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Krill meal enhances performance of feed pellets through concentration-dependent prolongation of consumption by Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

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... Many aspects of the biology of this penaeid shrimp have been investigated (Pérez-Farfante, 1969;Dall et al., 1990;Alday-Sanz, 2010); and because it is one of the first decapod crustaceans to have a sequenced genome (Zhang et al., 2019), its potential for use as a model system is even greater. Additionally, knowing the behavior of individuals can aid in improving aquaculture production (Bardera et al., 2018), so the study of behavioral responses of individual shrimp to food and food-related cues can inform aquaculture practices (e.g., Derby et al., 2016;Bardera et al., 2019). For example, it is known that L. vannamei has a broad diet in nature (Pérez-Farfante, 1969;Dall et al., 1990;Ogle and Beaugez, 1991;Varadharajan and Pushparajan, 2013), and identification of chemoattractants in its food has guided the development of artificial diets (Nunes et al., 2006;Naylor et al., 2009;Suresh et al., 2011;Derby et al., 2016Derby et al., , 2018Morais and Derby, 2019). ...
... Additionally, knowing the behavior of individuals can aid in improving aquaculture production (Bardera et al., 2018), so the study of behavioral responses of individual shrimp to food and food-related cues can inform aquaculture practices (e.g., Derby et al., 2016;Bardera et al., 2019). For example, it is known that L. vannamei has a broad diet in nature (Pérez-Farfante, 1969;Dall et al., 1990;Ogle and Beaugez, 1991;Varadharajan and Pushparajan, 2013), and identification of chemoattractants in its food has guided the development of artificial diets (Nunes et al., 2006;Naylor et al., 2009;Suresh et al., 2011;Derby et al., 2016Derby et al., , 2018Morais and Derby, 2019). ...
... The effect of antennule ablation was also assayed for groups of animals. We did this because we wanted to determine whether the results for individual animals also applied to conditions used in aquaculture of shrimp as well as for animals in nature (Dall et al., 1990;Derby et al., 2016Derby et al., , 2018Morais and Derby, 2019). This assay was very similar to the attractability assay used for individual animals, except that it used groups of 10-15 animals in larger aquaria (74 cm long  30 cm wide  28 cm high, with 60 L of ASW), and only grabs (not movements) were quantified. ...
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The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is important as the principal species in the worldwide aquaculture of shrimp. It has also become a model in the study of crustacean biology, especially because it is one of the first decapod crustaceans to have its genome sequenced. This study examined an aspect of the sensory biology of this shrimp that is important in its aquaculture, by describing its peripheral chemical sensors and how they are used in acquiring and consuming food pellets. We used scanning electron microscopy to describe the diversity of sensilla on the shrimp's major chemosensory organs: antennules, antennae, mouthparts, and legs. Using behavioral studies on animals with selective sensory ablations, we then explored the roles that these chemosensory organs play in the shrimp's search for, and acquisition and ingestion of, food pellets. We found that the antennules mediate odor-activated searching for pellets, with both the lateral and medial antennular flagella contributing to this behavior and thus demonstrating that both aesthetasc (olfactory) and distributed chemosensors on the antennules can mediate this behavior. Once the shrimp finds and grasps the food pellet, the antennular chemoreceptors no longer play a role, and then the chemoreceptors on the mouthparts and legs control ingestion of the pellets. This sequence of chemosensory control of feeding in L. vannamei, a dendrobranchiate crustacean with small antennules and an ability to live and feed in both benthic and pelagic environments, is generally similar to that of the better-studied, large-antennuled, benthic reptantian crustaceans, including spiny lobsters (Achelata), clawed lobsters and crayfish (Astacidea), and crabs (Meirua).
... Therefore, supplementing chemoattractants is likely to enhance growth in the cultured species. Derby et al. (2016) reported that chemoattractants influence the different phases of feeding behaviour in aquatic species, in particular shrimp. By stimulating the appetitive phases of arousal, search initiation and locating the feed, chemoattractants enhance the attractability and palatability, by which they not only increase the feed consumption rate and growth, but also reduce the waste production during culture operation. ...
... In addition, deficiency of certain essential nutrients, higher content of fibre fractions and the presence of anti-nutrients would also partly be a reason for the diminished effect of plant-based ingredients (Jannathulla et al., 2018). It is reported that the use of chemoattractants in feeds helps to stimulate the animals' behavioural pattern of feeding by promoting feed detection towards the source (Derby et al., 2016). Mendoza et al. (1997) reported that the supplementation of chemoattractants shortened the time period to detect feed by the animals thereby increasing likelihood of ingestion. ...
... This clearly indicates that krill meal is not only an effective feed attractant but also a potent feeding stimulant compared to other chemoattractants. This corroborates with the findings of Derby et al. (2016), who reported that searching, probing and grabbing behaviour was very high in P. vannamei fed very low concentration of aqueous extract of krill meal (13.3 µg ml -1 ). However, there is no clear-cut information regarding the growth enhancing effect of chemoattractants, in particular those mainly derived from marine sources. ...
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Aquaculture serves as a sustainable source of good quality wholesome food and major input is feed. In recent years, considerable quantities of plant sources have been attempted for inclusion in shrimp feed, due to high demand and high cost of fishmeal. Plant-based ingredients are in general poor in attractability and palatability to aquatic species compared to marine sources. It is desirable to develop an economical and nutritious feed that is attractive and palatable for ensuring reduction of feed wastage. Chemoattractants nowadays are unavoidable in commercial shrimp feeds and are included either individually or in combination. The present review revealed that the various marine sources, in particular krill meal would be more effective for aquatic species, compared to those derived from vegetable origin and chemical compounds. In addition to acting as a feed attractant, marine sources serve as a potential fishmeal substitute due to their rich nutritional composition. However, certain biogenic amines present in these marine-based ingredients need to be examined before their use, since these amines when present in high concentrations reduces feed intake by producing undesirable odour. Use of a combination of chemoattractants would give a better effect, rather than using them individually and compounds from plant origin have limited beneficial effects. The present review concludes that incorporation of chemoattractants would be beneficial in formulation of enriched and economical feeds with better attractability and palatability. The selection of suitable attractant and their supplementation at correct proportion is significantly more important to avoid undesirable effects in cultured shrimp. Further field-based research is needed to predict the actual effects of chemoattractants on farmed shrimp and to provide a sustainable base for the expansion of shrimp aquaculture sector, by reducing feed wastage.
... The latest results of soybean-based diets on shrimp growth performance are promising both under in-laboratory Roy et al., 2009;Sookying and Davis, 2012;Zhou et al., 2015;Galkanda-Arachchige et al., 2019;Guo et al., 2020) and ponds systems (Roy et al., 2009;Sookying and Davis, 2012;Jescovitch et al., 2018;Ullman et al., 2019a;Ullman et al., 2019b;Reis et al., 2020). However, the addition of feeding effectors (chemoattractants, feeding incitants and stimulants) in diets with high percentage of plant material has been suggested to improve feed detection and consumption by stimulating shrimp chemosensory systems (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Suresh et al., 2011;Derby et al., 2016). Such stimulation can also contribute to the minimalization of leaching of nutrients and feed waste caused by the intensive food manipulation and selective feeding behavior of shrimp (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Sanchez et al., 2005). ...
... The enhancement of desirable chemosensory characteristics of soybean-based shrimp diets has been attained by adding low percentages of ingredients (1 to 6% of meals, oils and hydrolysates) derived from aquatic animals, such as of krill, squid and fish (Lee and Meyers, 1996;Smith et al., 2005;Grey et al., 2009;Derby et al., 2016). These ingredients are rich in chemical signal compounds, particularly amino acids and nucleotides, that are readily detectable by the chemosensory systems of crustaceans (Derby and Sorensen, 2008;Suresh et al., 2011). ...
... These ingredients are rich in chemical signal compounds, particularly amino acids and nucleotides, that are readily detectable by the chemosensory systems of crustaceans (Derby and Sorensen, 2008;Suresh et al., 2011). Additionally, shrimp response may also be influenced by the inclusion levels of different feeding effectors in the diets Nunes et al., 2006;Derby et al., 2016). Derby et al. (2016) observed an increase in the feed consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei by increasing the inclusion levels of krill meal from 1 to 6%. ...
Article
The inclusion of feeding effectors in plant-based diets is a strategy to accelerate feed detection and consumption by shrimp. This study evaluated the effect of krill meal (KM), krill oil (KO) and fish hydrolysate (FH) addition to a soybean-based diet on feeding behavior and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei. Ten diets (360 g/kg crude protein) were formulated including FH, KM and KO at 0, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg levels named as: Basal (0); FH10 (10 g/kg fish hydrolysate), FH20 (20 g/kg fish hydrolysate), FH40 (40 g/kg fish hydrolysate); KM1 (10 g/kg krill meal), KM20 (20 g/kg krill meal), KM40 (40 g/kg krill meal); KO10 (10 g/kg krill oil), KO20 (20 g/kg krill oil) and KO40 (40 g/kg krill oil). A growth trial was performed using twenty shrimp (0.15 ± 0.01 g) stocked per 100 L glass aquaria (four replicates/diet) in an indoor clear water recirculation system (4.2 ppt, 28 °C). Animals were fed the experimental diets four times a day for six weeks. At the end of the trial all animals were counted and weighted. Following, 300 animals (3.93 ± 0.35 g) were aleatory selected and transferred back to the system (10 shrimp/aquaria). Three replicates were used per treatment (ten diets) for feed intake and acoustic feeding behavior analysis. The food consumption and feeding activity sounds were recorded simultaneously in 30 min intervals during five consecutive days. All feeding effectors at the inclusion levels tested significantly increased L. vannamei food consumption and the passive acoustic monitoring indicated that shrimp ate faster and for longer periods of time. Food consumption was significantly higher in the treatments KM20, KM40 and KO40. The addition of feeding effectors also enhanced shrimp growth performance and significantly better values of biomass, final weight, and food conversion ratio were observed in the treatment KM40. Weight gain (%) was significantly improved only in shrimp offered KM40, KO20 and KO40 diets. It is concluded that KM, KO and FH can stimulate food consumption of soy-based diet by L. vannamei from 10 g/kg addition while the amount of food consumed and growth has been shown to be in general dose-related, although in a different way, for each type of feeding effector.
... Chemosensory stimuli mediate all phases of feeding in crustaceans (Holland & Borski 1993;Grey et al. 2009), and these can be categorised into a series of behavioural responses such as detection and orientation towards a food source (Ache 1982;Kurmaly et al. 1990;Lee & Meyers 1996;Moore & Grills 1999) and handling of food (Steiner & Harpaz 1987;Lee & Meyers 1996;Derby et al. 2016). In general, when feed is offered, crustaceans change their behavioural profile and there are observed increases in the frequency of behaviours related to searching for feed, such as exploration and crawling, and feed grabbing (Da Costa et al. 2016). ...
... Normally, when nutritional studies are carried out, speci- mens are starved for a period of 18-24 h (e.g. Holland & Borski 1993;Sanchez et al. 2005;Nunes et al. 2006;Derby et al. 2016). It has been shown that feeding activity and behavioural responses in crustaceans can increase across these time periods (Lee & Meyers 1997). ...
... Obvi- ously, the level of feed enhancer needs to be high enough to stimulate shrimp behaviour ( Nunes et al. 2006). Derby et al. (2016) found a positive relationship between the inclusion level of krill meal within feed and the increase in attractability and feeding consumption of L. vannamei to that feed in the first 60 min after the food was presented. However, detection of the chemical does not necessarily imply that the diet will be acceptable or consumed and assimilated efficiently; indeed, the attractiveness of the diet may become attenuated with time (Lee & Meyers 1997). ...
Article
There is an increasing recognition within the aquaculture industry that understanding the behaviour of farmed animals can help provide solutions to feeding problems. However, most studies have focused on finfish production, with fewer behavioural studies on feeding processes in commercially produced crustaceans. More than 60% of crustacean aquaculture is attributed to the production of penaeids, particularly the Pacific white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone). The profitability of the Pacific white-leg shrimp for aquaculture stems from its ability to survive in a wide range of environments and its fast growth at high densities. However, there are significant setbacks within their farming. In particular, while they can move rapidly to take food pellets, they can be slow to consume them leading to food wastage and subsequent economic losses for the industry. Understanding shrimp behaviour provides a starting point for refinements to feeding practices. Here, we review the different influences on shrimp behaviour which are likely to influence productivity such as individual-level effects (e.g. moulting, sex), environmental influences (e.g. photoperiod, conspecific presence) and water quality (e.g. salinity, temperature). Although work on feed management has been conducted, providing information on nutrition, feeding frequency and schedules, here we demonstrate that such advances must be accompanied by behavioural approaches to allow the development of optimal feeding efficiencies and to support the continued growth of the crustacean aquaculture industry.
... Chemo-attractants has role in these concerns as they stimulate the feeding behaviour. It was found that krill meal in the diet improves the palatability in Pacific white shrimp (Derby et al., 2016) [86] . Similarly, inosine and inosine monophosphate are the feeding stimulants improve the feeding behaviour when studied in red sea bream () [87] . ...
... Chemo-attractants has role in these concerns as they stimulate the feeding behaviour. It was found that krill meal in the diet improves the palatability in Pacific white shrimp (Derby et al., 2016) [86] . Similarly, inosine and inosine monophosphate are the feeding stimulants improve the feeding behaviour when studied in red sea bream () [87] . ...
Article
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Aquaculture is basically rearing of aquatic animals, majorly fishes. Fish is very important animals and considered as a poor man protein food due to its lesser price. Fish consumers are greatly increasing with the current annual per capita consumption of 20/Kg. From the past 50 years, around 90% of the fish populations were destroyed by commercial fishing as fishermen use massive ships, innovative electronic equipment and satellites to find the fish for fishing. It is imperative to note that some areas due to low catch, fishermen are finding alternate jobs for their livelihood. According to FAO, there was a steep growth in the aquaculture industry for the last seven decades as the dependence of capture fishery for fish has greatly reduced. In that sense, only by capture fishery it is really difficult to meet the protein requirement to the human population; thus, aquaculture is now playing a substantial role. In aquaculture, profitability relies on the production of healthy fish which require quality ingredients and diets. Also, the performance and growth of aquaculture industry will greatly affect by feed costs as they constitutes around 50 to 60% of the total operating cost and therefore, fish nutrition and feed research are expected from these areas. The nutritional research encompasses the study of nutrients necessary for the maintenance of life. While the feed research covers the study on the preparation of quality ingredients which yield nutrients needed for the growth and performances of the animals. At present, works on fish feed nutrition is concentrated on the following areas: the nutrient requirements for larval, adult and broodstock fishes; metabolic role of each nutrients on growth and reproduction; manufacturing of artificial feed using low cost unconventional feedstuffs replacing with costliest conventional feed ingredients; identification of feed additives to improve the metabolism and growth; formulation of the standard feeds using quality and low polluting nutrients. The present paper discusses the challenges and scope of aquaculture industry in relation to nutrition and feed; but special attention has given to the aforementioned areas. Keywords: Aquaculture, Nutrition, Feed, Current status, Future need
... However, studying shrimp feeding behavior is challenging in a number of ways and requires broad strategic approaches. Traditionally, most feeding behavioral studies with shrimps conducted under laboratory conditions include methods of direct visual observation (Sanchez et al., 2005;Nunes et al., 2006;Obaldo and Masuda, 2006;Pontes et al., 2006;Ahamad-Ali et al., 2007;Pontes et al., 2008;Lima et al., 2009;Suresh et al., 2011;Silva et al., 2012;Derby et al., 2016), video recordings with playback analysis Hunt et al., 1992;Nunes and Parsons, 1998) and video recordings with image software analysis (Bardera et al., 2019b) using glass aquaria or specially designed translucent tanks. Recently, the use of passive acoustics monitoring (PAM) has become an important tool to study the feeding behavior of penaeids, as their mandibles emit clicking sounds as they shred the feed during ingestion (Smith and Tabrett, 2013;Silva et al., 2019;Peixoto et al., 2020). ...
... Studies on feed consumption by shrimp usually focused on the total amount of feed eaten by a group of animals when the trials are terminated, not including behavioral observations such as changes in their ingestion behavior and rate of feed consumption during feeding trials (Derby et al., 2016). Meanwhile, shrimp behavioral repertoires in ethological studies are difficult to correlate to feed intake due to frequent misplacement or rejection of feed particles during the handling activity or passage through pre-oral mouthparts (Alexander and Hindley, 1985;Harpaz and Steiner, 1987;Steiner and Harpaz, 1987;Nunes and Parsons, 1998;Bardera et al., 2019a). ...
Article
Studying shrimp feeding behavior is challenging and, traditionally, studies have been using direct visual observation or video recordings with image analysis under laboratory conditions. Passive acoustics monitoring (PAM) is a non-invasive approach to study feeding behavior of penaeids, as their mandibles emit clicking sounds during feed ingestion. Considering the wide variation available in shrimp diet lengths, our knowledge is still limited about their effects on feeding behavior. The present study was designed to use acoustics to evaluate the feeding behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei fed different diet lengths. A commercial pelleted diet with similar diameter (2.4 mm) and three different lengths was used as treatments “small” (2.35 mm), “medium” (4.26 mm) and “large” (8.42 mm). Three separate trials were performed with fastened shrimp (20 g), using omnidirectional hydrophones and external audio recorders. Our approach started with the characterization of the click acoustic parameters produced by three shrimps when fed the different diet lengths in anechoic chambers (15 L). We then analyze the number of clicks produced per pellet and duration of the clicking activity when shrimp fed a single pellet in individual tanks (1 L). Finally, the acoustic energy of feeding activity and feed consumption, as well as theirs relationship to predict feed intake was evaluated in aquaria (70 L) with five shrimps. The acoustic parameters of isolated clicks were not affected by the different diet lengths, however, doubling the length of the pellet resulted in doubling the number of clicks emitted during feeding activity. The duration of clicking activity per pellet indicated that small pellets are consumed 2.9 and 4.7 times faster than medium and large pellets, respectively. Furthermore, feeding acoustic energy of small pellets decreased rapidly after feed offer, as their faster consumption probably contributed to shrimps achieved satiety earlier than larger diets. Feed consumption was similar among diets length, but significantly correlated with the feeding acoustic energy emitted by L. vannamei, which is a breakthrough in feeding behavioral research. The results highlight the potential and possibilities of an acoustic approach to estimate feed consumption, as well as an alternative to traditional methods in feeding behavioral studies to improve efficiency of feed management.
... Many methods have been applied to studying the role of shrimp behavior in developing diets and improving feeding management protocols (Bardera et al., 2019b). These methods usually include visual observations (Ahamad-Ali et al., 2007; de Lima et al., 2009;Derby et al., 2016;Nunes et al., 2006;Obaldo and Masuda, 2006;Pontes et al., 2008;Sanchez et al., 2005;Silva et al., 2019;Suresh et al., 2011) or video recordings (Bardera et al., 2019a;Bardera et al., 2021;Hunt et al., 1992;Nunes et al., 1997) in Y-mazes or translucent tanks with one or multiple chambers. Overall, these studies provided valuable information regarding mechanism of chemical detection and stimulation involved with feeding activity, as well as described several behavioral repertoires based on repeated movements of mouthparts and other appendages in penaeids (Bardera et al., 2019b). ...
... The addition of feeding effectors (chemoattractants, feeding incitants and stimulants) to improve feed detection and consumption has been usually evaluated in Y-mazes or compartmented tanks by observation of shrimp preferences and choice behavior (Derby et al., 2016;Nunes et al., 2006;Suresh et al., 2011). Recently, PAM was applied to evaluate the effects of feeding effectors (krill meal, krill oil and fish hydrolysate) added to a soybean-based practical diet on shrimp feeding behavior of L. vannamei (Soares et al., 2021). ...
Article
Increasing availability of automated systems and technological solutions have been one of the most important trends in aquaculture nutrition for the past few decades as the industry focuses on improving feeding strategies through highly efficient automatic feeding technologies. Monitoring of aquatic animals is not a new practice but for the last few decades aquaculture has used feeding behavior monitoring as a tool to develop efficient demand feeders. While there are many devices available for the fish production sector, many rely on visual monitoring of individuals or populations, which disable its application in most shrimp production systems. However, production of sound by the mandibular occlusion has led to the study of passive acoustic monitoring of feeding behavior in shrimp and the development of passive acoustic demand feeding systems. While this technology has been available for less than a decade it has already been validated and adopted by the shrimp production industry. It is expected to continue being improved as more data is collected on both acoustic profiling and feeding algorithms. The objective of this publication is to present a detailed review of the information available so far about acoustic profiling of shrimp, the results of the application of this acoustic feeding system in production systems, discussing the limitations of this technology and what components could be improved in the future.
... To solve these problems, attractants was mainly used to enhance the utilization of feed (Tusche et al., 2011). Currently, there were lots of studies about the feed attractants published for aquatic animals, such as krill meals, fish and krill hydrolysates, squid meal, betaines, amino acids, AMP, or other animal based meals (Coman et al., 1996;Nunes et al., 2006;Derby et al., 2016). However, use of shrimp paste as a feed attractant is rarely reported in aquatic animals. ...
... Sanchez et al. (2005) showed that krill meal improved attractability of a feed and thus enhance the palatability of the diet for pacific white shrimp. These studies showed that marine animal additives acting as the feed attractants can enhance feed performance via the way of improving the attractability and palatability by stimulating appetitive behavior, for example, arousing, search initiating and locating the food and therefore enhancing feed consumption (Derby et al., 2016). Besides, enterocytes are more likely to digest and absorb the protein hydrolysates which consist of amino acids and low molecular-weight peptides compared to the highmolecular-weight macromolecules (Önal and Langdon, 2009). ...
Article
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A nutritional feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of shrimp paste on feeding attractiveness, growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, immune-related genes and intestinal morphology in hybrid snakehead (Channa maculata ♀ × Channa argus ♂). Two diets were formulated with or without shrimp paste supplementation (D1:0% and D2: 3%) to feed fish for 8 weeks. Results showed that growth performance (FBW, WG and SGR) and feed intake (FI) significantly increased with shrimp paste supplemented (P < 0.05), while FCR and SR of hybrid snakehead fed diets supplemented with shrimp paste or not showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Gut lipase and amylase activities were significantly higher in diet supplemented with shrimp paste than that in control one (P < 0.05). Hepatic antioxidant statuses of hybrid snakehead fed dietary shrimp paste or not showed no significant differences in total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase of fish (P > 0.05). Results showed that fish fed diet with shrimp paste supplemented did not show significant difference in expression of GR, IκB, P65 and IL8 than that in control group (P > 0.05). There are significantly more goblet cells in shrimp paste supplemented diet than that in control diet (P < 0.05). However, villi length and muscle thickness showed no significant difference compared to control diet (P > 0.05). The results indicated that dietary 3% shrimp paste supplementation improved the growth performance of hybrid snakehead by enhancing feed intake (FI) while made no difference to antioxidant capacity and immunity.
... In addition, the concentrations of other essential amino acids, particularly isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine,were higher in krill meal than fishmeal (Table 4). Consistently, growth performance stimulation with krill meal has been reported earlier in red swam crayfish (Gao et al., 2020), P. monodon , Atlantic salmon (Hatlen et al., 2017), P. vannamei (Nunes et al., 2011;Derby et al., 2016) and yellow croaker (Wei et al., 2019). Derby et al. (2016) reported that krill meal at 1, 3 and 6% inclusion increased the palatability and consumption of feed pellets in a concentration-dependent fashion in P. vannamei compared to the control group. ...
... Consistently, growth performance stimulation with krill meal has been reported earlier in red swam crayfish (Gao et al., 2020), P. monodon , Atlantic salmon (Hatlen et al., 2017), P. vannamei (Nunes et al., 2011;Derby et al., 2016) and yellow croaker (Wei et al., 2019). Derby et al. (2016) reported that krill meal at 1, 3 and 6% inclusion increased the palatability and consumption of feed pellets in a concentration-dependent fashion in P. vannamei compared to the control group. This enhanced palatability nature of krill meal is considered to be another reason for obtaining higher growth with higher inclusion in our study. ...
Article
An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary krill meal inclusion in diets with moderate (12%) and low (6%) fishmeal concentrations for Penaeusvannamei.Inasmuch, eight iso‑nitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain 36% crude protein and 5.5% crude lipid. In the moderate-fishmeal diets, krill meal was included at 0, 2, 4 and 6% (called FK12:0, FK12:2, FK12:4 and FK12:6, respectively), likewise in the low-fishmeal diets, krill meal was included at the same concentrations of 0–6% (called FK6:0, FK6:2, FK6:4 and FK6:6, respectively). Shrimp with a starting body weight of 0.55 ± 0.02 g were stocked at 22 animals per tank of 350 lcapacity and fed three times daily. Results revealed that dietary krill meal and fish meal inclusion levels significantly increased growth performance (P < 0.05)and there was no significant effect on interaction between fishmeal and krill meal levels. Shrimp fed 6% krill meal diet had the highest final body weight of 11.61 g, weight gain of 11.05 g, weight gain % of 1969.38%,specific growth rate of 5.41%/d and yield of 229.42 g/tank The weight gain % and SGR showed non significant difference between 4 and 6% krill meal containing groups.Dietary change did not affect feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein utilization(P > 0.05). Survival was significantly increased in the groups containing 6 and 4% krill meal diets compared to 0% krill meal diet (P < 0.05). Inclusion levels of krill meal showed non-significant differences in post-fed body composition except for crude lipid and crude fibre content. Fishmeal inclusion levels showed significant (P < 0.05) variation in C14:0,C16:0,C18:0,C16:1, C18:1n-9,C18:2n-6,C22:6nn-3/n-6 ratio, whereas krill meal inclusion levels showed significant variation in the all n-3 fatty acids only. Immune-related gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05) upregulated in the shrimp fed high fishmeal diets (12%) for all the analyzed genes (ProPhenoloxidase (ProPO),ProPhenoloxidase activating enzyme (PPAE), Serine Protease (SP), β-1, 3-glucan-binding protein (BGBP), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Hemocyanin (HC)). The dietary change led to a significant difference in both histology and haematology parameters (P < 0.05). The results inferred that krill meal could be used as a potential functional feed ingredient in Penaeus vannamei.The present study suggested beneficial effects of krill meal in shrimp diets. The levels of fishmeal inclusion (12 and 6%) also showed significant (P < 0.05) variations in various growth performance parameters. It is plausible that an inclusion level of 4% is the minimum for a measurable difference in growth performance.
... Hence, it has been recommended that research into the area of attractants and palatability enhancers or supplements to enhance growth performance in plant-based diets should receive more attention in future years (Browdy et al., 2007;Gatlin and Li, 2008). Marine feedstuffs including fish meal, fish oil, squid meal, krill meal, fish soluble, and various protein hydrolysates are well known to be highly palatable to various aquatic animals (Barrows and Hardy, 2000;Carr and Derby, 1986;Derby et al., 2016;Harpaz, 1997;Holland and Borski, 1993;Sanchez et al., 2005;Smith et al., 2005;Suresh et al., 2011). In fish, several previous studies have demonstrated the protein hydrolysates from byproducts of marine sources would provide the beneficial effects in Goldfish Carassius auratus L. (Szlaminska et al., 1991), Common Carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Carvalho et al., 1997), Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Infante et al., 1997). ...
... Feeding attractants have been generally supplemented ranging from 0.5% to 5.0% in diet of shrimp dependent on the attractant and diet formulations (Derby et al., 2016;Hartati and Briggs, 1993). In the present study, no significant differences with regard to growth performance are observed among any treatment in Trial 1 (Table 6), when the diets were supplemented at 3%, 6%, and 9% Squ or Sca. ...
... Practical shrimp feed formulations have traditionally relied on meals, solubles, and hydrolysates made from fish, squid, shrimp, krill, and mollusks to act as chemoattractants and feeding stimulants (Cruz-Ricque, Guillaume, Cuzon, & Aquacop, 1987;Cruz-Suárez, Guillaume & Wormhoudt, 1987;Guillaume, Cruz-Ricque, Cuzon, Wordmhoudt, & Revol, 1989;Lee & Meyers, 1997;Smith, Tabrett, Barclay, & Irvin, 2005;Grey, Forster, & Dominy, 2009;Nunes et al., 2006;Suresh et al. 2011;Derby et al., 2016). These raw materials contain natural chemical drivers, which activate shrimp feeding behavior by promoting feed detection, and search and orientation toward the food source (known as chemoattractants). ...
... These raw materials contain natural chemical drivers, which activate shrimp feeding behavior by promoting feed detection, and search and orientation toward the food source (known as chemoattractants). Some can also stimulate feeding activity through initiation and continuation of feeding (Costero & Meyers, 1993;Derby et al., 2016;Lee & Meyers, 1996Nunes et al., 2006). These positive behavioral feeding responses appear to ultimately lead to a growth-enhancement effect in penaeid shrimp (Cruz-Ricque et al., 1987;Cruz-Suárez et al., 1987;Guillaume et al., 1989;Córdova-Murueta & García-Carrenõ, 2002;Smith et al., 2005;Williams, Smith, Barclay, Tabrett, & Riding, 2005;Suresh et al. 2011). ...
Article
This study compared the feed preference and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to chemoattractants. A diet with 3% fishmeal was supplemented with either 3% salmon meal (POS), 3% soy protein concentrate (NEG), 3% krill meal (KRM), 3% squid meal (SQM), 3% shrimp head meal (SHM), 3% shrimp meal (SM), 3% squid liver meal (SLM), or 5% liquid sardine hydrolysate (SAH). Shrimp with a body weight (BW) of 0.99 ± 0.08 g were stocked at 100 animals/m2 in 56 tanks of 1 m3 and fed 10 times daily for 74 days. Feed preference was evaluated by feeding shrimp of 10.87 ± 1.82 g in excess twice a day for 10 days in two separate feeding trays allocated in 50 tanks of 0.5 m3. Survival reached 93.3 ± 5.80% and was unaffected by supplementation. Final BW was the highest for shrimp fed the KRM‐supplemented diet (11.97 ± 0.93 g), followed by POS (11.11 ± 0.77 g) and SQM (11.01 ± 1.17 g). Diets SHM, SM, SLM, and NEG showed a lower shrimp BW than POS, but were not statistically different among them. Shrimp fed the SAH diet achieved the lowest BW (10.06 ± 1.02 g). The highest gained yield was obtained with diets KRM and POS. No statistical difference was observed in shrimp yield among other diets. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was achieved with shrimp fed KRM (1.31 ± 0.05) when compared to diets SHM (1.47 ± 0.05), SAH (1.47 ± 0.07), and SLM (1.45 ± 0.17). Two‐by‐two comparisons indicated that shrimp preferred SHM and KRM, except when these were compared to SQM and SLM. No difference in feed preference was found between diets with SQM and SLM. SAH was the least preferred raw material in all comparisons. Results indicated that KRM acts as a powerful feeding effector and growth enhancer in fishmeal‐challenged diets for whiteleg shrimp. A dietary supplementation with 3% KRM is more effective than the same dose of any other chemoattractant evaluated.
... Among different feeding effectors commercially used in shrimp feeds (betaine, hydrolysates, squid and crustaceans), crustacean and krill meal are the most efficient drivers of feed intake in tiger shrimp . Moreover, krill meal increases the number of pellets eaten by whiteleg shrimp in a concentration-dependent manner by promoting longer, rather than faster consumption (Derby et al. 2016). ...
Article
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In shrimp farming, increasing attention is given to Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) living in the Southern Ocean to improve yield and stress resistance without increasing production costs. Krill is a shrimp-like swarming pelagic crustacean, which is used as a feed additive in diet formulations, mainly in the form of a high-protein krill meal. Krill meal is a feed attractant and shrimp growth accelerator. Krill meal is a sustainable and pure alternative to fish meal consisting of around 11% omega-3 phospholipids. Shrimp inefficiently produce phospholipids and depend on dietary addition for building membranes, fat storage/transport and resisting to adverse growing conditions. Dietary phospholipids increase the transport of cholesterol, triglycerides and omega-3 fatty acids from the digestive tract to the hepatopancreas and over the hemolymph to tissues. The feed attractants in krill meal improve growth performance of shrimp fed normal, but also vegetable or poultry protein-rich diets and the omega-3 phospholipids may improve energy transport and stress sensitivity.
... En cuanto a los factores químicos, algunas moléculas o sustancias como las proteínas, melaza (alto contenido de glucosa y fructosa) y carbonato de calcio (Pantoja et al., 2011;Oterhals y Samuelsen, 2015;Vanegas y Ramírez, 2015) pueden incrementar interacciones moleculares como puentes de hidrogeno, fuerzas de van der Waals, interacciones hidrofóbicas o modificar las cargas eléctricas del medio, mejorando la afinidad entre los componentes de la formulación. Derby et al. (2016), reportaron que el gluten, almidón y harina de trigo, en condiciones de hidratación y cocción (como en el caso de la extrusión), forman un efectivo aglutinante del pellet que limita la lixiviación de sus componentes. En la Tabla 3 se muestran un listado de aglutinantes reportados en bibliografía que suelen usarse en las formulaciones de alimentos extruido para peces. ...
Article
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The present work relates the traditional methods used to analyze the physical quality of fish extruded food, such as hardness, durability, water stability, sinking speed, bulk density, oil absorption and loss capacity and porosity as methods for the control of Its production at an industrial level. The physical properties of the pellets are relevant for decision making related to the conditions of processing, transport, storage, biological use of the animal and evaluation of new raw materials and additives. There are several methods for determining the physical quality of the pellets. However, they are mostly related to feeding of terrestrial animals, which are not suitable for feeding fish. These require conditions of resistance to mechanical stress and at the same time should have a texture and size that facilitates the adequate intake of food in the water.
... En cuanto a los factores químicos, algunas moléculas o sustancias como las proteínas, melaza (alto contenido de glucosa y fructosa) y carbonato de calcio (Pantoja et al., 2011;Oterhals y Samuelsen, 2015;Vanegas y Ramírez, 2015) pueden incrementar interacciones moleculares como puentes de hidrogeno, fuerzas de van der Waals, interacciones hidrofóbicas o modificar las cargas eléctricas del medio, mejorando la afinidad entre los componentes de la formulación. Derby et al. (2016), reportaron que el gluten, almidón y harina de trigo, en condiciones de hidratación y cocción (como en el caso de la extrusión), forman un efectivo aglutinante del pellet que limita la lixiviación de sus componentes. En la Tabla 3 se muestran un listado de aglutinantes reportados en bibliografía que suelen usarse en las formulaciones de alimentos extruido para peces. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work relates the traditional methods used to analyze the physical quality of fish extruded food, such as hardness, durability, water stability, sinking speed, bulk density, oil absorption and loss capacity and porosity as methods for the control of Its production at an industrial level. The physical properties of the pellets are relevant for decision making related to the conditions of processing, transport, storage, biological use of the animal and evaluation of new raw materials and additives. There are several methods for determining the physical quality of the pellets. However, they are mostly related to feeding of terrestrial animals, which are not suitable for feeding fish. These require conditions of resistance to mechanical stress and at the same time should have a texture and size that facilitates the adequate intake of food in the water.
... For many years, the main source of vegetable protein for shrimp feed was obtained from terrestrial plant, such as soybean meal (Cruz-Suarez et al., 2009;Suárez et al., 2009;Derby et al., 2016;Sharawy et al., 2016;Xie et al., 2016), lupin meal (Draganovic et al., 2014), garden pea Pisum sativum, concentrated rice protein (Oujifard et al., 2012;Chen et al., 2017), and canola meal Brassica sp. (Kou et al., 2015;Suárez et al., 2009;Singh et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The study aimed to evaluate the utilization of seaweed Caulerpa racemosa as feed ingredient for tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. This research consisted of two different stages, i.e. digestibility and growth test. Tiger shrimp with average body weight of 5.70 ± 0.42 g was reared during digestibility test. The measured parameters were total protein, calsium, magnesium, and energy digestibility. The growth test was managed by using a completely randomized design consisted of four different treatments (in triplicates) of dietary C. racemosa meal addition levels, i.e. 0 (control), 10, 20, and 30%. Tiger shrimp with an average body weight of 0.36 ± 0.02 g were cultured for 42 days in plastic containers (70×45×40 cm) with a stocking density of 15 shrimp/container. Apparent dry matter, protein, calcium, magnesium, and energy digestibilities of C. racemosa were 51.82, 88.67, 68.44, 16.39, 60.30%, respectively. The results presented that the growth performance of tiger shrimp fed with diet containing 10% of C. racemosa was not significantly different with the control (P>0.05). However, the growth performance of the shrimp fed with diet containing more than 20% of C. racemosa decreased. The enzyme activitity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased with the higher level of dietary addition of C. racemosa. It can be concluded that C. racemosa was possibly applied up to 10% in the feed formulation for tiger shrimp. Keywords: Caulerpa racemosa, Penaeus monodon, digestibility, growth performance, shrimp ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi pemanfaatan rumput laut Caulerpa racemosa sebagai bahan baku pakan udang windu Penaeus monodon. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan dua tahap, yaitu uji kecernaan C. racemosa dan uji pertumbuhan udang. Udang windu yang digunakan pada uji kecernaan berbobot 5,70 ± 0,42 g. Parameter uji yang diukur meliputi kecernaan total, protein, kalsium, magnesium, dan energi. Uji pertumbuhan dilakukan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan tiga ulangan, yaitu penggunaan tepung C. racemosa sebesar 0 (kontrol), 10, 20, dan 30%. Udang windu dengan bobot 0,36 ± 0,02 g dipelihara dalam wadah kontainer plastik ukuran 70×45×40 cm (volume air sebanyak 90 L) dengan kepadatan 15 ekor tiap wadah selama 42 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kecernaan total C. racemosa pada udang windu 51,82%, kecernaan protein 88,67%, kecernaan kalsium 68,44%, kecernaan magnesium 16,39%, dan kecernaan energi 60,30%. Penelitian tahap kedua pada kinerja pertumbuhan udang yang mengonsumsi pakan mengandung 10% C. racemosa, tidak memberikan nilai yang berbeda nyata dengan udang yang mengonsumsi pakan kontrol. Namun, kinerja pertumbuhan udang menurun setelah mengonsumsi pakan yang mengandung C. racemosa di atas 20%, sedangkan aktivitas enzim superoxide dismutase (SOD) meningkat. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa penambahan C. racemosa ke dalam formula pakan sampai 10% dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku pakan udang windu. Kata kunci: Caulerpa racemosa, Penaeus monodon, kecernaan, kinerja pertumbuhan, udang
... As a first step, we developed standardized assays of attractability and palatability to study chemosensory behavior in the laboratory ( Derby et al., 2016 ...
... As a first step, we developed standardized assays of attractability and palatability to study chemosensory behavior in the laboratory ( Derby et al., 2016 ...
... (around 1.1 g day −1 ), in the night period of the LD cycle. These results agree with more recent research about food intake amount in L. vannamei (Chiu et al., 2015;Derby et al., 2016), and also reveal that it is not a good option to feed shrimps during the day. Many practical studies conducted into feeding schedules of crustacean species have been performed (Lima et al., 2009;Nunes et al., 1996;Reymond and Lagardère, 1990). ...
Article
The role of light and feeding cycles in synchronizing self-feeding and locomotor activity rhythms was studied in white shrimps using a new self-feeding system activated by photocell trigger. In experiment 1, shrimps maintained under a 12:12 h light/dark (LD) photoperiod were allowed to self-feed using feeders connected to a photoelectric cell, while locomotor activity was recorded with a second photocell. On day 30, animals were subjected to constant darkness (DD) for 12 days to check the existence of endogenous circadian rhythms. In the experiment 2, shrimps were exposed to both a 12:12 h LD photoperiod and a fixed meal schedule in the middle of the dark period (MD, 01:00 h). On day 20, shrimps were exposed to DD conditions and the same fixed feeding. On day 30, they were maintained under DD and fasted for 7 days. The results revealed that under LD, shrimps showed a clear nocturnal feeding pattern and locomotor activity (81.9% and 67.7% of total daily food-demands and locomotor activity, respectively, at nighttime). Both feeding and locomotor rhythms were endogenously driven and persisted under DD with an average period length (τ) close to 24 h (circadian) (τ = 24.18 ± 0.13 and 23.87 ± 0.14 h for locomotor and feeding, respectively). Moreover, Shrimp showed a daily food intake under LD condition (1.1 ± 0.2 g day− 1 in the night phase vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 g day− 1 in the light phase). Our findings might be relevant for some important shrimp aquaculture aspects, such as developing suitable feeding management on shrimp farms.
... Since plant protein sources are taurine-deficient, taurine is also frequently added to plant-based diets due to its role in lipid digestion, bile acid conjugation and antioxidant defence (Salze and Davis, 2015), and as an attractant and feed stimulant (Chatzifotis et al., 2009). Also, diet palatability may be enhanced through the inclusion of krill meal, as showed in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Derby et al., 2016) and blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Suresh et al., 2011). This ingredient has the advantage of also being an excellent source of marine phospholipids (Saleh et al., 2013a(Saleh et al., , 2018. ...
Article
Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) is vulnerable to low water temperature, which may occur in the Southern Europe and Mediterranean region during Winter. Fish are poikilothermic animals, therefore feed intake, digestion, metabolism and ultimately growth are affected by water temperature. This study aimed to evaluate growth performance, feed utilisation, nutrient apparent digestibility, and nitrogen losses to the environment in gilthead seabream juveniles reared under low temperature (~ 13 °C). Three isolipid and isoenergetic diets were formulated: a diet similar to a commercial feed (COM) that contained 44% crude protein and 27.5% fishmeal, and two experimental diets with a lower protein content of 42% (ECO and ECOSup). In both ECO diets fishmeal inclusion was reduced (10% in ECO and 7.5% in ECOSup diet) and 15% poultry meal was included. Additionally, the ECOSup diet was supplemented with a mix of feed additives intended to promote fish growth performance and feed intake. The ECO diets presented lower production costs than the COM diet, whilst incorporating more sustainable ingredients. Gilthead seabream juveniles (±154.5 g initial body weight) were randomly assigned to triplicate tanks and fed the diets for 84 days. Fish fed the ECOSup diet attained a similar final body weight than fish fed the COM diet, significantly higher than fish fed the ECO diet. ECOSup fed fish presented significantly higher hepatosomatic index than COM fed fish, most likely due to higher hepatic glycogen reserves. The viscerosomatic index of ECOSup fed fish were significantly lower compared to COM fed fish, which is a positive achievement from a consumer's point of view. ECOSup diet exhibited similar nutrient digestibility than the COM diet. Moreover, feeding fish with the ECO diets resulted in lower faecal nitrogen losses when compared to COM fed fish. The results suggest that feeding gilthead seabream with an eco-friendly diet with a mix of feed additives such as the ECOSup diet, promoted growth and minimised nitrogen losses to the environment. Nutritional strategies that ultimately promote feed intake and diet utilisation are valuable tools that may help conditioning fish to sustain growth even under low temperatures.
... Lemos et al. (2009) Lemos et al., 2009) and at 95.1% for P. monodon (644 g kg −1 CP, 211 g kg −1 lipid, and 118 g kg −1 ash; Glencross et al., 2018). A number of other studies have reported a positive effect on the feeding and growth of juvenile L. vannamei when fed low dietary inclusions of KRM (Nunes et al., 2011(Nunes et al., , 2019Suresh et al., 2011;Sá et al., 2013;Derby et al., 2016). ...
... The actual biological mechanisms by which these 'growth factors' promote culture performance remain poorly characterized. For krill meal, a growth factor was isolated from its insoluble protein fraction [177], and krill meal was demonstrated to have a positive effect on feed palatability through increasing the feeding duration [182]. For marine microbial biomass, a range of potential bioactive nutrients has been measured [135]. ...
Article
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Intensification of the shrimp sector, also referred to as vertical expansion, has been predominately driven by consecutive incidences of global disease outbreaks, which have caused enormous economic loss for the main producer countries. A growing segment of the shrimp farming industry has opted to use production systems with higher density, biosecurity, and operating control to mitigate the risks posed by disease. However, successful super-intensive shrimp production is reliant on an advanced understanding of many important biological and economic parameters in the farming system, coupled with effective monitoring, to maintain optimal production. Compared to traditional extensive or semi-intensive systems, super-intensive systems require higher inputs of feed, energy, labor, and supplements. These systems are highly sensitive to the interactions between these different inputs and require that the biological and economical parameters of farming are carefully balanced to ensure success. Advancing nutritional knowledge and tools to support consistent and efficient production of shrimp in these high-cost super-intensive systems is also necessary. Breeding programs developing breeding-lines selected for these challenging super-intensive environments are critical. Understanding synergies between the key areas of production systems, nutrition, and breeding are crucial for super-intensive farming as all three areas coalesce to influence the health of shrimp and commercial farming success. This article reviews current strategies and innovations being used for Litopenaeus vannamei in production systems, nutrition, and breeding, and discusses the synergies across these areas that can support the production of healthy and high-quality shrimp in super-intensive systems. Finally, we briefly discuss some key issues of social license pertinent to the super-intensive shrimp farming industry.
... A similar result was reported by Schmitt and Santos (1998) in P. paulensis, wherein a higher nitrogen intake in shrimp fed with squid than that of formulated diets was observed which might be related to numerous factors, mainly its attractive characteristics with balanced amino acid profiles of squid. Similarly, the better performances of various fresh protein sources have earlier been reported in Atlantic salmon (Julshamn et al., 2004), Atlantic halibut (Suontama et al., 2007), P. monodon Williams et al., 2005), P. stylirostris (Suresh & Nates, 2011) and P. vannamei (Derby et al., 2016;Nunes et al., 2011). ...
Article
An indoor experiment was carried out to assess the effect of various fresh foods and formulated diets on oxygen consumption in relation to nitrogen metabolism in Penaeus monodon. Seven iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated by substituting fishmeal (w/w) at 0 (control), 2.5 and 5% using groundnut oil cake (GNC-1 and GNC-2, respectively), rapeseed meal (RSM-1and RSM-2) and sesame oil cake (SOC-1 and SOC-2). Simultaneously, five different fresh foods (clam, crustaceans, fish, polychaete and squid) were also tested. Results revealed that nitrogen intake increased (p < 0.05) by 10.5%–86.6% in shrimp fed fresh food compared with control. Among the fresh food, fish meat showed the highest (p < 0.05) oxygen consumption and ammonia-N efflux. The O:N ratio decreased by 4.22–6.62 in shrimp fed on fresh food, whereas it increased by 0.91–3.28 in formulated diets. Regression analysis revealed a higher coefficient of determination for oxygen consumption (R2 = 0.9272) as well as ammonia-N excretion (R2 = 0.8778) in fresh food compared with the formulated feeds (0.3818 and 0.2187), whereas it was found to be low for O:N ratio for both the fresh food (R2 = 0.1789) and formulated feeds (R2 = 0.3260). The results confirmed that the measurement of O:N ratio can be an additional tool for assessing the nutritional quality of feed along with growth and digestibility and was more significant with the nutritional quality of formulated diets in P. monodon over fresh foods, in relation to nitrogen metabolism.
... Some experiments have used krill meal as a supplement to improve the quality of feed containing soybean meal. Krill meal is a chemostimulant whose major effect when added to feed pellets is to increase the pellets' palatability by prolonging the feeding session and thus the amount eaten, but not affecting how quickly a shrimp eats each pellet (Derby et al. 2016b). Using this experimental method, a highly effective chemostimulant without animal products was developed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic organisms detect chemical cues to sense the local environment, for example, to find a mate, locate food, and identify danger. Knowledge of chemical cues can be used in aquaculture, in practical applications such as controlling mating behavior to increase fertility, enhance feeding, and decrease stress; in fisheries, by catching selected species with low-cost artificial attractants; and to address maritime issues, by decreasing biofouling. Aquatic organisms also detect chemical cues related to global environmental changes, ocean acidification, and increases in ocean plastics, all of which can affect their chemosensory behaviors. Here we discuss the nature of chemical cues and chemosensory biology and ecology of aquatic organisms, and potential applications with an emphasis on sex pheromones in commercially important and well-studied animals, namely, decapod crustaceans and fish.
... Previous studies have reported on the utilization of marineand terrestrial animal-based ingredients as an effective CA or/and FS in decapod crustaceans farming (e.g. Smith et al., 2005;Ali et al., 2007;Derby et al., 2016;Nunes et al., 2006Nunes et al., , 2019. However, these ingredients can be varied in their chemical compositions when they are obtained from different production sources or suppliers, mostly due to the different processing methods that have been used. ...
Article
The aquaculture of decapod crustaceans is expanding continuously to supply protein source for human consumption. Therefore, intensive research is necessary to improve the quality of the feeds in decapod crustacean farming. Decapod crustaceans are slow feeders, and dietary inclusion of plant proteins reduces their intakes on the feeds. Dietary supplementation of chemoattractants (CA) (to reduce food searching duration) and feeding stimulants (FS) (to stimulate ingestion) is therefore necessary to solve these problems respectively. Amino acids are commonly used as the CA and FS in aquaculture, and the feeding response of aquatic animals to amino acids is species-specific. As the chemosensory systems of decapod crustaceans are complicated, and their feeding responses are different from fish, it is essential to understand which amino acids can function as the CA, FS or both to the targeted farmed species. This review provides an overview on the acceptance of some commercially farmed decapod crustaceans to amino acids. Topics related to the efficiency of amino acids being a CA and FS were discussed, and recommendations on how to present amino acids as a CA and FS efficiently in decapod crustacean farming were also made.
... Shrimp benthic habits and anatomical characteristics of mouthparts are major setbacks to visualize and quantify their feeding behavior using traditional methods of direct visual observation or video recordings analysis under laboratory conditions (Hunt et al. 1992;Sanchez et al. 2005;Nunes et al. 2006;Obaldo and Masuda 2006;Pontes et al. 2008;Lima et al. 2009;Suresh et al. 2011;Silva et al. 2012;Derby et al. 2016;Bardera et al. 2019b). These difficulties are increased under field conditions due to water depths and low visibility in production ponds. ...
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This study aimed to compare the growth performance, food consumption, and acoustic feeding behavior of two size classes of Litopenaeus vannamei fed on extruded and pelleted diets. Two similar diets (35% crude protein) prepared by extrusion or pelletizing methods were offered to two shrimp size classes: small (3.83 ± 0.16 g) and large (10.28 ± 0.37 g). Shrimp were reared in 100-L aquaria (salinity 6 ppt, temperature 28 °C); growth performance and survival were analyzed at the end of 4 and 8 weeks for small and large size classes, respectively. Hydrophones recorded the sounds of shrimp feeding activity for 30-min intervals, after food remains were collected to evaluate consumption. Physical (pellet durability index, hardness, water absorption, density, sinking velocity, dry matter retention) and chemical (aromatic amino acids (AAA) leaching) characteristics of the diets were evaluated before and after soaking. Extruded diet presented higher durability and hardness before soaking, but its higher water absorption resulted in markedly texture softened and higher AAA leaching. Both shrimp size classes presented no significant differences in final mean weight, biomass, weight gain, survival, food conversion, and food consumption between pelleted or extruded diets. The mean acoustic energy did not differ between diets, but larger shrimp produced higher energy during feeding activity. The energy showed a significant progressive decrease along time intervals (10, 20, and 30 min) for both size classes and diets. Despite the different characteristics between pelleted and extruded diets, both resulted in similar shrimp performance and acoustic feeding profile activity under laboratory conditions.
... Modern technology offers the possibility for real-time shrimp behavior monitoring in aquaculture as a fast and automatic research topic and a repeatable method [19]. In general, when shrimps are in different physiological states, their behavioral profile will change, such as posture, sound frequency, and activity rhythms [20][21][22]. Figure 1 shows the number of papers related to different methods and monitoring behaviors. The most popular methods are acoustic technology, machine vision, and movement sensors. ...
Article
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Crustacean farming is a fast-growing sector and has contributed to improving incomes. Many studies have focused on how to improve crustacean production. Information about crustacean behavior is important in this respect. Manual methods of detecting crustacean behavior are usually infectible, time-consuming, and imprecise. Therefore, automatic growth situation monitoring according to changes in behavior has gained more attention, including acoustic technology, machine vision, and sensors. This article reviews the development of these automatic behavior monitoring methods over the past three decades and summarizes their domains of application, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the challenges of individual sensitivity and aquaculture environment for future research on the behavior of crustaceans are also highlighted. Studies show that feeding behavior, movement rhythms, and reproduction behavior are the three most important behaviors of crustaceans, and the applications of information technology such as advanced machine vision technology have great significance to accelerate the development of new means and techniques for more effective automatic monitoring. However, the accuracy and intelligence still need to be improved to meet intensive aquaculture requirements. Our purpose is to provide researchers and practitioners with a better understanding of the state of the art of automatic monitoring of crustacean behaviors, pursuant of supporting the implementation of smart crustacean farming applications.
Article
There is increasing recognition of the need to understand behaviours of species important in aquaculture to facilitate their production, however to date there has been limited focus in this area. The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), for example, is the most cultivated species in crustacean aquaculture globally, yet there are few studies that have addressed its feeding behaviour in detail. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feeding behaviour of L. vannamei in response to feed-deprivation and moult status. Twenty-four juvenile shrimp (10.51 ± 2.17 g) were divided across three different feed-deprivation conditions (+0 h (control), +24 h or +48 h; n = 8 per treatment). Shrimp in all treatment groups were provided with their last food intake at 19.00 and subsequently experienced 14 h feed-deprivation. Those in the control group were recorded for behaviour at 09.00 the following day and were not feed-deprived for any additional time (+0 h), whereas the other treatments were feed-deprived by one (+24 h treatment) or two (+48 h treatment) extra days. Moult status was constantly monitored as it changed in all shrimp throughout the course of the experiment. Shrimp, provided with food, were observed individually via video in test arenas for 20 min where behaviours (e.g. inactivity, detection, feeding, attraction-to-feed) were recorded. Each shrimp was observed five times across different days with three days between recordings to obtain information on within-individual in addition to between-individual variation. Shrimp feed-deprived for +24 h and +48 h showed significantly increased feeding activity compared to the control group, which spent more time inactive and performing detection behaviours. Shrimp deprived of food for +48 h also had higher attraction-to-feed score, which were positively correlated with feeding activity. Shrimp in the inter-moult stage displayed increased feeding activity and a higher attraction-to-feed score. Longer periods of feed-deprivation reduced within- and between-individual variation across the majority of the behaviours measured. The results of this study highlight the relevance of feed-deprivation and moult status in nutritional trials and provide important baseline information for developing the use of behaviour to improve L. vannamei production.
Article
Somatic and expressional effects of replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) with a 1:1:2 combination of soy protein concentrate, corn gluten meal, and hydrolysate of forage-fish (HWF) or Pacific krill (HPK) were investigated in juvenile largemouth bass for 66 days. The control diet (FMC) contained 320 g kg⁻¹of FM. Six extruded diets were produced with 3 rates of replacement at 25 %, 50 % and 75 % protein for each of the two hydrolysate combinations. Feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WGR) did not differ between fish fed HWF diets and FMC. Fish fed HPK50 and HPK75 had lower FI and WGR. FI linearly decreased with increasing HPK, while feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased. No significance was found in the FCR among groups fed FMC, HWF25, HWF50, and HPK25, whereas HWF75, HPK50, and HPK75 groups had significantly higher FCR. The apparent digestibility (AD) of crude protein (CP) increased with increasing HWF while HPK didn’t cause significant change. AD of lipid and energy were not affected by diet, and AD of most amino acids increased proportionally with HWF. No proximate composition or retention of crude or digestible protein or energy other than whole-body ash revealed HWF-related differences. Whole-body CP, lipid, ash contents and CP retentions showed significant dose response in HPK fed fish. The condition factor decreased linearly with increasing HPK. Fish fed HPK50 diet upregulated peptide transporter 1 (pept1) expression in the foregut. Expressions of both taurine transporter (taut) and pept1 were upregulated by increasing replacement from 0 % to 25 % HWF. Further increase in HWF replacement caused linear down regulation in expression of both transporters. In conclusion, HWF and HPK facilitated reduced use of fishmeal in practical diet for largemouth bass. Expressions of pept1 and taut were dose-dependent in fish fed HWF. HPK just caused single diet upregulation.
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The increasing market demand for decapods has led to a considerable interest in cultivating decapod species at a larger scale. Following the development of hatchery technologies, most research has focused on the development of formulated feeds for commercially farmed decapods once they enter the juvenile stages. The use of formulated feed for decapods at a commercial scale is still in the early stages. This is probably because of the unique feeding behavior that decapods possess: being robust, slow feeders and bottom dwellers, their feeding preferences change during the transition from pelagic larvae to benthic juveniles as their digestive systems develop and become more complex. The current practice of decapod aquaculture involves the provision of juveniles with food such as natural diet, live feed, and formulated feed. Knowledge of nutrient requirements enables diets to be better formulated. By manipulating the levels of proteins and lipids, a formulated feed can be expected to lead to optimal growth in decapods. At the same time, the pellet’s physical characteristics are important factors to be considered upon formulating commercially farmed decapod feeds, considering the unique feeding behavior of the decapod. However, most published studies on decapod nutrition lack data on the physical characteristics of the feed types. Thus, it is difficult to establish a standard feed formulation that focuses on the physical pellet properties. Moreover, careful consideration must be given to the feeding behavior of species, as decapods are known as bottom feeders and are robust in terms of handling feed. Information on the pellet forms, diet composition, and unique feeding behaviors in commercially farmed decapods is gathered to suggest potential better formulated diets that can optimize growth and reproduction. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the information that has been published to date and to come up with suggestions on ways to improve the feed formulation in decapods that comply with their feeding behavior and nutrient requirements. Further research is needed to explore the potential of the pelleted feed at the adult stage so the decapod can take full advantage of the nutrients present in the pellets.
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Aquaculture production can be improved by understanding how ingredients can affect feed intake and digestion. This is an area poorly understood for many aquaculture species, including for the shrimp Penaeus monodon. To investigate these processes, we measured feed intake, the rate at which digesta moves through the gastro-intestinal tract, the change of free amino acids (FAA) circulating in the haemolymph following feeding, and how different test ingredients affect these processes in this species. Diets supplemented with microbial NovacqTM (NQ), krill meal (KM) or whole squid meal (SQ) and a control diet were used across two separate experiments. In the first, feed intake was measured in communally housed shrimp for 60, 120 and 360 min to examine the effects of diet on ingestion. Feed intake after 360 min was greater in shrimp offered the SQ diet while no effect was observed at earlier time points. In the second experiment, individually housed shrimp were used to measure feed intake, the rate at which digesta passed through the gut and the change of individual FAA in the haemolymph over a 30 min period. For this experiment, addition of SQ and NQ increased both the rate at which digesta travels through the gut and post-prandial concentration of FAA in haemolymph at 5 min. Krill meal had the highest haemolymph concentration of amino acids at 10 min and all dietary treatments showed a convergence of haemolymph FAA by 30 min. The different ingredients appear to affect the appearance of FAA in haemolymph through different mechanisms. For SQ, the FAA content of the diet was high, being 2.8 times that of the others (27.6 vs. 10.0 g kg-1), and it is hypothesized that the availability of these FAA resulted in the rapid increase in haemolymph observed for this treatment. In contrast, two other ingredients also led to rapid increases in haemolymph FAA. However, for these diets the amount of FAA present was similar to the control indicating that other characteristics of the meals may be causal. Our data indicate that specific ingredients can increase both the rate at which digesta travels through the gut and the rate of absorption of amino acids and that these mechanisms could explain increases in both feed duration and intake
Preprint
There are several literatures that cover different views of crustacean food, feeding and behavior aspects, but little was known on its interaction between them and it's also shown a different perspective. Thus, a better understanding of the interactions between food, feeding and diets in crustaceans is vital for developing better quality of seed or broodstock produced in hatchery and its adaptation to the aquaculture environment and system. The aim of the present review is to update the state of the art and to explicit the knowledge regarding food, feeding and diets in crustaceans and challenges and opportunities in the development of formulated diets.
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Current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of modified canola oil (MCO) with enhanced levels of omega 3 fatty acids, to replace menhaden fish oil (MFO) in practical diets (36% protein and 8% lipid) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In first two trials, the basal diet containing 100% MFO was incrementally replaced by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% MCO, which clearly demonstrated the potential of using MCO as a replacement for up to 75% of the supplemented MFO in poultry meal‐based diets. In the third trial, two series of diets were evaluated including fishmeal‐based diets replacing MFO by 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% MCO and three poultry meal‐based diets with 100% MFO, 75% MCO and 75% MCO supplemented with 4% hydrolysed salmon by‐product meal (HSM) as an attractant. In conclusion, no significant differences in performances of shrimp between diets were noted indicating no palatability issue in poultry meal‐based MCO diet and confirmed the efficacy of replacing 100% MFO by MCO in a low fishmeal diets and up to 75% in poultrymeal‐based diets without compromising the growth of shrimp.
Article
P. monodon juveniles were fed krill meal (KM), krill hydrolysate (KH), whole squid (SQ), and the microbial biomass, Novacq™ (NQ), at 10% inclusion, in practical fishmeal and soybean meal based diets. Diets were fed to apparent satiation as well as restrictively pair-fed (~60% of control diet satiation) for 6 weeks to examine the effects of the test ingredients and feed restriction on shrimp growth, feed efficiency, digestive enzyme activity, nutritional condition, and gut microbiota. All diets when fed to satiety significantly outperformed the control diet, with shrimp fed NQ 87%, SQ 73%, KH 41% and KM 38% larger than shrimp fed the control diet. NQ fed shrimp had the best feed conversion ratio (FCR) and significantly improved retention efficiency (RE) of dietary lipid (RETL), protein (RECP) and gross energy (REGE). SQ significantly promoted feed intake over control and KM fed shrimp, but neither KM, KH nor SQ improved RETL, RECP or REGE. While there was little change in the apparent digestibility (AD) of each diet, the apparent biological value (ABV) of lipid (ABVTL), protein (ABVCP) and gross energy (ABVGE) were significantly improved by inclusion of NQ; and ABVTL and ABVGE were significantly improved by addition of SQ. Feed restriction had a stronger effect on hepatopancreas digestive enzymes and gut microbiota than addition of any feed ingredient. Total protease activity was positively correlated with feed efficiency, including FCR, RETL and REGE. Shrimp fed to satiety tended to have high levels of Vibrio whereas those on the restricted ration tended to have higher levels of bacteria in Rhodobacteracaea, Flavobacteriales and Bacteroidales. We conclude that shrimp are more efficient in using digested dietary macronutrients for growth when whole squid and Novacq™ are provided, due to improvements in feed intake and post-absorptive processes. Feeding restriction was shown to be a useful strategy to improve P. monodon feeding efficiency, digestive capacity and modulate gut microbiota, however it reduced the scope for shrimp growth especially on high performing diets. Novacq™ was more effective than some of the known invertebrate meals and a more environmentally sustainable growth and nutrient utilisation promoter for shrimp.
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A protein‐rich product (PP) with 46% protein and less than 1% fibre was recovered from brewery's spent grain. This study aimed to investigate the effects of replacing dietary fishmeal with PP on the growth, feed utilization efficiency and nutritional composition of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The control diet (PP0, containing 35% fishmeal) was compared with four isonitrogenous (44% crude protein), isolipidic (10% crude fat) and isocaloric (20 kJ/g) test diets, PP10, PP30, PP50 and PP70, which were formulated using PP protein to replace 10%, 30%, 50% and 70% of fishmeal protein. Sextuplicate groups of shrimp (averaging 1.10 g) were fed each of the five diets for 8 weeks. The results showed that up to 50% of fishmeal replaced with PP did not negatively affect the shrimp survival, growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, or the protein content and amino acid profile of shrimp. However, replacing 70% of fishmeal protein with PP protein negatively affected the percent weight gain and specific growth rate of shrimp, although the shrimp survival rate and feed conversion ratio were not affected.
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In shrimp farming, there has been a considerable focus on the development of novel additives that might reduce costs associated with the time taken by shrimp to locate and ingest feed. However, within these trials there has been little consideration of the role that feeding behaviour of individuals can play in assessing the attractability of additives. As such, the use of tracking technologies in the development of automated protocols is beginning to gain attention as an important tool for monitoring associated behaviours. Therefore the objective of the present study was to validate an automated tracking software (EthoVision) for assessing feed attractability in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Twenty-seven juvenile shrimp (5.54 ± 1.37 g) were used to test three experimental diets with different theoretical levels of attraction; negative (0.07 M Quinine-HCl), control, and positive diet (3% attractant). Shrimp were individually video recorded in test arenas for 20 min with each one of the diets. Recordings were also carried out at two times of day (morning and afternoon) to evaluate the effect of time of day on shrimp feeding behaviour. The behaviour of each individual was recorded three times per diet to determine levels of individual variation. Comparison between manual and automated observations validated the reliability of EthoVision in analysing L. vannamei feeding behaviour and the software detected clear differences in feeding behaviour according to diet. Shrimp provided with the positive diet (i.e. 3% attractant) arrived faster and spent longer on the feeding area. In contrast, with the negative diet (i.e. 0.07 M Quinine-HCl), shrimp spent more time moving around the test arena and less time interacting with the feed. Time of day also had an effect on several behaviours, but not on the time spent on the feeding tray. Less individual variation in feeding behaviours was found when shrimp were fed the positive diet, suggesting attractive diets can decrease variability in feeding behaviour with potential applications to commercial ponds. Distribution heatmaps provided by EthoVision offered a quick and reliable assessment of feed attractability. The results of this study highlight the use of tracking technologies to assess feed attractability in L. vannamei and the feasibility of automated protocols for the industry.
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of acidifying the diet of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon on its growth and feed efficiency by supplementing coconut sap vinegar CSV) or sugar cane vinegar (SCV) or their 1:1 combination. Three hundred and sixty post larva shrimps (average initial weight of 0.01g) were randomly distributed into 12 50-L plastic containers. Four experimental diets, namely, control diet, 2% CSV, 2% SCV and 2% CSV+SCV were fed to groups of shrimps. After 90 days, all shrimps fed with diets containing vinegar exhibited significantly higher final average body weight (FABW), weight gain (WG), feed intake, specific growth rate (SGR), and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than those fed the control diet. Attractability tests showed that the CSV and CSV+SCV diets attracted significantly the highest percentage of shrimps after 10 min of feed placement. Survival rate was not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the vinegars tested could be used as growth enhancers in shrimp and that the combination of coconut sap and sugar cane vinegars supplemented to the diet resulted in the best growth and feed efficiency as well as attracted the most percentage of shrimps. Produced by the AquacultureHub non-profit Foundation the IJA is an open-access, scientific journal, published on http://www.aquaculturehub.org/group/israelijournalofaq uaculturebamidgehija To read papers free of charge, please register online at the above website. Sale of IJA papers is strictly forbidden. 2 dela Calzada et al.
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The present study examined the physical characteristics of semi-moist formulated feeds to the reproductive maturation of female orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea. In this study, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment compared four types of natural diets; fish offal (discarded organ), mangrove clams (Polymesoda erosa), black devil snail (Faunus ater), and commercial shrimp feeds (control), to select the basal diet for the formulation of feeds. Proximate compositions of the different diets revealed that the mangrove clam, P. erosa (protein = 81.63% and lipid = 13.54%) is the most suitable ingredients for the mud crabs’ diet. Fatty acid analysis also showed that mangrove clams had the highest concentration of ARA, EPA, and DHA at 0.56%, 1.62%, and 2.68% respectively. In the second experiment, four isonitrogenous feed (~42%) with different lipid percentages; T1: 6%, T2: 8%, T3: 10%, and T4: 12% were formulated to investigate the effects of the lipid inclusion on maturation of mud crabs. The effects of different levels of lipid on palatability, feed water stability, nutrient leaching, buoyancy, and total solids were studied prior to feeding experimentation. The palatability tests showed high attractability of the crabs towards the feeds. Meanwhile, high water stability (dry matter retention) were recorded in all experimental feeds after long immersion hours, with low nutrient leaching, and low solids disintegration. Later, feeding trial on 120 matured female mud crabs (carapace width: 10.24 ± 0.66 cm and body weight: 186.42 ± 37.90 g) revealed that the semi-moist formulated feeds are readily accepted by the crabs. The crabs from all treatments recorded positive body weight gain (BWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) with crabs fed T4 dominating (BWG = 11.43 g, 14.65 g, and 12.13 g; SGR = 0.35%day⁻¹, 0.13%day⁻¹, and 0.08%day⁻¹ during 30-, 60-, and 90-day of feeding trials respectively) (p < 0.05). Similarly, morphological results showed that high GSI was noted in S. olivacea fed with T4, increasing at subsequent feeding trials (10.44%, 11.03%, and 14.51%) (p < 0.05), which were inversely proportional with the HSI (8.92%, 5.11%, and 4.76%) (p < 0.05) compared to other treatments, probably contributed by the high percentage of lipid inclusion. These findings demonstrate that diets contained 12% lipid and 42% protein (T4) is ideal for somatic and reproductive growth of S. olivacea. Yet, a nutrient dose-response study is expected to be carried out in the future to estimate the optimum lipid level required for reproductive and growth performance in S. olivacea.
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Three feed materials, fish meat (from oil sardines) paste, squid mantle paste and clam meat (Meritrix sp.) paste, and three chemical compounds, trimethyl amine, trimethyl amine oxide, and dimethyl sulphone were evaluated for their attractant and growth promoting properties for Penaeus monodon. The materials were individually incorporated in a semi-purified diet consisting of casein (40%) and gelatin (10%), fish oil (6.0%) and bread flour (33%) along with vitamins, minerals, filler and binder at specific levels ; while the natural materials were included each at 0.5% (on dry matter basis), the other compounds were incorporated at 0.01% level. The shrimp approached the diet containing dimethylsulphone (DMS) in the quickest time of less than 5 minutes on an average, followed by the diet with trimethylamine oxide (TMO) in 7.2 minutes. These are followed by trimethyl amine (TMA) to which diet the shrimp approached and picked up in 14.2 minutes. Among the natural materials tested, the diets containing fish meat paste (FMP), clam meat paste (CMP) showed better attractant property. The results showed that the materials tested elicited positive response as feed attractants with varying degree. The results also showed that DMS and TMO seem to possess the highest attractant property to the shrimp. Consumption of diet increased with feed additives, compared to the control diet with TMO and DMS diets recording the highest consumption. The feed additives tested also resulted in growth enhancement of shrimp.
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Analyses of the free amino acids, quater-nary amines, guanido compounds, nucleotides, nu-cleosides, and organic acids in extracts of tissues from 10 species of marine teleost fishes and 20 species of invertebrates are reported. With multidimensional scaling techniques, the relative concentrations of the above chemicals in fishes, molluscs, and crustaceans are shown to cluster into separate taxon-specific groups. The greatest differences are between the fishes and the two groups of invertebrates. Similarities are more evident between the molluscs and crustaceans where eight of the nine most abundant substances are identical: i.e., betaine, taurine, trimethylamine oxide, glycine, alanine, proline, homarine, and arginine. The major tissue components in the fishes and invertebrates are correlated with compounds previously shown to stimulate feeding behavior in 35 species of fish. Glycine and alanine are major tissue components and are also the two most frequently cited feeding stimulants in the 35 species. Molluscs and crustaceans each contain high concentrations of five of the most frequently cited stimulants (glycine, alanine, proline, arginine, and be-taine); these substances all occur in much lower con-centrations in fish. Some minor tissue components, such as tryptophan, phenylalanine, aspartic acid, va-line, and uridine 5'-monophosphate, are, however, important feeding stimulants for some fish species. Stimulants for herbivores and carnivores are often dif-ferent. Several major feeding stimulants are substances that serve as "compensatory solutes," stabilizing en-zymes and structural proteins.
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The production of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has expanded to the point of being the most widely cultured species of shrimp. One of the advantages of this species is its acceptance of a wide variety of feed formulations including plant‐based feeds. Given the increases in ingredient costs, particularly fish meal, there is considerable interest in the use of alternative feed formulations for cultured species. Given that soybean meal is one of the most widely available protein sources for which production can be expanded, the move to soy‐based diets is inevitable. The successful use of alternative feed ingredients for shrimp production depends on a number of factors. This paper summarizes studies regarding the move towards high soy diets concerning manipulation of ingredients and nutrient profiles to maintain balanced feed formulations.
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A review is provided of the chemical components in tissue extracts that elicit feeding behavior in marine fish and crustaceans. For most species, the major stimulants of feeding behavior in excitatory extracts are an assemblage of common metabolites of low molecular weight including amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, nucleosides and nucleotides, and organic acids. It is often mixtures of substances rather than individual components that account for the stimulatory capacity of a natural extract. Recent studies using a shrimp,Palaemonetes pugio, are described in which behavioral bioassays were conducted with complex synthetic mixtures formulated on the basis of the composition of four tissue extracts. These results indicate that synergistic interactions occur among the mixture components. The neural mechanisms whereby marine crustaceans receive and code information about chemical mixtures are also reviewed. Narrowly tuned receptor cells, excited only by particular components of food extracts such as specific amino acids, nucleotides, quaternary ammonium compounds, and ammonium ions, are common in lobsters and could transmit information about mixtures as a labeled-line code. However, since physiological recordings indicate that most higher-level neurons in the brain each transmit information about many components of mixtures, rather than about a single component, it is suggested that information about a complex food odor is transmitted as an across-fiber pattern, instead of a labeled-line code. Electrophysiological recordings of responses of peripheral and central neurons of lobsters to odor mixtures and their components reveal that suppressive interactions occur, rather than the synergistic interactions noted earlier in the behavioral studies. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Evidence from the behavioral study indicates that the "direction" of a mixture interaction can be concentration-dependent and the synergism may occur at low mixture concentrations, while suppression may occur at high concentrations.
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Reduction or elimination of fish meal and fish oil from aquaculture diets can help to reduce the potential for contamination and dependence of the industry on pelagic fisheries while improving economic competitiveness. However, fish oil provides important omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) essential to shrimp health and beneficial to humans. This study evaluated an organic, plant-based diet formulated to replace fish meal and fish oil with plant proteins and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) produced by algal fermentation. Shrimp cultured in replicate outdoor ponds at 25/m2 were fed either a diet composed of organically produced plant ingredients or a conventional commercial fish-meal- based feed. No significant differences were found in production parameters between the conventional fish-meal-based diet and the plant-based diet (production: 4594 and 4592 kg/ha; harvest size: 18.7 and 19.2 g; survival: 93 and 88%; and feed conversion ratio: 1.4 and 1.3, respectively). At harvest, shrimp were analyzed for 147 chemical contaminants and 71 FAs. Contaminant levels were negligible for shrimp raised on both diets. The fish meal and fish oil diet provided significantly higher quantities of eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA than the plant-based diet, and the shrimp fed the conventional diet
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We are studying chemoattractants for the shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, to identify the active components of stimulatory food extracts, and to determine whether the mixtures of substances occurring in extracts express themselves in an additive or an interactive manner. The results of quantitative analyses of the specific amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, organic acids, nucleotides and related substances in extracts of four organisms (crab, shrimp, oyster, mullet) were used to formulate artificial mixtures based on the composition of each organism. Quantitative behavioral bioassays with P. pugio showed that the artificial mixtures based on the composition of the crab and shrimp extracts were virtually as effective as the respective natural extracts, whereas artificial mixtures based on the composition of the oyster and mullet extracts were far less effective. Since the same types of substances were included in all of the mixtures, it is apparent that the substances serving as chemoattractants in different extracts are not constant but can vary depending upon the source of the extract. To examine for interactions among the components of the four artificial mixtures, responses to the mixtures and to their individual components were analyzed using the additive methods of stimulus summation and response summation. Synergistic interactions were evident since each mixture was markedly more effective than predicted on the basis of these additive models. The degree of synergism varied with the composition of the mixture.
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Shrimp production worldwide has increased dramatically, and optimal sites are no longer abundant. New farms are being constructed in areas where water salinity and ion composition are suboptimal. Aquaculturists and feed suppliers are attempting to alleviate ion nonequilibriums through nutrition. One nutritive supplement that has been marketed is the amino acid betaine. The present work evaluated the effects of betaine as a feed supplement on the survival and growth of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at extreme salinities (0.5 or 50‰). Juvenile Pacific white shrimp (mean individual weight, 0.18 g) were reared in 16 tanks: eight tanks held water at 0.5‰, and eight held water at 50‰. Shrimp were maintained for 8 weeks in four replicate tanks from each salinity treatment and offered feed with or without a betaine supplement. Survival (75–89%) and final weights (2.8–3.5 g) were typical for this species reared in indoor systems, but there was no significant influence of the presence of betaine. However, there was a significant influence of salinity on growth. These results suggest that betaine supplementation to practical diets designed for Pacific white shrimp does not improve production at extremely low or high salinities.
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A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the feeding attractant, glycine betaine (betaine hydrochloride) on the growth and feed conversion of juveniles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan) (mean initial weight 1.12 g). Three types of diets were prepared with the incorporation of glycine betaine at 5, 10 and 15 g kg−1 levels along with an unsupplemented control. After 60 days, weight gain, feed intake and food conversion ratio (FCR) were higher in prawn fed the three glycine betaine-added diets compared with the control feed. Among the glycine betaine-added diets, prawn fed glycine betaine at 5 g kg−1 level showed highest weight gain (2.73 g) by registering 61.5% increase in growth over control and also higher feed intake (5.79 g) and good FCR (2.12). There were highly significant differences (P < 0.01) in weight gain, feed intake, per day growth and FCR among treatments. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in survival among treatments.
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Decapod crustaceans such as blue crabs possess a variety of chemoreceptors that control different stages of the feeding process. All these chemoreceptors are putative targets for feeding deterrents that cause animals to avoid or reject otherwise palatable food. As a first step towards characterizing the chemoreceptors that mediate the effect of deterrents, we used a behavioral approach to investigate their precise location. Data presented here demonstrate that chemoreceptors located on the antennules, pereiopods and mouthparts do not mediate the food-rejection effects of a variety of deterrents, both natural and artificial to crabs. Crabs always searched for deterrent-laced food and took it to their oral region. The deterrent effect was manifested as either rejection or extensive manipulation, but in both cases crabs bit the food. The biting behavior is relevant because the introduction of food into the oral cavity ensured that the deterrents gained access to the oesophageal taste receptors, and so we conclude that they are the ones mediating rejection. Additional support comes from the fact that a variety of deterrent compounds evoked oesophageal dilatation, which is mediated by oesophageal receptors and has been linked to food rejection. Further, there is a positive correlation between a compound's ability to elicit rejection and its ability to evoke oesophageal dilatation. The fact that deterrents do not act at a distance is in accordance with the limited solubility of most known feeding deterrents, and likely influences predator-prey interactions and their outcome: prey organisms will be attacked and bitten before deterrents become relevant.
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Increasing economical and ecological concerns regarding the use of fish meal in diets for marine shrimp have led to the development of replacement strategies where soybean meal has received ample attention. Most studies evaluating these strategies have been carried out under laboratory conditions which greatly differ from production conditions in ponds. This study evaluated a fish meal replacement strategy using vegetable protein sources in practical feeds for marine shrimp reared in ponds. Juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (0.03 g) were stocked into 16 0.1-ha low-water exchange ponds and reared over an 18-week period. Four commercially extruded diets formulated to contain 35% crude protein and 8% lipids were evaluated. These diets included varying levels of fish meal (9, 6, 3, and 0%) which was replaced by a combination of increasing levels of soybean meal (32.5, 34.9, 37.2 and 39.6% respectively) and corn gluten meal (0.0, 1.7, 3.2, and 4.8% respectively) to replace the protein originating from fish meal. At the conclusion of the experimental period, there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in shrimp production among the test diets. Mean final yield, final weight, feed conversion ratio and survival values ranged from 5363–6548 kg ha− 1, 18.4–20.7 g, 1.38–1.12 and 84.0–94.0%, respectively. Although not significant, as higher levels of plant protein sources were included in the diets, the economic analysis showed a general increase in the partial gross returns of shrimp production. Results from this study demonstrate that fish meal can be completely replaced using alternative vegetable protein sources in practical shrimp feeds without compromising production and economic performance of L. vannamei reared in ponds.
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The use of a co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal with egg supplement was evaluated as a substitute for fish meal in a practical diet formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 8% lipid. The co-extruded product was substituted for menhaden fish meal on an iso-nitrogenous basis and offered to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial weight±standard deviation, 1.13±0.06 g) over a 6-week period. Inclusion levels ranged from 0% (30 g fish meal/100 g diet) to 100% replacement (0 g fish meal/100 g diet). A fifth diet was formulated to contain no fish meal and 1 g krill meal/100 g diet. Furthermore, a commercial shrimp feed was included in the study to allow for a commercial reference. At the conclusion of the growth trial, survival, final weight, percent weight gain and feed efficiency (FE) were not significantly different among treatments. The inclusion of krill meal did not appear to improve attractability or palatability of the diet. Co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal with egg supplement appears suitable as a substitute for fish meal in L. vannamei diets.
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This manuscript reviews the chemical ecology of two of the major aquatic animal models, fish and crustaceans, in the study of chemoreception. By necessity, it is restricted in scope, with most emphasis placed on teleost fish and decapod crustaceans. First, we describe the nature of the chemical world perceived by fish and crustaceans, giving examples of the abilities of these animals to analyze complex natural odors. Fish and crustaceans share the same environments and have evolved some similar chemosensory features: the ability to detect and discern mixtures of small metabolites in highly variable backgrounds and to use this information to identify food, mates, predators, and habitat. Next, we give examples of the molecular nature of some of these natural products, including a description of methodologies used to identify them. Both fish and crustaceans use their olfactory and gustatory systems to detect amino acids, amines, and nucleotides, among many other compounds, while fish olfactory systems also detect mixtures of sex steroids and prostaglandins with high specificity and sensitivity. Third, we discuss the importance of plasticity in chemical sensing by fish and crustaceans. Finally, we conclude with a description of how natural chemical stimuli are processed by chemosensory systems. In both fishes and crustaceans, the olfactory system is especially adept at mixture discrimination, while gustation is well suited to facilitate precise localization and ingestion of food. The behaviors of both fish and crustaceans can be defined by the chemical worlds in which they live and the abilities of their nervous systems to detect and identify specific features in their domains. An understanding of these worlds and the sensory systems that provide the animals with information about them provides insight into the chemical ecology of these species.
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Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-based alternatives are now used or available for industrial aquafeeds, depending on relative prices and consumer acceptance, and the outlook for single-cell organisms to replace fish oil is promising. With appropriate economic and regulatory incentives, the transition toward alternative feedstuffs could accelerate, paving the way for a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it.
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Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 (P < 0.05), while crude lipid content of the whole body fed Diet 5 or 6 was significantly higher than that fed Diet 2 (P < 0.05). Protein digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 (P < 0.05). Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.
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A feeding experiment conducted with juvenile freshwater prawns in which betaine was added as a feeding attractant, resulted in a 17% increase in growth of the group that had chemoattractant augmentation following actual feeding. The chemoattractant was added to the water, in an aqueous concentrated solution of 10−3 M and induced a burst of food searching behavior leading to further consumption.
Article
A simple and practical method for quantification of feeding stimulation of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was developed using feed preference as an index of comparison. Feed preference was defined as the percentage of shrimp observed in each feeding tray. Preliminary trials were undertaken with two commercial feeds (45% protein with 5% squid meal and 40% protein without squid meal). Results indicated the following criteria were suitable for use as methodology for evaluating feeding stimulation in 5-m diameter static flow tanks: shrimp density (2.5 shrimp/m2); observational period (1 or 2 h post-addition of feed to trays), feed rate (2%), and between-trial feed rate (2%). A further investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of protein level and source on feed preference using a basal diet consisting of wheat flour, casein, carboxymethyl cellulose binder, and limestone, with or without krill meal as a feeding stimulant. A significant difference was shown in feeding preference for the 16% protein/4% krill meal vs. one without krill meal; however, this relationship was not shown in 45% protein feed comparisons. A second trial comparing 0, 16,30, and 45 % protein/casein-based feeds showed similar results. From these findings, it was postulated that casein, itself, also serves as a feeding stimulant at high dietary inclusion levels. A third trial comparing 16% protein/casein or wheat gluten-based feeds Indicated a delay of at least 2 h in maximum feeding preference response in feeds in which 4% krill meal was added as a feeding stimulant. It was postulated that chemical stimulants from krill meal were more slowly released in wheat gluten-based feeds. Our methodology appears suitable for evaluation of potential feeding stimulants when incorporated into low-protein casein-based or wheat-gluten-based feeds.
Article
The inclusion in feed formulations of ingredients that act as attractants and feeding incitants or stimulants has been proposed as a means of increasing feed consumption, and hence growth, of farmed shrimp. Squid, crustacean and krill meals, fish and krill hydrolysates and a betaine product (Finnstim) were examined to assess their relative effectiveness in increasing the feed intake of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These presumed feeding effectors were added to a base feed at between 5 and 50 g kg−1. Given a choice between the base feed and one containing one of the test ingredients, P. monodon showed a significantly greater preference for the feeds containing crustacean or krill meal. Four of the presumed feeding effectors were further evaluated in a growth response experiment. There was no significant difference in the amount the shrimp consumed of any of the feeds. However, the growth rate of the shrimp was about 20% faster on the feeds containing crustacean meal or krill meal. Although ingredients such as crustacean meal or krill meal can improve feed intake, in practical feed formulations that contain significant amounts of terrestrial protein but relatively low levels of marine ingredients, there does not appear to be need for additional feeding effectors. However, crustacean meal and krill meal do provide a significant nutritional benefit, as seen by the improved growth rates in this study.
Article
A study was conducted to obtain a measure of the potency of some potential and commercially used feeding attractants for Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Behavioural trials monitoring the feeding response of the shrimp were used to gauge the attractant qualities of the substances. A growth trial recording the feed intake, feed assimilation, growth, food conversion and survival rates of the shrimp was used to assess further the feeding stimulant properties of the substances. Replicate groups of juvenile shrimp were fed semi-purified diets containing 1·5% by weight of a range of potential feeding attractants. In the behavioural trial, diets containing taurine and a yeast extract were found to be significantly preferred to the control and all other diets. However, none of the substances appeared to act as potent feeding stimulants, producing statistically similar feed intake and assimilation rates to the control diet. However, taurine and an amino acid mixture designed to mimic a clam extract promoted the best performance of the attractants tested in terms of growth rate and feeding efficiency. Overall, the behavioural response of the shrimp to the feeding attractants was found to show similarities to the effects of attractant supplementation of feed on subsequent ongrowing performance, but not significantly so.
Article
Litopenaeus vannamei were stocked in 25 clear-water 500-L tanks at 100 shrimp m−2 and in 25 green-water 1000-L tanks at 60 animals m−2. Four diets were formulated to include krill meal at 10, 50 or 110 g kg−1; or krill oil at 25 g kg−1 by replacing fish meal, fish oil, soybean lecithin and cholesterol. Diets had similar levels of crude protein, total energy and essential amino acids. After 72 days, shrimp reared in clear and green water showed no differences in performance among diets. In clear water, shrimp attained 13.1 ± 0.59 g body weight, 1.00 ± 0.06 g week−1 growth, 81.4 ± 7.3% survival, 780 ± 118 g m−2 yield, 16.9 ± 1.8 g shrimp−1 apparent feed intake (AFI), and 2.18 ± 0.29 food conversion ratio (FCR). In green water, shrimp attained 14.3 ± 0.81 g body weight, 1.04 ± 0.09 g week−1 growth, 91.4 ± 5.4% survival, 569 ± 69 g m−2 yield, 20.9 ± 3.2 g shrimp−1 AFI, and 2.22 ± 0.34 FCR. Diets containing krill meal or krill oil were able to fully replace the protein and lipid value of fish meal, fish oil, soybean lecithin and cholesterol at no cost to performance.
Article
A feeding bioassay which uses agar discs was developed for evaluating chemosensory stimuli influencing ingestive behavior in Penaeus vannamei. Agar disc hardness and preventing the shrimp from placing their mouthparts directly onto the stimulus discs were important aspects of the bioassay design. The palatability assay required only small amounts of stimuli, was suitable for rapid screening of a wide variety of compounds, and was independent of factors such as texture or size of feed pellets. The most effective stimulus tested was shrimp-head offal extract, indicating the best use of this material may be as a flavorant rather than as a source of nutrients. Greatest biological activity was in the < 1000 M.W. fractions of the extracts.
Article
Crustaceans utilize water-borne‘chemical signals’to identify and orient toward potential prey. These chemical signals are recognized in spite of the chemical complexity of aquatic environments. Because feeds are a significant expense in all aquaculture operations, the need to maximize feeding rates and reduce wasted feed, thereby lowering production costs, is paramount to economic success. Confusion concerning the function and utility of chemoattractants versus feeding stimulants in aquatic feeds necessitates updated terminology. Simply put, detection does not equal attraction. To accurately describe and predict responses to feeding stimuli, it is necessary first to classify all possible stimulus types and then to categorize behavioural responses to each specific stimulus. The proposed hierarchical behavioural model classifies an animal's response to chemical stimuli into five phases: (1) detection; (2) orientation; (3) locomotion or displacement; (4) initiation of feeding; (5) continuation or termination of feeding. The second step in description of the behavioural model is the association of specific behaviours with these five phases of response. Crustaceans exhibit four major categories of chemotactic behaviour: antennule flicking, which appears to be the most sensitive; probing movements made by the pereiopods that precede locomotion; locomotion by the crustacean, indicating true attraction or repulsion; and movements by the mouthparts that indicate generalized feeding stimulation. Finally, feed and environmental quality have direct effects on the effectiveness of feed attractants/stimulants; food detection and feeding stimulation ultimately determine the commercial value of an aquatic feed.
Article
Development of a pelleted dry feed as an alternative to feeding fresh fishery by-catch is an environmental priority for tropical spiny lobster aquaculture. Earlier studies have shown the lobster's acceptance of pelleted dry feed diminishes rapidly after immersion in water. In this work, we quantified the rate at which dry matter, total protein, soluble protein and individual and total free amino acids were lost from pieces of green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus, a commercially-extruded Penaeus japonicus (kuruma) shrimp feed (KSF) and four laboratory-made, fishmeal-based, pelleted feeds upon immersion for up to 7.5 h. The laboratory-made feeds contained homogenates of either green-lipped mussel, polychaete (Marphysa sanguinea), prawn (Metapenaeus bennettae) or squid (Sepioteuthis spp.). After being immersed in water for 0, 2.5 or 5 h, these same feeds were offered as a paired choice with KSF in two preference feeding studies with juvenile Panulirus ornatus lobsters. The loobster's preference for fresh mussel always exceeded that of KSF, irrespective of immersion time. Regression of the proportional intake of test feeds against the relative leach rate of KSF identified soluble protein, glycine and taurine as the principal leachate components having the highest positive correlations with the lobster's feeding preference.
Article
Continued growth and intensification of aquaculture production depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace fish meal in aquafeeds. This document reviews various plant feedstuffs, which currently are or potentially may be incorporated into aquafeeds to support the sustainable production of various fish species in aquaculture. The plant feedstuffs considered include oilseeds, legumes and cereal grains, which traditionally have been used as protein or energy concentrates as well as novel products developed through various processing technologies. The nutritional composition of these various feedstuffs are considered along with the presence of any bioactive compounds that may positively or negatively affect the target organism. Lipid composition of these feedstuffs is not specifically considered although it is recognized that incorporating lipid supplements in aquafeeds to achieve proper fatty acid profiles to meet the metabolic requirements of fish and maximize human health benefits are important aspects. Specific strategies and techniques to optimize the nutritional composition of plant feedstuffs and limit potentially adverse effects of bioactive compounds are also described. Such information will provide a foundation for developing strategic research plans for increasing the use of plant feedstuffs in aquaculture to reduce dependence of animal feedstuffs and thereby enhance the sustainability of aquaculture.
Article
The feasibility of substituting soybean meal for fishmeal diets for juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti (0.35±0.01 g) was evaluated, and an adequate substitution level was determined. Five diets were evaluated using 46%, 59%, 75%, 88% and 100% substitution levels. Pellet water stability was significantly affected by dietary soybean content (P<0.05). Increased soybean content produced lower pellet stability, ranging from a dry matter loss of 14–22% after a 2-h immersion, and 20–33% after an 8-h immersion. After 52 days, significant differences (P<0.05) were found in shrimp weight, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The values were 0.64–1.06 g, 2.8–7.9 and 0.45–1.21, respectively, for the three measurements. Overall, better results were obtained with diets where soybean meal was substituted for fishmeal up to 75%. The 100% soybean meal diet resulted in poor growth performance of shrimp. Survival rates were acceptable for all treatments (90% or higher) and no significant differences were found in survival between treatments. Regression analysis using the broken-line methodology indicated that 76.5±2% is an optimum soybean substitution level in diets that contained fishmeal and soybean as the major protein sources for grow-out of juvenile white shrimp.
Article
Nine commercial feeding attractants and stimulants for Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated by observation of behavioral responses in animals allotted in one Y-maze aquarium apparatus. In the validation phase, fishmeal–Brazilian origin (FMBO); fishmeal–Peruvian origin (FMPO); blood meal (BM), meat and bone meal (MBM), squid meal (SM), fish oil (FO) and fish solubles (FS) were evaluated. There was also a control without stimulatory raw material. The tested materials were included at 3% in neutral gelatin pellets (wet basis). In each behavioral observation, two different ingredients were offered at the same time in equal quantities, being allotted in the end of each chamber's arm. In Phase II after system validation, the following commercial attractants were tested: 80% crude protein (CP) vegetable dried biomass (VDB80), 68% CP vegetable dried biomass + glutamate + betaine (VDB68), complex of amino acids (alanine, valine, glycine, proline, serine, histidine, glutamic acid, tyrosine and betaine) with enzymatically digested bivalve mollusk (CAA), condensed fish soluble protein (CFSP), squid liver meal (SLM), betaine (Bet), dried fish solubles–low biogenic amines (DFSLB), dried fish solubles–high biogenic amines (DFSHB) and whole squid protein hydrolysate (WSPH). Attractants were used at a 3% level wet basis with neutral gelatin, without any additional ingredient source available. The best four commercial attractants from this phase (CAA, CFSP, SLM and WSPH) were compared under 0.5% and 1.0% levels. In Phase I of the study, a higher percentage of choices were observed for FMPO and FMBO. BM and FO were the least chosen ingredients. In Phase II, the worst results were observed for Bet, DFSHB and, mainly, for VDB80 and VDB68. When two-by-two comparisons were performed, results suggested that CFSP and CAA were the best commercial attractants tested. In the last phase, both CFSP and CAA at 1.0% level were significantly more chosen by shrimp than CFSP (0.5%), SLM (0.5 or 1.0%) or WSPH (0.5 or 1.0%). At both 0.5% and 1.0% levels, shrimp spent a similar amount of time feeding on CFSP and CAA. However, only CAA was statistically better than SLM and WSPH together. Further work is required to better elucidate the chemical drivers of chemostimulation for L. vannamei for each one of the attractants tested.
1.1. In contrast to earlier findings, a crab extract was found to be a more potent attractant of the shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, than a synthetic mixture containing the amino acids and betaine in the extract.2.2. This difference was not attributable to changes in responsiveness induced by feeding state or time of year.3.3. A synthetic mixture with a stimulatory capacity similar to the crab extract was produced by incorporating the following additional extract constituents: purines and purine nucleotides, homarine, trimethylamine oxide and lactic acid.4.4. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate was the most potent single substance in the mixture.5.5. A synergistic effect between components was indicated.
Article
The finfish and crustacean aquaculture sector is still highly dependent upon marine capture fisheries for sourcing key dietary nutrient inputs, including fish meal and fish oil. This dependency is particularly strong within compound aquafeeds for farmed carnivorous finfish species and marine shrimp.Results are presented concerning the responses received from a global survey conducted between December 2006 and October 2007 concerning the use of fish meal and fish oil within compound aquafeeds using a questionnaire sent to over 800 feed manufacturers, farmers, researchers, fishery specialists, and other stakeholders in over 50 countries. On the basis of the responses received, it is estimated that in 2006 the aquaculture sector consumed 3724 thousand tonnes of fish meal (68.2% total global fish meal production in 2006) and 835 thousand tonnes of fish oil (88.5% total reported fish oil production in 2006), or the equivalent of 16.6 million tonnes of small pelagic forage fish (using a wet fish to fish meal processing yield of 22.5% and wet fish to fish oil processing yield of 5%) with an overall fish-in fish-out ratio of 0.70. At a species-group level, calculation of small pelagic forage fish input per unit of farmed fish or crustacean output showed steadily decreasing fish-in fish-out ratios for all cultivated species from 1995 to 2006, with decreases being most dramatic for carnivorous fish species such as salmon (decreasing from 7.5 to 4.9 from 1995 to 2006), trout (decreasing from 6.0 to 3.4), eel (decreasing from 5.2 to 3.5), marine fish (decreasing from 3.0 to 2.2) and to a lesser extent shrimp (decreasing by 1.9 to 1.4 from 1995 to 2006. Net fish producing species in 2006 (with fish-in fish-out ratios below 1), included herbivorous and omnivorous finfish and crustacean species, including non-filter feeding Chinese carp (0.2), milkfish (0.2), tilapia (0.4), catfish (0.5), and freshwater crustaceans (0.6).On the basis of increasing global fish meal and fish oil costs, it is predicted that dietary fish meal and fish oil inclusion levels within compound aquafeeds will decrease in the long term, with fish meal and fish oil usage increasingly being targeted for use as a high value specialty feed ingredient for use within higher value starter, finisher and broodstock feeds, and by so doing extending supply of these much sought after and limited feed ingredient commodities.
Article
Six isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets containing 0, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70% soybean meal as replacement of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of animal protein, which consisted of 53% anchovy fish meal, 32% shrimp head meal and 15% squid meal, were fed to juvenile P. vannamei to satiation six times per day for 56 days. Shrimp fed the three lowest dietary levels of soybean meal (0, 14 and 28%) had similar weight gains of 6.77 ± 0.36, 6.91 ± 0.40 and 6.56 ± 0.23 g, respectively. Weight gains declined significantly (P < 0.05) to 6.15 ± 0.24, 5.12 ± 0.14 and 2.34 ± 0.10 g as the dietary soybean levels increased to 42, 56 and 70%, respectively. Protein and fat gains followed the pattern of weight gains. Survival rates obtained for various treatments ranged from 86.7 to 98.3%. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the survival rates. However, these differences could not be attributed to the dietary levels of soybean meal. Dry matter feed intakes were not significantly different (P > 0.05) for diets containing 0, 14, 28 and 42% soybean meal (10.94 ± 0.43, 11.02 ± 1.02, 10.22 ± 0.35 and 9.79 ± 0.62 g, respectively). Feed intakes decreased (P < 0.05) to 8.43 ± 0.34 and 6.15 ± 0.45 g for the 56 and 70% soybean diets. Pellet water stability was inversely related to level of dietary soybean meal. Feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein utilization were similar for diets having 0 to 56% soybean meal. The moisture content was highest (P < 0.05) for shrimp fed the 70% soybean diet; moisture content of shrimp fed other diets was essentially the same. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in whole body composition of lipid, ash, calcium or potassium of shrimp on the various diets. Body phosphorus percentage decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when soybean meal levels exceeded 42%. The 70% soybean meal diet was utilized very poorly by the shrimp.
Laboratory observations of substrate probing by the chelate walking legs (chelipeds), antennular flicking rate and maxilliped activity of the prawn Penaeus monodon were used to evaluate various chemicals at seven different concentrations between 10−1M and 10−7M as feeding stimulants. Exposure to amino acids (alanine, arginine, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, serine and taurine) and betaine resulted in higher rates of substrate probing, antennular flicking and maxilliped activity in P. monodon at higher pipette concentrations (>10−2M) than at lower concentrations. Least response occurred in prawns which were exposed to nucleotide, adenosine 5′-monophosphate. Glutamine, betaine and taurine were the most effective single compounds tested, and stimulated significantly higher activities (p < 0.05) in prawns at concentrations above 10−6M than did controls (seawater only).An equimolar mixture of amino acids and betaine was also found to be an effective stimulant to P. monodon at concentrations above 10−6M and continued to elicit search responses in prawns at concentrations lower than that of any of the single chemicals. Such a strong response is consistent with synergistic interactions of the mixtures. All four molt stages tested (C, D0, D1, D2) were equally responsive to food attractants.
Article
The use of poultry by-product meal-pet food grade (PBM-PFG, 66% crude protein) as a substitute for a fish meal blend (FM, a 50/50 mix of American menhaden meal and Mexican sardine meal, 65% average crude protein), in a control diet containing 35% crude protein, was evaluated in Pacific white shrimp. The replacement levels (w/w) were: 35, 50, 65 and 80%, with 13.7, 19.6, 25.5 and 31.4% PBM-PFG inclusion in the test diets, respectively. Two commercial feeds from Mexico, containing 30 and 35% protein, were used as additional controls. The diets were fed to shrimp (450 mg initial weight) in a 4 week feeding trial in order to evaluate growth, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR), total biomass, survival, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nitrogen retention efficiency (NRE). In addition, apparent protein, dry matter and energy digestibility coefficients (PDC, DMDC, EDC) of all diets, as well as those of the ingredients, FM and PBM, were determined using the in vivo chromic oxide method and shrimp of 1.6 to 2 g initial weight. Digestibility coefficients were similar and greater than 80% for all diets. PDC, DMDC and EDC were high and similar for FM and PBM-PFG. Survival along the growth trial, FCR, PER and NRE were not affected by any of the test diets, but there was a slight linear negative effect of replacement level on consumption and growth, which seemed related to energy over formulation rather than a palatability problem. The commercial control diets, which did not contain PBM-PFG, gave results for growth that were equal to or lower than those of the test diets. Results of this experiment showed that PBM-PFG can adequately replace w/w up to 80% of FM in commercial diets for the white shrimp L. vannamei.
Chemoattraction and feeding stimulation The World Aquaculture Society
  • P G Lee
  • S P Meyers
Lee, P.G., Meyers, S.P., 1997. Chemoattraction and feeding stimulation. In: D'Abramo, L.R., Conklin, D.E., Akiyama, D.M. (Eds.), Crustacean NutritionAdvances in World Aquaculture vol. 6. Baton Rouge, USA, The World Aquaculture Society, pp. 292–352.
Attractants basics. Compounds enhance identification, consumption of aquafeed. Global Aquaculture Advocate
  • S Y Yacoob
  • A V Suresh
Yacoob, S.Y., Suresh, A.V., 2003. Attractants basics. Compounds enhance identification, consumption of aquafeed. Global Aquaculture Advocate April, pp. 46-47.
Chemoattraction of low-molecular-weight compounds in shrimp feeds
  • S J Walker
  • A L Lawrence
  • J M Fox
Walker, S.J., Lawrence, A.L., Fox, J.M., 2005. Chemoattraction of low-molecular-weight compounds in shrimp feeds. Global Aquaculture Advocate February, pp. 81-82.