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Does micro-blogging make us “shallow”? Sharing information online interferes with information comprehension

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... Weibo, similar to Twitter, is an online social media platform that enables users to share, communicate, and interact in text, pictures, videos, or other forms of instant information (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). As a typical micro-blogging platform, Weibo has two inherent structural features for feedback function and information fragmentation (Jiang et al., 2016). The feedback function allows users to "repost," "comment," or "like" the online content, which means the communication is interactive. ...
... The feedback function allows users to "repost," "comment," or "like" the online content, which means the communication is interactive. The feature of information fragmentation stems from the relatively short content and it spreads without restriction whenever or wherever (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011), presenting an explosion of content quantity and a fragmentation of quality (Jiang et al., 2016;Boyd et al., 2010;Mayer et al., 1996). ...
... Research has implied that the feedback function of Weibo as a link navigation can hinder readers' understanding of information (Jiang et al., 2016). This might be caused by users' unconscious attention to the feedback interface, which would increase demands on visual processing and then detract from comprehension (DeStefano & LeFevre, 2007). ...
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Article
Social media, such as Microblogs, have become an important source for people to obtain information. However, we know little about how this would influence our comprehension over online information. Based on the cognitive load theory, this research explores whether and how two important features of Weibo, which are the feedback function and information fragmentation, would increase cognitive load and may in turn hinder users’ information comprehension in Weibo. A 2 (feedback or non-feedback) × 2 (strong-interference or weak-interference information) between-participants experimental design was conducted. Our results revealed that the Weibo feedback function and interference information exerted a negative impact over information comprehension via inducing increased cognitive load. Specifically, these results deepened our understanding regarding the impact of Weibo features on online information comprehension and suggest the mechanism by which this occurs. This finding has implications for how to minimize the potential cost of using Weibo and maximize the adaptive development of social media.
... Just like most cases of multitasking that impair cognitive performance, media use during an experience interferes with attentional engagement and memory encoding. That, in turn, results in impoverished recall of the experience afterwards (Jiang et al., 2016;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018). For example, Tamir et al. (2018) asked one group of participants to take photos during a self-guided tour of a landmark with the intention of later posting the photos to Facebook. ...
... Based on the general memory literature, Stone and Wang (2019) suggest that it is important to make the distinction between factual knowledge and autobiographical experience when considering the impact of social media on memory. Virtual storage of information (Sparrow et al., 2011) and cognitive interference or overload (Jiang et al., 2016;Tamir et al., 2018) appear to diminish recall of factual information. In contrast, sharing personal information via social media provides opportunities for rehearsal and meaning making, which may facilitate the integration of the event information in long-term memory (Conway & Pleydellpearce, 2000;Pillemer, 1998;Wang, 2013a). ...
... The current findings extend previous research and reveal the dynamic influences of social media on autobiographical remembering. They go beyond the questions of how the Internet and social media offload memories for semantic information (Ferguson et al., 2015;Kahn & Martinez, 2020;Sparrow et al., 2011;Storm et al., 2017), interfere with ongoing experience and memory encoding (Jiang et al., 2016;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018), or facilitate autobiographical memory retention through rehearsal and meaning making (Wang et al., 2017). In particular, extending Wang et al. (2017)'s finding that memories shared online are more likely to be remembered than those not shared, our findings show memory reconstruction as a result of the interplay between retrieval contexts, retrieval cues, and the timing of recall. ...
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The current study examined the impact of social media as a retrieval context (in contrast to private recall) on the retention of autobiographical memory. At session 1, participants (N = 177) generated recent life events in response to cue words and then described the event details as if they were writing about the events either on WeChat or in their diaries. They received a surprise memory test for the events at session 2 either one week or two weeks later, either with or without the original cue words. Participants in the WeChat condition recalled less consistent memories between the two sessions than those in the diary condition, especially when the memory test took place at the one-week interval and when there were no cues to assist recall at the two-week interval. It appears that memories recalled on social media are subject to greater reconstruction in subsequent offline recall, and that the timing of recall and the presence of memory cues interact with the reconstructive process. These findings shed new light on autobiographical remembering in the digital age.
... Just like most cases of multitasking that impair cognitive performance, media use during an experience interferes with attentional engagement and memory encoding. That, in turn, results in impoverished recall of the experience afterwards (Jiang et al., 2016;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018). For example, Tamir et al. (2018) asked one group of participants to take photos during a self-guided tour of a landmark with the intention of later posting the photos to Facebook. ...
... Based on the general memory literature, Stone and Wang (2019) suggest that it is important to make the distinction between factual knowledge and autobiographical experience when considering the impact of social media on memory. Virtual storage of information (Sparrow et al., 2011) and cognitive interference or overload (Jiang et al., 2016;Tamir et al., 2018) appear to diminish recall of factual information. In contrast, sharing personal information via social media provides opportunities for rehearsal and meaning making, which may facilitate the integration of the event information in long-term memory (Conway & Pleydellpearce, 2000;Pillemer, 1998;Wang, 2013a). ...
... The current findings extend previous research and reveal the dynamic influences of social media on autobiographical remembering. They go beyond the questions of how the Internet and social media offload memories for semantic information (Ferguson et al., 2015;Kahn & Martinez, 2020;Sparrow et al., 2011;Storm et al., 2017), interfere with ongoing experience and memory encoding (Jiang et al., 2016;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018), or facilitate autobiographical memory retention through rehearsal and meaning making (Wang et al., 2017). In particular, extending Wang et al. (2017)'s finding that memories shared online are more likely to be remembered than those not shared, our findings show memory reconstruction as a result of the interplay between retrieval contexts, retrieval cues, and the timing of recall. ...
Preprint
The current study examined the impact of social media as a retrieval context (in contrast to private recall) on the retention of autobiographical memory. At session 1, participants (N = 177) generated recent life events in response to cue words and then described the event details as if they were writing about the events either on WeChat or in their diaries. They received a surprise memory test for the events at session 2 either one week or two weeks later, either with or without the original cue words. Participants in the WeChat condition recalled less consistent memories between the two sessions than those in the diary condition, especially when the memory test took place at the one-week interval and when there were no cues to assist recall at the two-week interval. It appears that memories recalled on social media are subject to greater reconstruction in subsequent offline recall, and that the timing of recall and the presence of memory cues interact with the reconstructive process. These findings shed new light on autobiographical remembering in the digital age.
... For example, the overwhelming flow of information on microblogs may be particularly distracting [38] and have implications for long-term functioning. Indeed, microblogs allow users to produce and share small elements of content, such as short sentences (e.g., 140 Chinese characters on Weibo), personal pictures, videos, or links [39], resulting in an explosion of content quantity and fragmentation of content quality [40][41][42]. Therefore, researchers have suggested that microblogs play a more effective role as information production, exchange, and consumption site compared with traditional social media [43][44][45]. ...
... Furthermore, microblog excessive users have become accustomed to cruising through pieces of fragmented information [45]. According to san-and-shift hypothesis, they may expect to form a shallow pattern of attention [40], fail to engage in deep or elaborate information processing for neither target nor distractor information [40], as they are accustomed to attending to both relevant and irrelevant information [20,51]. In the long term, they may also show this attention pattern during job or academic tasks. ...
... Furthermore, microblog excessive users have become accustomed to cruising through pieces of fragmented information [45]. According to san-and-shift hypothesis, they may expect to form a shallow pattern of attention [40], fail to engage in deep or elaborate information processing for neither target nor distractor information [40], as they are accustomed to attending to both relevant and irrelevant information [20,51]. In the long term, they may also show this attention pattern during job or academic tasks. ...
Article
Drawing on scan-and-shift hypothesis and scattered attention hypothesis, this article explored the association between excessive social media use (ESMU) and distraction from an information engagement perspective. In study 1, the results, based on 743 questionnaires completed by Chinese college students, showed that ESMU is related to distraction in daily life. In Study 2, eye-tracking technology was used to investigate the distraction and performance of excessive microblog users when performing the modified Stroop task. The results showed that excessive microblog users had difficulties suppressing interference information than non-microblog users, resulting in poor performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Similar to consumers, the limited research suggests that sharing public or collective information also leads to worse recall. In a study by Jiang, Hou, and Wang (2016), Chinese college students were asked to read Weibo messages (a Chinese social media platform like Twitter) concerning a hotly debated public news event. Half of the participants were given the option to repost the messages, whereas the other half could only read through the messages. ...
... However, if the individual does not have the true memory, he may make source monitoring mistakes and come to remember the false information (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993;Muller & Hirst, 2014). Alternatively, when an individual is not aware that the information being shared is false, then the mnemonic consequences of the sharing may follow the same mechanism as that found by Jiang et al. (2016), that is, worse recall. However, those individuals sharing false information may be more likely to exhibit false memories in as much as the act of sharing may symbolize an implicit trust and acceptance of the false information (French, Garry, & Mori, 2008;Mazzoni & Memon, 2003;Thomas & Loftus, 2002). ...
... When individuals consume and produce personal information, the mnemonic consequences appear to mirror those associated with conversations: enhanced recall of consumed and produced memories (e.g., Mickes et al., 2013;Wang et al., 2016) and induced forgetting of related but unshared memories (C.L. Wong and C.B. Stone (unpublished data)). Alternatively, when the information is public in nature, recall is diminished (e.g., Jiang et al., 2016;Sparrow et al., 2011). In terms of the former, the enhanced recall could be because personal information becomes more meaningful when shared and consumed via social media . ...
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Article
Social media has become one of the most powerful and ubiquitous means by which individuals curate, share, and communicate information with their friends, family, and the world at large. Indeed, 90% of the American adolescents are active social media users, as well as 65% of American adults (Perrin, 2015; see also Duggan & Brenner, 2013). Despite this, psychologists are only beginning to understand the mnemonic consequences associated with social media use. In this article, we will distill this nascent literature by focusing on two primary factors: the type of information (personal vs. public) and the role (producer vs. consumer) individuals play when engaging with social media. In particular, we will highlight research examining induced forgetting for personal information as well as false memories and truthiness for public information. We will end by providing some tentative conclusions and a discussion of areas in need of additional research that will provide a more holistic understanding of the mnemonic consequences associated with social media use.
... On the other hand, using simulated tweets to present information allowed us to answer our research questions in a controlled context. Many factors on real-life social media platforms may influence memory processes and outcomes, such as shared attention and social turning (Shteynberg, 2015), individuals' online behaviour and interactions (Jiang et al., 2016;Maswood et al., 2022), the type of the information being shared (Stone & Wang, 2019), motives for posting and receiving information online (Stone et al., 2022), and the technological medium for communication (Murphy & Flynn, 2022). Simulated social media research allows researchers to focus on the variables of interest while controlling for other influential factors. ...
... Lastly, the current studies focused on the effect of selective information exposure on RIF. Given that social media users often not only consume but also produce information online, future research should examine the effect of online information exchanges on RIF (i.e., SS-RIF; Cuc et al., 2007), as well as the impact of sharing personal (Hou et al., 2022;Wang et al., 2017) and public information (Jiang et al., 2016) on social media on remembering and forgetting. ...
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Article
Social media exposes people to selective information of what they have previously known. We conducted two laboratory studies to examine in a simulated online context the phenomenon of retrieval-induced forgetting, where information reposted on social media is likely to be later remembered and relevant but not reposted information may be forgotten. Specifically, we examined how exposure to selective information about the COVID-19 vaccine via tweets affected subsequent memory and whether people’s attitudes towards vaccination played a role in their memory for the information. Young adults (N = 119; Study 1) and community members (N = 92; Study 2) were presented with information about the COVID-19 vaccine that included both pro- and anti-vaccine arguments, organised in four categories (i.e., science, children, religion, morality). They then read tweets that repeated half of the arguments from two of the categories. In a subsequent memory test, participants remembered best the statements repeated in the tweets and remembered worst the statements from the same category but not repeated in the tweets, thus exhibiting retrieval-induced forgetting. This pattern of results was similar across pro- and anti-vaccine arguments, regardless of the participants’ level of support for vaccination. We discussed the findings in light of remembering and forgetting in the context of the pandemic and social media.
... This means that the communicative activity of the participants in the educational process is an essential part and an important condition for the realization of its social goals. The interaction of participants in the learning process takes place in the educational space, which is "...a kind of space that encompasses a person and the environment during their interaction, the result of which is an augment of the learner's individual culture " [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. This interaction does not arise by chance, but it "... is born in the process of interaction of the subject with the cultural environment due to specially organized activities " [6]. ...
... Therefore, the emergence of new communication phenomena is important for the analysis of deviations in the communications of young people and the construction of new meanings. So, in the modern Russian blogging, in particular in socio-political social discourse, [4,8,10] there is often a gamification-a hybrid of the gaming and pragmatic action. The most self-confident actors perceive the situation as a game, replacing its essence, and strive to realize themselves in the game space most profitably through a reflexive search and foresight of various options. ...
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Article
The transition of the Russian education system in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic to online platforms marked the emergence of new practices of interpersonal communication in the teacher-student relationship system. The article deals with deviant manifestations in the online space of communications. The analysis is based on the study of semantic deviations constructed by young people in the process of communication in a changing reality. The starting point of deviations is considered as a departure from the approved norms of communication in educational system, which leads to such phenomena as trolling, gaming, etc. The influence of virtualization of education on the rethinking of the norms and practices of communication by young people is considered, and the educational space itself, due to its greater openness, becomes a platform for the implementation of these deviant practices. Analysis of the data obtained during sociological research shows the nature of the differentiation of meanings in the field of online communication of young people, which is reflected in the education system.
... Interestingly, to transmit information by reposting or "retweeting" messages has unexpected consequences for memory. In a recent study (Jiang, Hou, & Wang, 2016), Chinese college students were asked to read Weibo messages concerning Chinese news events in which people were sued after helping a tumbled elderly. Half of the participants were given the option to repost the messages, whereas the other half could only read through the messages. ...
... Thus, although micro-blogging has provided people with an alternative way unique to the Internet era to gain information, it has a downside for memory. When people are reposting and sharing information with others, they unwantedly add burden to their cognitive resources and, as a result, their own memory for the information is compromised (Jiang et al., 2016). These findings have direct implications for public event memory. ...
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Chapter
process and further give rise to cultural differences in FBM. In particular, means of information transmission across cultures, including newly developed communication technologies, may introduce variations in how and what types of public event news individuals receive. Cultural variables may further operate on the individual processes of perceiving, experiencing, and sharing with others the news events. These, in turn, may moderate the effects of basic-level memory mechanisms that are commonly thought to influence FBM invariantly across cultures, including the importance effect, intense emotion, and post-event social sharing. Among the cultural variables, cultural self-construal plays a particularly important role in the remembering process by shaping the self-defining functions of FBM and public event memory. Furthermore, the culturally embedded model of FBM emphasizes a lifespan dimension of …
... Similarly, at the largest Chinese microblogging site Weibo, 4.8% users contribute more than 80% of the original posts (Fu & Chau, 2013). Individuals as information consumers can further decide whether to comment on or repost others' messages, and reposting appears to be a cognitively costly activity that undermines the reposter's own comprehension of the posted information and even negatively affects subsequent offline cognitive performance (Jiang, Hou, & Wang, 2016). There are also vast individual differences in the inclination to share personal information online-reflecting variation in personality and motivations for disclosure, and in the form in which personal information is shared-ranging from detailed documentation of one's life stories in "macroblogging" to moment-to-moment status updates in "microblogging" (Wang, 2013). ...
... Surprise memory tests at the completion of the diary recording and then a week later both showed that participants were more likely to remember the events that had been shared online than those not shared, even when controlling for the characteristics of the events. It appears that, different from sharing public information (Jiang et al., 2016), sharing personal experiences online may facilitate rehearsal and meaning making and thus benefit long-term memory retention. ...
... For example, Wood et al. (2012) found that multi-tasking via texting, email, MSN, and Facebook had negative effects on real-time learning performance. Jiang, Hou, and Wang (2016) found that the use of Weibo, the Chinese equivalence of Twitter, had negative effects on information comprehension. Importantly, frequent social media usage does not necessarily indicate social media addiction (Griffiths, 2010) and therefore does not always have negative implications for individuals' mental health (e.g., Jelenchick, Eickhoff, & Moreno, 2013) or academic performance (Pasek & Hargittai, 2009). ...
... Based on the findings of previous studies (e.g., Jiang et al., 2016;Koc & Gulyagci, 2013;Pantic et al., 2012;Valkenburg et al., 2006), we hypothesized that social media addiction would be negatively associated with college students' mental health and academic performance, and that these relations would be mediated by the students' self-esteem. We further expected that an intervention to reduce social media addiction would alleviate its negative associations with mental health and academic performance. ...
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Article
This research examined the relations of social media addiction to college students' mental health and academic performance, investigated the role of self-esteem as a mediator for the relations, and further tested the effectiveness of an intervention in reducing social media addiction and its potential adverse outcomes. In Study 1, we used a survey method with a sample of college students (N = 232) and found that social media addiction was negatively associated with the students' mental health and academic performance and that the relation between social media addiction and mental health was mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, we developed and tested a two-stage self-help intervention program. We recruited a sample of college students (N = 38) who met criteria for social media addiction to receive the intervention. Results showed that the intervention was effective in reducing the students’ social media addiction and improving their mental health and academic efficiency. The current studies yielded original findings that contribute to the empirical database on social media addiction and that have important theoretical and practical implications.
... However, it is not clear whether the information shared was photographs rather than typed responses. Alternatively, Jiang et al (2016) and Tamir et al (2018) found that, when individuals share or believed that their personal experiences would be shared via social media, they ended up having poorer recall of these experiences. Again, though, neither of these studies examined photographs. ...
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Article
Social media provides an easy and ubiquitous means by which individuals can curate and share their personal experiences while also interacting with their friends, family, and the world at large. One means by which individuals can craft their personal past via social media is through their personal photographs. However, psychologists are only beginning to appreciate the mnemonic consequences associated with sharing personal photographs on social media. The aim of this manuscript is to distil the relevant, psychological research examining the mnemonic consequences associated with photography and sharing personal photographs on social media. To this end, we discuss how a psychological approach to memory has evolved from an individualist perspective to one that is beginning to appreciate the importance of a memory ecology. We then turn to photographs as an important component of one's memory ecology and how the act of photography and sharing photos on social media may have important consequences for how individuals remember their personal past. We then end with a discussion surrounding pertinent avenues for future research. We advocate that, moving forward, psychologists should better appreciate (1) the collective nature of social media, (2) an individual's memory ecology, and (3) the mnemonic consequences associated with social media silence . In addressing these issues, we believe that psychologists and memory researchers, more generally, will gain a fuller understanding of how, and in what way, personal photographs, and the act of sharing them via social media may shape the way individuals remember their personal past.
... When we share information, we increase the burden on our cognitive resources unknowingly. Consequently, our understanding of information is impaired, and our subsequent learning is hindered (Jiang et al., 2016). The content distribution and service model in the mobile era have further aggravated information overload. ...
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Article
Purpose This research aims to discover the relationship between social media usage (SMU) and the critical thinking ability (CTA) of university students, and to answer the question that whether social media dependence (SMD) affects the development of CTA, and thus providing a reference for the social media access strategy of academic libraries from the perspective of media information literacy. Design/methodology/approach The research data were collected via 300 valid questionnaires whose respondents are students from three universities in China. Multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to select the respondents, which guarantees statistical representativeness. A pre-test was conducted to ensure the validity of the questionnaire. Findings It is shown that the total score of CTA and the six sub-dimensions are significantly positively correlated with SMU, but strongly negatively correlated with SMD. Based on the mediating effect testing, it is discovered that the degree of SMD can affect the promoting relations between the usage intensity of social media (UISM) and CTA. Clearly, SMU is a double-edged sword. While it narrows the digital gap in terms of accessibility, it widens the digital gap in terms of usage. Originality/value The differences in SMU have a significant impact on the development of CTA of university students. This inspires us to consider the ability of “using social media in a balanced way” as an important evaluation and training direction when inquiring media literacy. As social media is becoming a critical channel in cultivating individual's thinking skills, it is highly suggested that the amount of time spent on reading fragmented information on the internet should be controlled.
... This further leads to cognitive overload, thereby affecting the understanding and interpretation of the information (Eppler and Mengis, 2010;Paas et al., 2010). A recent study revealed that using social media platforms unwittingly increases cognitive overload and this further weakens understanding, especially in reading tasks (Jiang et al., 2016). One of the factors leading to individual cognitive load is information overload, which is the psychological state in which an individual subjectively perceives that the amount of information he/she receives exceeds his/her information processing ability (Ferrari, 2010). ...
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Article
Emerging social media platforms such as Twitter and its Chinese equivalent Weibo have become important in information-sharing and communication. They are also gradually becoming stronger in guiding public opinion. When compared with traditional media, these platforms have salient characteristics, such as highly efficient dissemination of information and interactive commentary, which can contribute to information overload. In earlier research, only the effect of social media on attitude change has been studied, but the specific mechanism of this effect in the context of information overload has not been found. To answer this question, we measured the attitude change of participants after they read Weibo posts about street vendors. A 2 (post-attitude: positive posts vs. negative posts) × 4 (reading time: 35 vs. 25 vs. 15 vs. 5 min) experiment was set up, and the Single Category Implicit Attitude Test was used to measure the implicit attitudes. The interaction effect revealed that in both positive and negative posts, less reading time (i.e., information overload) had a stronger influence. Users were more easily persuaded by posts under high overload. Furthermore, the changes in the attitudes of users were not simply stronger with more information. We found three stages, namely, obedience, resistance, and acceptance, with different mechanisms. Therefore, in the positive information overload condition, the attitudes of individuals eventually change in a positive way. In the negative information overload condition, individuals tend to be biased against the group being reported.
... However, it should be emphasized that the author's creativity often leads to cognitive overload and, as a result, to the incomplete understanding of the text. [37] Several reasons account for the creation and use of the analyzed words and phrases: 1) limited discourse -Internet-mediated communication; 2) the segment of respondentsstudents; 3) the desire of users to feel like co-creators of the lexical component of communication in order to make their speech more emotional and expressive, give it a distinctness and show that they are in a trend. ...
Article
span lang="EN-GB">The present article is concerned with identifying the linguistic and extralinguistic features of Instagram, Twitter, and Live Journal hypertexts, depending on their functional focus. The relevance of the topic is due to the need for a more detailed study of Internet communication from the point of view of functional and stylistic aspects. The study provides a comparative analysis of Instagram, Twitter, and Live Journal online services based on the Russian language material. The results are correlated with the questionnaire data on the studied problem. The article discusses graphic, lexical, stylistic, syntactic, and spelling features. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the hypertexts of Instagram, Twitter, and Live Journal online services in the context of their functions; identified linguistic and extralinguistic features of the hypertext of the services under study; established the relationship between the language of the text and the function implemented. It has been established that all three online services perform, first of all, a communicative function, which is expressed through the use of slang, vernacular, online discourse vocabulary, graphic means, markers of increased emotionality, recreation of a specific accent/dialect, spelling and punctuation violations, incomplete, unextended sentences. Along with the socialization function, Instagram performs the function of self-presentation, for the implementation of which the authors of publications resort to linguistic creativity. Unlike Instagram, Twitter, and Live Journal fulfill a more political function, expressed in stylistic devices such as metaphor, comparison, irony, hyperbole, and repetition. The results were verified using a questionnaire survey conducted among Russian students .</span
... However, despite the rapidly progressive expansion of the use of social media around the world, the consequences of this transformation remain largely unknown (Mittal et al., 2013). Social media addiction would have multiple consequences in this particular population, including negative effects on information comprehension (Jiang et al., 2016), declining academic performance, procrastination, distraction and poor time-management (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010), and an ignoring of offline responsibilities, relationships and other activities (Zaremohzzabieh et al., 2014). Moreover, many studies have shown that social media usage is positively associated with mental health problems in university students, including depressive symptoms (Bányai et al., 2017), anxiety and insomnia (Koc & Gulyagci, 2013). ...
Article
The use of social media networks has grown rapidly in the past decade. There has been very little research to inform our understanding of how social media addiction (SMA) relates to mental health. There has been very little research to inform our understanding of how social media addiction (SMA) may relate to mental illness. We aimed to examine the link between SMA and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in a sample of nonclinical Tunisian youth. The Positive Subscale of Community Assessment of Psychotic Experiences and the Arabic Social Media Addiction Scale (ASMAS) were administered to a total of 1007 college students. We found that 86.4% of students spent some of their time on the internet, and 98.5% reported regular use of social media networks. After controlling for demographic variables (gender, age) and substance use, the number of hours of social media use per day and the social consequences dimension of the ASMAS contributed significantly to the prediction of positive PLEs (bizarre experiences, perceptual abnormalities, persecutory ideation and magical thinking). Our results build on previous literature that mainly focused on general internet use, and consistently indicated an association between SMA and PLEs. SMA may be an important target for early intervention in psychosis.
... In addition to offloading information online, disseminating public information by reposting or retweeting messages also has negative consequences for memory. Making decisions on whether to repost or share information with others appears to deplete cognitive resources, which in turn results in shallow processing of the information and poor memory ( Jiang et al. 2016). In contrast, sharing personal experiences online facilitates rehearsal and meaning making, which contribute to the integration and longterm retention of memories (Stone & Wang 2019). ...
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Article
Human memory, as a product of the mind and brain, is inherently private and personal. Yet, arising from the interaction between the organism and its ecology in the course of phylogeny and ontogeny, human memory is also profoundly collective and cultural. In this review, I discuss the cultural foundation of human memory. I start by briefly reflecting on the conception of memory against a historical and cultural background. I then detail a model of a culturally saturated mnemonic system in which cultural elements constitute and condition various processes of remembering, focusing on memory representation, perceptual encoding, memory function, memory reconstruction, memory expression, and memory socialization. Then I discuss research on working memory, episodic memory, and autobiographical memory as examples that further demonstrate how cultural elements shape the processes and consequences of remembering and lay the foundation for human memory. I conclude by outlining some important future directions in memory research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 72 is January 4, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Aktivitas berbagi sangat baik dilakukan ketika informasi yang dibagikan memiliki kualitas atau kredibilitas yang baik, contohnya informasi yang berasal dari sumber ternama dan kredibel sehingga dapat membantu mengedukasi individu lain, tetapi ketika informasi memiliki kualitas buruk maka yang ada justru menyebarkan informasi yang menyesatkan atau sering disebut hoax. Jiang, Hou, Wang (2016) individu yang sering melakukan re-tweet atau berbagi informasi sering menunjukkan pemahaman yang buruk mengenai isi informasi yang dibagikan dan mereka sering ingat isi informasi yang buruk. Maka dari itu, belum diketahui secara pasti apa yang mendasari individu khususnya digital natives dalam melakukan berbagi informasi, padahal fenomena menunjukkan bahwa banyak kecenderungan tersebarnya hoax dan pemahaman yang buruk terhadap isi informasi yang dibagikan. ...
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Article
Background of the study: The phenomenon of sharing information by all members of the public, especially digital natives. The phenomenon of sharing information is most visible done on social media such as WhatsApp, Instagram and line. Information sharing activities seem easy to do, especially on social media with a variety of features that have been provided and a variety of information that is spread. Even sharing information can have an impact, both positive like increasing knowledge or negative impacts such as creating information hoaxes. Purpose: Not yet known explicitly actually what lies behind someone, especially the digital generation natives share information on social media. To find out what is the background of someone sharing information on social media, therefore this study wants to find out from the aspect of perception and motivation regarding information sharing activities carried out by digital natives on social media. Method: This research uses quantitative methods, while the test carried out is path analysis. The population and sample of this study were S2 students in Information Management and Library and S1 Faculty of Social and Politics UGM. The population was chosen because they want to know the differences in perceptions and motivations of digital generations from the perspective of the level of education and age, apart from the social aspects of each student in sharing information on social media. Findings: The results of this study found that the perception of MIP students' information sharing was higher than that of FISIPOL students, but on the contrary, the motivation to share information on FISIPOL students was higher than MIP students. The difference is based on the age difference of MIP students who are more mature than FISIPOL students so that their perceptions about sharing information are wiser, but the motivation of FISIPOL students is higher because sharing information is not only for formal matters but also for informal matters such as finding one's reputation and pursuing prizes. Conclusion: Digital natives' perception in sharing information on social media is sharing information because it is seen to be beneficial to other individuals, sharing information is fun and can invite others to jointly understand and discuss together the latest information. For digital natives motivation in sharing information on social media, intrinsically to meet self-satisfaction. Examples such as being able to add insight and can discuss with other individuals. Whereas extrinsically is the motivation to share information because it can help others, especially when the information they have is useful and worth sharing. In terms of information sharing activities themselves, the digital natives really understand and pay attention to the type of information and the quality of information that will be shared before they share it with a wide audience.
... For example, deciding whether or not to share content on social media takes cognitive effort; it may be easier to share content on social media than to loan a book or photocopying an article but these decisions are much more common on social media. In a study using a laboratory analog of Weibo (the Chinese social media equivalent of Twitter), participants read 50 messages (many of which concerned the aging Chinese population); one group pressed "next" to go on to the next message whereas the experimental group decided whether to "repost" each message or to press "next" to simply advance to the next message (Jiang, Hou, & Wang, 2016). Critically, afterwards all participants were tested on their comprehension of the messages with a multiple-choice test; subjects who decided whether or not to repost messages performed worse than did readers who simply pressed "next" to read the next message. ...
Article
The internet is rapidly changing what information is available as well as how we find it and share it with others. Here we examine how this “digital expansion of the mind”__ changes cognition. We begin by identifying ten properties of the internet that likely affect cognition, roughly organized around internet content (e.g., the sheer amount of information available), internet usage (e.g., the requirement to search for information), and the people and communities who create and propagate content (e.g., people are connected in an unprecedented fashion). We use these properties to explain (or ask questions about) internet-related phenomena, such as habitual reliance on the internet, the propagation of misinformation, and consequences for autobiographical memory, among others. Our goal is to consider the impact of internet usage on many aspects of cognition, as people increasingly rely on the internet to seek, post, and share information.
... Moreover, it is difficult to gauge the level of understanding of scientific tweets. The brevity and fragmented nature of science tweets can lead to shallow processing and comprehension of the message (Jiang et al. 2016). One metric of the influence of tweets is the extent to which they are shared (i.e., retweeted). ...
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There have been strong calls for scientists to share their discoveries with society. Some scientists have heeded these calls through social media platforms such as Twitter. Here, we ask whether Twitter allows scientists to promote their findings primarily to other scientists (“inreach”), or whether it can help them reach broader, non-scientific audiences (“outreach”). We analyzed the Twitter followers of more than 100 faculty members in ecology and evolutionary biology and found that their followers are, on average, predominantly (∼55%) other scientists. However, beyond a threshold of ∼1000 followers, the range of follower types became more diverse and included research and educational organizations, media, members of the public with no stated association with science, and a small number of decision-makers. This varied audience was, in turn, followed by more people, resulting in an exponential increase in the social media reach of tweeting academic scientists. Tweeting, therefore, has the potential to dis...
... In Cision and Bates study, 85% journalists stated that the information available in social media is less reliable than traditional media due to lack of validation, verification, and reporting standards [3]. The characteristics of social media enable user to absorb information quickly in consequences it lowers the user understanding about the information [4]. Lack of understanding of information content shared on social media can lead to misinformation which may cause harm to society for example by hindering public to obtain critical information. ...
... Alternatively, this decision-making process might come with a cognitive cost that is detrimental to comprehension. Recently, Jiang, Hou, and Wang (2016) tried to clarify this issue by having two groups of undergraduate students read a series of messages dealing with controversial topics on a micro-blogging site. ...
... Furthermore, social media also serves as an essential tool for meaning-making in the construction of the autobiographical self in the digital age (Lenhart & Fox, 2006;Wang, 2013a). Unlike practical knowledge that we can toss around to a physical or cyber location known to us and forget about the information itself until next time when we need it and then retrieve it from the location (Jiang, Hou, & Wang, 2016;Sparrow et al., 2011), memories of personal experiences constitute who we are. They would not make up our autobiographical self unless we remember them and make sense out of them in relation to our personality (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000;Habermas & Bluck, 2000;McAdams, 2001). ...
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Conference Paper
The purpose of this study is to investigate how big data analytics technology affects decision-making in the media industry, with a focus on digital newspapers. To achieve this goal, we propose a decision-making model to identify the relationship between audiences and news topics using big data analysis and classification, intending to help news practitioners optimize their marketing strategies. To evaluate our model, we conducted a case study using a Swiss local newspaper. Preliminary results indicate that audience reading time and volume have been significantly increased after implementing the decision that based on the model’s analysis. The study also provides some guidelines for editors and journalists to target their digital news content.
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Book
Teaching and Mobile Learning: Interactive Educational Design is a groundbreaking book which shows how to design innovative educational mobile learning environments to instructional designers, curriculum developers, and learning professionals. The book aims to solicit teachers, educators, and practitioners to adapt their teaching with the help of educational digital models related to mobile technologies. Mobile learning is a revolution in concepts like space, sound production, and learning to get more and more customized in always-connected and ever-changing educational mobile learning environments. Researchers and academicians can be trained in cognition processes in learning management of mixed reality and virtual bodies. Mixed reality mobile technologies are becoming tools for education and training in mixed reality mobile learning. Readers of this book will understand how user and device innovative interactions are borderline with attention deficit disorder, digital amnesia, and information overload. The book develops educational knowledge on how to manage mobile technology and specific learning disorders to monitor the use of smartphones and technology tools and to empower their role in learning enhancement processes. Preview available at: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/edit/10.1201/9781003052869/teaching-mobile-learning-interactive-educational-design-flavia-santoianni-corrado-petrucco-alessandro-ciasullo-daniele-agostini
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Given the rising importance of Facebook as a news source, this study investigated how the social media environment and expectations of future interactions alter processes of attitude formation. Based on the heuristic-systematic model (HSM), it was expected that impression-motivated users of social networking sites (SNS) strive for widely acceptable attitudes when no majority opinion is visible and pay less attention to the quality of information. An experiment (N= 348) varied the media context in which an article was displayed (Facebook vs. news site vs. newspaper), argument quality, and the expectation of future discussions. Results showed higher impression motivation and a reduced influence of argument quality when participants expected to write a Facebook post on the topic. However, merely being connected to Facebook did not affect the direction of their information processing. Those who regard themselves as SNS opinion leaders were more easily persuaded by weak arguments in news articles. Concerning the potential risks for an informed citizenry, these findings highlight situations and groups in which SNS usage is connected to a less thoughtful information processing. Furthermore, the study demonstrates the applicability of the multiple-motive approach of the HSM to capture the specifics of attitude formation in different media contexts.
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In this volume, Qi Wang traces the developmental, social, cultural, and historical origins of the autobiographical self - the self that is made of memories of the personal past and of the family and the community. Wang combines rigorous research, sensitive survey of real memories and memory conversations, and fascinating personal anecdotes into a state-of-the-art book. As a "marginal woman" who grew up in the East and works and lives in the West, Wang's analysis is unique, insightful, and approachable. Her accounts of her own family stories, extraordinarily careful and thorough documentation of research findings, and compelling theoretical insights together convey an unequivocal message: The autobiographical self is conditioned by one's time and culture. Beginning with a perceptive examination of the form, content, and function of parent-child conversations of personal and family stories, Wang undertakes to show how the autobiographical self is formed in and shaped by the process of family storytelling situated in specific cultural contexts. By contrasting the development of autobiographical writings in Western and Chinese literatures, Wang seeks to demonstrate the cultural stance of the autobiographical self in historical time. She examines the autobiographical self in personal time, thoughtfully analyzing the form, structure, and content of everyday memories to reveal the role of culture in modulating information processing and determining how the autobiographical self is remembered. Focusing on memories of early childhood, Wang seeks to answer the question of when the autobiographical self begins from a cross-cultural perspective. She sets out further to explore some of the most controversial issues in current psychological research of autobiographical memory, focusing particularly on issues of memory representations versus memory narratives and silence versus voice in the construction of the autobiographical self appropriate to one's cultural assumptions. She concludes with historical analyses of the influences of the larger social, political, and economic forces on the autobiographical self, and takes a forward look at the autobiographical self as a product of modern technology.
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Poster
College students were randomly assigned to recall recent personal events for either online posting or a private diary. “Online” memories were more elaborate, expressive, self-revealing, and positive than “offline” memories. The findings shed light on autobiographical remembering in the Internet era.
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Chinese microblogs have drawn global attention to this online application's potential impact on the country's social and political environment. However, representative and reliable statistics on Chinese microbloggers are limited. Using a random sampling approach, this study collected Chinese microblog data from the service provider, analyzing the profile and the pattern of usage for 29,998 microblog accounts. From our analysis, 57.4% (95% CI 56.9%,58.0%) of the accounts' timelines were empty. Among the 12,774 non-zero statuses samples, 86.9% (95% CI 86.2%,87.4%) did not make original post in a 7-day study period. By contrast, 0.51% (95% CI 0.4%,0.65%) wrote twenty or more original posts and 0.45% (95% CI 0.35%,0.60%) reposted more than 40 unique messages within the 7-day period. A small group of microbloggers created a majority of contents and drew other users' attention. About 4.8% (95% CI 4.4%,5.2%) of the 12,774 users contributed more than 80% (95% CI,78.6%,80.3%) of the original posts and about 4.8% (95% CI 4.5%,5.2%) managed to create posts that were reposted or received comments at least once. Moreover, a regression analysis revealed that volume of followers is a key determinant of creating original microblog posts, reposting messages, being reposted, and receiving comments. Volume of friends is found to be linked only with the number of reposts. Gender differences and regional disparities in using microblogs in China are also observed.
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In a series of 3 experiments, college students who read a summary that contained a sequence of short captions with simple illustrations depicting the main steps in the process of lightning recalled these steps and solved transfer problems as well as or better than students who received the full text along with the summary or the full text alone. In Experiment 2, taking away the illustrations or the captions eliminated the effectiveness of the summary. In Experiment 3, adding text to the summary reduced its effectiveness. Implications for a cognitive theory of multimedia learning are discussed; implications for instructional design pertain to the need for conciseness, coherence, and coordination in presenting scientific explanations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Chapter
Information fragmentation is a pervasive problem in personal information management. Even a seemingly simple decision, such as whether to say "yes" to a dinner invitation, often depends upon information from several sources---a calendar, a paper flyer, web sites, a previous email conversation, etc. This information is fragmented by the very tools that have been designed to help us manage it. Applications often store their data in their own particular locations and representations, inaccessible to other applications. Consider the information Alex maintains about Brooke. He must keep Brooke's address in his address book, his picture in a photo album, his home page in his web bookmarks, a birthday invitation he is editing with her in his file system, and an appointment with her in his calendar. This fragmentation causes numerous problems. There is no one "directory" Alex can use to find all the information about Brooke; nor any way to "link" pieces of information about Brooke to each other. Instead, Alex must launch multiple applications and perform numerous repetitive searches for relevant information, to say nothing of deciding which applications to look in. He may change data in one place (a new married name in the address book) and fail to change it elsewhere, leading to inconsistency that makes it even harder to find information (which name does Alex use to search the photo album?). While the computer has fragmented information, it can also be used to put the pieces together again. This chapter surveys some of the ways in which our personal information might be better unified.
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Twitter - a microblogging service that enables users to post messages ("tweets") of up to 140 characters - supports a variety of communicative practices; participants use Twitter to converse with individuals, groups, and the public at large, so when conversations emerge, they are often experienced by broader audiences than just the interlocutors. This paper examines the practice of retweeting as a way by which participants can be "in a conversation." While retweeting has become a convention inside Twitter, participants retweet using different styles and for diverse reasons. We highlight how authorship, attribution, and communicative fidelity are negotiated in diverse ways. Using a series of case studies and empirical data, this paper maps out retweeting as a conversational practice.
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Micro-blogs (e.g., Twitter, Jaiku, Plurk, Tumblr) are starting to become an established category within the general group of social media. Yet, while they rapidly gain interest among consumers and companies alike, there is no evidence to explain why anybody should be interested in an application that is limited to the exchange of short, 140-character text messages. To this end, our article intends to provide some insight. First, we demonstrate that the success of micro-blogs is due to the specific set of characteristics they possess: the creation of ambient awareness; a unique form of push-push-pull communication; and the ability to serve as a platform for virtual exhibitionism and voyeurism. We then discuss how applications such as Twitter can generate value for companies along all three stages of the marketing process: pre-purchase (i.e., marketing research); purchase (i.e., marketing communications); and post-purchase (i.e., customer services). Finally, we present a set of rules—The Three Rs of Micro-Blogging: Relevance; Respect; Return—which companies should consider when relying on this type of application.
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The project fragmentation problem in personal information management occurs when someone who is working on a single project stores and retrieves information items relating to that project from separate format-related collections (documents, emails and favorite Web sites). This study was aimed to test empirically users' working habits in order to shed light on the project fragmentation problem. Twenty personal computer users participated in the study. Data collection tools included an interview, screen captures and a questionnaire. Results indicate that users tend to store and retrieve project-related information items based on different formats in one project folder when the interface design encourages it. However, they store and retrieve project- related information items in different folders (documents, emails and favorite Web sites) when the design encourages such fragmentation. Two types of attempts to solve the project fragmentation problem are reviewed and a new possible solution is suggested. Author Keywords Personal information management, projects, fragmentation, integration, folder hierarchies, documents, email, favorites
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Based on literature from the domains of organization science, marketing, accounting, and management information systems, this review article examines the theoretical basis of the information overload discourse and presents an overview of the main definitions, situations, causes, effects, and countermeasures. It analyzes the contributions from the last 30 years to consolidate the existing research in a conceptual framework and to identify future research directions.
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This paper describes the origins and hisotry of multiple resource theory in accounting for difference in dual task interference. One particular application of the theory, the 4-dimensional multiple resources model, is described in detail, positing that there will be greater interference between two tasks to the extent that they share stages (perceptua/cognitive vs response) sensory modalities (auditory vs visual), codes (visual vs spatial) and channels of visual information (focal vs ambient). A computational rendering of this model is then presented. Examples are given of how the model predicts interference differences in operational environments. Finally, three challenges to the model are outlined regarding task demand coding, task allocation and visual resource competition.
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Users need ways to unify, simplify, and consolidate information too often fragmented by location, device, and software application.
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A new multidimensional subjective workload assessment instrument -- Workload Profile -- was introduced and evaluated against two unidimensional instruments -- Bedford and Psychophysical scaling. Subjects performed two laboratory tasks separately (single task) and simultaneously (dual task). The multidimensional procedure compared well with the unidimensional procedures in terms of sensitivity to task demands, concurrent validity with performance, and test-retest reliability. The results suggested that the subjective workload profiles would only have limited predictive value on performance. However, results of the canonical analysis demonstrated that the multidimensional ratings provided diagnostic information on the nature of task demands. Further, the diagnostic information was consistent with the a priori task characterization. This strongly supports the notion that mental workload is multidimensional and that subjects are capable of reporting the demands on separate workload dimensions. Theoretical implications on mental workload models and practical implications on the assessment approaches are discussed.
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Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed.
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We used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. One-, 2- and 4-word distracters that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length, suggesting that they were attempting to integrate the distracters with the sentence and had more and more difficulty doing so as the distracters increased in length. Young adults did have better comprehension of the sentences than older adults and also better recognition memory for target words and distracters.
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The failure of an organization's information processing capacity to meet its information processing requirements creates the potential for dysfunction. A model of information overload is presented that describes the antecedents (the nature of information and organizational conditions) and consequences (primary and secondary symptoms). The role of structural differentiation and integration in creating and managing overload is discussed. Primary symptomatology reflects the inadequacy of differentiation and integration. Subsequent secondary symptomatology reflects the maladaptive attempts to cope. The possible effects on organizational behavior and strategy are explored.
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What are interactive multimodal learning environments and how should they be designed to promote students’ learning? In this paper, we offer a cognitive–affective theory of learning with media from which instructional design principles are derived. Then, we review a set of experimental studies in which we found empirical support for five design principles: guided activity, reflection, feedback, control, and pretraining. Finally, we offer directions for future instructional technology research.
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Over the last few years, cognitive load theory has progressed and advanced rapidly. The articles in this special issue, which document those advances, are based on contributions to the 3rd International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (2009), Heerlen, The Netherlands. The articles of this special issue on cognitive load theory discuss new conceptualizations of the different categories of cognitive load, an integrated research perspective of process-oriented and cognitive load approaches to collaborative learning, an integrated research perspective of cognitive and social–cognitive approaches to example-based learning, and a specification of the theory focusing on the acquisition of generalized knowledge structures as a means to facilitate flexible problem-solving skills. This article provides a short introduction to the theory, discusses some of its recent advances, and provides an overview of the contributions to this issue. KeywordsCognitive load theory-Working memory-Integrated research perspectives
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A process model of hypertext reading was used to generate predictions about the effects of hypertext features on cognitive processing during text navigation and comprehension. We evaluated the predictions of the model with respect to the extant literature, focusing on studies in which versions of hypertexts were compared. Consistent with our predictions, the increased demands of decision-making and visual processing in hypertext impaired reading performance. Individual differences in readers, such as working memory capacity and prior knowledge, mediated the impact of hypertext features. For example, readers with low working memory and low prior knowledge were usually disadvantaged in hypertext. Some benefits were observed for learners with low prior knowledge, however, if the hypertext structure was hierarchical and consistent with that of the knowledge domain. We also surveyed the effectiveness of structural features designed to reduce cognitive load, including graphical overviews, restricted access to links, and visible link types. Complex graphical overviews did not reliably enable learning and navigation, whereas navigational support from restricted access and visible link types were helpful. We identified gaps in the empirical literature and suggested future studies to investigate cognitive processes in hypertext reading.
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This article reviews selected literature related to the credibility of information, including (1) the general markers of credibility, and how different source, message and receiver characteristics affect people's perceptions of information; (2) the impact of information medium on the assessment of credibility; and (3) the assessment of credibility in the context of information presented on the Internet. The objective of the literature review is to synthesize the current state of knowledge in this area, develop new ways to think about how people interact with information presented via the Internet, and suggest next steps for research and practical applications. The review examines empirical evidence, key reviews, and descriptive material related to credibility in general, and in terms of on-line media. A general discussion of credibility and persuasion and a description of recent work on the credibility and persuasiveness of computer-based applications is presented. Finally, the article synthesizes what we have learned from various fields, and proposes a model as a framework for much-needed future research in this area.
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Library and information science work has often focused on the study of solutions to the effects of information overload. For this reason, and because the concept is frequently identified as a problem in popular culture, it is logical to assume that the existence and description of information overload has been documented through rigorous investigation. Such is not the case. This article looks at the functions of myth and brings together ideas about the information society, information, and information overload to conclude that information overload is a myth of modern culture. In this sense, myth is a "nonscientific" process that confirms the reality of an elusive phenomenon. The article also reports results of a pilot project intended to describe information overload experienced by a particular folk group composed of future library and information professionals. In addition to trying to enhance the description of information overload, the pilot project represents an attempt to test the idea of the folk group as a remedy for this condition.
Article
In Experiment 1, students received an illustrated booklet, PowerPoint presentation, or narrated animation that explained 6 steps in how a cold virus infects the human body. The material included 6 high-interest details mainly about the role of viruses in sex or death (high group) or 6 low-interest details consisting of facts and health tips about viruses (low group). The low group outperformed the high group across all 3 media on a subsequent test of problem-solving transfer (d = .80) but not retention (d = .05). In Experiment 2, students who studied a PowerPoint lesson explaining the steps in how digestion works performed better on a problem-solving transfer test if the lesson contained 7 low-interest details rather than 7 high-interest details (d = .86), but the groups did not differ on retention (d = .26). In both experiments, as the interestingness of details was increased, student understanding decreased (as measured by transfer). Results are consistent with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, in which highly interesting details sap processing capacity away from deeper cognitive processing of the core material during learning.
Article
Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.
Fragmentation of microblog based on theory of media ecology
  • F Y Zhang
Zhang, F. Y. (2011). Fragmentation of microblog based on theory of media ecology. in Chinese Journal of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Social Sciences Edition), 13(2), 5e8. http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1008-7729.2011.02.002.
The shallows: How the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember
  • N Carr
Carr, N. (2010). The shallows: How the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember. Atlantic Books Ltd.
Mediation analysis. Annual review of psychology
  • D P Mackinnon
  • A J Fairchild
  • M S Fritz
MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual review of psychology, 58, 593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/ annurev.psych.58.110405.085542.