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Learner perspectives on task design for oral–visual eTandem Language Learning

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Abstract

Constituting a more specific form of online collaboration, eTandem Language Learning (eTLL) shows great potential for non-formal, self-directed language learning. Research in this field, particularly regarding task design, is still scarce. Focusing on their beliefs and attitudes, this article examines what learners think about how telecollaborative tasks for oral–visual eTLL should be designed. For the present study, 22 learners of Spanish from The University of Vienna, Austria, participated in regular exchanges with learners of German at the University of Alicante, Spain. With the aim of investigating their perspectives on task design, students were asked to evaluate their experiences in written reports, online questionnaires and an individual interview. Data indicate that learners especially demand tasks supporting natural conversation situations with topics closely related to their everyday lives.

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... E-Tandem language learning, frequently described as online collaboration or telecollaboration, refers to a more specific form of the latter (El-Hariri, 2016) and is based on the core principles of learning in Tandem, namely, reciprocity and autonomy. Reciprocity encompasses both Tandem partners' commitment to their own and their partner's learning (Little, 1999a), while autonomy refers to both partners' ability to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning, which presupposes a degree of metacognitive awareness and metalinguistic knowledge (Little, 1996). ...
... Other studies focused on peer feedback within e-Tandem settings (e.g., Fondo Garcia & Appel, 2016;Sotillo, 2005;Ware & O'Dowd, 2008), task design (e.g., Fondo Garcia & Appel, 2016), and the advantages of telecollaboration as preparation for study abroad programs (e.g., Kinginger, 2016). Its opportunities for fostering intercultural learning and cross-cultural communication (e.g., Hedderich, 1996;Jin & Erben, 2007;O'Dowd, 2003O'Dowd, , 2013Ware & Kramsch, 2005) have been widely researched too and so have been learners' perspectives on e-Tandem learning (e.g., El-Hariri, 2016;Tian & Wang, 2010). It has also been approached with a social-interactive view of autonomy based on Vygotsky's perspective of sociocultural theory (e.g., Schwienhorst, 2003;Sung & Poole, 2017), and the affective dimension of e-Tandem language learning was also discussed in papers with a focus on motivation (e.g., Appel & Gilabert, 2002;Little, 2006;Turula, 2017;Ushioda, 2000); however, to our knowledge, no studies to date have investigated the links between learning through such an exchange scheme and FLE (Dewaele & MacIntyre, 2014, which is the focus of our study. ...
... In order to exploit this potential of learning a language on exchange fully, careful consideration and planning is required from the teachers too when designing the tasks: not only do the tasks need to be appropriate for the respective age group and proficiency level of the learners, but they also need to cover content the students are genuinely interested in and they need to allow for having natural conversations (El-Hariri, 2016) to make such a project a joyful experience and to prevent students from dropping out (Little, 1999b). The fact that their own interest in a specific topic, such as culture, can be pursued further in e-Tandem settings as they also provide a platform for students to choose their theme of discussion autonomously (Little, 1999a) and to include material they consider beneficial (Kohn, 2018) might have further contributed to an increase in the participants' self-perceived FLE. ...
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This paper reports on crossing borders virtually via an e-Tandem scheme and presents the findings of a study, in which students of English from an Austrian university were paired with students of German from the UK and the USA. Drawing on data from 19 in-depth interviews, the study aims to identify links between e-Tandem language learning and foreign language enjoyment (FLE) (Dewaele & MacIntyre, 2014, 2016). A category-based qualitative text analysis (Kuckartz, 2014) revealed that a majority of the interviewees felt e-Tandem language learning contributed to their FLE. Furthermore, a range of reasons underlying students’ perceived enjoyment of learning a language in Tandem emerged: having authentic conversations in the target language with L1 (first language) users (Dewaele, 2018), perceiving each other as cultural mediators and a difference from language classroom contexts on the level of power relations, which made students feel more at ease. Helping each other, receiving one-on-one feedback and perceiving improvement in their linguistic mastery were furthermore mentioned as factors they felt boosted their enjoyment and so was developing friendships with L1 users. According to the interviewees, these aspects specifically increased their interest and enjoyment in using and learning the language and their eudaimonic happiness. The findings demonstrate that e-Tandem language learning can be a resource to enhance perceived enjoyment in foreign language learners at tertiary level and they illustrate that social and private components of FLE seem to be interlinked.
... Thus, with the widespread use of Web 2.0 tools which are focused on users' exchanges based on cooperation, this strategy becomes more popular not only with professionals but also with language learners (Lewis & O'Dowd, 2016;Litzler, Huguet-Jerez, & Bakieva, 2018).. Moreover, studies focusing on activities to be done in e-tandem environments which are unjustly and frequently overlooked, have shown that learners want to practise functional language structures which they can use in their daily lives (El-Hariri, 2016), and their foreign language proficiency levels and types of activities both affect the amount of effort exerted to accomplish the tasks (Fondo Garcia & Appel, 2016). However, it is regarded as against the natural formation of communication to turn e-tandem language learning strategy's principal of mutuality to something too strict in terms of time, effort and interest so that it doesn't allow any novelties (Sánchez, 2015;Johnson, 2016). ...
... Thus, it can be guessed that female users are keener on the feeling of belonging and intimacy. And, lastly, it can be assumed that cultural exchange can be seen as a commonly acknowledged feature of this website ̅ Accordingly, many studies discussing the issue in terms of e-tandem language learning, exert that the social atmosphere created in these environments speeds up the natural process of language acquisition (Botero, Questier, & Zhu, 2019;Cavalari, 2018;El-Hariri, 2016;Kawai, 2006).. ...
Article
This study aims to investigate English teachers’, students’ and parents’ opinions about the secondary schools’ intensive foreign language education program in Turkey focusing on four skills, content, learning objectives, teaching/learning process and assessment/evaluation. To this end, instruments consisting of three questionnaires and one academic test were developed by the researcher. These instruments were applied to 305 English teachers, 189 students and 288 parents. Cronbach alpha results were found above 0,80 for all the questionnaires indicating the high reliability of the data collection tools. Descriptive statistics (frequency and mean), Oneway ANOVA and post hoc tests were used to describe and compare the opinions between the groups. The results of this study show that in terms of four skills, teachers, as opposed to students and parents, think that reading and writing skills develop more than listening and speaking skills. Teachers also think that they can partially achieve learning objectives for speaking skills. Regarding the content, teachers state that the content is partially prepared with a focus on communication while students and parents have quite positive opinions. The students and parents expressed partially positive opinions about the intensive foreign language education encouraging hands-on activities during the lesson while teachers think otherwise. Briefly, parents and students have more positive opinions than teachers. Overall, the results of this study show the discrepancy between teachers, students and parents’ thoughts about intensive foreign language education, in which is worth investing. Keywords: foreign language education, intensive language education, academic success, English
... Another element related to the speaking partner was mentioned by 2 LAPs and 1 HAP who reported that not knowing their speaking partner before the speaking activity made them feel nervous. The uncertainty thus caused has been revealed to be a trigger for FLA (e.g., Appel, 2012;El-Hariri, 2016). Maria, one HAP, explains how she felt while the SpeakMOOC system was assigning her an available partner randomly: ...
... Almost all reported that they had felt more nervous during the first speaking activity than during the following ones. Similar findings were reported by El-Hariri (2016) in her study of FLA in an English-German e-tandem environment. ...
... Thus, with the widespread use of Web 2.0 tools which are focused on users' exchanges based on cooperation, this strategy becomes more popular not only with professionals but also with language learners (Lewis & O'Dowd, 2016;Litzler, Huguet-Jerez, & Bakieva, 2018).. Moreover, studies focusing on activities to be done in e-tandem environments which are unjustly and frequently overlooked, have shown that learners want to practise functional language structures which they can use in their daily lives (El-Hariri, 2016), and their foreign language proficiency levels and types of activities both affect the amount of effort exerted to accomplish the tasks (Fondo Garcia & Appel, 2016). However, it is regarded as against the natural formation of communication to turn e-tandem language learning strategy's principal of mutuality to something too strict in terms of time, effort and interest so that it doesn't allow any novelties (Sánchez, 2015;Johnson, 2016). ...
... Thus, it can be guessed that female users are keener on the feeling of belonging and intimacy. And, lastly, it can be assumed that cultural exchange can be seen as a commonly acknowledged feature of this website ̅ Accordingly, many studies discussing the issue in terms of e-tandem language learning, exert that the social atmosphere created in these environments speeds up the natural process of language acquisition (Botero, Questier, & Zhu, 2019;Cavalari, 2018;El-Hariri, 2016;Kawai, 2006).. ...
Article
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This study aims to evaluate online language exchange platforms and its main focus is on the website named “www.free4talk.com” as an example. The theoretical framework is based on self-directed learning, e-tandem language learning, community of inquiry and expressive language competency. Interviews with the founder, administrator and some of the users of the website are conducted and a 5-point Likert type assessment tool with 26 items and 7 dimensions is created with the help of a literature review at the same time. The findings are obtained through analysing the data collected by applying the instrument to 413 people on the website. The research reveals that this platform presents a free environment with a certain amount of safety and it contributes greatly to foreign language development of learners in terms of providing an opportunity for language practice, an undeniable improvement in expressive language competency and a social atmosphere that offers a source of motivation for language learning for both people who finished their formal foreign language training and for students who are still studying at schools.
... Researchers have applied the term telecollaboration to refer to learners' online intercultural exchanges and learning in tandem (i.e. reciprocity and autonomy) (El-Hariri, 2016). The concept telecollaboration has been explored by researchers in a substantial body of studies (Develotte, 2009;Guth & Marini-Maio, 2010;Jepson, 2005;Lee, 2018;O'Dowd, 2013;Rosell-Aguilar, 2005;Sevilla-Pavón, 2019). ...
The present study adopted a sequential explanatory mixed-methods approach to explore the impact of e-tandem on English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ speaking skills (i.e. speaking fluency and coherence, lexicon, grammatical range and accuracy, and pronunciation) and willingness to communicate (WTC). To this end, two classes at a language institute were randomly assigned to an experimental group (e-tandem group) with 22 EFL learners and a control group (conventional group) with 20 EFL learners. The learners in the e-tandem class communicated with foreign English speakers online using Tandem, a language exchange application, and those in the conventional class had collaborative speaking activities during the class time. IELTS speaking skill test, willingness-to-communicate scale, and an individual semi-structured interview were used to collect the required quantitative and qualitative data. Paired samples t-test and one-way ANCOVA, used to analyse the quantitative data, indicated that e-tandem and conventional classes developed the EFL learners’ speaking skills and WTC; however, the e-tandem group outperformed the conventional group on speaking skills and WTC. Thematic analysis, applied to analyse the qualitative data, generated a number of themes and categories signifying the e-tandem learners’ positive attitudes and perceptions towards the e-tandem-based collaborative speaking activities. Pedagogical implications are discussed for collaborative speaking courses in EFL settings.
... 23 Pour le développement des tâches d'apprentissage, les recherches réaffirment la nécessité de distinguer entre tâche comme plan et tâche comme processus (Gonzalez-Lloret, 2017) et la nécessité, d'une part, d'intégrer cette différence dans la conception des tâches en favorisant l'émergence de tâches de déficit informationnel (information gap, Balaman, 2018), d'autre part, de laisser des marges pour la co-définition des tâches avec ou par les apprenants (Kurek & Müller-Hartmann, 2019 ;El Hariri, 2016). La conception et l'opérationnalisation doivent amener les futurs enseignants à une prise de conscience des modes favorisant la dimension sociale en termes de cohésion de groupe (Stickler & Hampel, 2015, p. 72). ...
... Within this practice, participants engage in speaking activities via videoconference with interlocutors that they have never met face-to-face. E-tandem is believed to be an anxiety reducing and confidenceincreasing practice over time (Appel & Gilabert, 2002;El-Hariri, 2016). Paradoxically, scholars also suggest that e-tandem learners might experience FLA when taking part of this activity due to different factors, such as the medium of communication (Jauregi, 2015) or the fact that speaking interaction in a foreign language (FL) can be anxiety provoking itself (Appel, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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In the last years the phenomenon of migration has increased across countries and the migrants linguistic and social inclusion is becoming more and more urgent in our societies. Too often, the Italian administrative language tends to be unnecessarily difficult for all those who are L2 beginners in Italian language skills to become resident in Italy and yet need to deal with various red tape and formalities (as the asylum seekers or migrants and their families). Looking at this phenomenon, we can’t help to take in account also what Krashen called the affective filter, prompted by either the austerity of the Institution releasing the documents, either the extreme importance of the information in them. Besides, as noticed by Fernanda Minuz in Italiano L2 e alfabetizzazione in età adulta (Minuz, 2005), many L2 learners arrive in Italy lacking literacy even in their mother tongue and they have absolutely no familiarity with our typical administrative procedure that implies many written formalities. Also, Sparks, Ganschow and Javorsky (2000) noticed that student with poor language skills are in general more anxious facing written texts. Aware of this problem, we decided to test a group of Italian L2 learners (118 students from level A2 up) on the comprehension of different kind of authentic administrative texts in order to find a way to ameliorate their impact whit the Italian bureaucracy. They were tested on two different application forms, on a document about citizenship and on a judgment from an Italian court. All the tests were anonymous; no dictionary, phone or other instruments were allowed to be used. We took in account syntactical, lexical and pragmatical difficulties as much as emotive obstacle in their proper comprehension of the texts. After some multiple choice exercises, the students were asked to underline and write down all their difficulties and feelings about the texts. In order to be sure they could feel comfortable in writing the truth, all the teachers and observers in the class met the students before the test and already had a small informal conversation with them. Then we put the results of the test, the notes written by the students and everything noticed by the observers together and we picked up some recurrent aspects that seem to affect the feelings about Italian administrative texts, trying to relate them to the Foreign language reading anxiety scale stated by Saito, Horwitz and Garza (1999). To make an example, many of the students seemed to be deeply confused about what to write in the personal data required by the forms, as they looked like split between the previous life in their countries and the new life in Italy. We tried to analyze and deepen those outcomes in order to figure out how to improve self-efficacy in fulfilling administrative documents.
... O'Dowd (2016) distinguishes two basic models of telecollaboration: the e-tandem model, where students are paired and mostly work on language competences (a.k.a. Teletandem; El-Hariri, 2016;Telles, 2009), and the intercultural model, where the focus is on getting in touch with a different culture through meaningful personal interactions. Alp-Connectar tries to blend the two approaches in a consistent program. ...
Article
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This article presents the design, implementation and outcomes of AlpConnectar, a Swiss project that exploits technologies for digitally-supported language exchange (LE) in primary schools. Launched in 2013, the project involves three Swiss cantons where different languages are spoken (namely German, French and Italian) and respectively taught as foreign languages since the third grade of primary school. In the first section of the paper the linguistic composition of Switzerland is briefly presented and the current methodologies and approaches in foreign language teaching in the country are introduced. After a literature review of online LE practices, the AlpConnectar project is presented, along with a LE example to illustrate how it works. The final sections present the results of the project, based on data collected from both pupils and teachers. The results seem to suggest that while digital technologies offer significant benefits for LEs, they are no silver bullet, and their impact depends on a number of contextual variables.
... In addition to an arranged week-long period to familiarize students with the virtual environments, task procedures, and expectations, both instructors agreed on a set of conversation topics. The high interest in course content (Item 17) suggests that the selected topics addressed learners' demand for discussions on issues relevant to their lives (El-Hariri, 2016). This relevance was likely heightened by the partnership between students of similar age and reciprocity in the use of languages (Akiyama, 2015). ...
Chapter
This chapter explores students' engagement in a telecollaboration project between a Spanish and an American university. Students' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement were evaluated throughout the project. A total of 53 students participated in an online exchange during one and a half months through two different applications, WhatsApp representing the text-based environment and Jitsi representing the synchronous videoconferencing platform. The engagement construct was explored using pre and post measures as well as tracking students' conversation in the platforms. Results yielded high levels of cognitive engagement as a result of the interaction. Values for emotional engagement were found to be higher in the instant messaging platform and behavioral engagement did not present significant values. Implications and recommendations for future research were drawn.
... This call for a more decentralized, personalized, learner-driven approach to task design contradicts recent findings which have emphasized the need for clearly sequenced and structured telecollaborative tasks (see Dooly 2010;Kurek and Müller-Hartmann 2017). At the same time, it resonates with research highlighting the importance of task designs that account for students' individual choices and personal interests, as gleaned from learners' perspectives (El-Hariri 2016). ...
Article
This article explores learners’ uses and opinions regarding the design and implementation of an approach for developing intercultural knowledge and skills via an online voice-based telecollaboration tool. The participants were 14 pre-service teachers taking an intercultural course for English teachers at a Russian university. For three weeks, they engaged in a multicultural out-of-class telecollaboration with 14 pre-service teachers pursuing an MA degree in foreign language education in the U.S. English was used as a means of interaction. The Russian participants’ uses and views regarding the telecollaboration project were gathered through a mixed-methods analysis of their oral posts, online questionnaire responses, a whole-class discussion, and individual reflections. The results revealed that the pre-service teachers appreciated the format, timeframe, and facilitation of the project as well as the affordances mediated by the voice-based tool for enabling them to develop their intercultural skills with multicultural partners. The results also indicated that, to maximize student engagement, it is important to consider learners’ contextual variables, and their individual preferences and needs when choosing CMC tools and telecollaboration partners. The study concludes with a number of pedagogical suggestions for teachers interested in conducting projects that can raise their students’ intercultural awareness via telecollaboration tools.
... Toda esta literatura ha explorado diversas facetas de la telecolaboración, enfatizando sobretodo sus beneficios en el desarrollo de la motivación (Jauregi et al. 2012, Ku 2014, Bahari 2018) y diversos tipos de competencias (Jordano, Bárcena y Talabán, 2013;Talabán, Bárcena y Villaroel, 2014;Vinagre, 2016; García Esteban, Villarreal y Bueno-Alastuey, 2019), entre las que destaca la competencia intercultural (Schenker, 2012;Lee y Marke,y 2014;Chen y Yang, 2016;Angelova y Zhao, 2016;De Martino, 2016; Artistizábal y Welch, 2017; Orsini-Jones y Lee, 2018;Lenkaitis et al., 2019;Villalobos, 2019). Sin embargo, la mayoría de proyectos de telecolaboración documentados tienen como objetivo desarrollar la competencia lingüística de sus participantes (Corbett, 2010;Bueno-Alastuey, 2010, 2011Vinagre y Muñoz, 2011;Liddicoat y Scarino, 2013;Canto et al., 2013;Martín-Monje, Bárcena-Martín y Read, 2014;Chun, 2015;El-Hariri, 2016;Bueno-Alastuey y Kleban, 2016), lo que evidencia que una de las áreas que más ha crecido en los últimos años en el ámbito de la telecolaboración es la de la enseñanza de idiomas, especialmente a nivel universitario. Según Dooly y O'Dowd (2012: 14-15), este interés por la telecolaboración en el ámbito del aprendizaje de idiomas como lengua extranjera se puede atribuir a cuatro razones principales: la creciente presencia y accesibilidad de las nuevas tecnologías en el aula; una mayor concienciación social sobre la importancia de la competencia intercultural en el aprendizaje de lenguas y de cómo este tipo de intercambios pueden contribuir a su desarrollo; la ideacada vez más aceptadadel aprendizaje de idiomas como un proceso sociocultural facilitado en gran medida a través de encuentros comunicativos reales; y por último, la creciente necesidad por parte de los egresados de combinar competencias lingüísticas y digitales para poder acceder a ciertos mercados laborales. ...
Article
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Este artículo presenta una experiencia piloto en el uso de Edmodo como herramienta de enseñanza de idiomas a nivel universitario. A través de esta plataforma se ha creado un espacio de telecolaboración entre estudiantes de la Universidad de Zaragoza (España) y de la Universidad Maria Curie-Skłodowska (Polonia). Con una metodología de aprendizaje basado en tareas, la interacción entre los estudiantes españoles y polacos ha tenido como objeto principal aumentar la motivación de los participantes a la hora de utilizar el lenguaje y mejorar sus estrategias de escritura en lengua inglesa en un entorno de interacción social real y motivador, cercano a la experiencia habitual de las redes sociales que tienen los jóvenes, pero dentro de un contexto académico y supervisado. El análisis cuantitativo de los resultados revela que el proyecto ha contribuido al desarrollo de las destrezas de redacción de los estudiantes, así como a la reflexión sobre sus propios procesos de escritura. También ha ayudado a desarrollar el pensamiento crítico de los participantes a través de una serie de tareas y la evaluación de las de sus compañeros. Por el contrario, la experiencia no ha sido tan satisfactoria como cabía esperar inicialmente en lo concerniente al desarrollo de la competencia intercultural, pues en la mayoría de casos los intercambios no han trascendido lo puramente académico, quedándose muchas veces en la superficie.
... Under the guidance of Vetter, the L3-TaSK project and FAME (Fostering Autonomy and Motivation), examine different aspects of eTandems as a means of linguistic cooperation across long distances. Whereas FAME focuses particularly on learners' autonomy and motivation, including FL anxiety phenomena (see El-Hariri & Jung, 2015;El-Hariri, 2017), L3-TaSK provides insights into areas such as the learners' L3 use, their beliefs and attitudes regarding telecollaborative task design, the teacher's role, task design for online collaborative interaction or conversational analysis perspectives of eTandem dialogues (El-Hariri, 2016;Fink, 2016;Kronsteiner & Vetter, 2016;Renner, Fink, & Volgger, 2016;Vetter, 2017). While learners of Chinese, Spanish and German have been involved in the L3-TaSK project, learners of French, Spanish and German in Austria, France and Colombia comprise the population of the FAME project. ...
Article
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This overview of seven years of research on language learning and teaching in Austria reflects a period of steady growth for the language teaching and learning research community, a development due to a national policy agenda aiming for a stronger research base in teacher education. The target languages of the teaching and learning processes investigated are primarily German, English, French, Italian, Spanish as well as several Slavic languages, reflecting the geographical, sociolinguistic and language policy situation of this increasingly multilingual country. This multilingualism means there are clearly many more first languages (L1s) than only German involved in the learning situations investigated. While all the studies reviewed here illustrate research driven by a combination of local and global concerns in connection with different theoretical frameworks, some specific clusters of research interest emerge. These are: societal and individual multilingualism, language education policy, language teacher education, language(s) in other subjects, early language learning, language acquisition and learning, literature and culture, testing and standardisation, digital media, and teaching materials.
... No obstante, debido a su carácter emergente, la investigación se ha centrado mayormente en los estudios empíricos, recalcando los beneficios de los intercambios culturales telemáticos como el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa (Taillefer y Muñoz-Luna, 2014) o intercultural (Pomino y Gil-Salom, 2016). En cambio, el diseño de la telecolaboración en formato audiovisual y sincrónico y las percepciones del alumnado de secundaria relacionadas con esta práctica se han invisibilizado con regularidad o tratado con mucha menos frecuencia en escasas investigaciones (El-Hariri, 2016;Kurek y Müller-Hartmann, 2017). Por consiguiente, este trabajo pretende darles más visibilidad a los protagonistas de la telecolaboración, reflejando las percepciones del alumnado ligadas a su interacción oral en inglés y el diseño de un e-tándem lingüístico, realizado entre varios centros escolares provenientes de España, Polonia y Rumanía. ...
Chapter
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La investigación tuvo relación con la implementación de un curso para enseñar a alumnos de Pedagogía en Matemática a integrar la Realidad Virtual (RV) en la enseñanza de la Geometría 3D utilizando un modelo de secuencia instruccional basado en el modelo TPACK y emociones (e-TPACK) propuesto por los autores de este artículo, el cual incorpora la emocionalidad y los verbos de acción de la Taxonomía de Bloom para la Era Digital (2008). Para evaluar la propuesta, se diseñó un curso en la plataforma Moodle, en el cual participaron nueve futuros profesores de matemática. Se determinó el conocimiento de entrada y salida al curso a través de un Test de Disponibilidad Léxica (TDL) y una Encuesta de Integración de las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC). Las conclusiones presentan las ventajas de utilizar el modelo propuesto y como el alumno de pedagogía ha aprendido a integrar la RV considerando las emociones y las TIC más apropiadas a un contenido específico.
... No obstante, debido a su carácter emergente, la investigación se ha centrado mayormente en los estudios empíricos, recalcando los beneficios de los intercambios culturales telemáticos como el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa (Taillefer y Muñoz-Luna, 2014) o intercultural (Pomino y Gil-Salom, 2016). En cambio, el diseño de la telecolaboración en formato audiovisual y sincrónico y las percepciones del alumnado de secundaria relacionadas con esta práctica se han invisibilizado con regularidad o tratado con mucha menos frecuencia en escasas investigaciones (El-Hariri, 2016;Kurek y Müller-Hartmann, 2017). Por consiguiente, este trabajo pretende darles más visibilidad a los protagonistas de la telecolaboración, reflejando las percepciones del alumnado ligadas a su interacción oral en inglés y el diseño de un e-tándem lingüístico, realizado entre varios centros escolares provenientes de España, Polonia y Rumanía. ...
Conference Paper
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A pesar de la relevancia de la competencia digital docente, poca literatura analiza los marcos genéricos de competencias docentes desde esta necesaria visión digital. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar el perfil docente universitario para comprobar hasta qué punto han integrado esta visión transversal de las tecnologías digitales (TD) en el perfil del profesorado universitario. Para ello, se ha utilizado un análisis de contenido de 15 marcos competenciales (2000-2020). Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la predominancia del sentido instrumental de las TD en la función docente y una ausencia de la competencia digital del alumnado.
... Encouraging L2 students' involvement in these exchanges has been widely enacted based on online pedagogical tasks (and task sequences) as a "means for shared knowledge building" (Dooly 2011: 69) aiming at the development of participants' intercultural and interactional competences in an L2 (Hampel 2006;Lee 2007;O'Dowd and Dooly 2020;Wang 2006). Accordingly, understanding the tasks and their specifications have increasingly been a research and practice concern and the bulk of research has pointed to the following specifications for a well-designed telecollaborative task: -flexibility for change and adaptation to new contexts (Hampel 2006), opportunities for intercultural exchange (Kurek and Müller-Hartman 2017; O'Dowd and Waire 2009) Tracking telecollaborative tasks authenticity with multiple opportunities for natural conversation (El-Hariri 2016;Wang 2007), presentation with clearly-issued instructions (Müller-Hartmann and Kurek 2016), attractiveness and relevance to students' needs (Kurek and Müller-Hartmann 2017), richness for improvement of students' digital literacies (Hauck and Youngs 2008), compatibility with reflective learning (González-Lloret and Ortega 2014; Gruba 2004), and openness for promoting learner autonomy (Hampel 2010). ...
Article
Telecollaborative exchanges between students from different countries are increasingly becoming a common practice in foreign language education and calling for new teacher competences for task design in order to maximize interactional opportunities in these settings. Considering that tasks are dynamic in nature and subject to constant change from their initial design to implementation by L2 learners, there is a need for teacher training activities promoting opportunities for improving the required digital and pedagogical competences. With this in mind, this paper sets out to explore the interactional architecture of the multiple steps involved in the training of pre-service language teachers in pedagogical task design for telecollaboration-oriented video-mediated interactional settings. We describe the procedural unfolding of the telecollaborative tasks by analyzing (i) pre-service teachers’ collaborative design meetings and (ii) written design reports; (iii) peer and mentor evaluation of these design ideas in whole-class feedback sessions in teacher training classrooms; (iv) written reports of redesigns after the feedback session, (v) video-mediated implementation by telecollaborative task participants, and finally (vi) pre-service teachers’ written reflections based on the implementation of their own designs. We use Conversation Analysis to closely examine audio and screen-recording data and draw on the textual data to present the procedural unfolding of two tasks over multiple phases, namely design, feedback, implementation, and reflection. The findings show that a telecollaborative task is a co-construction by the pre-service teachers as task designers, the teacher trainer as the mentor, and the L2 learners as the end users in interactionally trackable ways across the teacher education events. The results bring insights into the novel sets of digital, pedagogical, and interactional competencies in L2 contexts. We conclude that task enhanced telecollaboration holds great potential to critically advance research and practice in L2 teaching and teacher education worldwide.
... No obstante, debido a su carácter emergente, la investigación se ha centrado mayormente en los estudios empíricos, recalcando los beneficios de los intercambios culturales telemáticos como el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa (Taillefer y Muñoz-Luna, 2014) o intercultural (Pomino y Gil-Salom, 2016). En cambio, el diseño de la telecolaboración en formato audiovisual y sincrónico y las percepciones del alumnado de secundaria relacionadas con esta práctica se han invisibilizado con regularidad o tratado con mucha menos frecuencia en escasas investigaciones (El-Hariri, 2016;Kurek y Müller-Hartmann, 2017). Por consiguiente, este trabajo pretende darles más visibilidad a los protagonistas de la telecolaboración, reflejando las percepciones del alumnado ligadas a su interacción oral en inglés y el diseño de un e-tándem lingüístico, realizado entre varios centros escolares provenientes de España, Polonia y Rumanía. ...
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... No obstante, debido a su carácter emergente, la investigación se ha centrado mayormente en los estudios empíricos, recalcando los beneficios de los intercambios culturales telemáticos como el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa (Taillefer y Muñoz-Luna, 2014) o intercultural (Pomino y Gil-Salom, 2016). En cambio, el diseño de la telecolaboración en formato audiovisual y sincrónico y las percepciones del alumnado de secundaria relacionadas con esta práctica se han invisibilizado con regularidad o tratado con mucha menos frecuencia en escasas investigaciones (El-Hariri, 2016;Kurek y Müller-Hartmann, 2017). Por consiguiente, este trabajo pretende darles más visibilidad a los protagonistas de la telecolaboración, reflejando las percepciones del alumnado ligadas a su interacción oral en inglés y el diseño de un e-tándem lingüístico, realizado entre varios centros escolares provenientes de España, Polonia y Rumanía. ...
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... As the pedagogical value of a Tandem has long been investigated and recognized in the field of language learning (Appel & Mullen, 2000), most recent research in the field has explored curriculum integration and as well as students' perceptions, satisfaction and feedback based on the data collected during the development of eTandem activities (e.g. Baker, Wang, Ma, Ma & Zheng 2018;El-Hariri, 2016;Wang-Szilas, Berger & Zhang, 2015;Wang, 2018). Nowadays, there is also a growing number of online webpages focusing on connecting different classes in different parts of the world in order to carry out eTandem exchanges (O'Dowd, 2018) where different tools are used. ...
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The starting point for this research is an eTandem initiative between learners of Mandarin Chinese and German. The participants mainly learnt the dominant variety of their target languages (German Standard German, Mainland Chinese Standard Mandarin), however, their tandem partners are speakers of a non-dominant variety (Austrian Standard German, Taiwanese Standard Mandarin). Due to this pairing, some speakers felt prompted to position themselves in relation to the discussed varieties. The empirical study analyses the discursive construction of language variation of one eTandem dyad that elaborated on this topic at length. For this purpose, we adopted a critical discourse analysis approach and focused on three aspects (nomination, predication, perspectivisation). The results reveal that language variation in the Chinese context, especially the concept of Fāngyán, was difficult to grasp and explain, while the discussion on German was more clear-cut. Standard language was conceptualised as a tool for inclusion, whereas non-standard varieties were conceived as excluding but also as a means to create community belonging. Based on our results we conclude that diversity in varieties in tandem learning has the potential to offer valuable opportunities not only to learn about target language variation, but also to increase language awareness regarding one’s expert language.
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Telecollaboration, or ‘online intercultural exchange’ (OIE), refers to the application of online communication tools to bring together classes of language learners in geographically distant locations with the aim to develop their foreign language skills and intercultural competence through collaborative tasks and project work. Many studies have demonstrated the potential of this activity for supporting collaborative learning and developing intercultural awareness. This article focuses on the implications for teachers and addresses the question: what are the skills, attitudes and knowledge which a foreign language teacher needs to establish and successfully carry out an online intercultural exchange with their learners? To answer this question, the paper presents research based on the Delphi technique, consulting a large group of ‘experts’ and ‘experienced practitioners’ and achieving a gradual consensus on the necessary telecollaborative skills, knowledge and attitudes. The final set of competences is presented and problematic issues related to the model are discussed with reflections on the comments from the experts who participated in the study.
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SLA research indicates that negotiation promotes interlanguage development and that learners are most likely to negotiate if opportunities for oral interaction are provided. In the case of campus- based students, learners' progress is supported and monitored mainly through classroom interactions. If students do not attend classes on campus, how do they gain the reported benefits of oral interaction? Recent studies indicate that chatting provides opportunities for the negotiation of meaning, as occurs in oral interaction. However, most of these have been conducted on interactions between learners, with teacher supervision, often in task-based instructional settings. This study considers implications for distance language learning of negotiations by a group of intermediate learners of Italian interacting in dyads on a Web based Italian native speaker (NS) chat program. The research specifically explores (a) whether live chat with native speakers offers opportunities for negotiation of meaning in open ended tasks carried out in single session interactions with unfamiliar NS without teacher supervision, (b) the principal triggers for negotiation and modification of interlanguage in these interactions, and (c) whether public NS chat rooms are likely to offer an optimal environment for SLA, even for learners studying at a distance who need to chat without supervision. Chat logs indicate that learners do in fact negotiate for meaning and modify their interlanguage when engaged in open ended conversational tasks with unfamiliar interlocutors, with lexical and structural difficulties triggering most negotiations. Though further research needs to probe whether these negotiations and modifications lead to acquisition in the longer term, they would be particularly valuable for distance learners who need opportunities to negotiate within authentic target language contexts.
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The objective of this paper is to describe a task-based project in tandem via e-mail, and to discuss the effects of motivation on task performance. In this project, a group of Irish students and a group of Spanish students are asked to carry out a series of tasks in collaboration with their tandem partners via e-mail by means of a web page especially designed for the project. Half the message is meant to be written in the student’s native language and half in the target language, and students are also encouraged to correct one another. The goal behind our research is to discuss the effects of motivation on task performance. We argue that resource directing (such as reasoning demands) and resource depleting factors (such as prior knowledge) which belong to task complexity in Robinson’s model (Robinson, 2001) are closely connected to affective variables which, as is the case with motivation, belong to task difficulty. Motivational factors like interest in the meanings to be exchanged, involvement in the decision-making process, students’ expertise in the topic, media and materials used, and the diffusion of outcomes among others have strong effects on task performance, and should therefore be considered together with complexity variables.
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This study examines the potential of learner-learner interaction through Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (SCMC) to focus learners’ attention on form. Focus on form is operationalized through Language-Related Episodes (LREs), instances where learners turn their attention to formal aspects of language by questioning the accuracy of their own or each other’s language use. The study also compares two task types, jigsaw and dictogloss, with respect to the number and characteristics of LREs. Ten adult intermediate ESL learners from an intensive English language program in the US worked together in dyads to carry out one jigsaw and one dictogloss task in an SCMC environment. Tasks were controlled for content and were presented in two alternative orders. The dictogloss in this study generated more LREs than the jigsaw. LREs were also qualitatively different across task types. Jigsaw LREs were implicit and did not result in incorrectly solved outcomes, whereas dictogloss LREs were explicit and resulted in correctly solved, incorrectly solved, and unresolved outcomes.
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Tandem language learning strategies have long been recognised for their pedagogical value. E-mail tandem exchanges have allowed learners to engage in active communicative contact with native speakers of their target language, but research around these exchanges has suffered due to difficulties with data collection. This paper describes a web-based tandem language learning environment the authors have developed which eliminates these difficulties. In particular, the paper discusses the pedagogical advantages of the specifically designed web-based environment over traditional e-mail tandem exchanges.
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The paper examines the potential of eTandem learning via Skype, a desktop videoconferencing tool, with a focus on the learners' perspectives of what they had gained in the eTandem in terms of their improvements in language proficiency and intercultural understanding. The research data come from an online language exchange project conducted between English language learners from Peking University (PKU) in China and learners of Mandarin from Griffith University (GU) in Australia, in semester 1, 2009. The findings indicate a consensus from both groups of students that the exchange had improved their linguistic and intercultural competence, and that eTandem via Skype could be a sustainable mode of learning outside the classroom. However, students from PKU held a more positive evaluation of the learning outcomes and the project as a whole, in comparison to that held by the GU students. We conclude that this dissimilarity was primarily caused by the differences in their language proficiency. It is suggested that in future research, more efforts should be made to manage differences in language proficiency in order to maximize learning outcomes. Yes Yes
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We performed a two-phase, year-long research project that explored the impact of peer feedback on language development. We investigated specifically how and when post-secondary learners of English and Spanish provide corrective feedback on their partners' use of the target language in weekly asynchronous discussions by assigning them to one of two conditions: e-tutoring, in which students were asked to provide peer feedback on any linguistic form they perceived as incorrect; and e-partnering, in which students were not required to provide peer feedback but could do so on their own initiative. We examined the frequency and type of language use by coding the feedback for language-related episodes (Swain & Lapkin, 1998) and for feedback strategies (Ros i Solé & Truman, 2005). The findings indicate that students in both conditions preferred an inclusion of feedback on form as part of their exchange, but such feedback only occurred when explicitly required in the e-tutoring condition. Pedagogical implications include the need to situate peer feedback on form within current models of telecollaboration and to assist students in using feedback strategies such as reformulations, which do not rely on a deep understanding of the target or native language grammar.
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This article discusses a framework for the development of tasks in a synchronous online environment used for language learning and teaching. It shows how a theoretical approach based on second language acquisition (SLA) principles, sociocultural and constructivist theories, and concepts taken from research on multimodality and new literacies, can influence the design and implementation of tasks for computer-mediated communication (CMC). The findings are based on a study conducted at the Open University, a study which examined all three levels of theory, design and implementation. The paper first presents the underlying theories in more detail before examining how these theories translated into the design of tasks for language tutorials via an audiographic conferencing tool. Finally it looks at how the design was implemented in practice by focusing on a number of issues such as student–student and student–tutor interaction, feedback, use of multimodal tools, and the differences between teaching face-to-face and online.
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This paper presents a comparative analysis of corrective feedback provided by participants in an eTandem interaction between university students in Japan and Australia who were learning each other's language. Corrective feedback provided to tandem partners during interaction via text-based Synchronous Computer Mediated Communication (SCMC) is compared to corrective feedback provided to tandem partners post-chat utilizing logs of the chat interaction. Results show that implicit corrective feedback on NNS errors occurred in the text-based SCMC interaction but not frequently. On the other hand, negotiation of meaning occurred most often to overcome communication problems during chat exchange rather than in direct relation to errors. This is a crucial element for L2 development since the learner finds himself/herself in the sort of context that allows for recognition of developmental gaps. Further, explicit corrective feedback utilizing conversation logs and exchanged by email achieved high rates of correction both in English and Japanese sessions. The strategy of sending post-chat corrective feedback is shown to be an effective eTandem language learning strategy providing learners with opportunities to focus on form in their L2.
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Research on the learning of verb-argument constructions (VACs) emphasizes the importance of item-based patterns and their perceptual groundings in acquisition, with abstract schematic patterns emerging from the conspiracy of particular usage patterns and their interpretations. This chapter explores the distributional properties of three types of constructions (Verb-Locative, Verb Object Locative, and Verb Object Object ditransitive) as associations of form and function by means of a corpus analysis of verb selection preferences in 100 million words of usage and with the semantic network structure of the verbs in these VACs. Our initial analyses show that these constructions are (1) Zipfian in their verb type-token constituency in usage, (2) selective in their verb form occupancy, and (3) coherent in their semantics, with a network structure involving prototypical nodes of high betweenness centrality. Psychological theory relating to the statistical learning of categories suggests that these are factors that promote learning. These robust patterns of usage might therefore provide the Common Ground to facilitate processes of syntactic and semantic bootstrapping.
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This paper reports the findings of three qualitative studies which were carried out in university level EFL classes in Germany. The three groups used various combinations of communication technologies such as email, web-based message boards, and video conferencing in order to engage in online exchanges with different partner classes in Ireland and the USA. The research was aimed at establishing, firstly, how such virtual intercultural contact can contribute to the development of intercultural communicative competence, and secondly, what skills and knowledge both students and teachers need in order to engage successfully in this complex online learning activity. The research revealed that the success of such exchanges often depends on their appropriate integration into the language classroom and that it is necessary to reassess the role of the teacher in telecollaborative exchanges.
In this article we examine how instructors make decisions about task design in telecollaboration and the factors that influence these decisions during the actual implementation of the tasks. We begin with a review of the recent literature of online intercultural exchanges to identify and describe a typology of 12 different types of tasks and task sequences. Next, we illustrate through two case studies – both post-secondary telecollaborative exchanges between learners of English and Spanish – how such decisions about task design are reached by partner instructors prior to an exchange, and how that task design is negotiated throughout the exchange with different consequences on the learning outcomes. Finally, based on this two-step analysis, we make recommendations about factors that instructors and researchers should consider when designing and implementing tasks for their telecollaborative exchanges.
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Research on interaction has focused on the importance of interactional feedback for second language acquisition. Nevertheless, there is scarce research regarding interactional feedback and the effect different kinds of dyad may produce in it in Synchronous Voice-based Computer Mediated Communication. Our study tries to fill this gap by studying whether different dyad composition (14 NNS–NNS sharing the same L1, 14 NNS–NNS with different L1, and 14 NNS–NS) affected the number and type of LREs, the kind of LREs signals and the amount of modified output produced in a two-way exchange information task carried out through Synchronous Voice-based Computer Mediated Communication. Our findings showed the existence of a high incidence of LREs focusing both on meaning and on form, and that the kind of partner significantly affected i) quantity and type of LREs, ii) instances of negotiation and negative feedback, and iii) amount and type of modified output.
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This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonna- tive speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via Yahoo! Instant Messenger (YIM). As "negotiation of meaning" studies of the 1990s have shown, linguistic items which learners negotiate in face-to-face (F2F) interaction seem to facilitate their L2 development. This type of research has been successfully extended to computer-mediated contexts. Recently, findings from second language acquisi- tion (SLA)-motivated research have shown that negative evidence or inciden- tal focus-on-form in communicative classrooms appears to encourage learner awareness that often leads to successful uptake. Six research questions are ad- dressed in this study. They include the availability of error correction episodes in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS online dyad work, type of corrective feedback provided to L2 learners, category of errors, learner uptake or response, type of uptake, and length of moves. Among the results of this exploratory study we find the fol- lowing: error correction episodes are available in an instant messaging context and, in this context, more indirect corrective feedback that focuses primarily on grammatical and lexical errors is provided to L2 learners. Also, simple moves characterize these YIM error correction episodes, and there is evidence of suc- cessful learner uptake.
Article
The report details the Irish portion of an experiment in tandem language learning by electronic mail (e-mail). The partners were Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland) and Ruhr University, Bochum (Germany), funded by the European Union within the International E-Mail Tandem Network as part of a two-year project. Tandem language learning is a form of open learning in which two individuals with different native languages work together to learn each other's language, in this case, English and German; success depends on adherence to the principles of reciprocity and learner autonomy. The report describes the network and the principles of tandem language learning by e-mail, the organization of this part of the study, including pedagogical design and considerations, the process of affective and linguistic data collection, and data analysis. The linguistic data analysis focused on bilingual skills, language register, discourse fillers, punctuation, explicit coordination between partners, error correction and generalizations made, thematic content, control and critical detachment, use of metalanguage, and accuracy of corrections. Implications for future work in this area are discussed briefly. Contains 10 references. (MSE)
Article
This paper examines the affective dimension of tandem language learning via e-mail. It begins by highlighting some of the obstacles to this mode of learning, including organisational and pedagogical issues as well as the particular issues confronting learners. Drawing on a small body of empirical data, it explores the interactions between these issues and what learners perceive to be intrinsically motivating about tandem learning. It concludes by suggesting that affective learning experience has a potentially powerful role to play in fostering the development of learner autonomy through the reciprocity on which successful tandem learning is founded.
Article
This article describes an exchange project carried out by foreign language classes in the University of León, Spain and the University of Northern Michigan, USA. The two groups integrated videoconferencing technology into a task based exchange in order to make students more aware of how they viewed their own and the target cultures. In the course of the project learners also experienced some of the challenges of inter-cultural communication. The development of the project is described and examples of intercultural learning are looked at. Some guidelines for the use of videoconferencing in such intercultural exchanges are also suggested.
Article
Intercultural learning is often assumed to be an automatic benefit of e-mail exchanges between groups of learners in different countries, but little research exists on whether on-line intercultural collaboration does actually develop learners' understanding of the other culture's perspective and world view. This paper reviews what recent literature suggests intercultural learning to involve and then reports on a year-long e-mail exchange between Spanish and English second year university language learners. Using the results of qualitative research, the paper identifies key characteristics of e-mail exchanges which helped to develop learners' intercultural communicative competence (Byram, 1997). It also outlines elements of e-mail messages which may enable students to develop successful intercultural relationships with their partners.
Article
Tandem language learning occurs when two learners of different native languag-es work together to help each other learn the other language. First used in face-to-face contexts, Tandem is now increasingly being used by language-learning partners located in different countries who are linked via various forms of elec-tronic communication, a context that has become known as eTandem. In addition to providing a brief account of the history of Tandem and eTandem, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of electronic communication media suitable for eTandem, both asynchronous and synchronous, from the telephone and email to amateur radio and business-quality videoconferencing. Finally, the Electronic Network for Language And Culture Exchange (ENLACE) is introduced, a Web-based medium through which users of Windows, Macintosh, and Unix-based computers can find language learning partners and engage in eTandem language learning using synchronous text chat alone or in combination with video and/or audio conferencing.
Article
This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating the viability of instant mes-senger (IM) interaction to facilitate intercultural learning in a foreign language class. Eight students in a Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) class participated in the study. Each student was paired with a native speaker (NS) of Chinese, and each pair collaborated on eight intercultural-learning tasks over a 2-month period through IM. Data were collected through an ethnographic survey, intercultural sensitivity scale, follow-up interviews, the researcher's reflective journal, and participants' IM conversation transcripts. The results showed that student partici-pants' intercultural interaction engagement and attentiveness steadily increased, they developed self-reflection capacities, critical thinking skills, and greater sen-sitivity and respect for intercultural differences during their IM-based intercul-tural learning. Participants also had predominantly positive attitudes toward IM use in intercultural learning.
Article
This article examines the degrees of collaborative language learning that were supported in cyber face-to-face interaction. The concept of ''cyber face-to-face'' is used here to encapsulate the kind of environment in which a combination of realtime oral/aural, visual, and text-based interaction happens simultaneously via the various features in an advanced Synchronous Learning Management System (SLMS). The study discusses the results of an evaluation of the five features, namely, the interactive whiteboard, the text chat, the group cyber face-to-face classrooms, the audio, and the video, in an SLMS called 3C. Thirty-three students from an online Chinese/English interpreting course participated in this study. Survey data indicate that collaborative learning can be effectively facilitated in a cyber face-to-face environment, although the degrees of collaboration vary among the five features evaluated. Recommendations for maximizing the collaborative learning potentials of a cyber face-to-face environment are also put forward. Yes Yes
Article
This volume provides an introduction to online intercultural exchange, the activity of engaging language learners in collaborative project work with partners from other cultures through the use of online communication technology. The chapters look at how online collaboration can be successfully integrated into the foreign language classroom and how it can contribute to the development of students intercultural communicative competence.
Article
This article addresses a pervasive need in the area of videoconference-supported distance language learning: task design. On the basis of Chapelle's (2001) criteria for CALL task appropriateness, this article proposes a set of criteria for evaluating videoconferencing-based tasks which examine such aspects of a task as practicality, language-learning potential, learner fit, authenticity, and positive impact. These criteria were then tested with language learners who completed various tasks using a videoconferencing tool called NetMeeting. Upon examination of the findings in regard to each of these criteria, issues in videoconferencing task design and performance are recommended for further study. Yes Yes
Article
In this paper, I discuss a network-based collaborative project that focused on the learning conditions non-native speakers (NNSs) of Spanish perceived to be necessary to satisfactoraly communicate with native speakers (NSs). Data from online discussions, end-of-semester surveys, and final oral interviews are presented and discussed. The results of this study demonstrated that the NNS and NS online collaboration promoted the scaffolding by which the NSs assisted the NNSs in composing meaning (ideas) and form (grammar). In addition, the NNSs praised the unique learning condition of being exposed to a wide range of functional language discourse produced by the NSs. Students perceived that open-ended questions for two-way exchange were meaningful for them because they were encouraged to use specific vocabulary and structures during the discussions. In spite of the positive conditions and benefits created by networked collaborative interaction (NCI), it was found that there were some major issues that are crucial for NCI. This study demonstrates that learners' language proficiency, computer skills, and age differences are important factors to be considered when incorporating institutional NCI as these may linguistically and socially affect the quality of online negotiation and students' motivation toward NCI. Practical ideas for further research are suggested.
Fremdsprachenerwerb in aufgabenbasierten Interaktionen
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‘Ich weiß etwas, was du nicht weißt … ’: Lehrkompetenz als Schlüssel zu einem innovativen Fremdsprachenunterricht
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Die Lernperspektive bei der Erforschung des Fremdsprachenunterrichts Ein Rück-und Ausblick aus Anlass von 30 Jahren Frühjahrskonferenz zur Erforschung des Fremdsprachenunterrichts
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