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The philosophy of physical education: A new perspective



The discipline area of physical education has historically struggled for legitimacy, sometimes being seen as a non-serious pursuit in educational terms compared to other subjects within the school curriculum. This book represents the first attempt in nearly thirty years to offer a coherent philosophical defence and conceptualisation of physical education and sport as subjects of educational value, and to provide a philosophically sound justification for their inclusion in the curriculum. The book argues that rather than relegating the body to “un-thinking” learning, a person’s essential being is not confined to their rationality but involves an embodied dimension. It traces the changing conceptions of the body, in philosophy and theology, that have influenced our understanding of physical education and sport, and investigates the important role that embodiment and movement play in learning about, through and in physical education. Physical education is defended as a vital and necessary part of education because the whole person goes to school, not just the mind, but the thinking, feeling and acting facets of a person. It is argued that physical education has the potential to provide a multitude of experiences and opportunities for students to become aware of their embodiment, explore alternative modes of awareness and to develop insights into and new modes of being not available elsewhere in the curriculum, and to influence moral character through the support of a moral community that is committed to that practice. Representing a sophisticated and spirited defence of the educational significance and philosophical value of physical education and sport, this book will be fascinating reading for any advanced student or researcher with an interest in physical education, the philosophy of sport or the philosophy of education.
June 2014: 234x156: 212pp
Hb: 978-1-138-79228-9 | £85.00
eBook: 978-1-315-76225-8
Chapter 1. On Justifications of Sport and Physical Education:
Are There Good Reasons for the Inclusion of Sport and
Physical Education Within Educational Institutions? Chapter
2. Philosophical and Theological Positions of the Body:
Changing Concepts of the Body and Its Influence Upon Sport
and Physical Education Chapter 3. The Unique Place of
Physical Education Within Education: The Fluid Concept of
Education and the Process of Being "Physically Educated"
Chapter 4. The Phenomenon of Play and Its Educational
Significance in Physical Education: Why Do Philosophers Talk
So Much About Play, Games and Sports? Chapter 5. The
Moral Aspects of Sport and Physical Education: Do Sport and
Physical Education Provide Unique Opportunities to Develop
Moral Character? Chapter 6. MacIntyre, Rival Traditions and
Physical Education
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The Philosophy of
Physical Education
A New Perspective
Steven A. Stolz, La Trobe University, Australia
Series: Routledge Studies in Physical Education and Youth Sport
This book represents the first attempt in nearly 30 years to
offer a coherent philosophical defence and
conceptualisation of physical education and sport as
subjects of educational value, and to provide a
philosophically sound justification for their inclusion in the
curriculum. Representing a sophisticated and spirited
defence of the educational significance and philosophical
value of physical education and sport, this book will be
fascinating reading for any advanced student or researcher
with an interest in physical education, the philosophy of
sport, or the philosophy of education.
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Hb: 978-1-138-79228-9 | £68.00
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... As a result, the learner in PE is at risk of being objectified, taken-for-granted and dis-embodied, more indicative of a Cartesian separation of mind and body as proposed by Descartes (Wright 2000). This splitting of mind and body overlooks the fact that our bodies are a conscious (Brown 2013;Durden-Myers, Meloche, and Dhillon 2020) and integrated dynamic whole (Stolz 2014), that is spatially, historically and socially located (Allen-Collinson 2009). Importantly, that we participate in the world simultaneously as cognitive, physical and social i.e. as mind-body (Ozoliņš 2013). ...
... In such cases, PE happens 'to' young people with little attention paid to the ways they might 'do' their bodies in meaningful ways. Meaningful learning in PE cannot happen without the 'lived body' (Thorburn 2021), and a focus on it can serve to challenge the discipline's static pedagogical status quo (Stolz 2014). ...
... Foundational: 'the main foundational cornerstone of PE programmes(Stolz 2014(Stolz , 2015'(Thorburn and Stolz 2017, 722) . Justification: a justification for PE(Standal and Aggerholm 2016) . ...
Background Interest in and debates around meaningful movement and embodiment in physical education (EPE) have grown over the last ten years. The quality of these discussions centre on a degree of conceptual clarity for talking pedagogically about embodiment, and consideration of ways of applying it in practice in meaningful ways. The aim of this study is to systematically analyse the theoretical concept of embodiment presented within physical education (PE) literature, in order to support a conceptual clarity upon which to build well-grounded pedagogical insights and practices for school-teachers and their students, as well as PE teacher educators. Method A narrative literature review methodology was used to identify twenty-three (23) papers from peer-reviewed literature between 2010 and 2021 that had some focus on embodiment. These were analysed using [Rodgers, B. L. 2000. “Concept Analysis: An Evolutionary View.” In Concept Development in Nursing: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications, edited by B. K. Rodgers and K. A. Knafl, 77–102. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.] theoretical evolutionary concept analysis method to systematically identify characteristics associated with the concept in published literature. Evolutionary concept analysis typically involves a six-phase process of usage over time. Data analysis involved the systematic extraction and analysis of the literature for surrogate terms, related concepts, attributes, antecedents, consequences, and references to the concept. Results Despite conceptual variances across the articles analysed, a set of common attributes that included intentionality, affect, meaning, sharing, and unity were identified. The review identified potential consequences of EPE including deeply transformative and meaningful change in the learner, the context, and the teacher. Events, situations or phenomena that precede EPE are broadly linked to the teacher, the learner, and the context. Conclusions The concept of embodiment as it pertains to its theoretical/philosophical deployment in PE, is both complex and varied, limiting its potential to inform the pedagogical practices of teachers and therefore realise the consequences espoused. To temper this disconnect the paper provides accessible, yet provisional guidance for teachers via clusters of familiar characteristics with accompanying descriptions of what the literature suggests as important for embodied approaches. Together the tables and analysis encourage and enable educators and researchers to believe in, commit to, and to operationalise embodiment as practice in their work.
... movement-oriented traditions, meaning making, the role of play in education, and the morality of movement. Unfortunately, it is argued that the philosophical and theological underpinnings of the discipline among school, further and higher education curriculums remain misunderstood, understudied and underdeveloped despite the subject being thoroughly engrossed in various permeating traditions (Schempp 1996;Stolz 2014). Much of this confusion, according to Theodoulides and Armour (2001), McNamee (2005) and Standal and Aggerholm (2016), is rooted in the field's constant need to justify itself as an academic subject in the world of education. ...
... Without firm and fertile soil in which to meaningfully base situationally sensitive forms of affective teaching (Jones 2008), in any sense of the meaning, it is not surprising that pedagogies conceptualized in the spirit of character or moral education in physical education have struggled to move beyond the test pilot mode (Casey and Fernandez-Rio 2019). Additionally, with growing levels of uncertainty concerning its nature (MacAllister 2013;Stolz 2014), future (e.g. eradication, more of the same, radical change; Kirk 2020), and the role the profession plays within modern educational institutions (Ward et al. 2021), there is an urgent need to build on the precarious discussion concerning the foundational moral philosophies of the discipline. ...
... eradication, more of the same, radical change; Kirk 2020), and the role the profession plays within modern educational institutions (Ward et al. 2021), there is an urgent need to build on the precarious discussion concerning the foundational moral philosophies of the discipline. Therefore, in response to the call to acknowledge, problematize, interpret and to study the 'unavoidably philosophical nature' of the subject (Stolz 2014, 2), the present paper articulates a neo-Aristotelian interpretation of physical education with the intention of strengthening the justification for movement-oriented character education in schools. ...
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Background: The philosophy of the discipline of physical education among school, further and higher education curriculums remains misunderstood, understudied and underdeveloped. With growing levels of uncertainty concerning its philosophical nature, general future (e.g. eradication, more of the same, radical change), and the role the profession plays within modern educational institutions, there is an urgent need to acknowledge, problematize, interpret and to study the unavoidably philosophical nature of the subject. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the justification for movement-oriented character education in schools by articulating a neo-Aristotelian interpretation of physical education. Key Concepts: Aligned with this goal, I begin by clarifying my guiding philosophical framework of neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics by synthesizing the concepts of virtue, character, phronesis and eudaemonia. Subsequently, I deconstruct contemporary practices associating character education to physical education circles with the goal of illuminating the potential of a philosophically informed approach compared to the dominant practice-driven and anecdotal view of character. In summary, I address the field's; overreliance on caught character; overemphasis on performance virtue; disproportionate focus on résumé virtues over eulogy virtues; the use of character as a peripheral curriculum activity; and lack of emphasis on wisdom and eudaemonia. Thereafter, I articulate one Aristotelian interpretation of physical education as if (neo) Aristotle was the teacher himself. From this position, I describe an education fixated on the affective domain, primarily concerned with helping youth to comprehend their moral potential in life through movement and inspired by the view that the cultivation of virtuous skills, agency, and reasoning are foundational to a flourishing society. Conclusion: By taking this approach, I philosophize the concept of the 'Virtuous Mover' and the potential ways in which school-based physical educators might begin to help future generations of youth to flourish.
... La asignatura de Educación Física (EF), al igual que las otras disciplinas pedagógicas, han requerido de bases teóricas filosóficas que le otorgaron sentido a su praxis. Aquella teoría es la que se reconoce, en términos generales, como Filosofía de la Educación y, en términos específicos de la didáctica aludida en este ensayo, se reconocería como Filosofía de la EF (García, 1999;Mujica, 2020aMujica, , 2021aStolz, 2014). ...
... Sin embargo, aquella perspectiva reduccionista está siendo superada, de modo que se ha intensificado la discusión filosófica en el campo de la educación (Mujica y Orellana, 2021a) y en la EF (Stolz, 2013(Stolz, , 2014Mujica, 2019Mujica, , 2020bMujica, , 2020cMujica, , 2021bMujica y Orellana, 2021b;Reyes, 2019;Sérgio, 2004Sérgio, , 2006Sérgio, , 2014Toro y Valenzuela, 2012). Sobre los problemas de la filosofía y la educación, García (2014) reconoce que "la relaciones entre la filosofía y la educación no siempre han sido pacíficas y fluidas, y tampoco lo son en la actualidad" (p. ...
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En este artículo de reflexión, se considera que la Educación Física es una actividad cultural que se encuentra influenciada por múltiples corrientes filosóficas. Por ello, en este ensayo se abordarán aportes filosóficos en torno a la Educación Física de diferentes épocas, incluyendo la Antigua Grecia, la época medieval, la época moderna y también la posmoderna. En primer lugar, se pretende esclarecer la diferencia entre un idealismo fragmentado y otro idealismo integrado. En segundo lugar, se analiza el reduccionismo que existe en las ideas de diferentes especialistas en Educación Física en torno a la filosofía idealista y el dualismo ontológico cuerpo-alma. Se identifica que referentes idealistas como Platón y Descartes plantearon un dualismo radical y fragmentado que contribuyó a la concepción de un cuerpo máquina que favoreció la deshumanización del proceso de aprendizaje en Educación Física. Por otro lado, referentes idealistas como Aristóteles, Tomás de Aquino, Emmanuel Mounier, Edith Stein, Søren Kierkegaard y Xavier Zubiri han promovido un dualismo moderado e integrado que contribuye a personalizar lo corporal y humanizar los actos pedagógicos. Se aprecia que existen especialistas de Educación Física que han promovido reduccionismos en torno al dualismo ontológico, quienes han llegado a rechazar el término Educación Física por considerarlo únicamente desde la perspectiva radical y fragmentada. Por ello, se considera fundamental fomentar y ampliar la discusión filosófica sobre la Educación Física.
... Hal ini tidak salah, jika tujuannya adalah untuk mengidentifikasi bakat dan mempersiapkan regenerasi atlet. Akan tetapi, jika prestasi yang menjadi prioritas utama, maka, tidak menutup kemungkinan bahwa dominasi pengajaran olahraga (Gerdin & Pringle, 2017), akan melemahkan konsep pendidikan jasmani di sekolah dasar yang menekankan pada pengembangan potensi anak secara keseluruhan (Stolz, 2014), dan mengancam kebebasan dan kemandirian anak dalam mengeksplorasi berbagai macam gerakan dalam aktivitas fisik dan olahraga (Larsson & Nyberg, 2017), serta menghilangkan nilai kebahagiaan dan kesenangan anak yang didapatkan dalam pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani (Kirk, 2013). ...
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Sejarah yang begitu panjang dalam mempertahankan eksistensi pendidikan jasmani dan olahraga di Indonesia, masih belum bisa memberikan sebuah ‘oase’ atau pengalaman yang menyenangkan di tengah permasalahan-permasalahan yang semakin menjustifikasi ketidakbermanfaatan pendidikan jasmani di sekolah maupun masyarakat. Tujuan penelitian ini berusaha untuk mengungkap gambaran tentang permasalahan, urgensi, dan pemahaman dalam pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani di sekolah dasar dari perspektif guru. Metode penelitian menggunakan desain deskriptif kualitatif dengan penekanan pada pengetahuan dan pengalaman subjek pada situasi dan permasalahan tertentu. Pengumpulan data dilakukan selama dua bulan melalui observasi dan wawancara semi-terstruktur terhadap tiga belas guru pendidikan jasmani (n=13), di lima sekolah dasar di Pulau Lombok, NTB. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa; Pertama, permasalahan dalam pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani dapat dirumuskan bahwa masih kurang atau tidak memadainya prasarana dan sarana, materi pembelajaran tidak sesuai dengan RPP, kurangnya pemahaman tentang konsep pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani baik dari pengawas maupun guru, dan masih terdapat kekeliruan dan ketidaksesuaian konsep dengan praktik pembelajaran pendidikan jasmani. Kedua, keadaan yang sangat mendesak (urgensi) dalam pendidikan jasmani adalah tentang kerentanan hilangnya eksistensi pendidikan jasmani di sekolah dasar, dan semakin melemahnya esensi pendidikan jasmani sebagai tempat memberikan pengalaman gerak dan olahraga yang menyenangkan kepada semua peserta didik tanpa adanya diskriminasi, polarisasi, dan tendensi bias gender. Ketiga, guru pendidikan jasmani memiliki kekurangan pengetahuan dan pemahaman tentang model pembelajaran dan model penilaian yang sesuai dengan kurikulum. Physical education, sports, and health in elementary schools: description of problems, urgency, and understanding of teacher perspectives AbstractThe long history in maintaining the existence of physical education and sports in Indonesia, is still not able to provide an 'oasis' or a pleasant experience in the midst of problems that increasingly justify the uselessness of physical education in schools and the community. The objective of this research is to reveal an idea of the problems, urgency, and understanding of the physical education learning in elementary school from a teacher's perspective. The research method uses a descriptive qualitative design with an emphasizes the subject's knowledge and experience in certain situations and problems. Data collection was conducted for two months through observations and semi-structured interviews towards thirteen physical education teachers (n = 13), in five elementary schools in Lombok Island, NTB. The results shows that; First, the problem in the learning of physical education can be formulated that it is still lacking or inadequate infrastructure and facilities, learning materials are not in accordance with the RPP, lack of understanding about physical education concepts both the supervisor and the teachers, and there are still errors and discrepancies concept with physical education learning practices. Second, the urgency in physical education is about the vulnerability of the loss existence of physical education in elementary schools, and the weakening of the essence of physical education as a place to provide a pleasant experience of movement and sports to all students without discrimination, polarization, and gender bias tendencies. Third, physical education teachers have a lack of knowledge and understanding of learning models and assessment models that are in accordance with the curriculum.
... Profil Guru Pendidikan Jasmani Olahraga dan Kesehatan saat ini masih jadi stigma yang kurang baik dimata guru mata pelajaran lain dan juga siswa. As a physical education teacher I hope to teach students' activities and skills that they can use throughout a life time (Stadtherr: 2005). Berikut beberapa profil guru pendidikan jasmani olahraga dan kesehatan, berdasarkan hasil wawancara dengan (Sujarwo: 2019) responden 39 orang wawancara dengan guru PE sekolah dasar: memiliki kedisiplinan, memiliki jiwa kepemimpinan, memiliki kepedulian sosial, profesional, totalitas dalam bekerja, percaya diri, sempurna secara fisik, berwibawa, memiliki jiwa pembimbing, memiliki rasa tanggungjawab, sebagai pribadi yang humoris atau menyenangkan, bisa menjadi orang tua siswa, dan memiliki keadilan. ...
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kontribusi filosofi dan kompetensi pedagogi terhadap kualitas mengajar guru pendidikan jasmani. Metode penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif dengan instrumen angket tentang filosofi dan kompetensi pedagogi guru pendidikan jasmani. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah 50 guru pendidikan jasmani dengan Proporsional Random Sampling. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Kontribusi filosofi guru pendidikan jasmani di 5 kabupaten/kota di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta dalam kategori Cukup sebesar 18 % atau sejumlah 36 orang dan katagori Tinggi 64% sejumlah 32 orang; Kontribusi Kompetensi Pedagogik guru pendidikan jasmani di 5 kabupaten/kota di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta dalam kategori Cukup, sebesar 48 % atau sejumlah 24 orang dan katagori Tinggi 52% sejumlah 26 orang. Kedua variabel berkontribusi besar terhadap kualitas mengajar guru pendidikan jasmani di Sekolah Dasar sehingga guru pendidikan jasmani hendaknya terus mengembangkan filosofi dan kompetensi pedagoginya untuk meningkatkan kualitas pembelajaran. Contribution of philosophy and pedagogical competence to the quality of teaching physical education teachers in primary schools Abstract This study aims to determine how much the contribution of philosophy and pedagogical competence to the quality of teaching physical education teachers. Descriptive quantitative research methods with a questionnaire about the philosophy and competence of physical education teacher pedagogy. The sample in this study were 50 physical education teachers with Proportional Random Sampling. The results showed that the contribution of the philosophy of physical education teachers in 5 districts in the Special Region of Yogyakarta in the Fair category was 18% or 36 people and High category 64% 32 people; Contribution of Pedagogical Competencies of physical education teachers in 5 regencies in the Special Region of Yogyakarta in the Fair category, amounting to 48% or a number of 24 people and the category of Higher 52% totaling 26 people. These two variables contribute greatly to the quality of teaching physical education teachers in elementary schools so that physical education teachers should continue to develop their pedagogical philosophies and competencies to improve the quality of learning.
... Slik sett kan det vaere behov for å diskutere hva man ønsker at lek skal bidra med i kroppsøving. Dette er ifølge Stolz (2014) nødvendig for å bedre forstå kroppsøvingsfagets intensjon og innhold, da det eksisterer en uklarhet i relasjonene mellom begrepene idrett, lek og spill, noe som også blir synlig gjennom denne studien. Som tidligere beskrevet er imidlertid ikke lek entydig, men mangfoldig og uensartet (Grindheim, 2011;Holst, 2017). ...
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Lek har fra Normalplan 1922 vært omtalt som en del av kroppsøvingsfaget i skolen, og som del av fornyelsen av faget i Kunnskapsløftet 2020 (LK20) skal lek vektlegges i større grad enn tidligere. Det finnes lite forskning om hvordan læreplanene omtaler lek og lekens plass i kroppsøvingsundervisningen. I det store tilfanget av lekteori ser det ut til å være enighet om noen kjennetegn ved leken, men det er til dels sterk uenighet om andre. Artikkelen undersøker på denne bakgrunn følgende problemstilling: Hvordan er lek konseptualisert i norske læreplaner i kroppsøving fra 1922 til og med Kunnskapsløftet 2020 (LK20)? Dette gjøres gjennom analyse av i hvilke kombinasjoner begrepet lek er brukt i de ulike læreplanene, og hvilke forventinger som skapes til lek, gjennom lekens retoriske funksjon. Med utgangspunkt i historisk konseptualisering Koselleck (1985) gjennomføres en nærlesning og analyse av læreplanene basert på «conceptually oriented criticism» (Jasinski, 2001a; 2001b). Resultatene viser at læreplanene skaper forventninger om at lek skal gi ulike typer bidrag i kroppsøving og at de ulike forventningene kan stå i ulike relasjoner til annet innhold og metoder i faget. Dette kan også forstås som et uttrykk for asymmetri. Selv om lek gjerne omtales som å ha egenverdi, er det i et historisk perspektiv de instrumentelle forventningene til lek som i størst grad blir retorisk synlig i læreplanene. Vi mener det er et behov for å diskutere lekbegrepet i kroppsøving og hva lek skal bidra med i faget. Videre er det også behov for mer forskning om hva som foregår i kroppsøving når lek er en del av undervisningen.
PURPOSE Sport pedagogy (SP) has established itself as a subdiscipline in Human Movement Studies since the 1970s. It has become an academic labyrinth as a result of its rapid flourishing. Most researchers are extremely confused about this disorderly research complex. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of SP in stages in the western (mostly English speaking) countries. METHODS Analysis of literature published in English from 1990 to 2022. RESULTS The developmental versions were divided as follows: SP1.0 is positivistic in nature, SP2.0 is multi-paradigmatic as it includes all paradigms, and SP3.0 (current version). Many academic journals have been launched, and a variety of books on divergent topics are being published. Currently, research has exploded. In SP3.0, research performed by British scholars are notable in terms of number and quality, overpowering those by scholars in the USA and other countries. Youth sport and sport coaching are regarded as new legitimate areas. Additionally, signs for SP4.0 have been indicated. CONCLUSIONS In order to find way outs in the SP labyrinth, it is necessary to recognize the current research trends in international SP.
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Plato emphasized the importance of physical education for soul development in his book ‘Phaedo’, which Socrates shunned for the same reason. Plato emphasized the physical component and the harmonious balance of the material and spiritual in his books ‘Republic’ and ‘Laws’. In his book ‘Politics’, Aristotle defined three elements of excellent education, the first of which was physical health. In this framework, sports and physical education should take precedence.
In the Norwegian curriculum for physical education (PE), health is one of several topics students should learn about. However, the way in which many educators conceptualize health can impact both what students learn and how health is taught in PE. According to Mong and Standal (2019) , differences in terms of the conceptualizations of health can also lead to differences in teachers’ didactical approaches. This article is based on an action research project in which the overall goal was to investigate how didactic work can contribute to developing the teaching of health in PE. The project included an action research phase and qualitative interviews. The project, conducted in Norway, lasted almost one school year and was divided into two units. One teacher and 48 students aged 14–15 years participated in the action research project, which included eight lessons. We conducted qualitative interviews with the teacher and six students after the completion of the action research phase. In our analysis, we identified three topics addressed by both the students and the teacher, namely ‘the use of logbooks as a method for reflection’, ‘awareness of health as a knowledge object’ and ‘developing confidence in how to teach health’. Through the use of a didactic approach to health, both the students and teacher developed new reflections on and awareness of health. The findings indicate that it was professional development which subsequently impacted didactic decisions, dialogues about how health was taught and the teacher’s confidence in teaching health.
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The aim of this research is to analyse the emotional tensions experienced by PE students in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. Twenty-four students participated in the study. A qualitative methodology was used in which, taking into account the safety and prevention conditions established for the COVID-19 situation, three categories of analysis were obtained: a) experiences regarding the use of the face mask; b) experiences regarding physical distancing; and c) social interaction between students. The researchers' logbooks and three discussion groups were used as data collection instruments. The results show how the COVID-19 safety measures generated emotional changes in students.
The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the relationship between children’s judgments regarding the legitimacy of potentially injurious sport acts for adults and for children, (b) the relationships between children’s legitimacy judgments and their moral reasoning, aggression tendencies, and sport involvement, and (c) the relative ability of the latter three variables to predict legitimacy judgments. Analyses were based on 78 girls and boys in grades 4 through 7 who participated in a moral interview, completed aggression ten dency and sport involvement questionnaires, and evaluated the legitimacy of potentially injurious sport acts depicted in a series of slides. Analyses revealed that children accepted more acts as legitimate for adults than for children. Boys’ legitimacy judgments were significantly related to their moral reasoning, aggression tendencies, and involvement in high-contact sports, but girls’ legitimacy judgments were correlated only with their life aggression tendencies. Children’s...