-induced obesity by alleviating oxidative stress, reducing inflammation and accelerating fat decomposition in diet-induced obesity.
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The prevalence of obesity in the world is fearsomely climbing, which has brought about heavy threats on human health and economic development. For coping with this problem, researchers have looked at the profound potentials of natural products for resolving obesity because of their high efficiencies and few undesirable outcomes in the recent years. Berry fruits are huge reservoirs of bioactive components, and their anti-obesity potentials are arousing much interests. In this review, the current main strategies to manage obesity were summarized, including inhibiting appetite and lowering the food intake, improving energy expenditure and thermogenesis, suppressing absorption and digestion, reducing lipid synthesis and storage as well as modulating composition of gut microbiota. In addition, this review discussed the potentials of dietary berry fruits (blueberries, cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, mulberries, lingonberries, blackberries, black chokeberries, elderberries, bilberries, grape, blackcurrants, jaboticabas, red bayberries, sea-buckthorns, goldenberries and goji berries) to counteract obesity or obesity-associated complications based on recent animal experiments and human studies. Then, the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds present in berry fruits was discussed. On the other hand, several challenges including securing effective dosage, further understanding their interaction with human tissues, improving bioavailability and protection of functional ingredients during delivery should be taken into account and conquered in the coming years.
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of areca flower tea polyphenol extract (AFPE) on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. AFPE was extracted from areca flower tea using boiling water, and the polyphenolic compounds were analysed by HPLC. At doses that they did not induce cytotoxicity, AFPE (50 – 200 µg/mL) efficiently inhibited triglyceride accumulation in the mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner when induced to differentiate. Additionally, AFPE suppressed the secretion of leptin and the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Moreover, the anti-adipogenic properties were also attributed to the down-regulation of protein expression of major transcriptional factors in adipogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα). Therefore, these results suggest that AFPE may prevent obesity by inhibiting the differentiation of preadipocytes, suggesting its potential application in functional foods and nutraceuticals for obesity management.
Thesis
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Obesity is an increasing health problem and a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases. Up to now, strategies to reduce and prevent obesity were unsuccessful. Therefore, novel approaches to treat obesity need to be developed. In this sense, several animal and human studies demonstrate that polyphenols protect against metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Thus, polyphenols emerge as bioactive compounds useful to reduce obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. Energy balance is regulated by leptin in the central nervous system, particularly in the hypothalamus where it activates POMC and inhibits AgRP neurons to produce satiety and promote energy expenditure. However, leptin action appears to be suppressed in obesity which is reflected by increased appetite and reduced energy expenditure. The aim of this thesis was to identify polyphenols that improve leptin sensitivity under obesogenic environments, which could ultimately result in a loss of body weight. We show that a chronic intake of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract improves leptin signaling by increasing POMC gene expression and reduces food intake without decreasing body weight in obese animals. Furthermore, we investigated other polyphenols that could complement the effects of proanthocyanidins by enhancing body weight loss. Our results show that high doses of resveratrol effectively reduce body weight, fat mass and correct hyperleptinemia in obese animals acting as a leptin sensitizer compound. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential of seasonal fruits rich in polyphenols to modulate hypothalamic leptin signaling and downstream effectors in normal conditions and during obesity. Finally, the role of a novel target to modulate AgRP neurons activity is explained. The outcome of this research provides insights into the design of functional foods that combine bioactive compounds which could potentially be used as anti-obesity therapy.
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Obesity has become a worldwide issue and is accompanied by serious complications. Western high energy diet has been identified to be a major factor contributing to the current obesity pandemic. Thus, it is important to optimize dietary composition, bioactive substances, and agents to prevent and treat obesity. To date, extracts from plants, such as vegetables, tea, fruits, and Chinese herbal medicine, have been showed to have the abilities of regulating adipogenesis and attenuating obesity. These plant extracts mainly contain polyphenols, alkaloids, and terpenoids, which could play a significant role in anti-obesity through various signaling pathways and gut microbiota. Those reported anti-obesity mechanisms mainly include inhibiting white adipose tissue growth and lipogenesis, promoting lipolysis, brown/beige adipose tissue development, and muscle thermogenesis. In this review, we summarize the plant extracts and their possible mechanisms responsible for their anti-obesity effects. Based on the current findings, dietary plant extracts and foods containing these bioactive compounds can be potential preventive or therapeutic agents for obesity and its related metabolic diseases.
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Various mechanisms of obesity prevention have been identified; however, the roles of brown or beige fat as regulators of the energy balance are unclear. The effects of anthocyanin-rich black soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., testa (ABS) extracts on the energy balance were investigated by comparing beige-like adipocytes (BLA) and white adipocytes (WAT). ABS extracts reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma protein expression and triglyceride accumulation in WAT and BLA without inducing nuclear damage. The biomarkers of fat degradation (phospho-AMPKα and ATGL) or glycerol secretion in the medium and β-oxidation of fatty acids (CPT2) in the ABS-treated BLA were increased compared to those in WAT. ABS extracts significantly increased the expression of thermogenesis markers (UCP1 and CIDEA) and biomarkers related to mitochondrial activation (cytochrome c and NRF1) in BLA. In the primary cell culture of brown adipocytes (BAT) from rats fed ABS, the expression levels of PGC1-α, cytochrome c, and UCP1 proteins were increased compared to those in BAT from nonfed rats. A reduction in the NAD/NADH ratio was consistently associated with an increase in the oxygen consumption rate and basal/maximal respiration rate in ABS-treated BLA. Anthocyanins promote beiging in the body, contribute to the prevention of obesity, and are potentially useful functional materials.
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Blueberry dietary interventions have demonstrated remarkable potential against obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the effects of fermented blueberry juice on metabolic syndrome, the gut microbiota, and insulin resistance have not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate the potential of fermented blueberry juice against obesity, hyperglycemia, and gut microbiota dysbiosis in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Our study findings revealed that supplementation with fresh blueberry juice (BBJ), and fermented blueberry juice with homemade probiotic starter (FBJ) or commercial starter (CFBJ) significantly decreased fat accumulation and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in HFD-fed mice. FBJ showed relatively more potency to reduce body weight than BBJ and CFBJ. The percentage increase in the body weight of the FBJ group was almost the same as that in the normal chow diet (NCD) group, and was approximately 10% lower than the BBJ and CFBJ groups. Overall, all blueberry juices significantly ameliorated hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, the dietary interventions with BBJ, FBJ, and CFBJ for 17 weeks significantly improved the community richness and diversity of the gut microflora along with an altered structure in the HFD-fed mice group. The FBJ treated mice group showed relatively low abundance of Firmicutes, obesity-related bacteria (Oscillibacter and Alistipes), and high abundance of lean bacteria (Akkermansia, Barnesiella, Olsenella, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus) compared to the HFD-fed mice group. Furthermore, BBJ and FBJ treatments regulated the liver mRNA and protein expression levels involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. This study inferred that fermented blueberry juice could be used as a functional food to prevent the modern pandemics i.e., obesity and insulin resistance.
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Increased adiposity has been associated with adipose tissue low‐grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance. Adipocyte differentiation inhibitors are expected to be effective in preventing obesity and related diseases. Anthocyanins (ACNs) are associated to enhanced adipocyte function and protection from metabolic stress. Herein, we evaluated the in vitro protective effects of an ACN rich extract against palmitic acid (PA)‐induced hypertrophy, inflammation, and insulin resistance in 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. ACN extract pretreatment reduces lipid accumulation and peroxisome proliferators‐activated receptor‐γ protein levels induced by PA. In addition, PA induces inflammation with activation of NF‐κB pathway, whereas ACN extract pretreatment dose‐dependently inhibited this pathway. Furthermore, adipocyte dysfunction associated with hypertrophy induces insulin resistance by affecting phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase‐protein kinase B/Akt axis, GLUT‐1, and adiponectin mRNA levels. ACN extract pretreatment reverts these effects induced by PA and moreover was able to induce insulin pathway with levels higher than insulin control cells, supporting an insulin sensitizer role for ACNs. This study demonstrates a prevention potential of ACNs against obesity comorbidities, due to their protective effects against inflammation/insulin resistance in adipocytes. In addition, these results contribute to the knowledge and strategies on the evaluation of the mechanism of action of ACNs from a food source under basal and insulin resistance conditions related to obesity.
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Background Obesity involves excess accumulation of body fat, leading to metabolic disorders. Although genetic factors involved in obesity have been identified, the influence of phytochemicals on the genes remains to be elucidated. Aims We aimed to (1) screen extracts of Myrica nagi Thunb. (Myricaceae) by estimating flavonoid, phenol, and tanin content; (2) evaluate enzyme inhibitory activities of the extracts; and (3) analyze the anti-adipogenic activity of the extracts in 3T3L1 cells. Methods We evaluated five extracts of M. nagi for their anti-obesity effect by phytochemical screening and enzyme inhibition assays. Furthermore, the extract with the highest inhibitory effect was characterized for its role in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 cells. Results The methanolic extract of M. nagi (MEMN) showed the highest inhibitory activity against lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase (IC50 values = 91 ± 1.0, 60 ± 4.25, and 100 ± 0.74 μg/mL, respectively). The flavonoid, phenol, and tanin content was highest in the MEMN, with 22.85 ± 1.20, 139.7 ± 11.53, and 1.79 ± 0.12 μg/mL, respectively. The extract also showed anti-oxidant activity with IC50 of 162.22 ± 0.65 μg/mL. Additionally, MEMN did not exert cytotoxicity against 3T3-L1cells; it inhibited adipogenesis and promoted lipolysis of 3T3-L1cells. MEMN at 160 μg/mL concentration reduced triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, the extract downregulated PPAR-γ expression. Conclusions Overall, MEMN possesses potent anti-adipogenic and anti-obesity effects, and thus, can be an alternative herbal treatment for obesity.
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Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals are related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless , the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds is not often considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review, we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the potential health promotion effects of polyphenols and the importance of considering the factors that affect their bioavailability on research projects.
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Although growing evidence from trials and population-based studies has supported a protective role for flavonoids in relation to risk of certain chronic diseases, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several previous studies focused on individual inflammatory biomarkers, but because of the limited specificity of any individual marker, an assessment of a combination of biomarkers may be more informative. We used an inflammation score (IS) that integrated 12 individual inflammatory biomarkers for the examination of associations with intakes of different flavonoid classes. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 2375 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants. Intakes of total flavonoids and their classes (anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, polymers, and flavones) were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires. Individual inflammatory biomarkers were ranked, standardized, and summed to derive an overall IS and subgroup scores of functionally related biomarkers. In multivariate analyses, an inverse association between higher anthocyanin and flavonol intakes and IS was observed with a mean ± SE difference between quintile categories 5 and 1 of -1.48 ± 0.32 (P-trend ≤ 0.001) and -0.72 ± 0.33 (P-trend = 0.01), respectively. Results remained significant after additional adjustment for physical activity, and vitamin C and fruit and vegetable intakes. Higher anthocyanin intake was inversely associated with all biomarker subgroups, whereas higher flavonol intake was associated only with lower cytokine and oxidative stress biomarker concentrations. In food-based analyses, higher intakes of apples and pears, red wine, and strawberries were associated with a lower IS with differences between quintiles 5 and 1 of -1.02 ± 0.43 (P = 0.006), -1.73 ± 0.39 (P < 0.001), and -0.44 ± 0.88 (P = 0.02), respectively. Although intakes of other classes were not associated with a reduction in overall IS, higher intakes of flavan-3-ols and their polymers were associated with a significant reduction in oxidative stress biomarkers. These findings provide evidence to suggest that an anti-inflammatory effect may be a key component underlying the reduction in risk of certain chronic diseases associated with higher intakes of anthocyanins and flavonols. The Framingham Offspring Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study). © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
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The prevalence of obesity worldwide has nearly doubled since 1980 with current estimates of 2.1 billion in 2013. Overweight and obesity lead to numerous adverse conditions including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and certain cancers. The worldwide spread of obesity and associated comorbidities not only threatens quality of life but also presents a significant economic burden. While bariatric surgery has proven to be a viable treatment option for the morbidly obese, there is clearly a need for less invasive alternatives. Recent research has suggested that long-acting analogs of the gut hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), may have potential as an antiobesity treatment. The GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide (trade name Saxenda), was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an obesity treatment option and shown in clinical trials to be effective in reducing and sustaining body weight loss. This review presents the basis for GLP-1-based therapies with a specific focus on animal and human studies examining liraglutide's effects on food intake and body weight.
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Rates of overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in all regions of the world over the last few decades. Almost all of the world’s population now has ubiquitous access to low-cost, but highly-processed, energy-dense, nutrient-poor food products. These changes in the food supply, rather than decreases in physical activity, are most likely the primary driver of population weight gain and obesity. To-date, the majority of prevention efforts focus on personalised approaches targeting individuals. Population-wide food supply interventions addressing sodium and trans fat reduction have proven highly effective and comparable efforts are now required to target obesity. The evidence suggests that strategies focusing upon reducing the energy density and portion size of foods will be more effective than those targeting specific macronutrients. Government leadership, clearly specified targets, accountability and transparency will be the key to achieving the food supply changes required to address the global obesity epidemic.
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Abstract In the present study, purified sweet cherry anthocyanins (CACN) were evaluated to determine their inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and their anti-obesity properties in male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). CACN prevented HFD-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. In vivo experiment revealed that 40 and 200 mg/kg of CACN in food reduced the body weight by 5.2% and 11.2%, respectively. CACN supplementation could also reduce the size of adipocytes, leptin secretion, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and liver triglycerides. Furthermore, CACN could effectively reduce the expression levels of IL-6 and TNFα genes, markedly increase the SOD and GPx activity. Our results indicated that CACN slowed down the development of HFD-induced obesity in male C57BL/6 mice.
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ScopeAnthocyanins, the natural pigments in plant foods, have been associated with cancer prevention. However, the content of anthocyanins in staple foods is typically low and the mechanisms by which they exert anticancer activity is not yet fully defined. Methods and resultsWe selected an anthocyanin-enriched purple-fleshed sweet potato clone, P40, and investigated its potential anticancer effect in both in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. In addition to a high level of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity, P40 possesses a high content of anthocyanins at 7.5 mg/g dry matter. Treatment of human colonic SW480 cancer cells with P40 anthocyanin extracts at 0-40 M of peonidin-3-glucoside equivalent resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell number due to cytostatic arrest of cell cycle at G1 phase but not cytotoxicity. Furthermore, dietary P40 at 10-30% significantly suppressed azoxymethane-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci in the colons of CF-1 mice in conjunction with, at least in part, a lesser proliferative PCNA and a greater apoptotic caspase-3 expression in the colon mucosal epithelial cells. Conclusion These observations, coupled with both in vitro and in vivo studies reported here, suggest anthocyanin-enriched sweet potato P40 may protect against colorectal cancer by inducing cell-cycle arrest, antiproliferative, and apoptotic mechanisms.
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Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4) in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities.
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Growing evidence suggests that intake of flavonoid-containing foods may exert cardiovascular benefits in human subjects. We have investigated the effects of a 10-week blueberry (BB) supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and vascular reactivity in rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, known to induce endothelial dysfunction. Rats were randomly assigned to follow a control chow diet, a chow diet supplemented with 2 % (w/w) BB, a high-fat diet (10 % lard; 0·5 % cholesterol) or the high fat plus BB for 10 weeks. Rats supplemented with BB showed significant reductions in systolic BP (SBP) of 11 and 14 %, at weeks 8 and 10, respectively, relative to rats fed the control chow diet (week 8 SBP: 107·5 (sem 4·7) v. 122·2 (sem 2·1) mmHg, P = 0·018; week 10 SBP: 115·0 (sem 3·1) v. 132·7 (sem 1·5) mmHg, P < 0·0001). Furthermore, SBP was reduced by 14 % in rats fed with the high fat plus 2 % BB diet at week 10, compared to those on the high-fat diet only (SBP: 118·2 (sem 3·6) v. 139·5 (sem 4·5) mmHg, P < 0·0001). Aortas harvested from BB-fed animals exhibited significantly reduced contractile responses (to l-phenylephrine) compared to those fed the control chow or high-fat diets. Furthermore, in rats fed with high fat supplemented with BB, aorta relaxation was significantly greater in response to acetylcholine compared to animals fed with the fat diet. These data suggest that BB consumption can lower BP and improve endothelial dysfunction induced by a high fat, high cholesterol containing diet.
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The current recommendations for the treatment of obese people include increased physical activity and reduced calories intake. When the behavioral approach is not sufficient, a pharmacologic treatment is recommended. In past years, numerous drugs have been approved for the treatment of obesity; however, most of them have been withdrawn from the market because of their adverse effects. In fact, amphetamine, rimonabant and sibutramine licenses have been withdrawn due to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke. Even if orlistat is not as effective as other drugs in reducing body weight, orlistat is presently the only available choice for the treatment of obesity because of its safety for cardiovascular events and positive effects on diabetic control. Hopefully, more effective and better tolerated anti-obesity drugs will be developed through an improved understanding of the multiple mechanisms and complex physiological systems targeting appetite.
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Anthocyanins are flavonoids in fruits and vegetables that render them vivid red to blue. To date, there have been more than 635 anthocyanins identified in nature, featuring six common aglycones and various types of glycosylations and acylations. Dietary consumption of anthocyanins is high compared to other flavonoids, owing to their wide distribution in plant materials. Based upon many cell-line studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, it has been suggested that anthocyanins possess anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activity, cardiovascular disease prevention, obesity control, and diabetes alleviation properties, all of which are more or less associated with their potent antioxidant property. Evidence suggests that absorption of anthocyanins occurs in the stomach and small intestine. Epithelial tissue uptake seems to be highly efficient, yet transportation into circulation, tissue distribution, and urine excretion are very limited. The bioactivity of bioavailable anthocyanins should be a focus of future research regarding their putative health-promoting effects.
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To analyze the effect of the juice obtained from two varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), Moro (a blood orange) and Navelina (a blond orange), on fat accumulation in mice fed a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD). Obesity was induced in male C57/Bl6 mice by feeding a HFD. Moro and Navelina juices were provided instead of water. The effect of an anthocyanin-enriched extract from Moro oranges or purified cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was also analyzed. Body weight and food intake were measured regularly over a 12-week period. The adipose pads were weighted and analyzed histologically; total RNA was also isolated for microarray analysis. Dietary supplementation of Moro juice, but not Navelina juice significantly reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation regardless of the increased energy intake because of sugar content. Furthermore, mice drinking Moro juice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity with no alterations in food intake. Only the anthocyanin extract, but not the purified C3G, slightly affected fat accumulation. High-throughput gene expression analysis of fat tissues confirmed that Moro juice could entirely rescue the high fat-induced transcriptional reprogramming. Moro juice anti-obesity effect on fat accumulation cannot be explained only by its anthocyanin content. Our findings suggest that multiple components present in the Moro orange juice might act synergistically to inhibit fat accumulation.
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Edible berries, a potential source of natural anthocyanin antioxidants, have demonstrated a broad spectrum of biomedical functions. These include cardiovascular disorders, advancing age-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, and diverse degenerative diseases. Berry anthocyanins also improve neuronal and cognitive brain functions, ocular health as well as protect genomic DNA integrity. This chapter demonstrates the beneficial effects of wild blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seeds, and strawberry in human health and disease prevention. Furthermore, this chapter will discuss the pharmacological benefits of a novel combination of selected berry extracts known as OptiBerry, a combination of wild blueberry, wild bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seeds, and strawberry, and its potential benefit over individual berries. Recent studies in our laboratories have demonstrated that OptiBerry exhibits high antioxidant efficacy as shown by its high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values, novel antiangiogenic and antiatherosclerotic activities, and potential cytotoxicity towards Helicobacter pylori, a noxious pathogen responsible for various gastrointestinal disorders including duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, as compared to individual berry extracts. OptiBerry also significantly inhibited basal MCP-1 and inducible NF-kappabeta transcriptions as well as the inflammatory biomarker IL-8, and significantly reduced the ability to form hemangioma and markedly decreased EOMA cell-induced tumor growth in an in vivo model. Overall, berry anthocyanins trigger genetic signaling in promoting human health and disease prevention.
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Anthocyanins are one of the most widespread families of natural pigments in the plant kingdom. Their health beneficial effects have been documented in many in vivo and in vitro studies. This review summarizes the most recent literatures regarding the health benefits of anthocyanins and their molecular mechanisms. It appears that several signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor κB, AMP-activated protein kinase and Wnt/β-catenin, as well as some crucial cellular processes, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy and biochemical metabolism are involved in these beneficial effects and may provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies for the improvement of a wide range of diseases in future. In addition, specific anthocyanin metabolites contributing to the observed in vivo biological activities, structure-activity relationships as well as additive and synergistic efficacy of anthocyanins are also discussed.
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The concept of leptin resistance posits that elevated endogenous leptin fails to decrease food intake in obese animals due to diminished leptin signaling. In this issue, Ottaway et al. (2015) use leptin antagonists to reveal persistence (or even elevation) of endogenous leptin signaling and physiologic action in diet-induced obesity. The concept of leptin resistance posits that elevated endogenous leptin fails to decrease food intake in obese animals due to diminished leptin signaling. In this issue, Ottaway et al. use leptin antagonists to reveal persistence (or even elevation) of endogenous leptin signaling and physiologic action in diet-induced obesity.
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This review evaluates the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press coverage concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, there are no controlled clinical trials directly supporting beneficial effects of anthocyanins in a weight loss programme. Purified anthocyanins from varying sources have been shown to decrease lipid deposition in rodent models of obesity. However, in the few studies where the anthocyanins were consumed as a part of the whole food or berry, anti-obesity effects have not generally been observed. An exception is the case of whole blueberry, where effects were observed that protected against some of the pathologies associated with obesity including inflammation. Studies reviewed have provided an overview of the gene expression profiles in human and rodent adipocytes treated with anthocyanins. Anthocyanins have been shown to regulate adipocytokine gene expression, to ameliorate adipocyte dysfunction related to obesity and diabetes and merit further investigation. Additional research is needed to understand mechanisms whereby anthocyanins might influence obesity. Alterations in lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue as well as in numerous adipokine and cytokine signalling pathways have been suggested to explain the effects of anthocyanins on the development of obesity.
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The recognition of the obesity epidemic as a national problem began in 1999 with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) publication of a series of annual state-based maps that demonstrated the rapid changes in the prevalence of obesity. Increasing rates of obesity had been noted in earlier CDC studies, but the maps provided evidence of a rapid, nationwide increase. The urgent need to respond to the epidemic led to the identification of state targets and the first generation of interventions for obesity prevention and control. The CDC's role was to provide setting- and intervention-specific guidance on implementing these strategies, and to assess changes in targeted policies and behaviors. The CDC's efforts were augmented by Congressional funding for community initiatives to improve nutrition and increase physical activity. Complementary investments by Kaiser Permanente, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Institute of Medicine improved the evidence base and provided policy recommendations that reinforced the need for a multisectoral approach. Legislative, regulatory, and voluntary initiatives enacted by President Obama's administration translated many of the strategies into effective practice. Whether current efforts to address obesity can be sustained will depend on whether they can be translated into greater grass-roots engagement consistent with a social movement. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 36 is March 18, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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Anthocyanins belong to the flavonoid group of polyphenolic compounds, which are responsible for the red and blue colors of plant organs such as fruits, flowers, and leaves. Due to their frequent presence in plants, particularly berry fruits, vegetables, and grapes, they are key components of the human diet. Interest in anthocyanins has increased widely during the past decade. Numerous studies have suggested that anthocyanins have a wide range of health-promoting properties. These compounds are therefore considered to be a functional food factor, which may have important implications in the prevention of chronic diseases. The aim of this body of work is to investigate and review the current literature on anthocyanins, and particularly their pharmacokinetics and any health-promoting properties, in order to summarize existing knowledge and highlight any aspects that require further study and analysis.
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Diet has gained scientific community attention due to the crucial role in health maintenance, but also in disease treatment, and essential in disease prevention. Several food and food components, particularly phenolic rich foods, have been investigated as they present themselves as putative functional foods. In the past decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions and consequently, metabolic syndrome (a set of disorders as impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes) incidence is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate and this phenolic rich foods, specially berries have been investigated to their potential beneficial effect in this disorders. In the present work the chemistry of blueberries (BB) (fruits of some Vaccinium species) was summarised as well as the knowledge about bioavailability and biokinetic of anthocyanins from blueberries with particular emphasis on its implications in metabolic disorders.
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Progress of the last five years regarding "Obesity and Cancer" with preference to cohort studies was reviewed for cancer of the colorectum, breast, endometrium, renal cell, and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and compared to the knowledge reviewed in the year 2008. The new studies are mostly confirming what has been known also 5 years ago. Gender seems to play a role in colorectal cancer in that risk due to body fatness is much lower in women than in men. Body fatness at young adulthood is particularly related to risk of renal cancer whereas attained body fatness at a later stage of adulthood is driving the risk for postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer. Fat distribution is playing a strong role for risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and to a lesser extent also for colon cancer. Prediagnostic body fatness plays also a role in cancer recurrence and survival.
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We compared antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of blueberry anthocyanins extracted with methods that use acetone, ethanol and methanol. Crude Amberlite extracts (CAE) and rehydrated powders were used. Ethanol CAE yielded the highest total monomeric anthocyanin content (160 ppm [TMAC]), ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] (3.4 mM Fe<sup>2+</sup>), total phenolics content [TPC] (382 ppm gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) and α-amylase inhibitory activity (36.8%). TMAC correlated strongly with TPC, FRAP and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The rehydrated acetone extract gave the greatest FRAP (5.19) and TPC (422.7). α-Amylase (26.1%) and α-glucosidase (91.5%) inhibitory activities were also sustained. TPC correlated better with FRAP values than α-amylase inhibitory activity. Mass spectra of the crude Amberlite and rehydrated preparations revealed putative degradation and dimerization products that could account for loss in biological activities for methanol and ethanol extracts. Results of this study provide useful information in optimizing anthocyanin preparation methods for improved biological activity.<sup>
Article
We used a murine model of type II diabetes, which reproduces the major features of the human disease, and a number of cellular models to study the antidiabetic effect of ANC, a standardised anthocyanin-rich formulation from Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis). We also isolated delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (D3S5G), a characteristic anthocyanin from Maqui Berry, and studied its antidiabetic properties. We observed that oral administration of ANC improved fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in hyperglycaemic obese C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. In H4IIE rat liver cells, ANC decreased glucose production and enhanced the insulin-stimulated down regulation of the gluconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase. In L6 myotubes ANC treatment increased both insulin and non-insulin mediated glucose uptake. As with the ACN, oral administration of pure D3S5G dose-dependently decreased fasting blood glucose levels in obese C57BL/6J mice, and decreased glucose production in rat liver cells. D3S5G also increased glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and is at least partially responsible for ANC’s anti-diabetic properties.
Article
Anthocyanins are a class of naturally occurring polyphenols which have been most widely studied in recent decades for the rapid development of relative techniques. This article first reviews the various anthocyanin resources including fruits, flowers, vegetables and beverages. Besides the direct extraction from natural resources, anthocyanins can also be obtained by semi- or total synthesis. After the introduction of new representative anthocyanins found in the past few years and the major relationships between structures and stability, modern separation and analysis technologies in related studies were summarised, which play an important role in chemical researches of anthocyanins.
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Recent discoveries, notably of the hormones leptin and adiponectin, have revised the notion that adipocytes are simply a storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipocytes are also endocrine organs, with multiple metabolic roles in regulating whole-body physiology. Small adipocytes in lean individuals promote metabolic homeostasis; the enlarged adipocytes of obese individuals recruit macrophages and promote inflammation and the release of a range of factors that predispose toward insulin resistance. Exercise activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle and other tissues, a pathway that increases fat oxidation and glucose transport. Importantly, the adipocyte hormones leptin and adiponectin also activate AMPK; remarkably, the same pathway is activated by certain antidiabetic agents such as thiazolidinediones. Increasingly, our understanding of the adipocyte as an endocrine organ is leading to new insights into obesity and health.
Article
The modern rise in obesity and its strong association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have elicited interest in the underlying mechanisms of these pathologies. The discovery that obesity itself results in an inflammatory state in metabolic tissues ushered in a research field that examines the inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Here, we summarize the unique features of this metabolic inflammatory state, termed metaflammation and defined as low-grade, chronic inflammation orchestrated by metabolic cells in response to excess nutrients and energy. We explore the effects of such inflammation in metabolic tissues including adipose, liver, muscle, pancreas, and brain and its contribution to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Another area in which many unknowns still exist is the origin or mechanism of initiation of inflammatory signaling in obesity. We discuss signals or triggers to the inflammatory response, including the possibility of endoplasmic reticulum stress as an important contributor to metaflammation. Finally, we examine anti-inflammatory therapies for their potential in the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.
Article
Because leptin reduces food intake and body weight, the coexistence of elevated leptin levels with obesity is widely interpreted as evidence of 'leptin resistance.' Indeed, obesity promotes a number of cellular processes that attenuate leptin signaling (referred to here as 'cellular leptin resistance') and amplify the extent of weight gain induced by genetic and environmental factors. As commonly used, however, the term 'leptin resistance' embraces a range of phenomena that are distinct in underlying mechanisms and pathophysiological implications. Moreover, the induction of cellular leptin resistance by obesity complicates efforts to distinguish the mechanisms that predispose to weight gain from those that result from it. We suggest a framework for approaching these issues and important avenues for future investigation.
Article
Male C57BL/6J mice (25 days of age) were fed either a low-fat diet (10% kcal from fat) (LF) or a high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) (HF45) for a period of 72 days. Blueberry juice or purified blueberry anthocyanins (0.2 or 1.0 mg/mL) in the drinking water were included in LF or HF45 treatments. Sucrose was added to the drinking water of one treatment to test if the sugars in blueberry juice would affect development of obesity. Total body weights (g) and body fat (%) were higher and body lean tissue (%) was lower in the HF45 fed mice compared to the LF fed mice after 72 days, but in mice fed HF45 diet plus blueberry juice or blueberry anthocyanins (0.2 mg/mL), body fat (%) was not different from those mice fed the LF diet. Anthocyanins (ACNs) decreased retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue weights. Fasting serum glucose concentrations were higher in mice fed the HF45 diet. However, it was reduced to LF levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus 0.2 mg of ACNs/mL in the drinking water, but not with blueberry juice. beta cell function (HOMA-BCF) score was lowered with HF45 feeding but returned to normal levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus purified ACNs (0.2 mg/mL). Serum leptin was elevated in mice fed HF45 diet, and feeding either blueberry juice or purified ACNs (0.2 mg/mL) decreased serum leptin levels relative to HF45 control. Sucrose in drinking water, when consumption was restricted to the volume of juice consumed, produced lower serum leptin and insulin levels, leptin/fat, and retroperitoneal and total fat (% BW). Blueberry juice was not as effective as the low dose of anthocyanins in the drinking water in preventing obesity. Additional studies are needed to determine factors responsible for the differing responses of blueberry juice and whole blueberry in preventing the development of obesity.
Article
Male C57BL/6 mice received diets with either 10% of kcal from fat, or a high fat diet [45% (HF45) or 60% (HF60) kcal from fat]. Diets were prepared with or without freeze-dried powders (10%) from whole blueberries (BB), strawberries (SB), Concord grape or black raspberry. In the 2nd study, purified anthocyanins (ACNs) from SB or BB were added to the drinking water of the treatments fed the HF60 diet. In Study 1, serum triglycerides were increased by feeding the HF45 diet but were elevated further when black raspberry or BB was included in the HF45 diet. Liver total lipids and triglycerides were increased in mice fed HF45 diet and inclusion of any of the berry powders in the HF45 diet did not alter concentrations compared to HF45 controls. In the 2nd study, mice fed the HF60 diet plus purified ACNs from BB in the water had lower body weight gains and body fat than the HF60 fed. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were elevated with the HF60 diet and decreased to control levels when ACNs from either SB or BB were included in the drinking water. Serum leptin levels were consistently decreased to control low fat levels in those ACN treatments in which measures of body fat were decreased. Administering purified ACNs from BB and strawberry via drinking water prevented the development of dyslipidemia and obesity in mice, but feeding diets containing whole berries or purple corn (PC) ACNs did not alter the development of obesity.
Article
Anthocyanins, which are used as a food coloring, are widely distributed in human diets, suggesting that we ingest large amounts of anthocyanins from plant-based foods. Mice were fed control, cyanidin 3-glucoside-rich purple corn color (PCC), high fat (HF) or HF + PCC diet for 12 wk. Dietary PCC significantly suppressed the HF diet-induced increase in body weight gain, and white and brown adipose tissue weights. Feeding the HF diet markedly induced hypertrophy of the adipocytes in the epididymal white adipose tissue compared with the control group. In contrast, the induction did not occur in the HF + PCC group. The HF diet induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. These perturbations were completely normalized in rats fed HF + PCC. An increase in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA level occurred in the HF group and was normalized by dietary PCC. These results suggest that dietary PCC may ameliorate HF diet-induced insulin resistance in mice. PCC suppressed the mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis and lowered the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 mRNA level in white adipose tissue. These down-regulations may contribute to triacylglycerol accumulation in white adipose tissue. Our findings provide a biochemical and nutritional basis for the use of PCC or anthocyanins as a functional food factor that may have benefits for the prevention of obesity and diabetes.
Article
Real-time RT-PCR has been recognised as an accurate and sensitive method of quantifying mRNA transcripts. Absence of post amplification procedures allows rapid analysis with a greater sample throughput, yet with less risk of amplicon carry-over as reaction tubes are not opened. In order to maximise sensitivity, careful reaction design and optimisation is essential. Several aspects of assay design for real-time RT-PCR are discussed in this paper. We demonstrate the effect of amplicon secondary structure on reaction efficiency and its importance for primer design. Taq-man probes with a deoxyguanosine base at the 5' end fluoresce weakly when labelled with FAM, although weak fluorescence is not a problem when probes are labelled with Texas Red. DNA contamination of RNA samples purified using silica membrane columns is a significant problem but DNase digestion can be used to reduce this, particularly in-solution. MMLV and AMV enzyme systems using a variety of RT priming methods are compared and the problem of primer-dimer formation associated with RT enzymes is described.
Article
Excess bodyweight is the sixth most important risk factor contributing to the overall burden of disease worldwide. 1.1 billion adults and 10% of children are now classified as overweight or obese. Average life expectancy is already diminished; the main adverse consequences are cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and several cancers. The complex pathological processes reflect environmental and genetic interactions, and individuals from disadvantaged communities seem to have greater risks than more affluent individuals partly because of fetal and postnatal imprinting. Obesity, with its array of comorbidities, necessitates careful clinical assessment to identify underlying factors and to allow coherent management. The epidemic reflects progressive secular and age-related decreases in physical activity, together with substantial dietary changes with passive over-consumption of energy despite the neurobiological processes controlling food intake. Effective long-term weight loss depends on permanent changes in dietary quality, energy intake, and activity. Neither the medical management nor the societal preventive challenges are currently being met.
Article
Much attention has been focused on food that may be beneficial in preventing diet-induced body fat accumulation and possibly reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease. Cornelian cherries (Cornus mas) are used in the preparation of beverages in Europe and also to treat diabetes-related disorders in Asia. In this study, the most abundant bioactive compounds in C. mas fruits, the anthocyanins and ursolic acid, were purified, and their ability to ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet was evaluated. Mice were initially fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks and then switched to a high-fat diet containing anthocyanins (1 g/kg of high-fat diet) and ursolic acid (500 mg/kg of high-fat diet) for an additional 8 weeks. The high-fat diet induced glucose intolerance, and this was prevented by anthocyanins and ursolic acid. The anthocyanin-treated mice showed a 24% decrease in weight gain. These mice also showed decreased lipid accumulation in the liver, including a significant decrease in liver triacylglycerol concentration. Anthocyanin and ursolic acid treated mice exhibited extremely elevated insulin levels. Both treatments, however, showed preserved islet architecture and insulin staining. Overall, these data suggest that anthocyanins and ursolic acid purified from C. mas fruits have biological activities that improve certain metabolic parameters associated with diets high in saturated fats and obesity.
Article
Berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. Berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry--were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The major classes of berry phenolics were anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL. With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis of the COX-2 expressing colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models.
Article
To investigate, through a meta-analysis of clinical trials, the effect of two weight-reducing drugs, such as orlistat and sibutramine, on serum lipid profiles in overweight and obese subjects, independently of weight loss. A systematic search strategy, incorporating the terms orlistat, sibutramine, fat, cholesterol, lipid profile, cardiovascular risk, was developed to identify randomized trials in MEDLINE from inception to the end of May 2005. Trial selection was limited by language of publication (English) and duration (6-12 months). Fifteen and ten randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials on orlistat and sibutramine respectively, were eligible for inclusion. In the 15 trials with orlistat, mean weight loss showed a significant correlation with mean reduction of total cholesterol (r=0.48; p<0.05), which maintained statistical significance after adjustment for mean weight loss (B=-2.81+/-1.28; p<0.05). Conversely, in the ten trials with sibutramine, treatment was not associated with a significant decrease in cholesterol levels after adjustment for weight loss (B=3.25+/-4.13; p not significant). Orlistat or sibutramine, when individually compared to placebo, are effective in promoting significant weight loss. In addition, orlistat determines a significant reduction of total cholesterol, independent of weight loss itself. These observations indicate that orlistat is a useful adjunctive tool for improving cardiovascular risk factor profiles in overweight and obese patients.
  • Dw Haslam
  • Wp James
Haslam DW, James WP. 2005. Obesity. Lancet 366:1197–1209.
Medicinal plants as antioxidant agents: understanding their mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy
  • S Lucioli
Lucioli S. 2012. Anthocyanins: mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy. In: Capasso A, editor. Medicinal plants as antioxidant agents: understanding their mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy. Trivandrum: Research Signpost. p 27-57.
  • D W Haslam
  • W P James
Haslam DW, James WP. 2005. Obesity. Lancet 366:1197-1209.