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Opportunities of Sustainable Manufacturing in Industry 4.0


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The current globalization is faced by the challenge to meet the continuously growing worldwide demand for capital and consumer goods by simultaneously ensuring a sustainable evolvement of human existence in its social, environmental and economic dimensions. In order to cope with this challenge, industrial value creation must be geared towards sustainability. Currently, the industrial value creation in the early industrialized countries is shaped by the development towards the fourth stage of industrialization, the so-called Industry 4.0. This development provides immense opportunities for the realization of sustainable manufacturing. This paper will present a state of the art review of Industry 4.0 based on recent developments in research and practice. Subsequently, an overview of different opportunities for sustainable manufacturing in Industry 4.0 will be presented. A use case for the retrofitting of manufacturing equipment as a specific opportunity for sustainable manufacturing in Industry 4.0 will be exemplarily outlined.
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2212-8271 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the International Scientific Committee of the 13th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing
doi: 10.1016/j.procir.2016.01.129
Procedia CIRP 40 ( 2016 ) 536 541
13th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Decoupling Growth from Resource Use
Opportunities of Sustainable Manufacturing in Industry 4.0
T. Stock*, G. Seliger
Institute of Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technische Universität Berlin, 10587 Berlin, Germany
Production Technology Centre, Office PTZ 2, Pascalstraße 8-9, D-10587, Berlin, Germany
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 (0)30 314 244 57; fax: +49 (0)30 314 227 59. E-mail address:
The current globalization is faced by the challenge to meet the continuously growing worldwide demand for capital and consumer goods by
simultaneously ensuring a sustainable evolvement of human existence in its social, environmental and economic dimensions. In order to cope
ith this challenge, industrial value creation must be geared towards sustainability. Currently, the industrial
value creation in the early
industrialized countries is shaped by the development towards the
fourth stage of industrialization, the so-called Industry 4.0. This development
provides immense opportunities for the realization of sustainable manufacturing. This paper will present a state of the art review of Industry 4.0
based on recent developments in research and practice. Subsequently, an overview of different opportunities for sustainable manufacturing in
Industry 4.0 will be presented. A use case for the retrofitting of manufacturing equipment as a specific opportunity for sustainable
anufacturing in Industry 4.0 will be exemplarily outlined.
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under responsibility of the International Scientific Comm
ittee of the 13th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing.
Keywords: Sustainable development; Factory; Industry 4.0
1. Introduction
The industrial value creation in the early industrialized
untries is currently shaped by the development towards the
fourth stage of industrialization, the so-called Industry 4.0.
his development follows the third industrial revolution
which started in the early 1970s and was based on electronics
and information technologies for realizing a high level of
automation in manufacturing [1].
The development towards Industry 4.0 has presently a
bstantial influence on the manufacturing industry. It is
based on the establishment of smart factories, smart products
smart services embedded in an internet of things and of
services also called industrial internet [2]. Additionally, new
and disruptive business models are evolving around these
Industry 4.0 elements [1,3].
This development towards an Industry 4.0 provides
mmense opportunities for realizing sustainable
anufacturing using the ubiquitous information and
communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. This paper
will present a state of the art review of Industry 4.0 based on
research and practice. Wherein, the macro and micro
perspectives of Industry 4.0 will be visualized and analyzed.
ubsequently, approaches to sustainable manufacturing are
mbined with the requirements of Industry 4.0 and an
erview of opportunities for sustainable manufacturing in the
acro and micro perspectives will be presented. Finally, a use
e for retrofitting of equipment as a specific opportunity for
nable manufacturing in Industry 4.0 will be exemplarily
2. State of the Art
The main ideas of Industry 4.0 have been firstly published
KAGERMANN in 2011 [4] and have built the foundation
for the Industry 4.0 manifesto published in 2013 by the
German National Academy of Science and Engineering
(acatech) [1]. At European level, the Public-Private
artnership (PPP) for Factories of the Future (FoF) addresses
and develops Industry 4.0-related topics [5]. The contents of
dustry 4.0 in the US are promoted by the Industrial Internet
onsortium (ICC) [6].
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of the International Scientifi c Committee of the 13th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing
T. Stock and G. Seliger / Procedia CIRP 40 ( 2016 ) 536 – 541
The paradigm of Industry 4.0 is essentially outlined by
three dimensions [3, 7, 8]: (1) horizontal integration across the
entire value creation network, (2) end-to-end engineering
the entire product life cycle, as well as (3) vertical
integration and networked manufacturing systems.
The horizontal integration across
the entire value creation
network describes the cross-company and company-internal
telligent cross-linking and digitalization of value creation
odules throughout the value chain of a product life cycle
and between value chains of adjoining product life cycles [7].
The end-to-end engineering across the entire product life
ycle describes the intelligent cross-linking and digitalization
roughout all phases of a product life cycle: from the raw
aterial acquisition to manufacturing system, product use,
and the product end of life [7].
Vertical integration and networked manufacturing systems
the intelligent cross-linking and digitalization within
e different aggregation and hierarchical levels of a value
creation module from manufacturing stations via
manufacturing cells, lines and factories, also integrating the
associated value chain activities such as marketing and sales
or technology development [7].
The intelligent cross-linking and digitalization covers the
plication of an end-to-end solution using information and
mmunication technologies which are embedded in a cloud.
In a manufacturing system, the intelligent cross-linking is
by the application of so-called Cyber-Physical
ystems (CPS) which are operating in a self-organized and
manner [7, 9, 10]. They are based on embedded
mechatronic components i.e., applied sensor systems for
llecting data as well as actuator systems for influencing
physical processes [9]. CPS are intelligently linked with each
other and are continuously interchanging data via virtual
networks such as a cloud in real-time. The cloud itself is
mplemented in the internet of things and services [7]. Being
part of a sociotechnical system, CPS are using human-
machine-interfaces for interacting with the operators [11].
2.1. The Macro Perspective of Industry 4.0
The macro perspective of Industry 4.0 as shown in Figure
covers the horizontal integration as well as the end-to-end
ineering dimension of Industry 4.0. This visualization is
based on a strong product-life-cycle-related point of view by
tting cross-linked product life cycles as central element of
e value creation networks in Industry 4.0.
The horizontal integration from the macro perspective is
aracterized by a network of value creation modules. Value
creation modules are defined as the interplay of different
alue creation factors i.e., equipment, human, organization,
process and product [12]. The value creation modules,
represented in their highest level of aggregation by factories,
are cross-linked throughout the complete value chain of a
ct life cycle as well as with value creation modules in
value chains of adjoining product life cycles. This linkage
leads to an intelligent network of value creation modules
covering the value chains of different product life cycles. This
intelligent network provides an environment for new and
novative business models and is thus currently leading to a
change in business models.
Displayed in Figure 1, the end-to-end engineering from the
acro perspective is the cross-linking of stakeholders,
cts and equipment along the product life cycle,
beginning with the raw material acquisition phase and ending
with the end-of-life phase. The products, the different
eholder such as customers, workers or suppliers, and the
manufacturing equipment are embedded in a virtual network
and are interchanging data in and between the different phases
of a product life cycle. This life cycle consists of the raw
aterial acquisition phase, the manufacturing phase -
containing the product development, the engineering of the
manufacturing system and the manufacturing of the
product - the use and service phase, the end-of-life phase -
containing reuse, remanufacturing, recycling, recovery and
posal - as well as the transport between all phases.
Fig. 1. Macro perspective of Industry 4.0
538 T. Stock and G. Seliger / Procedia CIRP 40 ( 2016 ) 536 – 541
Those value creation modules i.e., factories which are
embedded in this ubiquitous flow of smart data will evolve to
called smart factories. Smart factories are manufacturing
smart products and are being supplied with energy from smart
rids as well as supplied with water from fresh water
oirs. The material flow along the product life cycle and
between adjoining product life cycle will be accomplished by
smart logistics. The stream of smart data between the different
elements of the value creation networks in Industry 4.0 is
terchanged via the cloud.
Smart data arises by expediently structuring information
rom big data which then can be used for knowledge advances
and decision making throughout the product life cycle [13].
Smart factories are using embedded Cyber-Physical Systems
or value creation. This enables the smart product to self-
organize its required manufacturing processes and its flow
roughout the factory in a decentralized manner by
interchanging smart data with the CPS [14].
The smart product holds the information about its
uirements for the manufacturing processes and
nufacturing equipment. Smart logistics are using CPS for
upporting the material flow within the factory and between
factories, customers, and other stakeholders. They are also
g controlled in a decentralized manner according to the
requirements of the product. A smart grid dynamically
atches the energy generation of suppliers using renewable
energies with the energy demand of consumers, e.g. smart
factories or smart homes, by using short-term energy storages
or buffering. Within a smart grid, energy consumers and
suppliers can be the same.
2.2. The Micro Perspective of Industry 4.0
The micro perspective of Industry 4.0 presented in Figure 2
ainly covers the horizontal integration as well as the vertical
integration within smart factories but it also is part of the end-
to-end engineering dimension.
Fig. 2. Micro perspective of Industry 4.0
T. Stock and G. Seliger / Procedia CIRP 40 ( 2016 ) 536 – 541
The smart factory as value creation module at the highest
aggregation level contains different value creation modules on
lower aggregation levels such as the manufacturing lines,
manufacturing cells or manufacturing stations. Smart factories
will increasingly use renewable energies as part of a self-
sufficient supply in addition to the supply provided by the
al smart grid [18]. The factory will thus become an
supplier and consumer at the same time. The smart
grid as well as the energy management system of the smart
factory will have to be able to handle the dynamic
requirements of energy supply and feedback. The supply of
resh water for the value creation modules within the smart
factory is also another essential resource flow, requiring
equate and intact water reservoirs.
The horizontal integration from the micro perspective is
by the cross-linked value creation modules
ng the material flow of the smart factory also integrating
the smart logistics. The in- and outbound logistics from and to
e factories as part of the smart logistic will be characterized
by transport equipment that is able to agilely react to
unforeseen events such as a change in traffic or weather and
which is able to autonomously operate between the starting
t and the destination. Autonomously operating transport
equipment such as Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) will
be used for realizing the in-house transport along the material
low. All transport equipment is interchanging smart data with
the value creation modules in order to realize a decentralized
coordination of supplies and products with the transport
systems. For this purpose, the supplies and products contain
fication systems, e.g. RFID chips or QR codes. This
enables a wireless identification and localization of all
materials in the value chain.
Vertical integration and networked manufacturing systems
rom the micro perspective describes the intelligent cross-
linking of the value creation factors: product, equipment and
uman, along the different aggregation levels of the value
creation modules from manufacturing stations via
manufacturing cells and manufacturing lines up to the smart
factory. This networking throughout the different aggregation
levels also includes the cross-linking of the value creation
odules with the different value chain activities, e.g.
marketing and sales, service, procurement, etc. [15].
The value creation module in a factory corresponds to an
mbedded Cyber-Physical-System. The manufacturing
ipment, e.g. machine tools or assembly tools, are using
sensor systems for identifying and localizing the value
creation factors, such as the products or the humans, as well
as for monitoring the manufacturing processes, e.g. the
cutting, assembly, or transport processes. Depending on the
monitored smart data, the applied actuators in the
manufacturing equipment can react in real-time on specific
ges of the product, humans or processes. The
communication and exchange of the smart data between the
value creation factors, between the value creation module and
the transport equipment, as well as between the different
els of aggregation and the different value chain activities is
being executed via the cloud.
Table 1 provides an overview of the main trends and
development for the different value creation factors
in Industry 4.0.
Table 1. Trends and expected developments for the value creation factors
The manufacturing equipment will be characterized by the
application of highly automated machine tools and robots. The
equipment will be able to flexibly adapt to changes in the other value
creation factors, e.g. the robots will be working together
collaboratively with the workers on joint tasks [2].
The current jobs in manufacturing are facing a high risk for being
automated to a large extent [16]. The numbers of workers will thus
crease. The remaining manufacturing jobs will contain more
knowledge work as well as more short-term and hard-to-plan tasks
0]. The workers increasingly have to monitor the automated
equipment, are being integrated in decentralized decision-making,
d are participating in engineering activities as part of the end-to-
end engineering.
The increasing organizational complexity in the manufacturing
system cannot be managed by a central instance from a certain point
on. Decision making will thus be shifted away from a central
instance towards decentralized instances. The decentralized instances
will autonomously consider local information for the decision-
making [14]. The decision itself will be taken by the workers or
the equipment using methods from the field of artificial intelligence.
Additive manufacturing technologies also known as 3D printing will
be increasingly deployed in value creation processes, since the costs
of additive manufacturing have been rapidly dropping during the last
years by simultaneously increasing in terms of speed and precision
7]. This allows designing more complex, stronger, and more
ghtweight geometries as well as the application of additive
manufacturing to higher quantities and larger scales of the product
The products will be manufactured in batch size one according to the
individual requirements of the customer [7]. This mass customization
of the product integrates the customer as early as possible in the
value chain. The physical product will be also combined with new
services offering functionality and access rather than product
wnership to the customer as part of new business models [17].
3. Sustainability in Industry 4.0
A paradigm Industry 4.0 will be a step forward towards
ore sustainable industrial value creation. In current
literature, this step is mainly characterized as contribution to
the environmental dimension of sustainability. The allocation
of resources, i.e. products, materials, energy and water, can be
realized in a more efficient way on the basis of intelligent
cross-linked value creation modules [2].
540 T. Stock and G. Seliger / Procedia CIRP 40 ( 2016 ) 536 – 541
Besides these environmental contributions, Industry 4.0
holds a great opportunity for realizing sustainable industrial
alue creation on all three sustainability dimensions:
omic, social and environmental. Table 2 summarizes the
rtunities of sustainable manufacturing for the macro
perspective of Industry 4.0. Table 3 gives an overview of the
opportunities for the micro perspective. The concepts
ted in both tables merge the most important approaches
of sustainable manufacturing in current literature with the
trends and developments related to Industry 4.0.
Table 2. Opportunities of sustainable manufacturing for the macro
In Industry 4.0, new evolving business models are highly driven by the
use of smart data for offering new services. This development has to be
exploited for anchoring new sustainable business models. Sustainable
business models significantly create positive or reduce negative impacts
for the environment or society [19] or they can even fundamentally
contribute to solving an environmental or social problem [20].
dditionally, sustainable business models are necessarily characterized
by competitiveness on the long-run [20]. In this context, selling the
unctionality and accessibility of products instead of only selling the
tangible products will be a leading concept.
The cross-linking of value creation networks in Industry 4.0 offers new
opportunities for realizing closed-loop product life cycles and industrial
ymbiosis. It allows the efficient coordination of the product, material,
energy, and water flows throughout the product life cycles as well as
between different factories. Closed-loop product life-cycles help keep
roducts in life cycles of multiple use phases with remanufacturing or
reuse in between. Industrial symbiosis describes the (cross-company)
operation of different factories for realizing a competitive advantage
by trading and exchanging products, materials, energy, water [21] and
also smart data on a local level.
Table 3. Opportunities of sustainable manufacturing for the micro perspective
The manufacturing equipment in factories often is a capital good with a
long use phase of up to 20 or more years. Retrofitting enables an easy
d cost-efficient way of upgrading existing manufacturing equipment
ith sensor and actuator systems as well as with the related control
logics in order to overcome the heterogeneity of equipment in factories
10]. Retrofitting can thus be used as an approach for realizing a CPS
oughout a value creation module, such as a factory, with already
existing manufacturing equipment. It extends the use phase or
acilitates the application in a new use phase for the manufacturing
quipment and can essentially contribute to the economic and
nvironmental dimensions of sustainability. It is particularly suitable
for small and medium sized companies, being a low-cost alternative to
new procurement of manufacturing equipment.
Humans will still be the organizers of value creation in Industry 4.0 [8].
Three different sustainable approaches can be used for coping with
social challenge in Industry 4.0. (1) Increasing the training efficiency of
workers by combining new ICT technologies, e.g. virtual reality head-
mounted displays with Learnstruments. (2) Increasing the intrinsi
motivation and fostering creativity by establishing new CPS-based
pproaches of work organization and design, e.g. by implementing the
concepts of flow theory [22] or using new ICT technologies for
implementing concepts of gamification in order to support
decentralized decision-making. (3) Increasing the extrinsic motivation
y implementing individual incentive systems for the worker, e.g. by
taking into account the smart data within the product life cycle for
providing individual feedback mechanisms.
A sustainable-oriented decentralized organization in a smart factory
focuses on the efficient allocation of products, materials, energy and
water by taking into account the dynamic constraints of the CPS, e.g. of
the smart logistics, the smart grid, the self-sufficient supply or the
ustomer. This concept towards a holistic resource efficiency is being
described as one of the essential advantages of Industry 4.0 [2,3].
The sustainable design of processes addresses the holistic resource
efficiency approach of Industry 4.0 by designing appropriate
manufacturing process chains [23] or by using new technologies such
as internally cooled tools [24].
The approach for the sustainable design of products in Industry 4.0
focuses on the realization of closed-loop life cycles for products by
abling the reuse and remanufacturing of the specific product or by
applying cradle-to-cradle principles. Different approaches also focus on
signing for the well-being of the consumer. These concepts can be
upported by the application of identification systems, e.g. for
recovering the cores for remanufacturing, or by applying new
additional services to the product for achieving a higher level of well-
being for the customer [25].
4. Retrofitting Use Case
The objective of this use case has been the development of
retrofitting solution for a desktop machine tool within the
laboratory of sustainable manufacturing of the Collaborative
esearch Centre 1026 at TU Berlin. The method for
developing the retrofitting solution covers four sequential
s: (1) situation analysis, (2) definition of the monitoring
strategy, (3) data processing and (4) implementation of the
equipment in a CPS.
The situation analysis includes the definition of the list of
uirements. In this case, the retrofitting solution is supposed
monitor the existing operational states of the equipment:
shut on/off, idling, processing and fault. It also should be easy
to install as well as cost effective.
Additionally, the situation analysis focuses on the selection
the sensor system according to the list of requirements.
In terms of the use case, an acceleration sensor has met the
uirements appropriate.
T. Stock and G. Seliger / Procedia CIRP 40 ( 2016 ) 536 – 541
The definition of the monitoring strategy contains the
definition of the measuring parameters, the definition of the
monitoring position and orientation of the sensor, the
application of the sensor as well as the execution of the
measurement. For the use case, a Beckhoff PLC has
transformed the analog signals of the acceleration sensor into
digital signals for the subsequent data processing.
The data processing evaluates th
e input data according to a
predefined logic in order to identify the different operational
states. The visualization of the data has been realized by a
Human-Machine-Interface, which displays the current
al state as well as the measured vibration profile of
the machine tool. Figure 3 shows the experimental setup of
the milling machine, sensor and HMI.
This milling machine can now be implemented in a CPS.
connection with a smart product the retrofitted machine can
decentrally schedule the material flow and is furthermore able
to automatically react to any machine failures by e.g.
orming the responsible worker.
5. Summary and conclusion
In this paper a state of the art review for the current
dustrial development know as Industry 4.0 has been
presented. In order to give a comprehensive understanding of
this development, the micro and macro perspective of
Industry 4.0 have been described based on the current
findings in research and practice. Subsequently, different
opportunities for realizing a sustainable manufacturing in
Industry 4.0 have been presented for the macro as well as for
e micro perspectives. These opportunities are combining
research approaches in the field of sustainable
manufacturing with the future requirements of Industry 4.0.
Finally, a use case for retrofitting of a machine tool as a
specific opportunity for sustainable manufacturing in Industry
.0 has been outlined.
This research was supported the CRC 1026 "Sustainable
anufacturing Shaping Global Value Creation" funded by
e German Research Foundation (DFG).
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Fig. 3. Retrofitted desktop machine tool
Desktop Milling
Measured values
Visualization of
the identified
operational state
... In addition, it helps organizations to cope with the desired growth by reshaping the way firms react to their surroundings and implement new business models [11]. The advancements in the industrial production systems unveiled new levels of innovation, which have led to the digitalization era of the manufacturing industry, thereby enabling the production systems to be more connected, integrated, and decentralized [12]. These advancements introduced the ideas of the fourth industrial revolution, or industry 4.0, to transform the production systems into more flexible, efficient, and sustainable ones with persistently high quality and low costs [13]. ...
... Industry 4.0 has positively impacted the sustainability of organizations as the core motivations for organizations to implement its technologies to achieve higher efficiency of the production systems and eliminate waste in the supply chain processes. Additionally, maintaining a higher quality of products would be reflected on more economical values for organizations [12,15]. On the social side, industry 4.0 has contributed to providing an outstanding working environment, which has been reflected on employee satisfaction, contributing to lower turnover rates and creating an attractive environment for excellence and growth [12]. ...
... Additionally, maintaining a higher quality of products would be reflected on more economical values for organizations [12,15]. On the social side, industry 4.0 has contributed to providing an outstanding working environment, which has been reflected on employee satisfaction, contributing to lower turnover rates and creating an attractive environment for excellence and growth [12]. Furthermore, industry 4.0 allows production systems to become more environmentally friendly, as the use of technologies have enabled proper alignment between supply chain stakeholders to eliminate the waste of materials, energy, and human resources leading to a positive impact on the environment [12]. ...
Full-text available
In today’s business environment, contributions made by the manufacturing sector to the economy and social development is evident. With a focus on long-term development, the manufacturing sector has adopted advanced operating strategies, such as lean manufacturing, industry 4.0, and green practices in an integrated manner. The integrated impact of circular economy, industry 4.0, and lean manufacturing on sustainability performance has not been adequately addressed and investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the integrated impact of circular economy, industry 4.0, and lean manufacturing on the sustainability performance of organizations in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected through a questionnaire-based survey as a primary data instrument. A total of 486 organizations have responded to the survey within the timeframe. Moreover, the structural equation modeling method is utilized for data analysis through SmartPLS tool for the developed hypotheses of the research. The findings highlight the positive impact of circular economy on the sustainability of the organizations. Furthermore, the results indicate that industry 4.0 and lean manufacturing have positive mediating impacts as enablers for the successful implementation of circular economy toward the sustainable performance of organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study finding confirms that lean manufacturing is a substantial mediating variable that is essential for the successful implementation of industry 4.0 technologies. Moreover, the study indicates the recognition and acknowledgment of companies on circular economy principles, industry 4.0 technologies, and lean manufacturing tools to achieve the desired sustainability.
... Product and service performances Weller et al. (2015) Theoretical work AM Highly customized products, increasing their perceived value Stock and Seliger (2016) Case study AM Cheaper prototypes, small batches of custom products or complex and lightweight designs Yin (2018) Theoretical work AM Acceleration of product innovation More customized products Ghobakhloo and Fathi (2020) Case study IoT Improved process and machine control, increased efficiency to reduce defects and help continuous improvement Siciliano and Khatib (2016) ...
... In addition, impacts on Productivity were also observed, a finding, which differs from the results obtained by Kamble et al. (2018a). PMPs receive influences confirming the results of Weller et al. (2015) and Stock and Seliger (2016) with respect to the following variables: Added Value, Product customization and Product innovation. Finally, we highlight the impact received by the level of customer satisfaction. ...
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Purpose-Industry 4.0 technologies have the potential to improve the quality management performance of industrial companies. The paper analyses the influence of Industry 4.0 technologies on quality management aspects, but also the barriers that slow down the deployment of each Industry 4.0 technology and limit each impact. Design/methodology/approach-The impact of Industry 4.0 technologies on quality management aspects (QMAs) is a heterogeneous and multidimensional phenomenon dependent on the current context, a holistic multiple case study has been applied. Twenty-six case studies were carried out on eight Industry 4.0 technologies, with a minimum of two cases per technology. These cases were selected from the 168 projects presented in the four editions of the BIND 4.0 program, winner of the 14th edition of the European Enterprise Promotion Awards. The cases were selected based on a preliminary survey of 124 project managers. Subsequently, individual case and cross-case analyses for each technology were carried out. Finally, these results were confirmed by interviews with a minimum of two customers per Industry 4.0. Findings-Results show that the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies positively affects QMAs. Specifically, the influences received by "process control" and "customer satisfaction" from all the Industry 4.0 technologies studied are medium to high. In addition, barriers from the "economic and legal" and "workers" categories exert greater influence than the barriers pertaining to "organization", "lack of training and information" and "technology". Uptake of Industry 4.0 technologies The researchers are part of the IT1691-22 research team of the Basque university system. The researchers acknowledge the technical and human support provided by Research limitations/implications-The main limitation is the generalizability of the findings of qualitative studies (ergo the case study). In this sense, statistical generalizability, characteristic of a random sample, is not intended in this paper. Therefore, the use of multiple case studies has been chosen to reinforce analytical generalizations with corroborated evidence (literal replication). Practical implications-Managers interested in adopting Industry 4.0 technologies Ts should plan the implementation process to minimize the impact of these barriers and optimize the results for each stakeholder. In this sense, the barriers that concern the workers should be managed. It is the responsibility of managers to inform and explain how data will be handled, and how privacy concerns will be addressed. Social implications-It is essential to explain and convince workers about the need for a renewal of tasks. New types of jobs (i.e. the use of robots) will involve training for workers to enable their integration alongside the new technologies.
... The micro level observes specific operations and activities within the factory. Stock and Seliger view the micro perspective as the horizontal and vertical integration of value creation modules within a smart factory, which encompass equipment, humans, organization, processes, products and their interactions and interrelationships [17]. On the micro level, manufactures run resource-and emissionefficient operations that are enabled by smart and connected machines, data-based decision-making and flexible processes. ...
... This allows companies to exploit the eco-efficiency benefits on the micro level and enhanced collaboration on the macro level. The macro level covers interactions and relationships between stakeholders, products and equipment along the value chain [17]. The third design principle calls for fostering value co-creation and flexible collaboration with relevant stakeholders. ...
The manufacturing industry consumes 54% of global energy and attributes for 20% of global CO2 emissions, demonstrating the industry’s role as global driver of climate change. Therefore, reducing its carbon footprint has become a major challenge as its current energy and resource consumption are not sustainable. Industry 4.0 presents a chance to transform the prevailing paradigms of industrial value creation and advance sustainable developments. By using information and communication technologies for the intelligent networking of machines and processes, it has the potential to reduce energy and material consumption and is considered a key contributor to sustainable manufacturing as proclaimed by the European Commission in the term “twin transition”. As organizations still struggle to utilize the potential of Industry 4.0 for a sustainable transformation, this paper presents a framework to successfully align their own twin transition. The framework is built upon three key design principles (micro level: leverage eco-efficient operations, meso level: facilitate circularity and macro level: foster value co-creation) derived using case study research by Eisenhardt, and four structural dimensions (resources, information systems, organizational structure and culture) based on the acatech Industry 4.0 Maturity Index. Eleven interconnected areas of action are defined within the framework and offer a holistic and practical approach on how to leverage an organization’s twin transition. Within the conducted research, the framework was applied to the challenge of information quality and transparency required for high-value secondary plastics in the manufacturing industry. The result is a digital platform design that enables information transactions for secondary plastics and establishes a circular ecosystem. This shows the applicability of the framework and its potential to facilitate a structured approach for designing twin transitions in the manufacturing industry.
... Hence, autonomous systems and smart grids using smart grids and power savings helps improve efficiency [5]. There has been a lot of emphasis on practical implications and utilization of technology related to Industry 4.0 [6] [7] [8] [9]. Lutfi et al. [10] have implemented Accounting Information System to facilitate SMEs. ...
This paper presents the development of low-cost and robust industrial IoT based data acquisition system primarily focused on domestic manufacturing industries striving to achieve goals and benefits of “Industrial 4.0”. This proposes aims to promote DAQ System integration in traditional manufacturing process of the small and mid-sized industries of Pakistan with limited capacity of investment. Proposed method comprises of Arduino and it’s IoT features for Data Collection, along with a self-developed PC based Centralized Software for Collection of Data, Graphical User Display and Storing collected Data in Local SQL Database. PC based Software replaces requirement of multiple software in case of traditional low-cost DAQ systems, like OPC Software for collecting data from industrial hardware, Java or PHP based any GUI and SQL Data storage. The analysis of work is done with the help of the Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol. This project will be in further stages evaluated to add features of Supervisory Control, along with Data Acquisition hardware with minimum increase in cost and further upgrading PC Software to add more features of Industry 4.0, as compared to costly commercial solutions available in the market. A machine learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbors algorithm has been used to classify sensitive and non-sensitive data for improvising cloud security. K-Nearest Neighbors is also called KNN algorithm which is supervised machine learning classifier.
... It is based on depositing the material, layer by layer, in a controlled manner to enable companies to prototype or produce small batches, customized products, complex geometries or lightweight designs. [12,28,29] Artificial Intelligence (AI) … is a cognitive science with the objective of making the best decisions about different research activities: robotics, automatic learning and image processing, natural language processing. ...
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The aim of this article is to know the impact that the different Industry 4.0 technologies have on occupational health and safety risks, with special attention to the new emerging risks generated. To achieve this objective, an analysis of the literature was carried out. It allowed us to design a survey that was answered by 130 managers and/or technicians of pioneering companies in the development of Industry 4.0 technologies. Next, 32 of these projects were selected and a multiple case study was conducted through 37 in-depth interviews. Moreover, other source of information were analysed (project reports, technical reports, websites..).The findings highlight that the analysed technologies (Additive Manufacturing, Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Vision, Big Data and/or Advanced Analytics, Cybersecurity, Internet of Things, Robotics and Virtual and Augmented Reality) help to reduce occupational health and safety risks (physical and mechanical). However, its impact depends on the type of technology and the method of application. Influences in new emerging risks (mainly psychosocial and mechanical) have been detected in all technologies except in Internet of Things. In addition, additive manufacturing, artificial intelligence, machine vision, the internet of things, robotics and virtual and augmented reality help to reduce ergonomic risks and artificial intelligence, big data and cybersecurity psychosocial risks. The results obtained have implications for policy makers, managers, consultants and those in charge of managing occupational health and safety risks in industrial companies.
... Indeed, besides the technical integration, it might give rise to difficulties at the operational, organisational, and managerial (Cimini, Boffelli, Lagorio et al., 2020). Despite many scholars (Stock & Seliger, 2016;Kiel et al., 2017;Ghobakhloo, 2018;Birkel et al., 2019) have warned that a higher digitalization of production and logistics processes might result in a reduction of human tasks and a consequent rise of the unemployment rate, several studies (Mital & Pennathur, 2004;Jäger & Ranz, 2014) show that the human worker will not be entirely substituted by the technology and it will rather continue playing an essential role in the workplace setting of the future. While lifted from the hard tasks, the operator will be required to perform more complex tasks requiring flexibility, specialized problem-solving, and changes in his/her mindset (Cimini et al., 2019;Kadir, Broberg, Souza da Conceição et al., 2019). ...
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The Logistics 4.0 research stream has been heavily focused on the use of new digital technologies to achieve higher degrees of productivity and flexibility in logistics processes and operations. Whereas in many cases impacting positively the business performance, their introduction also affects the nature of the work of human logistics operators. Furthermore, the interactions between technical (logistics) systems and socio-cultural factors have been widely overlooked in the Industry 4.0 literature. This makes it difficult to provide univocal, tactical, and structured approaches to successfully guide the introduction of Logistics 4.0 technologies on the shop floors and warehouses, while securing the employees' trust, motivation, and engagement, and consequently, improving not only business performance but also employees' job satisfaction. This paper proposes a Technology Assessment and Implementation Model, with particular consideration of socio-cultural factors, to serve as a functional guiding tool to follow during the deployment of Logistics 4.0 technologies to ensure operators' smooth acceptance of the newly digitalized workplace.
... It is a common belief that I4.0 initiatives constitute an opportunity to achieve sustainable manufacturing goals Chiappetta Jabbour, De Camargo Fiorini, et al., 2020;de Sousa Jabbour et al., 2018;El Baz et al., 2022;Ghobakhloo, 2020;Lopes de Sousa Jabbour et al., 2018;Müller et al., 2018;Narula et al., 2021;Stock et al., 2018;Stock & Seliger, 2016;Tiwari & Khan, 2020). e literature also pointed out that I4.0 initiatives will catalyse the development of social and environmental dimensions of sustainability (Bag, Pretorius, et al., 2021;Bag, Yadav, et al., 2021;El Baz et al., 2022;Ghobakhloo, 2020;Narula et al., 2021;Tiwari & Khan, 2020). ...
Conference Paper
This paper explores the effects of Industry 5.0 on Sustainable Development. The authors first developed a primer review to introduce the new research agenda of Industry 5.0. Secondly, they performed a state-of-the-art review on the topics of Industry 4.0/Industry 5.0 and Sustainability. The eligible document have been subjected to a content analysis that identified seven themes. The present research identified a positive relationship between the implementation of Industry 4.0 and sustainable development attainment. This relationship constitutes an opportunity for Industry 5.0 to promote sustainability. Notwithstanding, a series of barriers, drivers and enablers were also identified. Also, this research conclusions are aligned with the explanation presented by the European Commission for the development of the Industry 5.0 concept. However, this will not be enough to shift the paradigm effectively. This paper compiled and analysed the most recent advancements in the new research agenda of Industry4.0/Industry 5.0 dedicated explicitly to sustainability, a topic that requires development in theoretical and empirical research.
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RESUMO: A sustentabilidade e as tecnologias derivadas da Indústria 4.0 (I4.0) são uma crescente tendência gerencial e desempenham um importante papel na estratégia das organizações contemporâneas. As tecnologias habilitadoras da Indústria 4.0 (I4.0) podem ser aliadas em processos de manufatura sustentáveis, refletindo em uma interação positiva, ou seja, gerando benefícios para o triple bottom line. Com objetivo de verificar qual dimensão da sustentabilidade é mais beneficiada pelas tecnologias da I4.0, foi realizada uma revisão da literatura, a fim de sistematizar o conhecimento disponível na base de dados Scopus. Como resultado este estudo destaca que as tecnologias habilitadoras da I4.0 não impactam as dimensões da sustentabilidade individualmente, sendo que, mais de um aspecto acaba sendo beneficiado pela integração das tecnologias nos processos de manufatura sustentável. Palavras-chave: Sustentabilidade; I4.0; Dimensões da Sustentabilidade; Manufatura Sustentável. INTRODUÇÃO A Indústria 4.0, está ocasionando grandes mudanças globais, pois, automação e tecnologias revolucionárias associadas afetaram quase todos os setores (LISKA, 2018). Uma multiplicidade de tecnologias converge para o novo paradigma industrial da I4.0, abarcando inteligência artificial, internet móvel, computação em nuvem, realidade aumentada, simulação, robótica avançada, sensores, manufatura aditiva, nanotecnologia, dentre outras (KULL, 2015). Entretanto, a questão da utilização das tecnologias da I4.0 é um tema controverso, visto que o olhar sob seu impacto nas esferas social, ambiental e econômica é um processo dicotômico, Borland e Coelli (2017) direcionam a atenção ao impacto no que tange a diminuição de empregos por conta das tecnologias emergentes, por outro lado, Arena et al. (2009) destacam que o mundo não é capaz de subsistir sem uma evolução contínua da tecnologia, a qual faz parte do desenvolvimento sustentável. O desenvolvimento em direção a Indústria 4.0 oferece grandes oportunidades para a realização de manufatura sustentável utilizando a onipresente infraestrutura de tecnologia da informação e comunicação (STOCK; SELIGER, 2016) Observa-se, dessa forma, duas grandes tendências contemporâneas a serem exploradas: a manufatura sustentável e as tecnologias habilitadoras da indústria 4.0. A produção sustentável passou a ser uma estratégia adotada pela maioria das empresas para atender às expectativas de seus clientes, considerando a consciência da sociedade sustentável (OJO; SHAH; COUTROUBIS, 2020) e consoante Wang et al. (2020) a integração de tecnologias habilitadoras realiza uma produção eficiente, inteligente e sustentável e um design sustentável de produto em todo o ciclo de vida. A principal ideia da I4.0 é empregar as tecnologias emergentes (habilitadoras) de maneira que os processos de negócios e engenharia sejam altamente conectados, fazendo com que a produção atue de modo flexível, eficiente e sustentável, com alta qualidade e baixo custo (WANG et al. 2016). Estudos anteriores corroboram que se a humanidade deseja evoluir, é necessário evidenciar o papel da tecnologia incorporada ao conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável (GARETTI; TAISCH, 2012). Nesse contexto, busca-se responder à seguinte questão de pesquisa: qual dimensão da sustentabilidade é mais beneficiada com a utilização das tecnologias habilitadoras da Indústria
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Small and medium-sized production companies are alarmed at the increasing costs for energy. Different ways of decreasing the industrial facilities' energy demand, e.g. of tool machines, are under investigation to reduce the production costs and to improve the competitiveness. Hereafter, there are two possibilities presented to decrease the energy consumption per produced part. The first approach of energy saving refers to the way of tool cooling in the case of rotationally symmetric TiAl6V4 workpieces. For this, the energy demand of machine tool, cooling system and tool wear of an internally cooled turning tool with closed cooling circuit at dry and wet machining and at combined cooling were compared. The second energy saving approach investigates the milling of TiAl6V4 workpieces. In this case, a machine tool's energy consumption during the process of slot milling was compared to the energy consumption during a trochoidal slot milling process. It becomes obvious that an internally cooled turning tool in combination with the suitable cooling strategy allows for an enormous energy saving potential as well as for lifetime advantages or productivity increases respectively. Moreover, it is described that a trochoidal milling strategy for TiAl6V4 workpieces offers considerable potential for improve-ment as regards energy consumption and process time.
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Eco-innovations, eco-efficiency and corporate social responsibility practices define much of the current industrial sustainability agenda. While important, they are insufficient in themselves to deliver the holistic changes necessary to achieve long-term social and environmental sustainability. How can we encourage corporate innovation that significantly changes the way companies operate to ensure greater sustainability? Sustainable business models (SBM) incorporate a triple bottom line approach and consider a wide range of stakeholder interests, including environment and society. They are important in driving and implementing corporate innovation for sustainability, can help embed sustainability into business purpose and processes, and serve as a key driver of competitive advantage. Many innovative approaches may contribute to delivering sustainability through business models, but have not been collated under a unifying theme of business model innovation. The literature and business practice review has identified a wide range of examples of mechanisms and solutions that can contribute to business model innovation for sustainability. The examples were collated and analysed to identify defining patterns and attributes that might facilitate categorisation. Sustainable business model archetypes are introduced to describe groupings of mechanisms and solutions that may contribute to building up the business model for sustainability. The aim of these archetypes is to develop a common language that can be used to accelerate the development of sustainable business models in research and practice. The archetypes are: Maximise material and energy efficiency; Create value from ‘waste’; Substitute with renewables and natural processes; Deliver functionality rather than ownership; Adopt a stewardship role; Encourage sufficiency; Re-purpose the business for society/environment; and Develop scale-up solutions.
Since 1989, efforts to understand the nature of interfirm resource sharing in the form of industrial symbiosis and to replicate in a deliberate way what was largely self-organizing in Kalundborg, Denmark have followed many paths, some with much success and some with very little. This article provides a historical view of the motivations and means for pursuing industrial symbiosis - defined to include physical exchanges of materials, energy, water, and by-products among diversified clusters of firms. It finds that "uncovering" existing symbioses has led to more sustainable industrial development than attempts to design and build eco-industrial parks incorporating physical exchanges. By examining 15 proposed projects brought to national and international attention by the U.S. President's Council on Sustainable Development beginning in the early 1990s, and contrasting these with another 12 projects observed to share more elements of self-organization, recommendations are offered to stimulate the identification and uncovering of already existing "kernels" of symbiosis. In addition, policies and practices are suggested to identify early-stage precursors of potentially larger symbioses that can be nurtured and developed further. The article concludes that environmentally and economically desirable symbiotic exchanges are all around us and now we must shift our gaze to find and foster them. © 2007 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Yale University.
We examine how susceptible jobs are to computerisation. To assess this, we begin by implementing a novel methodology to estimate the probability of computerisation for 702 detailed occupations, using a Gaussian process classifier. Based on these estimates, we examine expected impacts of future computerisation on US labour market outcomes, with the primary objective of analysing the number of jobs at risk and the relationship between an occupations probability of computerisation, wages and educational attainment.
Manufacturing process chains describe the concept of how the transfor- mation of a raw material into a finished product is achieved. Within the planning phase of the process chains not only technical and economic requirements must be met but also ecological aspects need to be considered, e.g. the energy consumption during the production phase. The aim of this chapter is to illustrate how the energy consumption of process chains can be considered in the early stage of the planning phase. It provides an overview of the methods that are available to describe and predict the energy demand of consumers in process chains. The presented method is based on planning data like characteristic power consumption parameters of manufacturing equipment and related time parameters. It aims at predicting the energy consumption per product. The data is needed for predictive assessment of alternative process chains and to assess the impact of energy consumption during the production phase in life cycle considerations. Finally, this chapter presents an example for the energy-aware design and selection of a preferred process chain from several alternatives. By this it is illustrated how the presented heuristic ap- proach can be applied.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to position sustainable entrepreneurship in relation to sustainability innovation. The framework builds on a typology of sustainable entrepreneurship, develops it by including social and institutional entrepreneurship, i.e. the application of the entrepreneurial approach towards meeting societal goals and towards changing market contexts, and relates it to sustainability innovation. The framework provides a reference for managers to introduce sustainability innovation and to pursue sustainable entrepreneurship. Methodologically, the paper develops an approach of qualitative measurement of sustainable entrepreneurship and how to assess the position of a company in a classification matrix. The degree of environmental or social responsibility orientation in the company is assessed on the basis of environmental and social goals and policies, the organization of environmental and social management in the company and the communication of environmental and social issues. The market impact of the company is measured on the basis of market share, sales growth and reactions of competitors. The paper finds conditions under which sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation emerge spontaneously. The research has implications for theory and practitioners in that it clarifies which firms are most likely under specific conditions to make moves towards sustainability innovation. The paper makes a contribution in showing that extant research needs to be expanded with regard to motivations for innovation and that earlier models of sustainable entrepreneurship need to be refined. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.