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Gender instability in Tinospora cordifolia - An immunomodulator

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... There are reports of sex switching in Menispermaceae such as Asian Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, where complete switching in a plant from staminate to hermaphrodite and back to staminate flowers have been observed (Geetha et al. 2007). Only plants with staminate flowers exhibit this labile sex expression, while plants with pistillate flowers show consistency in their expression (Geetha et al. 2007, Malpotra et al. 2009). ...
... Miers, where complete switching in a plant from staminate to hermaphrodite and back to staminate flowers have been observed (Geetha et al. 2007). Only plants with staminate flowers exhibit this labile sex expression, while plants with pistillate flowers show consistency in their expression (Geetha et al. 2007, Malpotra et al. 2009). The report of monoecy in the American species Disciphania spadicea Barneby is based on observations of a single collection from Jalisco (Mexico) (Carrillo-Reyes et al. 2013) which had both staminate and pistillate inflorescences on the same plant. ...
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Citation: Ortiz RdC, MH Nee (2014) A new species of Cissampelos (Menispermaceae) from Bolivia and Paraguay. Abstract The new species Cissampelos arenicola M. Nee & R. Ortiz, from the Bolivian and Paraguayan Chaco is described, its affinities are discussed, and its preliminary conservation status is evaluated. The species is at present known from 13 collections from sand dunes or dry forests. Cissampelos arenicola is distinguished from all other American species in the genus by its ovate-to subreniform-trilobed leaves, 8-locular synan-dria, and relatively large, and scarcely ornamented endocarps. The most common perianth condition in the pistillate flowers of Cissampelos is one sepal and one antesepalous petal, and while these may vary in number, they are always found adaxial to the carpel, and although the southern African taxon called Cissampelos capensis, whose generic position is uncertain, superficially resembles Cissampelos arenicola, its sepals and petals are consistently lateral to the carpel and not adaxial.
... In India, the species is known as Amrita (denotes the rejuvenating power of the species), Guduchi or Giloe. The species is dioecious, however, appearance of female phase in staminate flowers was also reported (Geetha et al. 2007). Mature stem is mainly used for the medicinal purposes. ...
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Tinospora cordifolia is an important medicinal plant species known for therapeutic action of starch along with other medicinal ingredients. The starch prepared from the aqueous extract of fresh stems is used in the Indian Systems of Medicines. The plant extract prepared from T. cordifolia is a promising source for the treatment of COVID-19. This investigation explores for the first time, the morphological details of the starch granules and its accumulation pattern along with its variability among the germplasm of T. cordifolia collected from different parts of India. Starch content was 39.80% on dry weight basis and moisture content was about 28.21%. Starch granule recovery based on stem dry weight and starch content ranged from 14.70 to 20.28% and 52.02 to 71.76%, respectively in different starch settling methods. Starch accumulation pattern in the stem was also studied in the species. Even though wide variability in starch granule shapes was observed among the germplasm, majority of the genotypes had starch granules of round or oval shape. Similarly, starch granule size also varied greatly (38.32-88.03 µm) within and among the genotypes. Significantly small sized starch granules (p = 0.05) were present in the genotype, IC 283650 and biggest (p = 0.05) starch granules were present in the genotype, IC 310610. The information generated in the present study will have application in starch industry for the inclusion of T. cordifolia as an alternative source of starch in addition to its use in Traditional Systems of Medicine. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42535-021-00286-y.
... In western Himalaya, India, high frequencies of female trees occurred in mast seeding year in C. deodara forests at four different locations (Sharma and Bhondge 2016). Subdioecious sexual-system is assumed to be the advancement towards the unisexuality, where a portion of the population has reached to a stable sex expression (Geetha et al. 2006;Ehlers and Bataillon 2007). ...
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Background The expression of gender in gymnosperms is challenging because the extent of variability in gender segregations in tree crowns and selection pressure of nature can modify the gender through time. Methods An in-depth investigation on spatial segregation of genders in tree crowns and sex expression of a total of 500 trees in five different natural populations of Cedrus deodara was carried out and verified the occurrence of subdioecious (co-existence of male, female, and monoecious) genders in C. deodara. Results Five different sexual morphs were apparent among the 500 selected individuals as (1) pure male (M): bearing only male strobili in the whole crown with 22.2%; (2) pure female (F): bearing only female strobili in the whole crown with 12.4%; (3) mixed-monoecious (MM): bearing both male and female strobili with 13.6%; (4) predominantly female (PF) with 25.6%; and (5) predominantly male (PM) with 26.2%. The occurrence of multiple sexual morphs resulted from the complex selection pressure, which increased the stability of the populations. The segregation of genders in crown layers deemed to increase the fitness that may be a mechanism for accelerating outcrossing. The results of the study suggest that the subdioecious gender expression in C. deodara is evolved through the monoecy–paradioecy pathway. The production of male strobili revealed non-significant effect of tree sizes whereas a significant effect was observed for the production of female strobili. Our study established that the total pollen and seed outputs in C. deodara changed frequently according to gender expression. Conclusions The size of the tree, resource availability, sex allocation, plant architecture, gender segregation in crowns, and habitat conditions are the prominent causes for gender plasticity.
... Polyphenolic compounds are anticipated to possess antiallergic action. The major pharmacological actions present in the ingredients of Panchashirishadi Agad such as antiallergic, [7] anti-inflammatory, [8] antioxidant, [9] analgesic, [10] cardioprotective, [11] immunomodulatory activity can suggest its probable mode of action and its preventive and curative aspect on Kita Visha. ...
... Habit: large, deciduous, extensively spreading, climbing shrub with several elongated twinning branches [7]. (Fig.1) Distribution: Plant is distributed throughout the tropical region of India up to 800-1200 m above sea level, extending from Himalayas down to the southern part of peninsular India [8]. Stem: fibrous and the transverse section exhibits wedge shaped wood bundles, containing largea yellowish wood with radially arranged wedge shaped wood bundles, containing largevessels, separated by narrow medullary rays [9]. ...
... Among dioecious species sex ratios deviate from the mean, and species with a male bias are associated with long-lived growth forms (e.g., trees), biotic seed dispersal and fleshy fruits, whereas female bias is associated with herbaceous species, and abiotic pollen dispersal (Field et al., 2013). Plasticity in sex expression has also been reported for a number of species (Borges et al., 1997;Geetha et al., 2007;Mcarthur, 1977;Renner, 2014). In this study, out of 40 dioecious plants used in the ethnobotanical data collection, 31 plants belong to genera or families that are either strictly or completely dioecious (cf. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: More than 15,000 angiosperm species are dioecious, i.e., having distinct male and female individual plants. The allocation of resources between male and female plants is different, and also variation in secondary metabolites and sex-biased herbivory is reported among dioecious plants. However, little is known about the ethnobotany of dioecious species and whether preferences exist for a specific gender, e.g., in food, medicine or timber. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was: 1) to study whether Indian folk healers have preference for plant genders, and to document their knowledge and use of dioecious species; 2) to understand the concept of plant gender in Indian systems of medicine and folk medicine, and whether Ayurvedic literature includes any references to gender preference. Materials and methods: Lists of dioecious plants used in Indian systems of medicine and folk medicine were compiled. Ethnobotanical data was collected on perceptions and awareness of dioecious plants, and preferences of use of specific genders of dioecious species using semi-structured interviews with folk healers in Tamil Nadu, India. In addition, twenty Ayurvedic doctors were interviewed to gain insight into the concept of plant gender in Ayurveda. Results: Indian systems of medicine contain 5-7% dioecious species, and this estimate is congruent the number of dioecious species in flowering plants in general. Informants recognized the phenomenon of dioecy in 31 out of 40 species, and reported gender preferences for 13 species with respect to uses as timber, food and medicine. Among informants different plant traits such as plant size, fruit size, and visibility of fruits determines the perception of a plant being a male or female. Ayurvedic classical literature provides no straightforward evidence on gender preferences in preparation of medicines or treatment illness, however it contains details about reproductive morphology and sexual differentiation of plants. Conclusions: A knowledge gap exists in ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological literature on traditional knowledge of dioecious plants. From this explorative study it is evident that people have traditional knowledge on plant gender and preferential usages towards one gender. Based on this, we propose that researchers conducting ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies should consider documenting traditional knowledge on sexual systems of plants, and test the existence of gender specific usages in their conceptual framework and hypothesis testing. Incorporating such concepts could provide new dimensions of scientific knowledge with potential implications to conservation biology, chemical ecology, ethnoecology and drug discovery.
... The female flowers are usually less in number in an inflorescence in comparison to male inflorescence. Appearance of female phase in staminate flowers was also reported from the species (Geetha et al., 2007). Fruit is drupe which is ovoid, glossy, succulent, red and pea sized (Anonymous 1976;Kirtikar & Basu 1975). ...
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Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe, ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found that wide variability of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is concluded that seed characters can be used for the characterization of accessions in T. cordifolia germplasm and these characters can be used in DUS descriptors of the species
... Gender based differences in biological activities were also reported in Piper betle a Pan Asiatic plant (Tripathi et al., 2006). T. cordifolia is a dioecious medicinal plant which bears distinct male and female flowers on different plants (Geetha et al., 2007). Though this plant has been extensively exploited for various biological activities, comprehensive information on major phytoconstituents with respect to gender have remained unexplored. ...
Article
Introduction: The stem of dioecious Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae) is a commonly used traditional Ayurvedic medicine in India having several therapeutic properties. Objective: To develop and validate LC-MS methods for the identification and simultaneous quantitation of various secondary metabolites and to study metabolomic variations in the stem of male and female plants. Methods: Ethanolic extract of stems were analysed by HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS for rapid screening of bioactive phytochemicals. High resolution MS and MS/MS in positive ESI mode were used for structural investigation of secondary metabolites. An UPLC/ESI-QqQLIT -MS/MS method in MRM mode was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of five bioactive alkaloids. Results: Identification and characterisation of 36 metabolites including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and phytoecdysteroids were performed using LC-MS and MS/MS techniques. The bioactive alkaloids such as jatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, isocorydine, palmatine and tetrahydropalmatine were successfully quantified in male and female plants. The mean abundances of magnoflorine jatrorrhizine, and oblongine were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in male plants while mean abundances of tetrahydropalmatine, norcoclaurine, and reticuline were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in female plants. Conclusions: Phytochemicals in the stem of male and female Tinospora cordifolia showed significant qualitative and quantitative variations. LC-MS and MS/MS methods can be used to differentiate between male and female plants based on their chemical profiles and quantities of the marker bioactive alkaloids. This chemical composition difference was also evident during vegetative stage when there were no male and female flowers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... It is widely distributed in India, extending from the Himalayas down to the southern part of peninsular India. [2] It is categorized as "Rasayana" [3] and used for its anti-inflammatory, [4,5] immunomodulatory, [6] anti-allergic, [7] anti-diabetic, [8] properties etc. The whole plant is used medicinally; however, the stem is approved for use in medicine as listed by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. ...
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Background: Guduchi Ghana is one of the unique Ayuvedic classical preparation which is prepared from aqueous of extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem. It is one of the frequently used drugs to treat the Madhumeha, Pandu, Kamala, Amlapitta, Grahani, Kustha, Jirna Jwara and Viswamjwara, Trishna, Shool, Yakritavikara, etc. Looking to these indications, in market most of the Pharma industries prepared Guduchi Ghana by applying the various extraction process. Aim: To evaluate comparative anti-inflammatory activity of classically prepared and market sample of Guduchi Ghana. Materials and Methods: Both samples were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Animals were divided in three groups, having six animals in each. Group A received test drug, Group B received market sample at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally, while Group C (control group) received tap water. Results: Reduction in edema was observed in Group A and B at 3 h interval by 33.06% and 11.71% respectively. Group A showed significant effects (P < 0.05) in comparison to control group. Conclusion: These experimental results have shown anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana.
... Based on the limited number of collections, and on the fact that only a portion of a branch is represented in each single herbarium sheet, monoecy or subdioecy in Disciphania, might go unnoticed by collectors, and might thus be more common than expected. Some cases of instability of sex systems in Menispermaceae have been reported for Parabaena denudata, Tiliacora acuminata, and Tinospora cordifolia (Kessler, 1993;Geetha et al., 2007;Malpotra et al., 2009), but in all instances bisexual flowers were involved. Close attention must be exercised in the field when collecting specimens of Disciphania to verify whether they are truly monoecious. ...
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Se presenta una revisión de las cuatro especies mexicanas del género Disci- phania: D. cardiophylla, D. caloparpa, D. mexicana y D. spadicea. Esta última repres- enta un nuevo registro para México, mientras que D. mexicana se reporta por primera vez para los estados mexicanos de Michoacán y Sinaloa. Adicionalmente informamos la ocurrencia de la condición monoica en D. spadicea, lo que representa el primer reporte de este fenómeno para el género. Se presenta una clave para la identificación de las especies, descripciones, ilustraciones, mapas de distribución y evaluaciones sobre el estado de conservación de cada especie con base en los criterios de la IUCN.
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Variations due to geographical location and dioecious nature have shown implications in the chemical and pharmacological properties of medicinal plants and their herbal products. Tinospora cordifolia is one of the most important dioecious plant distributed throughout India and very widely used in many herbal products and formulations. In this study a method combining direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) along with multivariate analysis was developed and applied for metabolic fingerprinting and screening of the major phytochemicals in this plant. Using this approach phytodiversity in plants due to gender and geographical distribution were studied in T. cordifolia stem cuttings without any processing. An aqueous/ethanolic stem extracts of male and female T. cordifolia were also evaluated for immunomodulatory activity in inbred strain of age and sex matched BALB/c mice. A characteristic nine and sixteen marker peaks were respectively, identified as gender and geographical markers for T. cordifolia stem. It also discriminates the herbal and polyherbal formulations of T. cordifolia stem using principal component analysis. Female plant stem extract caused a significant up regulation in the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and activated the peritoneal exudate cells leading to significant release in reactive oxygen species and enhanced the in vitro lymphocyte proliferation than male stem extract. This finding underscore the importance of gender in all dioecious medicinal plants where only vegetative parts are used as a source of drug as the pharmacological activity may vary depending on the sex of the plant used.
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Evidence is presented that individuals of a large number of dioecious and subdioecious plant species are able to alter their sexual state in response to changes in the ambient environment and/or changes in size or age. We suggest that lability of sexual expression probably has survival value where a significant portion of the females must otherwise bear the cost of fruit production in unfavorable environments. We demonstrate that in patchy environments of the proper scale and variability in quality, labile sexual expression will enhance an individual's genetic contribution to the next generation.
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The active principles of Tinospora cordifolia a traditional Indian plant were found to possess anticomplementary and immunomodulatory activities. Syringin (TC-4) and cordiol (TC-7) inhibited the in vitro immunohaemolysis of antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes by guinea pig serum. The reduced immunohaemolysis was found to be due to inhibition of the C3-convertase of the classical complement pathway. However, higher concentrations showed constant inhibitory effects. The compounds also gave rise to significant increases in IgG antibodies in serum. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity were also dose-dependently enhanced. Macrophage activation was reported for cordioside (TC-2), cordiofolioside A (TC-5) and cordiol (TC-7) and this activation was more pronounced with increasing incubation times.