PosterPDF Available

Overregularization as competition

Authors:

Abstract

Morphological overregularization (OR) in child language gives rise to the coexistence of two different forms at some given period of language development. The change from irregular to regularized, and from regularized back to irregular forms is known as U-shaped development curb (Marcus et al. 1992). The phenomenon is very well known but there is still a relative lack of quantitative and cross-linguistic data in support of this, and some questions remain about how different forms are distributed across verbs and across children, what the proportion of them is found at different periods of language development and how children finally arrive to the “correct” idiosyncratic usage. We review this problem by looking at data from an elicitation task with 76 Russian-speaking children aged 3 to 4 years (M=3;4, SD=3.6) on present verb form productions. More data are needed to draw a clearer overall picture, but the evidence from Russian suggests that Blocking does not work in the same way in children and adults. More precisely, there is a period of coexistence of specific irregular and overregularized forms in children. With time overregularized forms are driven out by specific irregular forms, but the mechanisms that help children to recover from OR errors (e.g., direct or indirect negative evidence, lexicalization process) remain to be specified.
!"#$$#%&'($)*(+,-.(/.0,12#++,-!
3'#-(.4&')-)056787.95(#:$(.;,<'#6787.=(-)#'.>(',)/6787?.
6@-)"#$/)AB.:#.C,-A$B('7.8D#-A$#.E,$.;#/#($05.,-.F$()-7.G(-%&(%#.(-:.C&/)0.HD;FGCI7.
.?J-/+A&A.:#/.K0)#-0#/.D,%-)+"#/.HJKD7.@LMCI!
!
"#$%&#'#()*+'!,-.!)/!*&)'0!.%11*&!*$1+21!2&1!*#13).21/*1!#4!25#!0)61$1/2!4#$7.!
+2!.#71!()81/!%1$)#0!#4!'+/(9+(1!0181'#%71/2:!
!
N5#.@O/5(2#:.:#"#',21#-A.0&$"#.;"+$*9.!12!+':!<==>?!$1%$1.1/2.!+!*&+/(1!
4$#7!)$$1(9'+$!2#!$1(9'+$)@10A!+/0!B+*C!2#!)$$1(9'+$!4#$7.A!5&)*&!).!+$(910!2#!
B1! 2&1! $1.9'2! #4! +! 4+)'9$1! #4! D'#*C)/(! 2&+2! %$181/2.! +/! )$$1(9'+$! 4#$7! 4$#7!
4+'')/(!)/2#!2&1!$1(9'+$!%+E1$/:!F.!+!$1.9'2A!2&1!(1/1$+'!$9'1!#81$$)01.!)$$1(9'+$!
4#$7!9.1! ;):1:A! *+9.)/(! ,-?:! G#$! )/.2+/*1A! H/(').&! *&)'0$1/! 7+I! J$.2! 9.1! 2&1!
%+.2!)$$1(9'+$!4#$7!brokeA!2&1/!#81$$1(9'+$)@1!BI!+%%'I)/(!2&1!%$#09*K81!%+.2!
21/.1! Led'.9M3! braked!NB$1OCP2QA! +/0! 2&1/! $129$/! 2#! broke!NB$#5CQ! 5&1/!
D'#*C)/(!2+C1.!161*2!;"+$*9.!12!+':!<==>?:!
!
J-. ;&//)(-A! 7#$%&#'#()*+'! ,-! 1$$#$.! #R1/! +$).1! 4$#7! +%%'I)/(! 2&1! .#P*+''10!
PQO0,$$#'(+,-R.7#01'!;S1I2')/!>TT=?A!5&)*&!&+.!B11/!+$(910!2#!B1!2&1!014+9'2!
%+E1$/! ;S&1$/)(#8.C+I+!U!V#$!>TTT?:!W&1!PQO0,$$#'(+,-R. 7#01'! *#/.).2.! )/!
)/.1$K/(!+!I#0!XOX!)/!2&1!)/21$8#*+')*!%#.)K#/!+2!2&1!.217X)/Y1*K#/!B#9/0+$I!
#4!2&1!7#.2!%$#09*K81!-9..)+/!81$B!*'+..!;1:(:!chita-t!Xchita-j-u'Z2#!$1+0[?:!
. .K&ST(+,-.UovaOVOuO."#$W/X...
' ' 'ris-ova-t’!Z2#!0$+5[!P\!ris-u-j-u'''',-!]!^risova-j-u!
. .D,-/,-(-A.('A#$-(+,-."#$W/X.
' ' 'plaka-t’'Z2#!*$I[!P\!!plach-u''''',-!]!^plaka-j-u'
&
M. 2,//)W'#. W',0Y)-%. 1#05(-)/1. !! 0)$1*2! /1(+K81! 18)01/*1! ;#$! /1(+K81!
4110B+*C?A! ):1:A! +09'2! $1.%#/.1! 2#! 1$$#$.! 2&+2! %$#8)01.! )/4#$7+K#/! +B#92!
9/($+77+K*+')2I!#4!+!*&)'0!9E1$+/*1:!!
F**#$0)/(!2#!.#71!$1.1+$*&1$.A!2&1$1!).!/#!161*2!#4!/1(+K81!18)01/*1!#/!
1$$#$!*#$$1*K#/.! B1*+9.1!#4! )2[.! )/+**1..)B)')2I!2#! *&)'0$1/!;_)/C1$! <=`=a!
"+$*9.!<==bA!"+$*9.!12!+':!<==>?:!
,2&1$!.290)1.!.&#5!2&+2!*&)'0$1/!&+81!+**1..!2#!0)$1*2!/1(+K81!18)01/*1!
+/0! 7+C1! 9.1! #4! )2A! ):1:A! /1(+K81! %+$1/2+'! 4110B+*C! &1'%.! *#$$1*2! /#/P
2+$(12!%$#09*K#/.!)/!*&)'0!.%11*&!;1:(:A!c+32#/!12!+':!<==`a!S&#9)/+$0!U!
S'+$C!>TTb?:!!
"HWd,e,f,Vg!
-HchfWc!
eicShcci,j!
ijW-,ehSWi,j!
FSkj,lfHeVH"HjWc!
<m2&!i/21$/+K#/+'!"#$%&#'#(I!"11K/(A!G1B$9+$I!<`P><A!>T<nA!o)1//+!
Par)cipants&X&mn!7#/#')/(9+'!-9..)+/!.%1+C)/(!*&)'0$1/!+(10!4$#7!b!2#!p!I1+$.!
;M!q!bapA'SD'q!b:n?!0)8)010!)/2#!($#9%.!+**#$0)/(!2#!4110B+*C!2I%1!;<?!
S#$$1*K#/A!;>?!-1%1KK#/A!;b?!S'+$)J*+K#/!r91.K#/A!;p?!j#!4110B+*C!&
W&1!0+2+!4$#7!ns!%+$K*)%+/2.!51$1!+/+'I@10!
S)muli&X&<>&-9..)+/!81$B.!;n!.9M3+K#/!t!n!*#/.#/+/2!+'21$/+K#/?!2&+2!
9/01$(#!#81$$1(9'+$)@+K#/!;,-?!)/!I#0!!
Method]!1')*)2+K#/!2+.C!#/!%$1.1/2!81$B!4#$7!%$#09*K#/!
!
Procedure&X!p!.1..)#/.!;sP<T!7)/:?!5)2&!>P511C!)/21$8+'!B12511/!.1..)#/.!<A!>A!
bA!+/0!#4!p!511C.!B12511/!.1..)#/.!b!12!p!
!
-1.9'2.! .&#5! 2&+2! .9BP$1(9'+$! +/0! #81$$1(9'+$)@10!
4#$7.! +$1! *#13).21/2! )/! 2&1! *&)'0! .%11*&! 4$#7! +(1!
4$#7!b!2#!p:!!
j#/P2+$(12! 4#$7.! ;B14#$1! 4110B+*C?! *#7%$).1! bbu!
#4!+''!$1.%#/.1.:!<su!#4!+''!%$#09*K#/.!;):1:A!pmu!#4!
+''!/#/P2+$(12!$1.%#/.1.?!+$1!,-.!)/!I#0!XOX:!
,9$! $1.9'2.! +$1! /#2! 1/K$1'I! *#/.).21/2! 5)2&! %$18)#9.! .290I! ;V#$! +/0! S&1$/)(#8.C+I+! >TTb?]! 51!
9/*#81$10!'1..!#81$$1(9'+$)@10!4#$7.!)/!*&)'0!.%11*&!2&+/!2&1I!0)0!;<su!#4!$1.%#/.1.!)/!B#2&!81$B!
($#9%.! ;.9M3+K#/! +/0! *#/.#/+/2! +'21$/+K#/?! 8.:! b=Ab! u! #4! $1.%#/.1.! 4#$! *#/.#/+/2! +'21$/+K#/!
81$B!.217.!+/0!>>:n!u!4#$!.9M3+K#/!L#8+P!81$B!.217.?:!!
W&1!18)01/*1! 4$#7!-9..)+/! .&#5.!2&+2! 2&1$1!).! +!%1$)#0! #4!*#13).21/*1! #4!.%1*)J*! .9BP$1(9'+$!+/0!
#81$$1(9'+$)@10!4#$7.!)/!*&)'0!.%11*&A!5&)*&!.9((1.2.!2&+2!D'#*C)/(!0#1.!/#2!5#$C!)/!2&1!.+71!5+I!
)/!*&)'0$1/!+/0!+09'2.:!
l)2&!K71A!,-!4#$7.!+$1!0$)81/!#92!BI!.%1*)J*!.9BP$1(9'+$!4#$7.:!!
e)$1*2!/1(+K81!18)01/*1!;#$!/1(+K81!4110B+*C?!0#1.!/#2!.117!2#!B'#*C!#81$$1(9'+$)@+K#/!1$$#$.!)/!
*&)'0$1/:!!
S1I2')/A! c21''+! j:! >TT=:! Ocherki' po' slovoobrazovaniju' i' formoobrazovaniju' v' detskoj' rechi:! "#.C8+]! v/+C! ;c290)+!
_&)'#'#()*+?:!
S&#9)/+$0A!")*&1'1!":!U!H81!o:!S'+$C:!>TTb:!F09'2!$14#$79'+K#/.!#4!*&)'0!1$$#$.!+.!/1(+K81!18)01/*1:!Journal'of'Child'
LanguageA!30A!nbmPnn=:!
S&1$/)(#8.C+I+A! W+2I+/+! U! k)$+!V#$:! >TTT:! W&1! *#7%'13)2I! #4! %+$+0)(7! +/0! )/%92! 4$1r91/*)1.! )/! /+K81! +/0! .1*#/0!
'+/(9+(1! 81$B+'! %$#*1..)/(]! 18)01/*1! 4$#7! -9..)+/:! i/! H:! l+/01! +/0! W:! S&1$/)(#8.C+I+! ;10.:?! Language' and'
Language' 'Behavior!;%:!>TPbm?A!c2P_121$.B9$(:!
V#$A! k)$+! U! W+2I+/+! S&1$/)(#8.C+I+:! >TTb:! V1/1$+K#/! #4! *#7%'13! 81$B+'! 7#$%&#'#(I! )/! J$.2! +/0! .1*#/0! '+/(9+(1!
+*r9).)K#/]!18)01/*1!4$#7!-9..)+/:!Proceedings'of'the'19th'Scandinavian'Conference'of'LinguisGcs'31';n?A!`<=Pbb:!
"+$*9.A!V+$I!G:!<==b:!j1(+K81!18)01/*1!)/!'+/(9+(1!+*r9).)K#/:!CogniGon,'46A!sbP`s:!
"+$*9.A! V+$I! G:A! c2181/! _)/C1$A! ")*&+1'! h''7+/A! ")*&1''1! d#''+/01$A! W:! w#&/! -#.1/A! G1)! x9!U!d+$+'0! S'+&.1/:! <==>:!
,81$$1(9'+$)@+K#/! )/! '+/(9+(1! +*r9).)K#/:! Monographs' of' the' Society' for' Research' in' Child' Development' 57' ;pA!
.1$)+'!j#:!>>`?:!
_)/C1$A!c2181/:!<=`=:!Learnability'and'cogniGon:'the'acquisiGon'of'argument'structure:!S+7B$)0(1A!"F!]!"iW!_$1..:!
c+32#/A! "+E&15A! D1'+! k9'*.+$A! V$11$! "+$.&+''! U! "+/011%! -9%$+:! <==`:! f#/(1$P21$7! 161*2.! #4! *#$$1*K81! )/%92! ]! +/!
13%1$)71/2+'!+%%$#+*&:!Journal'of'Child'Language,'25A!mT<Pm><:!!
'!
c#*)+'!c*)1/*1.!+/0!d97+/)K1.!-1.1+$*&!S#9/*)'!;ccd-S?!4#$!2&1!w#.1%&PF$7+/0!D#7B+$0)1$!SVc!e#*2#$+'!c*&#'+$.&)%!
+/0!4#$!2&1!")*&+1'!c7)2&!G#$1)(/!c290I!c9%%'171/2.!2#!2&1!J$.2!+92&#$!!
i/.K2921!4#$!"#01$/!f)/(9).K*!-1.1+$*&!+2!"#.*#5!c2+21!_10+(#()*+'!h/)81$.)2I!;&E%]XX7((9P.&:$9X)7'$X#BP)/.K2921?!
4#$!*#''+B#$+K#/!+/0!&1'%!)/!*#''1*K/(!0+2+!
W&+/C!I#9!2#!f+9$1/!G$#7#/2!+/0!")*&+1'!e#5!4#$!0).*9..)#/.!+/0!&1'%!)/!+/+'I.)/(!0+2+!
Figure&2:!,81$+''!%+$K*)%+/2!8+$)+B)')2I!)/!B1&+8)#9$:!
-HcHF-Sd!yhHcWi,jc!
.
3T(12'#.,E.D,$$#0+,-.
M:&'A#.]!Chto'delaet'etot'mal’chik?'
''''''''''''''l&+2!!!0#1.!!!!!2&).!!!B#Iz[!
3-E(-A.]!On'risovaet.'
''''''''''''''d1!0$+5.[:.
M:&'A#.:'Ne'risovaet,'a'risuet.'Nado'govoritj'
risuet.!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!Zj#2!^drawsA!B92!0$+5)/(:!g#9!
!&+81!2#!.+I!Z0$+5)/(:!
!
Figure&4.&"1+/!2+$(12!%$#09*K#/.!4#$!1+*&!%+$K*)%+/2!
BI!W)71!+/0!G110B+*C!2I%1!;n'='ns?:!
!
Figure&1.'_1$*1/2+(1!#4!/#/P2+$(12!
%$#09*K#/.!;bbu!#4!2#2+'?!BI!$1.%#/.1!2I%1!
4#$!2&1!J$.2!.1..)#/:!
l&+2! ).! 2&1! %$#%#$K#/! #4! #81$$1(9'+$)@10! 8.:! 2+$(12! %$#09*K#/.! )/! -9..)+/!
*&)'0!.%11*&!4#$!2&1!+(1!4$#7!b!2#!p!I1+$.!z!
e#1.!0)$1*2!/1(+K81!18)01/*1!!B'#*C!*&)'0$1/!#81$$1(9'+$)@+K#/!1$$#$.z!
W&1$1! ).! ($1+2! 8+$)+B)')2I! +*$#..! %+$K*)%+/2.! +/0!
)217.:! G#$! )/.2+/*1A! .#71! *&)'0$1/! 0#! /#2!
#81$$1(9'+$)@1!.9BP$1(9'+$!4#$7.!+2!+'':!
-HGH-HjSHc!
;3K@GNK.6X.E,$.A5#.Z$/A./#//),-.HN&=&[\I.
!
T!
<T!
>T!
bT!
pT!
sT!
nT!
i7%$#8171/2!e121$)#$+K#/! {V##0{!
*#/.).21/*I!
{D+0{!
*#/.).21/*I!
i/*#/.).21/*I!
;3K@GNK.8X.E,$.(''./#//),-/.Hn&].\^I.
T!
<T!
>T!
bT!
pT!
sT!
nT!
o!<! o!>! o!b! o!p! o!s! o!n! o!m! o!`! o!=! o!<T! o!<<! o<>!
i7%$#8171/2! e121$)#$+K#/! {V##0{!*#/.).21/*I!
{D+0{!*#/.).21/*I! i/*#/.).21/*I!
pmu!
<su!
>pu!
<pu!
,81$$1(9'+$).+K#/! _+.2! j#/P%$#09*K#/! ,2&1$!
G$#7!.1..)#/!<!2#!.1..)#/!p!+/!
)/*$1+.1!)/!2+$(12!4#$7!
%$#09*K#/.!!).!#B.1$810!)/!+''!
($#9%.!#4!%+$K*)%+/2.!;181/!
5)2&#92!4110B+*C?:!!!
Figure&3.&o+$)+B)')2I!+*$#..!81$B.!BI!*#/.).21/*I!2I%1:!!
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the processing of Russian verbal morphology in adult native speakers and American learners of Russian. It explores the role of type frequency, the complexity of paradigm, and morphological cues in Russian, a language with numerous verb classes and developed conjugational paradigms. Russian lacks the sharp distinction between regular and irregular verbs found in English, and accordingly, the study introduces the parameter of the complexity of paradigm to capture the gradual nature of regularity in a language with complex verbal morphology. The data were collected from 27 adult native Russian speakers and 15 American learners of Russian in two matched experiments. In both experiments, the subjects were asked to generate non-past-tense forms of the verb stimuli presented in the past tense. In 1 The authors extend their gratitude to Tatiana Kliorina and Natalia Sliusar for help with data collection and analysis. Acknowledgments.
Article
Full-text available
Parents frequently check up on what their children mean. They often do this by reformulating with a side sequence or an embedded correction what they think their children said. These reformulations effectively provide children with the conventional form for that meaning. Since the child's utterance and the adult reformulation differ while the intended meanings are the same, children infer that adults are offering a correction. In this way, reformulations identify the locus of any error, and hence the error itself. Analyses of longitudinal data from five children between 2;0 and 4;0 (three acquiring English and two acquiring French) show that (a) adults reformulate their children's erroneous utterances and do so significantly more often than they replay or repeat error-free utterances; (b) their rates of reformulation are similar across error-types (phonological, morphological, lexical, and syntactic) in both languages; (c) they reformulate significantly more often to younger children, who make more errors. Evidence that children attend to reformulations comes from four measures: (a) their explicit repeats of corrected elements in their next turn; (b) their acknowledgements (yeah or uh-huh) as a preface to their next turn; (c) repeats of any new information included in the reformulation; and (d) their explicit rejections of reformulations where the adult has misunderstood. Adult reformulations, then, offer children an important source of information about how to correct errors in the course of acquisition.
Ocherki po slovoobrazovaniju i formoobrazovaniju v detskoj rechi. Moskva: Znak (Studia Philologica)
  • Stella N Ceytlin
Ceytlin, Stella N. 2009. Ocherki po slovoobrazovaniju i formoobrazovaniju v detskoj rechi. Moskva: Znak (Studia Philologica).
NegaKve evidence in language acquisiKon
  • Gary F Marcus
Marcus, Gary F. 1993. NegaKve evidence in language acquisiKon. CogniGon, 46, 53--85.
Fei Xu & Harald Clahsen. 1992. OverregularizaKon in language acquisiKon
  • Gary F Marcus
  • Steven Pinker
  • Michael Ullman
  • Michelle Hollander
  • T John Rosen
Marcus, Gary F., Steven Pinker, Michael Ullman, Michelle Hollander, T. John Rosen, Fei Xu & Harald Clahsen. 1992. OverregularizaKon in language acquisiKon. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 57 (4, serial No. 228).