ArticleLiterature Review

Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella

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Abstract

Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions.

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... It grows from spring to summer favoring diverse terrains, including woodlands, ridges, and mountains in both the temperate and tropical regions. [1][2][3][4] Flowering occurs around April in the northern hemisphere spring, with small purplish flowers (see Fig. 1), and the plant withers around late summer ( July to August). Hence its Chinese name of Xia Ku Cao, meaning ''wither-in-summer weed.'' ...
... In the phytochemical area, research has explored the extraction and analytic processes, 4,[10][11][12] in which the use of liquid chromatography techniques was common. [13][14][15][16] The identification of P. vulgaris's chemical composition also featured frequently in literature. ...
... Identified compounds include phenolics, triterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, essential oils, organic acids, and polysaccharides, among other compounds. 4,[17][18][19][20][21][22] Of these, the anti-tumoral effect of ursolic acid 23,24 and rosmarinic acid 13,25-28 have been of interest. Rosmarinic acid is additionally used as the standard to identify the herb P. vulgaris. ...
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Abstract Introduction: This narrative review reports on the anti-viral activity of Prunella vulgaris with the aim of providing an overview of P. vulgaris research to date. P. vulgaris is an aromatic perennial herb that is common across diverse geographic regions. This article includes information about the investigation strategies and methodologies used to identify the nature of P. vulgaris's anti-viral mechanisms. Given its diverse interest and use, the P. vulgaris literature over the previous three decades reports on the phytochemical, agricultural, and pharmacological uses of the herb. To provide some background to the review, a brief description of the life cycle of the virus is given. Materials and Methods: The review was based on a literature search with three databases: Embase, Medline, and PubMed. The review's inclusion criteria were unrestricted: The time of publication was unlimited; the keywords included ''virus,'' along with HIV and HSV (given the research's historical focus), and ''prunella vulgaris'' (and variations). The articles identified were then categorized. Results: The search identified 24 articles, with 10 articles on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 8 articles on herpes simplex virus (HSV), and the remainder on other viruses. In vitro experimental designs dominated the methods, whereas in vivo parts were also noted. Most frequent P. vulgaris extraction methods included boiling for aqueous extract, followed by ethanolic extraction. Several anti-viral effective chemicals were identified across the studies, including polysaccharides, polyphenolics, triterpenes, and a range of essential oils. In this review, the articles were then categorized according to the stages of viral development and analysis methods, such as time-of-addition, pseudo-typing, and the use of reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, and viral protein detecting kits. This categorization exposed the mechanisms behind the anti-viral effect of the herb. Discussion: Due to the diverse focuses and designs of the research projects, there are difficulties in producing a summarized and quantitative analysis of all the literature collectively. These difficulties are discussed. For future research directions, it is suggested to use modern molecular biology techniques as tools for further investigations. As the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is the focus of attention of the whole world now, but there has been little research reported on the use of natural herbal medicine for its efficacy of treatment, it is suggested that herbs that have been traditionally used to treat influenza-like diseases, other than P. vulgaris, can be the candidates for further investigations. Volatile compounds from these herbs are also good targets, which may be proved to yield fruitful results.
... The dried spikes of Prunella vulgaris have been used as traditional medicines and food ingredients for > 100 years in East Asian, European, and American countries, and it is also a major component of famous herbal teas (Wong Lo Kat®) [13,14]. This plant has antiviral, antibacterial, anti-in ammatory, antitumor, and blood pressure-modulating effects [13,[15][16][17][18]. Phytochemical studies isolated triterpenoids [18][19][20], phenolic acids [21,22], polysaccharides [23,24], and avonoids [13] from P. vulgaris. ...
... The dried spikes of Prunella vulgaris have been used as traditional medicines and food ingredients for > 100 years in East Asian, European, and American countries, and it is also a major component of famous herbal teas (Wong Lo Kat®) [13,14]. This plant has antiviral, antibacterial, anti-in ammatory, antitumor, and blood pressure-modulating effects [13,[15][16][17][18]. Phytochemical studies isolated triterpenoids [18][19][20], phenolic acids [21,22], polysaccharides [23,24], and avonoids [13] from P. vulgaris. ...
... The dried spikes of Prunella vulgaris have been used as traditional medicines and food ingredients for > 100 years in East Asian, European, and American countries, and it is also a major component of famous herbal teas (Wong Lo Kat®) [13,14]. This plant has antiviral, antibacterial, anti-in ammatory, antitumor, and blood pressure-modulating effects [13,[15][16][17][18]. Phytochemical studies isolated triterpenoids [18][19][20], phenolic acids [21,22], polysaccharides [23,24], and avonoids [13] from P. vulgaris. ...
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Background Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is an abundantly expressed neutrophil serine protease that promotes neutrophil invasion and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, thereby mediating lung tissue destruction and enhancing pulmonary inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). Chemical agents that target HNE and manipulate HNE level homeostasis are desired to prevent or treat ALI. Methods In a search for HNE inhibitors, traditional Chinese medicines were evaluated, leading to the identification of the water extract of spikes of Prunella vulgaris as an inhibitor of HNE activity. Using bioactivity-guided fractionation, a bioactive fraction (PVAP) that inhibited NHE activity was prepared, and its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI were studied. Results The results suggested that PVAP elicited protective effects against LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting HNE activity, thereby reducing neutrophil invasion, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and NET formation. Conclusions These findings illustrated the utility of PVAP as an agent for preventing ALI.
... P. vulgaris is a low-growing perennial herbaceous plant widely distributed across northeastern Asia, such as in China, Japan, and Korea. Among them, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Hunan, and other provinces are the main producing areas in China [29]. P. vulgaris has a wide range of medicinal values, and the whole plant can be used as medicine. ...
... P. vulgaris is a traditional Chinese medicine that was discovered and used as a medicinal herb thousands of years ago and has a high medicinal value. The medicinal part of P. vulgaris is mainly the dried and mature flower spike, which mainly contains rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ursolic acid, and other effective substances [29]. Nowadays, the research hotspots of P. vulgaris mainly focus on pharmacology and clinical application, and it is found to have therapeutic effects on various diseases including cancer [50,51]. ...
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The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an efficient and sensitive method for determining gene expression levels, but the accuracy of the results substantially depends on the stability of the reference gene (RG). Therefore, choosing an appropriate reference gene is a critical step in normalizing qRT-PCR data. Prunella vulgaris L. is a traditional Chinese medicine herb widely used in China. Its main medicinal part is the fruiting spike which is termed Spica Prunellae. However, thus far, few studies have been conducted on the mechanism of Spica Prunellae development. Meanwhile, no reliable RGs have been reported in P. vulgaris. The expression levels of 14 candidate RGs were analyzed in this study in various organs and at different stages of Spica Prunellae development. Four statistical algorithms (Delta Ct, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and geNorm) were utilized to identify the RGs’ stability, and an integrated stability rating was generated via the RefFinder website online. The final ranking results revealed that eIF-2 was the most stable RG, whereas VAB2 was the least suitable as an RG. Furthermore, eIF-2 + Histon3.3 was identified as the best RG combination in different periods and the total samples. Finally, the expressions of the PvTAT and Pv4CL2 genes related to the regulation of rosmarinic acid synthesis in different organs were used to verify the stable and unstable RGs. The stable RGs in P. vulgaris were originally identified and verified in this work. This achievement provides strong support for obtaining a reliable qPCR analysis and lays the foundation for in-depth research on the developmental mechanism of Spica Prunellae.
... Studies have also revealed that both Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata have a wide variety of pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system, including anti-inflam-matory, endothelial cell function protection, antioxidant, vasodilation, and myocardial protection [18][19][20][21]. Prunella vulgaris, Achyranthes bidentata, and Eucommia ulmoides also have therapeutic benefits for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension [22][23][24]. ...
... Treatment. We obtained 32 active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla, 59 active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza, 4 active ingredients of Pueraria lobata, 26 active ingredients of Eucommia ulmoides, 11 active ingredients of Prunella vulgaris, and 17 active ingredients of Achyranthes bidentata through ADME screening and the TCMSP database, and according to the literature review, there is one active ingredient of Salvia miltiorrhiza [37,38], two active ingredients of Pueraria lobata [39,40], and two active ingredients of Prunella vulgaris [23,41]. Finally, 154 GJD active ingredients were obtained, and 322 predicted targets for GJD BioMed Research International active ingredients were collected using the TCMSP database. ...
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Primary hypertension is understood as a disease with diverse etiology, a complicated pathological mechanism, and progressive changes. Gedan Jiangya Decoction (GJD), with the patent publication number CN114246896A, was designed to treat primary hypertension. It contains six botanical drugs; however, the underlying mechanism is uncertain. We utilized network pharmacology to predict the active components, targets, and signaling pathways of GJD in the treatment of primary hypertension. We also investigated the potential molecular mechanism using molecular docking and animal experiments. The Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), the Protein Database (UniProt), and a literature review were used to identify the active components and related targets of GJD’s pharmacological effects. The GeneCards, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), and DrugBank databases were utilized to identify hypertension-related targets. Based on a Venn diagram of designed intersection targets, 214 intersection targets were obtained and 35 key targets for the treatment of hypertension were determined using the STRING data platform and Cytoscape software. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis of key targets revealed that the relevant molecular action pathways of GJD in the treatment of hypertension include the Toll-like receptor, MAPK, PI3K-Akt, and renin-angiotensin signaling pathways. A GJD active ingredient-key target-pathway connection diagram was created using Cytoscape software, and 11 essential active components were selected. Molecular docking was then used to verify the binding activity of key targets and key active ingredients in GJD to treat primary hypertension. The results of this study indicate that AGTR1, AKT1 with puerarin, EDNRA with tanshinone IIA, MAPK14 with daidzein, MAPK8 with ursolic acid, and CHRM2 with cryptotanshinone had high binding activity to the targets with active components, whereas AGTR1 was selected as target genes verified by our experiment. HPLC was utilized to identify the five active ingredients. Experiments in high-salt rats demonstrated that GJD might decrease the expression of AGTR1 in the kidney and thoracic aorta while increasing the expression of eNOS by preventing the activation of the renin-angiotensin pathway, thereby reducing lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
... In Eastern Asia, the herbal medicine is commonly used for the treatment of endometriosis and is generally used to alleviate pain, promote fertility, and prevent relapse (Flower et al., 2012). Prunella vulgaris L. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Labiatae and is widely distributed in northeast Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea (Bai et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2019). P. vulgaris is commonly used as a herbal medicine for headaches, dizziness, scrofula, goiter, and mastitis (Bai et al., 2016). ...
... Prunella vulgaris L. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Labiatae and is widely distributed in northeast Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea (Bai et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2019). P. vulgaris is commonly used as a herbal medicine for headaches, dizziness, scrofula, goiter, and mastitis (Bai et al., 2016). P. vulgaris and its components have anti-cancer effects on several malignant tumors, such as gastric, colorectal, thyroid, breast, and uterine cancers, because it induces apoptotic cell death (Lin et al., 2013;Han et al., 2015;Lim et al., 2020;Lin et al., 2020;Yu et al., 2021). ...
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Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by abnormal adhesion of endometrial tissue to the outside of the uterus. The combination of surgery, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and hormone treatment is well established therapy for endometriosis, however, case reports have showed that high rates of relapse and unpleasant side effect. For these reasons, recently, the studies have been focused on the Warburg-like metabolic shift of endometriosis. Prunella vulgaris is one of traditionally used herbal medicine for inflammatory disease and the anti-estrogenic effects of P. vulgaris is well-established. Therefore, in this work, we evaluated water-extracted P. vulgaris (PV) as a potential treatment for endometriosis. To this, we artificially induced endometriosis in ovarectomized mice by intra-peritoneal inoculation of uterus extracts. PV was orally administered, and PV significantly alleviated endometriosis, particularly the growth of ectopic endometrial lesions in artificially endometriosis-induced mice. For the mechanism study of anti-endometriosis by PV, we designed an in vitro study using human normal endometrial stromal cells (T-HESCs) and human endometrial cell (12Z) obtained from patients with endometriosis. PV strongly induced the apoptosis of 12Z cells rather than T-HESCs by control the activity or expression of aerobic glycolysis enzymes, such as lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), pyruvate dehydrogenase A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1/3. In addition, lactate production was enhanced, and oxygen consumption rate was suppressed in 12Z cells upon PV treatment. These changes in aerobic glycolysis eventually caused mitochondrial damage following decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and excessive mitochondrial ROS production. Especially, ulsolic acid (UA), one of the compounds in PV considerably led 12Z cell apoptosis with inhibition of LDHA activity. Therefore, UA could be a major active substance of PV in terms of endometriosis inhibitors. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that the beneficial efficacy of PV for the prevention/treatment of endometriosis.
... A wide variety of different chemical classes has been described for these 10 herbal drugs, ranging from the usual flavonoids to alkaloids (S. flavescens (He et al., 2015), I. tinctoria (Mohn et al., 2009), A. sinensis (Jin et al., 2012;Ma et al., 2015), O. diffusa (Chen et al., 2016)), triterpenoids (G. uralensis , P. vulgaris (Bai et al., 2016), S. flavescens (He et al., 2015)), quinones (P. cuspidatum (Peng et al., 2013)), iridoids (O. ...
... Our workflow formally identified a specific scandoside derivative for Oldenlandia diffusa (10-O-p-cis-coumaroyl scandoside methyl ester (O1)), previously described for the genus (Otsuka et al., 1991), and whose analogues were reported for this species (Chen et al., 2016). For Prunella vulgaris, rosmarinic acid (PR1) was selected as a marker in this formula (Bai et al., 2016), since its specificity could be proved by our workflow, even if this component is reported to be occurring in many plants (Petersen and Simmonds, 2003). The analyses of the other components related to PR1 showed the presence of specific analogues that support the herb traceability (Supplementary Figure S19 and Supplementary Table S8). ...
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In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), herbal preparations often consist of a mixture of herbs. Their quality control is challenging because every single herb contains hundreds of components (secondary metabolites). A typical 10 herb TCM formula was selected to develop an innovative strategy for its comprehensive chemical characterization and to study the specific contribution of each herb to the formula in an exploratory manner. Metabolite profiling of the TCM formula and the extract of each single herb were acquired with liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for qualitative analyses, and to evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) for semi-quantitative evaluation. The acquired data were organized as a feature-based molecular network (FBMN) which provided a comprehensive view of all types of secondary metabolites and their occurrence in the formula and all single herbs. These features were annotated by combining MS/MS-based in silico spectral match, manual evaluation of the structural consistency in the FBMN clusters, and taxonomy information. ELSD detection was used as a filter to select the most abundant features. At least one marker per herb was highlighted based on its specificity and abundance. A single large-scale fractionation from the enriched formula enabled the isolation and formal identification of most of them. The obtained markers allowed an improved annotation of associated features by manually propagating this information through the FBMN. These data were incorporated in the high-resolution metabolite profiling of the formula, which highlighted specific series of related components to each individual herb markers. These series of components, named multi-component signatures, may serve to improve the traceability of each herb in the formula. Altogether, the strategy provided highly informative compositional data of the TCM formula and detailed visualizations of the contribution of each herb by FBMN, filtered feature maps, and reconstituted chromatogram traces of all components linked to each specific marker. This comprehensive MS-based analytical workflow allowed a generic and unbiased selection of specific and abundant markers and the identification of multiple related sub-markers. This exploratory approach could serve as a starting point to develop more simple and targeted quality control methods with adapted marker specificity selection criteria to given TCM formula.
... A wide variety of different chemical classes has been described for these 10 herbal drugs, ranging from the usual flavonoids to alkaloids (S. flavescens (He et al., 2015), I. tinctoria (Mohn et al., 2009), A. sinensis (Jin et al., 2012;Ma et al., 2015), O. diffusa (Chen et al., 2016)), triterpenoids (G. uralensis , P. vulgaris (Bai et al., 2016), S. flavescens (He et al., 2015)), quinones (P. cuspidatum (Peng et al., 2013)), iridoids (O. ...
... Our workflow formally identified a specific scandoside derivative for Oldenlandia diffusa (10-O-p-cis-coumaroyl scandoside methyl ester (O1)), previously described for the genus (Otsuka et al., 1991), and whose analogues were reported for this species (Chen et al., 2016). For Prunella vulgaris, rosmarinic acid (PR1) was selected as a marker in this formula (Bai et al., 2016), since its specificity could be proved by our workflow, even if this component is reported to be occurring in many plants (Petersen and Simmonds, 2003). The analyses of the other components related to PR1 showed the presence of specific analogues that support the herb traceability (Supplementary Figure S19 and Supplementary Table S8). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), herbal preparations often consist of a mixture of herbs. Their quality control is challenging because every single herb contains hundreds of components (secondary metabolites). A typical 10 herb TCM formula was selected to develop an innovative strategy for its comprehensive chemical characterization and to study the specific contribution of each herb to the formula in an exploratory manner. Metabolite profiling of the TCM formula and the extract of each single herb were acquired with liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for qualitative analyses, and to evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) for semi-quantitative evaluation. The acquired data were organized as a feature-based molecular network (FBMN) which provided a comprehensive view of all types of secondary metabolites and their occurrence in the formula and all single herbs. These features were annotated by combining MS/MS-based in silico spectral match, manual evaluation of the structural consistency in the FBMN clusters, and taxonomy information. ELSD detection was used as a filter to select the most abundant features. At least one marker per herb was highlighted based on its specificity and abundance. A single large-scale fractionation from the enriched formula enabled the isolation and formal identification of most of them. The obtained markers allowed an improved annotation of associated features by manually propagating this information through the FBMN. These data were incorporated in the high-resolution metabolite profiling of the formula, which highlighted specific series of related components to each individual herb markers. These series of components, named multi-component signatures, may serve to improve the traceability of each herb in the formula. Altogether, the strategy provided highly informative compositional data of the TCM formula and detailed visualizations of the contribution of each herb by FBMN, filtered feature maps, and reconstituted chromatogram traces of all components linked to each specific marker. This comprehensive MS-based analytical workflow allowed a generic and unbiased selection of specific and abundant markers and the identification of multiple related sub-markers. This exploratory approach could serve as a starting point to develop more simple and targeted quality control methods with adapted marker specificity selection criteria to given TCM formula.
... Prunella vulgaris L. (PV), also known as self-heal, is a perennial herbaceous plant that is widely distributed in Asia and Europe. Previous study demonstrated that PV was rich in avonoids, sterols, organic acids, triterpenoids, polysaccharide and phenolic acids [8]. In traditional Chinese medicine, PV has been applied to treat thyroid gland dysfunction, goiter and neck lump for more than one thousand years, and today its clinical application extends to headache, dizziness, herpetic keratitis and certain cancers [8][9][10][11]. ...
... Previous study demonstrated that PV was rich in avonoids, sterols, organic acids, triterpenoids, polysaccharide and phenolic acids [8]. In traditional Chinese medicine, PV has been applied to treat thyroid gland dysfunction, goiter and neck lump for more than one thousand years, and today its clinical application extends to headache, dizziness, herpetic keratitis and certain cancers [8][9][10][11]. ...
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Background: The continued global rise in thyroid carcinoma calls for alternative prevention and treatment strategies. Prunella vulgaris L. (PV) is a herbaceous plant with a medicinal property in the treatment of thyroid gland dysfunction, but its influence on thyroid carcinoma is unclear so far. This study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of PV on survival, spontaneous thyroid carcinoma and its preneoplastic lesion in rats. Methods: A total of 552 Wistar rats (half female and half male) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and given one of the following diets for 24 months: chow diet (control), 2.5 (low), 8.25 (middle) and 25 (high) g/kg bw PV diets. After intervention, serum metabolic parameters including indicators of liver and renal function, glucose and lipid profiles were measured. Histological examination was conducted to confirm the types of thyroid carcinoma and its preneoplastic lesion. Results: After intervention, serum aspartate transaminase of male rats in high PV group decreased significantly. No statistical differences among groups in terms of survival, body weight and other metabolic parameters were detected. In the control, low, middle and high PV groups, 14, 14, 15 and 8 rats developed thyroid carcinoma, respectively. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) emerged as the most common histological type in both sexes. Although PV failed to decrease risk of total thyroid carcinoma or each histological type, the incidence rates of neoplastic C-cell hyperplasia (CCH, a preneoplastic lesion of hereditary MTC) in PV groups were lower than that of control, and the lowest was observed in high PV group, manifesting as 5.25-time decrease in female rats and 5.5-time decrease in male rats. Conclusion: Our results suggested for the first time that, a long-term administration of aqueous extract of PV decreased the incidence of neoplastic CCH without impairing survival and metabolic parameters.
... Pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system from Salvia miltiorrhiza, Pueraria lobata, and Eucommia ulmoides include anti-inflammatory, endothelium protecting, antioxidative, vasodilatory, and myocardial protective effects [19,20]; [21]. Modern pharmacological investigations have demonstrated that Prunella vulgaris and Achyranthes bidentata offer cardiovascular therapeutic effects such as blood pressure reduction, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties [22,23]. ...
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Gedan Jiangya decoction (GJD) (aqueous ethanol extract), a traditional Chinese medicine formula which contain six botanical drugs (Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., Prunella vulgaris L., and Achyranthes bidentata Blume) was designed to treat hypertension; however, the underlying mechanism of action is unclear. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of action of GJD in the treatment of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male SHRs were randomly divided into five groups: GJD doses were low (1.36 g/kg/d), medium (2.72 g/kg/d), and high (5.44 g/kg/d), captopril (13.5 mg/kg/d), and SHR groups, with Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) serving as the control. Every rat was gavaged once a day. The ALC-NIBP, a noninvasive blood pressure device, measured systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures. Six weeks following treatment, all rats were anesthetized. The blood samples were obtained from the abdominal aorta and then serum isolated to assess endothelin-1 and angiotensin II, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and TNF-alpha. The left ventricular and thoracic aortas were taken for HE staining, immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, and western blot examination. Following GJD therapy, SBP and DBP were significantly lowered, as were serum levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II. The thickness of the left ventricular and thoracic aorta walls reduced, as did type I collagen, type III collagen, and alpha-SMA expression in the left ventricular and aortic tissues. The GJD treatment significantly reduced serum levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, TAK1, and NF-κB/p65 levels were significantly reduced in left ventricular and aortic tissues, whereas IkB-alpha levels were significantly elevated. GJD has a dose-dependent effect on all parameters. In conclusion, GJD has been shown to lower blood pressure, improve cardiovascular remodeling, and reduce inflammation via regulating NF-κB in SHRs.
... It can clear the liver and dissipate fire, clear eyesight, dissipate nodules, and disperse swelling [7], pain, photophobia, dizziness, vertigo, gall, BRCA, hypertension, lymphatic tuberculosis, infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, simple goiter, mumps, acute icteric infectious hepatitis, and other diseases with a good clinical therapeutic effect [8][9][10][11]. Modern research shows that the water, alcohol, and ethyl acetate extracts of P. vulgaris have various pharmacological effects, including antitumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, free radical scavenging, antioxidative, and antiviral properties [12][13][14]. With the gradual deepening of research on P. vulgaris and its extract, its related pharmacological effects are being gradually clarified, and clinical research on it is becoming increasingly extensive. ...
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Background: Prunella vulgaris L. is effective in the treatment of breast cancer (BRCA); however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of treatment of BRCA by P. vulgaris using network pharmacology and molecular docking technology, and to verify the experimental results using human BRCA MDA-MB-231 cells. Methods: Active components and action targets of P. vulgaris were determined using the TCMSP™, SwissTarget Prediction™, and TargetNet™ databases. GeneCards™ and OMIM™ provided BRCA targets. After obtaining common targets, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the STRING™ database, and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were conducted using the Xiantao™ academic database. Cytoscape™ was used to construct "single drug-disease-component-target" and "single drug-disease-component-target-pathway" networks. The Human Protein Atlas™ was used to determine protein expression levels in BRCA cell lines. AutoDock tools™ were used to carry out molecular docking for the first 10 targets of quercetin and the PPI network. Finally, the abovementioned results were verified using cell experiments. Results: We obtained 11 active components, 198 targets, and 179 common targets, including DUOX2, MET, TOP2A, and ERBB3. The results of KEGG pathway analysis screened 188 related signaling pathways and indicated the potential key role of PI3K-Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in the antibreast cancer process of P. vulgaris. The results of molecular docking showed that the first 10 targets of quercetin interacted well with the protein network. Cell experiments showed that quercetin effectively inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells by regulating apoptosis and cell cycle, which may be partly related to the MAPK signaling pathway. Conclusion: Synergistic effects of multiple components, targets, and pathways on the anti-BRCA activity of P. vulgaris could provide a theoretical basis for further study on its complex anti-BRCA mechanism.
... The investigation into the anti-oxidative activity of PV volatile compounds showed that they did not consist of any anti-oxidative components. However, many previous studies 18,19,20,21,22,23 showed that non-volatile compounds in PV possess anti-oxidative property. So, just the distillation did not extract these anti-oxidative compounds as they are not volatile. ...
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Objective In this article, the aim is to verify a suggestion in our earlier study to explain the extraction dynamics of volatile compounds, being extracted from the herb Prunella vulgaris (PV) using the method of steam distillation. Then, the antioxidative property of PV is explored. Methods Because our earlier study suggested that the inefficient extraction using steam distillation was due to the mass of herb in the path of steam flow acting as an obstacle, we used hydro distillation which tried to eliminate this obstacle. We used gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to characterize the volatile compounds extracted during the distillation process. Then, by treating the cancer cells from the cell line SCC154 with the distillate, the cancer cell cytotoxicity was assessed using the tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric test reagent, the Cell Counting Kit-8. The results provided the bases for comparisons. To assess the anti-oxidative activity of the PV distillate, Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used. Results We successfully showed that the removal of the obstacle, formed by the mass of herb in the flow path of the uprising steam, enhanced the efficiency of volatile compound extraction and more volatile compounds could be extracted. Also, it was shown that the PV distillate did not exhibit anti-oxidative activity. Conclusions Hydro distillation is a more efficient method than steam distillation to extract volatile compounds from the PV herb. However, mild heating, which did not provide sufficient energy to the convection of the boiling water, did not move the floating herb on top of the boiling water; so, the obstacle still existed and limited the efficiency of extraction. For another issue of the antioxidant effect of the volatile compounds from PV, it was studied using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. It showed that the PV volatile compounds did not possess antioxidant property.
... The investigation into the anti-oxidative activity of PV volatile compounds showed that they did not consist of any anti-oxidative components. However, many previous studies 18,19,20,21,22,23 showed that non-volatile compounds in PV possess anti-oxidative property. So, just the distillation did not extract these anti-oxidative compounds as they are not volatile. ...
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Full-text available
In this article, the aim is to verify a suggestion in our earlier study to explain the extraction dynamics of volatile compounds, being extracted from the Prunella vulgaris (PV) herb using the method of steam distillation. Because our earlier study suggested that the inefficient extraction was due to the mass of herb in the path of steam flow acting as an obstacle, we used hydro distillation which tried to eliminate this mass of herb. We successfully showed that the removal of this obstacle did enhance the efficiency of volatile compound extraction and more volatile compounds could be extracted. However, mild heating which did not provide sufficient energy to the convection of the boiling water did not move the floating herb on top of the boiling water; so, the obstacle still existed and limited the efficiency of extraction. For another issue of the antioxidant effect of the volatile compounds from PV, it was studied using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. It showed that the PV volatile compounds do not possess antioxidant property.
... In 2000 BC people ate the part of plants to cure the disease, 1850 AD drink the portion of the plants, and after 1940 AD they swallow the synthetic pills for treatment but in 2000 AD again people start eating the part of the plant to cure the diseases because synthetic pills produce the unwanted side effects (1,2).The activity of the herbal medicines is mainly by the presence of phytochemicals For example Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Steroids, Terpenoids, Triterpenes, Saponins, Tannins, and Phenolic acids etc (3,4). Momordica cymbalaria is one of the important herbal medicines widely distributed in South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, and Tamil Nadu (5).Momordica cymbalaria is under the family of Cucurbitaceae and it is commonly known as Athalakkai in Tamil, Kaarali Kanda in Hindi, Kasarakayee in Telugu and Kattupavalin Malayalam. ...
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... 3 Herbal medicines have been used as food or supplements since ancient times. 4,5 A wealth of natural products originated from medicinal herbs have been shown to have therapeutic effects in many diseases such as cancer, heart failure, and malaria. 6 Betulinic acid (BA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpene, and it can be derived from several Chinese herbal medicines such as Zizyphus joazeiro and Prunella vulgaris. ...
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Betulinic acid (BA) is a natural product extracted from a broad range of medicinal and edible herbal plants. Previous studies showed that BA induces cell death in tumors derived from multiple tissues; however, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. The present study aimed to study the effects of BA on autophagy and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Human HCC cell lines and orthotopic HCC implanted mice were employed to examine the BA‐induced tumor suppression; RT2 long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) PCR array and database analysis were used to explore the possible mechanisms; validation of pathways was performed using siRNA and miRNA inhibitors. The results indicated that BA regulated autophagy and induced apoptosis in HCC. The degradation of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), the conversion of LC3‐I to LC3‐II, and p62 accumulation were enhanced by BA, thereby suggesting that the downregulation of IAPs and autophagic cell death are induced by BA. The addition of autophagy and lysosomal inhibitors indicated that BA induced autophagy‐independent apoptosis via degradation of IAPs. Moreover, RT2 lncRNA PCR array and database analysis suggested that BA downregulated the levels of lncRNA MALAT1, which is considered to be an oncogene. Further investigations demonstrated that lncRNA MALAT1 functioned as a ceRNA (competing endogenous RNA) to contribute to BA‐mediated degradation of IAPs by sponging miR‐22‐3p. Therefore, BA could be developed as a potential anticancer agent for HCC. Betulinic acid (BA) inhibited tumor growth of HCC in vivo and in vitro. BA induced cell death through the inhibition of autophagic flux and autophagy‐independent apoptosis in HCC. BA promoted apoptosis in HCC through MALAT1 inhibition in vivo and in vitro. MALAT1 functioned as a miR‐22‐3p sponge to contribute to BA‐induced apoptosis.
... The Prunella genus is known to contain triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Various pharmacological studies investigating Prunella have demonstrated the enhanced antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-tumour properties it possesses [26]. PV is a herbaceous plant that is commonly known as self-heal and heal all [27]. ...
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The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, producing the disease COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that targets mostly the human respiratory system and also other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans, however there have been previous outbreaks of different versions of the beta coronavirus including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV1) from 2002 to 2003 and the most recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) which was first identified in 2012. All of the above have been recognised as major pathogens that are a great threat to public health and global economies. Currently, no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been identified; however, certain drugs have shown apparent efficacy in viral inhibition of the disease. Natural substances such as herbs and mushrooms have previously demonstrated both great antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, the possibilities of natural substances as effective treatments against COVID-19 may seem promising. One of the potential candidates against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be Inonotus obliquus (IO), also known as chaga mushroom. IO commonly grows in Asia, Europe and North America and is widely used as a raw material in various medical conditions. In this review, we have evaluated the most effective herbs and mushrooms, in terms of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects which have been assessed in laboratory conditions.
... Therefore, we assumed that P. vulgaris may promote Treg proliferation by enhancing IDO1 expression in APCs. Both immunesuppressive and immune-enhancing effects of P. vulgaris have been reported [34,35]. A previous study documented that P. vulgaris extracts significantly suppressed cellular and humoural responses in mice [10]. ...
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Background Prunella vulgaris L. (P. vulgaris) has traditionally been used to treat swelling and inflammation of the thyroid gland. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of P. vulgaris on experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) and explore the roles of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in these P. vulgaris-mediated effects. Methods The main bioactive compounds in P. vulgaris were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. An EAT model was established by immunization of Lewis rats with thyroglobulin via subcutaneous injection. Thyroid volume was assessed by ultrasound, and lymphatic infiltration in the thyroid was evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. The serum levels of thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and cytokines were measured by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentage of CD4⁺CD25⁺Foxp3⁺ Tregs was detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein levels of IDO1 were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The levels of tryptophan (Trp) and kynurenine (Kyn) in serum and faecal samples were assessed with a fluorometric kit and spectrophotometry. Results The main bioactive compound in P. vulgaris was rosmarinic acid. The TgAb level and thyroid volume in EAT rats were significantly decreased after administration of P. vulgaris (P < 0.01). The inflammation score in EAT rats that were administered P. vulgaris was significantly lower than that in the EAT controls (P < 0.01). In addition, P. vulgaris promoted the expansion of splenic Tregs and increased the production of IL-10 and TGF-β (P < 0.01) in EAT rats. Moreover, P. vulgaris induced IDO1 mRNA and protein expression in the spleen and intestine in P. vulgaris-treated EAT rats (P < 0.01). Finally, Trp levels were reduced and Kyn levels and the Kyn/Trp ratio were increased in the serum of P. vulgaris-treated EAT rats. Conclusion We were the first to demonstrate the role of IDO1-induced Treg expansion in P. vulgaris-mediated attenuation of EAT. Our study provides insight into the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis and shows the potential therapeutic value of P. vulgaris.
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Background Prunella vulgaris L. has been a traditional Chinese anti-inflammatory medicine for hundreds of years. However, clinic evidence indicates that it also causes a cluster of metabolic syndromes such as reduced appetite, diabetes, diarrhea etc. To date, the mechanisms of the anti-inflammation and associated symptoms by P. vulgaris treatment remain unclear. Methods Network pharmacology studies using TCMSP and Genecards database, Cytoscape, GO and KEGG were applied to reveal the ingredients, hub molecules and their interactions, and enriched biologic processes associated with analgesic and glucose intolerance. Some active gradients and target genes were obtained from the comparisons of relevant databases in TCMSP and Genecards. Connections of validated and predicted gradients, target genes and diseases were visualized through Cytoscape. GO and KEGG were applied to identify the significantly engaged hub genes, biological processes and signaling pathways. To further validate GC and BDNF effects, C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, control (C), dexamethasone (Dex, 1 mg/kg/day), PE-treated (35mg, 70mg), and PE (70mg) + mifepristone (2.5 mg/kg/day) (PEM group). Mice were pretreated by water extract of P. vulgaris spica (PE) for 3-4 weeks followed by one of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate test, rotaroad test, food intake, glucose tolerance test (GTT). Quantitative PCR was applied to detect hepatic and hypothalamic gene expression. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glucocorticoids, IL1β, IL6 and IL10 were measured by ELISA. Results Network pharmacology studies revealed that BDNF, GCs and GC-responsive or down-stream genes such as GC-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ), glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 1, protein kinase B (PKB), etc. were intensively involved into anti-inflammation and glucose intolerance. Acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests confirmed the peripheral and central analgesic effects of PE treatment. Based on the results of feeding behavior tests, 4-week PE treatment impeded food intake but increased the ratio of bodyweight gain to food intake. GTT revealed PE treatment impaired glucose disposal in mice. Finally, real time PCR confirmed that hepatic GC-target genes, such as G6Pase, GILZ, SGK1, PKB were up-regulated, and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) expression were decreased by PE administration. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (Gsk3 β) was mildly increased. Hypothalamic BDNF was up-regulated, whereas hepatic BDNF was down-regulated. Plasma BDNF and GCs were increased, and IL1β, IL6 and IL10 were decreased by PE treatments (p<0.05). Conclusions GCs, BDNF, SGK1, insulin and PKB are most relevant molecules to analgesic and glucose intolerance when P. vulgaris is applied. PE treatment plays the analgesic role through the GC, GILZ and PKB regulatory pathways, and regulates the levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines. Meanwhile, it upregulates G6PC1and GSK3β expression to increase plasma glucose level leading glucose intolerance. Although PE treatment decreases food intake, it makes mice to be prone to obesity. The corresponding increase of plasma BDNF may act as a counterpart to GC effects leading animals to adapt environments more easily.
Chapter
Traditional medicines have long been making the use of plants that produce the secondary metabolites of therapeutic importance. However, in order to meet the ever-growing and exponential demand of herbal medicine, alternative methods need to be explored to enhance the yield and quality of the pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. Amid such a situation, Ultraviolet (UV) rays as elicitors have caught a lot of attention for increasing the production of therapeutically important secondary metabolites due to their promising nature. Medicinal plants develop a variety of secondary metabolites as one of their defense mechanisms. They mainly provide photoprotection by filtering UV rays and quenching reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through the elevation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant agents created on exposure to UV irradiation. Each of the UV rays i.e., UV-A, UV-B and UV-C, has a distinct impact on the plant metabolism and holds the potential to make changes at a molecular level by up-regulating and down-regulating genes. This chapter aims to shed light on the outcome of exposing plants to different types of UV irradiation and on different adaptive mechanisms plants go in for producing the commercially and therapeutically important secondary metabolites.KeywordsUV-irradiationElicitorsSecondary metabolitesAdaptive mechanismsReactive oxygen species
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Prunella vulgaris L.(P. vulgaris) is a perennial herb belonging to the Labiate family and widely distributed in China, Japan, Korea and Europe. Medical monographs and previous studies have shown that P. vulgaris has significant anti-breast cancer activity, and its use in breast treatment has a long history. However, systematically reports about the material basis and mechanism of P. vulgaris on anti-breast cancer activity are limited. In the present study, we first screened the best active fraction from the crude extract (PVE) and ethanol eluted fractions of P. vulgaris by using MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, 4T1 cell models in vitro and a 4T1-BALB/c transplanted tumour mouse breast cancer model in vivo. Furthermore, the anti-breast cancer mechanism of the best active fraction was investigated. The results demonstrated that PVE and ethanol fractions exhibited anti-breast cancer activity, especially with the 50% ethanol eluted fraction (PV50), which effectively regulated the 4T1 cell cycle, inhibited tumour cell proliferation, and promoted cancer cell apoptosis. In case of in vivo assays, PV50 inhibited tumour growth and lung metastasis, as well as inducing cell apoptosis by promoting damage of nuclear DNA and increasing expression of cleaved caspase-3. In addition, the chemical compositions of PV50 were analyzed by HPLC and UPLC-MS/MS, which were identified as flavonoids, moderately polar triterpenes, and a small amount of phenolic acid. The PV50 could be applied as natural sources against breast cancer in the pharmaceutical industry. These findings provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of the anti-breast cancer activity of P. vulgaris.
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In this study, tyrosinase was immobilized on carboxyl functionalized silica‐coated magnetic nanoparticles for the first time to be used for fishing of tyrosinase's ligands present in complex plant extract. The immobilized tyrosinase was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo‐gravimetric analyzer, and atomic force microscopy. The reusability and thermo‐stability of the immobilized tyrosinase were found significantly superior to its free counterpart. Two tyrosinase's ligands, i.e., caffeic acid (1) and rosmarinic acid (2), were fished out from extract of the traditional Chinese medicine Prunellae Spica by the immobilized tyrosinase. Compound 1 was found to be an activator of the enzyme with the half maximal effective concentration value of 0.27 ± 0.06 mM, while compound 2 was an inhibitor with the half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 0.14 ± 0.03 mM. Taking advantage of the convenience of magnetic separation and specific extraction ability of ligand fishing, the proposed method exhibited great potential for screening of bioactive compounds from complex matrices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The aim of this study was to confirm the anti-inflammatory effect and explore the adverse effects and underlying mechanisms of Prunella vulgaris L., which has been extensively used for hundreds of years in East Asia. Network pharmacology studies predicted that glucocorticoids (GCs), GC-targeting molecules, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were intensively involved in the anti-inflammation and glucose intolerance. To attest the effects and underlying mechanisms, C57 male mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, control (C), dexamethasone (Dex), water extract of P. vulgaris (PE 35 or 70 mg), and PE (70 mg) + mifepristone (PEM). After a 3-week treatment, acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests confirmed the peripheral and central analgesic effects, respectively. Plasma GCs and BDNF were significantly increased. Coincidently, plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL1β, IL6, and IL10, were decreased by PE treatment, which were blocked by the application of mifepristone ( P < 0.5). Western blots confirmed GC receptor (GR) translocation, and decreased cyclooxygenase 2 in the lumber spine by PE treatment. Food intake was impeded after a 4-week PE treatment, but the ratio of bodyweight gain to food intake was increased in a time-dependent manner. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test disclosed that PE treatment impaired glucose disposal in mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that hepatic GC-responsive genes such as GC-induced leucine zipper protein and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 1 were up-regulated, and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein expressions were decreased by PE treatment. Hypothalamic BDNF was up-regulated, whereas hepatic BDNF was down-regulated. The regulation of these genes by PE was reversed by mifepristone administration. In conclusion, PE treatment plays analgesic and glucose regulation roles simultaneously through GC-induced signaling pathways, and P. vulgaris may provide a natural ligand of GR for the treatment of inflammation with glucose dysregulation.
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This is an Open Access Journal / article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved. The flower of Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae) was investigated for its in-vitro anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activity. The antioxidant activity revealed that the methanol extract of Prunella vulgaris flower (MEFE) possess highest scavenging capacity than petroleum ether extract (petroleum ether = PEFE). The antimicrobial activity showed that Staphylococcus aureus, Klebisiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli were the most susceptible pathogens and significant activity was also recorded by PEFE against Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis and K. pneumonia strains tested, at different concentrations. Column chromatographic fractions were also tested for antibacterial activity, wherein F2 (fraction 2) out of six fractions showed appreciable antibiotic activity against all the organisms tested. FT-IR analysis was done to confirm functional groups and nutrient type present. Besides the plant has great importance as far as its other clinical applications are concerned. The present investigation can be used for comparative evaluation of bioactive constituents with other species of medicinal plants present in different parts of the world and can be used for preparation of superior combination of this herb to use in pharmaceutical industries. ABSTRACT RESEARCH ARTICLE
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The root of Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae), was investigated for its in vitro anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activity. The antioxidant activity revealed that the methanol extract of Prunella vulgaris root (MERE) possess highest scavenging capacity than petroleum ether extract (petroleum ether = PERE). The antimicrobial activity showed that Staphylococcus aureus, Klebisiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli were the most susceptible pathogens and significant activity was also recorded by PERE against Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis and K. pneumonia strains tested, at different concentrations. Column chromatographic fractions were also tested for antibacterial activity, wherein F4 (fraction 4) out of six fractions showed appreciable antibiotic activity against all the organisms tested. FT-IR analysis was done to confirm functional groups and nutrient type present. Besides the plant has great importance as far as its other clinical applications are concerned. The present investigation can be used for comparative evaluation of bioactive constituents with other species of medicinal plants present in different parts of the world and can be used for preparation of superior combination of this herb to use in pharmaceutical industries.
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Common cold is known as a serious clinical problem worldwide. Coronaviruses have long been identified as respiratory pathogens causing “common cold” in healthy people. The pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus as a serious public health problem and concern has resulted in severe illness and death especially in the elderly. COVID-19 is picking up pace around the world and has spread to more than 219 countries. Due to the very easy spread of COVID-19 and its lack of recognized appropriate treatments and vaccines as well as potential therapeutic effects of several traditional herbal remedies, we decided to gather, evaluate, and compare the potential pharmacological effects of medicinal herbs from Avicenna’s perspective and modern medicine with antiviral properties which may lead to the discovery of suitable traditional treatments to prevent or reduce the adverse symptoms of common cold.
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For ages, the Himalayan mountain range of the Tibetan Plateau has harboured a unique diversity of endemic medicinal flora, establishing the region as a major hotspot of ethnobotanical biodiversity. The numbers, analysis, and documentation of traditional Himalayan plants have increased rapidly in recent decades, but a lot of work is still in progress. In high-altitude regions, the local medicinal practitioners are the prime conservers of medicinal plants, and their main work of preparing herbal formulations and identifying related therapeutic uses depends solely on ancestral knowledge gained since the Vedic period. Out of the main list, several Himalayan medicinal plants such as Achillea wilhelmsii, Caesalpinia bonducella, Jatropha curcas, Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Plantago asiatica, Panax ginseng, Sophora subprostrata, Morus alba, Withania somnifera, and Tinospora cordifolia are well known for their importance in stimulating immunity. Therefore, the present chapter is an attempt for highlighting the history, composition of local herbal formulations, and ethnopharmacology of Himalayan medicinal plants for enhancing human immune systems.
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Prunella vulgaris is a widely used edible Chinese medicinal plant. In the present study, two new abietane-type diterpenoids, abietoquinones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from this plant by an immunosuppressive bioassay-guided isolation procedure. Their structures were elucidated unambiguously by NMR spectroscopic analysis, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 bear a cyclohex-2-ene-1,4-dione moiety, which is uncommon among abietane diterpenes. Also, abietoquinone A (1) suppressed murine splenocyte proliferation and decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines induced by concanavalin A (Con A) in vitro. In Con A-challenged mice, preinjection with 1 significantly ameliorated liver injury. Additionally, abietoquinone A (1) exhibited inhibitory activities against the proliferation of murine splenocytes and human T cells induced by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Cancer is the top death causing disease in the world, due to its occurrence through various mechanism and form. Medicinal plants have been extensively used for the purifications and isolations of phytochemicals for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Objectives Consequently, this research was designed to document the traditional practices of anti-cancer plants and its phytochemical essay across the districts of KP, Pakistan. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted (24 districts), from the informants mostly the traditional herbalists (key informants). The information were compared with the publish data using various authentic search engines including, google, researchgate, google scholar and NCBI. Results One hundred and fifty-four (154), anti-cancer plants were recognized belonging to 69 families among all, Lamiaceae (13 sp.), Asteraceae (12 sp.) and Solanaceae (9 sp.) were the preferred families. The local inhabitants in the area typically prepare ethnomedicinal recipes from leaves (33.70%) and whole plants (23.37%) in the form of decoction and powder (24.67%), respectively. Herbs stayed the most preferred life form (61.68%) followed by shrub (21.4%). Similarly, breast (29.22%) and lung cancer (14.83%) was the common disease type. Literature study also authorize that, the medicinal plants of the research area were rich in phytochemical like quercetin, coumarine, kaempferol, apigenin, colchicine, alliin, rutin, lupeol, allicin, berbarine, lutolin, vanilic acid, urocilic acid and solamargine have revealed significant activates concerning the cancer diseases, that replicating the efficacy of these plants as medicines. Conclusion The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is rural area and the local inhabitants have very strong traditional knowledge about the medicinal plants for different diseases like cancer. The medicinal plants for significant ranked disorder might be pharmacologically and phtyochemicaly explored to demonstrate their efficacy. However, the local flora especially medicinal plants facing overgrazing, overexploitation and inappropriate way of collection, however, proper management strategies like reforestation, controlled grazing, proper permission from concerned department and rangeland strategies among others may be assumed to enhance the proper usage of medicinal plants.
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With the emergence of health related side effects of synthetic substances, the trend towards natural products has increased and has directed researchers to determine their pharmacological properties. At the same time, the resistance of the microorganisms to the antibiotics used in the treatment revealed that they should be controlled without allowing them to gain resistance. In this study, the total phenolic content, volatile composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-quorum sensing and antitumor activities of Prunella vulgaris, Sambucus nigra and Calendula officinalis extracts were determined. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) method, volatile component analyses were determined by GC-MS, and antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method. Chromobacterium violaceum 026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136 were used to determine the anti-quorum sensing activity. Additionally, the antitumor potential of the extracts was determined by the potato disc method. Prunella vulgaris was the plant with the highest antioxidant capacity, while the extract with the highest antimicrobial activity was determined to be Sambucus nigra against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The results showed that all extracts have anti-quorum sensing properties. Prunella vulgaris was the plant with the highest anti-quorum sensing properties. There was a correlation between the extract concentration and tumor inhibition. The Prunella vulgaris extract was found to have the highest antitumor activity. As a result, it was determined that the plants used in the study have the potential to be used in alternative medicine treatment and can be utilized for the control of microorganisms.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance The traditional use of Prunella vulgaris was for the treatment of liver cancer in a few areas of China. At present, it is mainly used in the treatment of thyroid cancer, throat cancer, and lymphosarcoma among others. However there are few current scientific reports of its use in the treatment of liver cancer. We are committed to studying the effective treatment of liver cancer in order to provide an experimental basis for the application of Prunella vulgaris related preparations in the treatment of liver cancer. Aim of the study To study the anti-hepatocarcinoma effect of Prunella vulgaris total flavonoids and explore its possible molecular mechanism. Methods The effects of Prunella vulgaris total flavonoids on the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells were observed by RTCA analysis system. The tumor volume and weight were observed in H22 tumor bearing mice. ELISA was used to observe the apoptosis and autophagy protein expression in tumor tissue homogenate, along with the serum immune factor. Tumor tissue apoptosis was observed by TUNEL method. Beclin-1 and LC3-I/LC3-II expression were observed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results The total flavonoids of Prunella vulgaris inhibited the activity of SMMC-7721 cells, and reduced the tumor volume and weight in H22 tumor bearing mice. HE staining showed that the Prunella vulgaris total flavonoids inhibited liver metastasis of H22 tumor. The Prunella vulgaris total flavonoids significantly increased the expression of IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ immune factors in the serum of tumor bearing mice, and the contents of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased in tumor tissue homogenate. TUNEL showed that the ratio of positive cells in the intervention group were significantly higher than that in the control group. The p62 content in tumor tissue homogenate was increased and ATG5 decreased after intervention, Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed Beclin-1 expression decreased and LC3-I/LC3-II increased in the tumor tissue. Conclusion Prunella vulgaris total flavonoids have obvious anti-hepatocarcinoma effect, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis of liver cancer cells.
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Background Prunella vulgaris, family Lamiaceae also known as self-heal, has been traditionally used as an expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and anti-rheumatic. Due to widespread distribution of the plant, Vulgaris is also called ‘vulgar’ in Latin adjective meaning common. Objective The objective of this review was to describe the relevant aspects of phytochemistry and therapeutic uses of different fractions as well as isolated compounds from Prunella vulgaris. An attempt was also made to enumerate the possible leads e.g. betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin, esculetin, luteolin, homoorientin, Rosmarinic acid and cinaroside for further development. Method For peer-reviewed research literature, we undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases using a focused review question. Scientific databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were used Results Phytochemistry of Prunella vulgaris (PV) after a thorough literature survey revealed varied and copious metabolites, such as triterpenoids, phenolic acid, sterols, carbohydrates, coumarins, fatty acids, and volatile oils. Many of these compounds have been found to possess wide range of biological activity per se, including anti-microbial, immunosuppressive, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory. Conclusion Prunella vulgaris is a medicinal plant of immense medicinal importance having a variety of compounds such as such as triterpenoids, phenolic acid, sterols, carbohydrates, coumarins, fatty acids, and volatile oils and diversity in pharmacological spectrum. The plant could be further exploited, to isolate the various biologically active constituents responsible for its activity.
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With a large and increasing elderly population, neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington disease (HD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Multiple sclerosis (MS) have become a major and growing health problem. During the past few decades, the elderly population has grown 2.5 % every year. Unfortunately, there are no specific therapeutic remedies available to slow the onset or development of these diseases. An aging brain causes many pathophysiological changes and is the major risk factor for most of the neurodegenerative disorders. Polyphenolic compounds such as flavonols have shown therapeutic potential and can contribute to the treatment of these diseases. In this review, evidence for the beneficial neuroprotective effect of multiple flavonols is discussed and their multifactorial cellular pathways for the progressions of age-associated brain changes are identified. Moreover, the animal models of these diseases support the neuroprotective effect and target the potential of flavonols in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
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Prunella vulgaris L. is a moderately salt tolerant plant commonly found in China and Europe, whose spica (Prunellae Spica) has been used as a traditional medicine. The scant transcriptomic and genomic resources of Prunellae Spica have greatly hindered further exploration of the underlying salt tolerance mechanism of this species. To clarify the genetic basis of its salt tolerance, high-throughput sequencing of mRNAs was employed for de novo transcriptome assembly differential expression analysis of Prunellae Spica under salt stress. 118,664 unigenes were obtained by assembling pooled reads from all libraries with 68,119 sequences annotated. A total of 3857 unigenes were differentially expressed under low, medium and high salt stress, including 2456 up-regulated and 1401 down-regulated DEGs, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed that salt stress-related categories involving ‘catalytic activity’, ‘binding’, ‘metabolic process’ and ‘cellular process’ were highly enriched. KEGG pathway annotation showed that the DEGs from different salt stress treatment groups were mainly enriched in the pathways of translation, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism, accounting for over 60% of all DEGs. Finally, it showed that the results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis for 10 unigenes that randomly selected were significantly consistent with RNA-seq data, which further assisted in the selection of salt stress-responsive candidate genes in Prunellae Spica. This study represents a significant step forward in understanding the salt tolerance mechanism of Prunellae Spica, and also provides a significant transcriptomic resource for future work.
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To observe the effect of Prunella vulgaris polysaccharides (PVP) on cultured orbit fibroblasts in vitro from patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). PVP at different concentrations were used to treat different groups of fibroblasts from TAO patients and normal persons. Dexamethasone (Dex) was used as a positive control drug, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was used as a positive stimulant. The effects of PVP on the proliferation of orbital fibroblasts, the secretion of hyaluronic acid (HA), the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1/CD54) and apoptosis in orbital fibroblasts were determined. The experimental results showed when the concentration of PVP was greater than 400 μg/mL, it could significantly inhibit the proliferation of orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO (P < 0.05). However, no definite inhibitory effect was observed in the orbital fibroblasts from the normal people. Dex could significantly inhibit the proliferation of orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO and the normal people (P < 0.05). In contrast, every concentration of IFN-γ could promote the orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO and the normal people proliferation. No groups had statistically significant stimulatory effect on HA secretion by orbital fibroblasts from normal people (P > 0.05). But the Dex group, IFN-γ+PVP-1600 group and IFN-γ+Dex group could significantly inhibit the secretion of HA from orbital fibroblasts of TAO patients. And there were no groups had statistically significant stimulatory effect on the expression of ICAM-1/CD54 in orbital fibroblasts from TAO patients (P > 0.05). PVP and Dex at all concentrations could significantly promote orbital fibroblast co-cultured with IFN-γ apoptosis (P < 0.05). But without IFN-γ, PVP and Dex at all concentrations could only significantly promote orbital fibroblast from TAO patients apoptosis (P < 0.05). These results suggest that PVP exerts its therapeutic effect by inhibiting the proliferation of orbital fibroblasts and promoting the apoptosis of orbital fibroblasts in TAO patients. In addition, in this process, HA secretion is suppressed. But the participation of IFN-γ is required. This effect is similar to that of Dex. And in the MTT experiment, the efficacy of PVP showed selectivity for TAO patients. This is different from Dex. This may be a feature of PVP that deserves attention.
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Prunella vulgaris L, a perennial herb widely used in Asia in the treatment of various diseases including cancer. In vitro studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of Prunella vulgaris L. against breast cancer through multiple pathways. However, the nature of the biological mechanisms remains unclear. In this study, a Network pharmacology based approach was used to explore active constituents and potential molecular mechanisms of Prunella vulgaris L. for the treatment of breast cancer. The methods adopted included active constituents prescreening, target prediction, GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Molecular docking experiments were used to further validate network pharmacology results. The predicted results showed that there were 19 active ingredients in Prunella vulgaris L. and 31 potential gene targets including AKT1, EGFR, MYC, and VEGFA. Further, analysis of the potential biological mechanisms of Prunella vulgaris L. against breast cancer was performed by investigating the relationship between the active constituents, target genes and pathways. Network analysis showed that Prunella vulgaris L. exerted a promising preventive effect on breast cancer by acting on tumor-associated signaling pathways. This provides a basis to understand the mechanism of the anti-breast cancer activity of Prunella vulgaris L.
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The aim of this study was to isolate compounds from Cameroonian propolis extracts and to test their activities against bacteria isolated from carcass at the Yaoundé slaughterhouse. The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of propolis samples from Ngaoundal and Tala-Mokolo were separated by successive silica gel column chromatography to give six triterpenes. Their structures were determined as 25-cyclopropyl-3β-hydroxyurs-12-ene (7), cycloart-3β-hydroxy-12, 25(26)-diene (8), lup-20(29)-en-3-one (9), olean-12-en-3β, 28-diol (10), lup-20(29)-en-3β-oate (13) and 3β-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene (14). Compounds 7 and 8 were new triterpene derivatives while 10 and 13 were isolated for the first time from propolis. The structures of all the compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Phytochemical screening of the methanol extract (5) revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing compounds, coumarins, saponins and tannins accounting for its broad spectrum antibacterial activities. The six isolated compounds and crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram negative bacteria. The methanol extract (5) of propolis samples was active against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC: 0.2 mg/ml) whereas the isolated compounds 7, 8 and 10 exclusively exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonellas pp (MIC: 0.1-0.15 mg/ml). The MIC values of all the four propolis products were greater than that of the standard drug (Amoxicillin): 0.1-0.2 mg/ml versus 0.4 mg/ml. Nevertheless, further pharmacological and toxicity studies on experimental animals are necessary to establish the safety of the propolis products for its use as topical antimicrobial agents.
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AIM: To investigate chemical components of the aerial parts (removing the ear) of Prunella vulgaris L.. METHODS: The chemical components were isolated by column chromatography, and the structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. RESULTS: Twelve compounds were isolated, among which 9 and 10 were triterpenoid saponins, and the others were triterpenoids. Those compounds were identified as ursone (1), oleanolic acid (2), betulic acid (3), 2α, 3α- dihydroxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (4), 2α, 3α, 19α- trihydroxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 2α, 3β-dihydroxylurs-12-en-28- oic acid (6), 2α, 3α, 23-trihydroxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 2α, 3β, 24-trihydroxy olean-12-en- 28-oic acid (8), 2α, 3α, 19α, 24-tetrahydroxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid-28-β-D- glucopranoside (9), 2α, 3β, 19α, 24-tetrahydroxylurs-12-en-28- oic acid-28-β-D-glucopranoside (10), 2α, 3α, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (11) and 2α, 3α, 24-trihydroxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (12). CONSULSIONS: Compounds 3, 9 and 10 were isolated from this plant for the first time. And compounds 5, 7 and 8 were isolated from Prunella for the first time.
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Objective: To analyse the differential proteins of Raji cells after addition of the extract from Prunella vulgaris L using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrum. Methods: Raji cell growth inhibition of the extract from Prunella vulgaris L was analyzed by MTT assay. The total protein of the cells were extracted after a dose of 18 μg/mL. Then 2D and MALDI-TOF-MS were used to assess the different proteins. Results: The extract from Prunella vulgaris L could depressed the proliferation of Raji cells in dose-dependent manner. After 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS, 27 kinds (named protein 22 kinds, unnamed protein 5 kinds) proteins were identified successfully, including macrophin 1 isoform 2, mitochondrial heat shock 60 × 103 protein 1 variant 1, similar to PIK4CA variant protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 2 (beta), isoform CRA_a, methylcrotonoyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase 2 (beta), chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 6A (zeta 1), isoform CRA_b, et al. Conclusion: The extract from Prunella vulgaris L could inhibit the growth of Raji cells significantly, and lead the proteomics change of Raji cells, which may be correlated to the antitumor effect of the extract from Prunella vulgaris L.
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Nine compounds including β-amyrin (1), erythrodiol (2), oleanolic acid (3), 3β-hydroxy-11,13(18)-oleanadien-28-oic acid (4), glycyrrhetinic acid (5), 2α,3β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-methyl ester (6 ), 2α,3β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 2α,3β,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (8) and 2α,3β, 19β-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (9), have been isolated from Perovskia atriplicifolia. Their structures have been established with the help of different spectral data. All of these compounds were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Among the tested compounds, 8 and 9 were found to be the most active against both enzymes, with a significant butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity demonstrating IC50values 9.50 and 13.52 mM, respectively, compared to galanthamine standard (IC50: 8.51 mM).
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Danshen has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases while Danshensu [3( 3,4dihydroxyphenyl) 2 hydroxy propanoic acid, DSS], a major water-soluble component of Danshen has also been explored as an important compound in Danshen. In the present study, DSS was tested in isolated rat hearts of ischemia reperfusion (I/R) model to investigate its cardioprotective activity and explore the potential molecular mechanism against oxidative stress. The isolated rat hearts were used to perform global ischemia for 30 min, followed by 30 min reperfusion. DSS significantly decreased the level of the marker enzymes (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) from the coronary effluents and myocardial infarction size. This could markedly contribute to the recovery of cardiac function after I/R injury. DSS also had ROS scavenging activity and boosted endogenous antioxidants such as SOD, CAT, MDA, GSH-PX and HO-1 activities by activating nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway which was mediated by Akt and ERK1/2 in western blot analysis. Our results demonstrated a cardioprotective effect of DSS on isolated heart against oxidative stress during I/R injury. This mechanism might be related to the enhancement of antioxidant defense system by activating Akt/ERK1/2/Nrf2 signaling pathways. This work could provide experimental evidence in treating cardiovascular disease by the use of traditional Chinese medicine particularly in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.
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β-Amyrin is a pentacyclic triterpene found in various plants and has a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. However, the angiogenic effects of β-amyrin in vascular endothelial cells have not been elucidated. Herein, we investigated the effects of β-amyrin on angiogenesis and evaluated the underlying molecular mechanisms. β-Amyrin treatment had no cytotoxic effect on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). It promoted the formation of tube-like structures and enhanced HUVEC migration and the phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in HUVECs. Pre-treatment with a PI3 kinase or NOS inhibitor blocked β-amyrin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. β-Amyrin treatment significantly induced nitric oxide (NO) production in HUVECs. Furthermore, pre-treatment with a PI3 kinase or NOS inhibitor significantly inhibited β-amyrin-induced tube-like structures formation of vascular endothelial cells and HUVEC migration. These data indicate that β-amyrin-induced angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells may be mediated by Akt-eNOS signaling-dependent mechanisms. These findings suggest that β-amyrin could be a novel therapeutic agent for ischemic vascular diseases.
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A novel depsides 1, together with three known ones 2-4 and two phenylpropanoids 5-6 were isolated from the ethanol extract of the spikes of Prunella vulgaris. On the basis of spectral and chemical evidence, their structures were deternined as butyl rosmarinate 1, ethyl rosmarinate 2, methyl rosmarinate 3, rosmarinic acid 4, 3,4,α-trihydroxy-methyl phenylpropionate 5 and p-coumaric acid 6, respectively.
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Ethyl rosmarinate is an ester derivative of rosmarinic acid, a major constituent of Hyptis suaveolens. The present study investigated the vasorelaxant mechanism of ethyl rosmarinate in isolated rat aortic rings using an organ bath system. Ethyl rosmarinate (0.1µM-3mM) produced concentration-dependent relaxation in aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (10µM), exhibiting a pD2 value of 4.56±0.08 and an Emax value of 93.82±5.00% (in endothelium-intact rings), as well as a pD2 value of 4.42±0.05 and an Emax value of 92.10±3.78% (in endothelium-denuded rings). In the endothelium-denuded rings, the vasorelaxant effect of ethyl rosmarinate was reduced by only 4-aminopyridine (1mM); however, this was not the case with tetraethylammonium (5mM), glibenclamide (10µM), barium chloride (1mM), and 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 1µM). Ethyl rosmarinate also reduced the contraction induced by phenylephrine (10µM) and caffeine (20mM) in a Ca(2+)-free solution, and inhibited the contraction induced by increasing extracellular Ca(2+) influx, which was induced by KCl (80mM). Ethyl rosmarinate (10µM) inhibits concentration-response curves for phenylephrine, while in the same concentration of ethyl rosmarinate has no effect on contractions induced by increasing concentrations of calcium in the presence of high extracellular potassium. Our results suggests that ethyl rosmarinate induces relaxation in aortic rings via an endothelium-independent pathway, which involves the opening of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels and the blockade of both Ca(2+)release from intracellular stores and extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Moreover, ethyl-rosmarinate acts on the extracellular Ca(2+) influx inhibition by interacting with voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) and receptor-operated calcium channels (ROCCs).
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This study aims to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of daucosterol and explore its possible mechanism. MTT and colony formation assay were performed to determine the effect of daucosterol on cancer cell proliferation in vitro. H22 allograft model was used for the assessment of its anti-cancer activity in vivo. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using DCFH-DA probe with flow cytometry system and a laser scanning confocal microscope. LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3)-II conversion was monitored with immunofluorescence and immunoblotting to demonstrate daucosterol-induced autophagy. We found that daucosterol inhibits the proliferation of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and gastric cancer cell lines MGC803, BGC823 and AGS in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, daucosterol inhibits murine hepatoma H22 cell growth in ICR mice. Daucosterol treatment induces intracellular ROS generation and autophagy, but not apoptotic cell death. Treatment with ROS scavenger GSH (reduced glutathione), NAC (N-acetyl-l-cysteine) or autophagy inhibitor 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) counteracted daucosterol-induced autophagy and growth inhibition in BGC823 and MCF-7 cancer cells. Daucosterol inhibits cancer cell proliferation by inducing autophagy through ROS-dependent manner and could be potentially developed as an anti-cancer agent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.