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Thinking About Thinking About Leadership: Metacognitive Ability and Leader Developmental Readiness



This chapter describes the role of metacognitive ability in leadership development while providing practical ideas and tools for the development of metacognitive abilities for current and future leaders.
7This chapter describes the role of metacognitive ability in
leadership development while providing practical ideas and tools
for the development of metacognitive abilities for current and future
Thinking About Thinking About
Leadership: Metacognitive Ability and
Leader Developmental Readiness
Hunter Black, Lisa Soto, Sam Spurlin
Imagine two people, Jan and Steve, who have both recently been promoted
to leadership positions in their organizations. They were both highly suc-
cessful in their previous jobs; however, expectations and responsibilities
have changed signicantly in their new roles. They are now managing more
people, setting the direction for the organization, needing to collaborate
across department lines, and having to communicate a clear and compelling
vision for the future to others in the organization. Now imagine that Jan has
the ability to successfully reect on her current knowledge and identify the
areas in which she is lacking knowledge and ability. She then seeks out
the information and skills she is missing and monitors how well her learn-
ing strategies are working, while also modifying and adapting her learn-
ing as she goes. In contrast, Steve does not realize that his current skill
set is insufcient for the demands of the new job, and proceeds by using
the same behaviors and strategies that worked in his previous role. Un-
like Jan, Steve has low metacognitive ability. All else being equal, which
one of these individuals do you think will develop into a more effective
Metacognitive ability (MCA)—the focus of this chapter—is one of the
central components of leader developmental readiness (LDR). LDR is de-
ned as “the ability and motivation to attend to, make meaning of, and
appropriate new leader KSAAs (knowledge, skills, abilities, and attributes)
into knowledge structures along with concomitant changes in identity to
employ those KSAAs” (Hannah & Avolio, 2010, p. 1182). As can be seen
NEW DIRECTIONS FOR STUDENT LEADERSHIP, no. 149, Spring 2016 ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company
Published online in Wiley Online Library ( DOI: 10.1002/yd.20164 85
in this denition, LDR requires that leaders have both the abilities neces-
sary to learn and develop and the motivation to take the steps required for
developing their skills.
MCA falls under the ability category of LDR and is conceptualized
as a leader’s capacity to engage in the process of “second order thinking”
(Hannah & Avolio, 2010, p. 1184) or metacognition. The ability to “know
about what we know” (Metcalfe & Shimamura, 1994, p. xi) is believed to
accelerate leader development by allowing for awareness of leaders’ cogni-
tive strengths and weaknesses, their understanding of what they know and
don’t know, as well as the ability to monitor and adapt their learning as
needed (Avolio & Hannah, 2008; Schraw & Dennison, 1994).
Although MCA is related to intelligence (Borkowski, 1985), research
suggests the two operate independently (Swanson, 1990). Whereas intelli-
gence relates to mental ability or aptitude, MCA allows leaders to under-
stand and regulate their thought processes, which contributes to learning
and problem solving. Every human being uses metacognition on a daily ba-
sis, often without being aware of it. When leaders think about how well
they understand something and whether they may be missing information,
or when they reect on the best way to learn a new subject or skill, they are
utilizing metacognitive strategies.
MCA plays an important role in leader development in two distinct
ways. First, leaders who have better MCA will likely be better at their
role as a leader. Past research has shown that MCA is related to creative
problem solving (Marshall-Mies et al., 2000), decision making (Batha &
Carroll, 2007), critical thinking (Magno, 2010), and leader performance
(Mumford, Baughman, Supinski, Costanza, & Threlfall, 1993). Second,
leaders with better MCA will likely gain more from developmental expe-
riences, as they are better prepared for richer information processing and
meaning making from these experiences (Hannah & Avolio, 2010). This
metacognitive reection leads “to greater self-insight, less maladaptive pro-
cessing, and changes to deeper self-structures” that can accelerate develop-
mental readiness (Hannah & Avolio, 2010, p. 1184). As a result, developing
this capacity in leaders not only benets their current leadership aptitudes,
but also puts them on a positive developmental trajectory throughout their
careers as they encounter opportunities to learn and grow.
Despite growing evidence of its importance to leader development, it
is rare for leader development interventions to target the development of
MCA. This chapter summarizes research on MCA, explains how it relates
to leader development, and provides strategies for developing MCA with
others or on your own.
MCA and Leader Development
Leadership skills are very complex and context dependent, which makes
MCA particularly important to developing as a leader (Marshall-Mies et al.,
2000). Unlike typical skill development, leaders face social challenges in-
volving high levels of novelty and ambiguity that require creative prob-
lem solving, social judgment, and knowledge of the task, organization, and
people (Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs, & Fleishman, 2000). With-
out clear and consistent environmental circumstances, leaders often have
to monitor and adapt to a wide range of situational requirements.
The metacognitive abilities of monitoring and adapting cognition can
impact aspects of a leader’s capacity to develop. These may include a leader’s
self-awareness, regulation of learning from one’s experiences, understand-
ing and inuencing others, and even facilitating development of follow-
ers’ MCA. To begin, MCA plays an important role in self-awareness, which
has been argued to be foundational to leader development (e.g., Gardner,
Avolio, Luthans, May, & Walumbwa, 2005).
Specically, MCA can improve the accuracy of the leaders’ beliefs about
themselves by allowing them to identify inconsistencies and to adjust these
beliefs so that they are more representative of reality, thus increasing self-
concept clarity and self-awareness. In addition, when leaders have a new
developmental experience, MCA helps them incorporate this new experi-
ence into their past and current self-concept. If a leader has high MCA and
the new experience conicts with past experience, this discrepancy is more
likely to result in the expansion of the leader’s self-concept by incorporating
this new information into current beliefs and perspectives, ultimately allow-
ing the development of a more complex understanding of the phenomenon
(i.e., cognitive complexity).
In addition, leaders who have high MCA would be better able to adjust
the way they approach leadership challenges and to maximize developmen-
tal opportunities. For example, they could monitor when they are approach-
ing an experience with a learning and/or a performance orientation, and be
able to shift their thinking by recognizing their beliefs and moving toward
a learning mind-set to get more out of the developmental experience. Hav-
ing a learning orientation is benecial for leader development because it
involves persistence (e.g., overcoming obstacles), motivation to discover
new things, master new leadership skills, and a willingness to seek and use
feedback (DeRue & Wellman, 2009; see Chapter 5 of this volume).
Similarly, MCA is believed to support a leader’s capacity to develop by
allowing for more in-depth processing of learning experiences (Hannah &
Avolio, 2010). In particular, Lord and Hall (2005) assert that metacognitive
skills are especially important for leaders who already have acquired ba-
sic leadership skills. Because basic leadership skills have become automatic
for these individuals, they have the capacity to monitor and evaluate the
effectiveness of their leadership approach. This liberated processing capac-
ity allows leaders to amplify learning from their experiences adopting and
evaluating new strategies to enhance their effectiveness.
Once at this level of development, leaders can shift their focus from
their own cognition better understanding the cognition of others. As a
result, MCA can serve as an important tool for developing leaders’ social in-
uencing skills. Lord and Hall (2005) report that leaders can develop more
complex awareness of their followers’ cognition through understanding fol-
lowers’ needs, preferences, and reactions to the leader’s behavior. Through
this process, MCA aids in the development of the complex social skills es-
sential to effective leadership. To illustrate, imagine that Maria has recently
graduated from college and is entering the world of work. She took courses
on the subject of leadership and even managed a club at her university.
However, when she enters the workplace, she nds that there are many
conicting interests and perspectives, making it difcult to get things done.
Because Maria has strong MCA, she is able to intentionally reect on the
motivations of others, and to monitor and adapt her communication in a
way that brings together others’ diverse perspectives. This ability allows
her to develop a sense of shared direction and to facilitate communication
where there was previously conict.
Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a leader who has high MCA will
be better able to stimulate metacognitive reection in others. This ability
is benecial because collective metacognitive reection leads to creative
and expansive thinking, which can support problem solving and the de-
velopment of new strategies to deal with similar situations in the future
(Brand, Reimer, & Opwis, 2003). Akey dimension of transformational lead-
ership, intellectual stimulation, may be one mechanism by which leaders’
MCA can inuence the development of the MCA of their followers. By
encouraging followers to reect on, reexamine, and challenge their own as-
sumptions, ways of thinking, and acting (Bass & Riggio, 2006), transforma-
tional leaders help followers assess and monitor their cognitions, which are
all foundational dimensions of the process of metacognition. Furthermore,
when leaders seek different perspectives, foster outside-of-the-box think-
ing, reward innovative and creative solutions (Sosik & Jung, 2010), and
critically challenge the assumptions behind their actions (Mezirow, 2000),
they are modeling these metacognitive and integrating them as a way of
approaching work. Thus, they are actively developing followers’ MCA over
Developing MCA in Future Leaders
Research shows that metacognitive techniques can be taught, and that train-
ing in such techniques can improve learning (Pintrich, 2002) and decision
making (Batha & Carroll, 2007). Thus, learning about how one learns early
on can serve the leader for the rest of his or her life. Because the process
of metacognition often occurs at a subconscious level (Flavell, 1979), it
is important to begin intentionally developing positive metacognitive prac-
tices early in life starting with basic knowledge of cognition. Developing the
metacognitive practices of future leaders can start as early as elementary
school and can occur in various settings across the life span, such as in
school, during formal training, in conversations with others, or individu-
ally. These practices include many skills identied by Schraw and Dennison
(1994), such as:
Monitoring understanding of material
Using strategies that have worked in the past
Time management and planning skills
The ability to distinguish between important and superuous informa-
Learning to evaluate the effectiveness of learning strategies
Brainstorming multiple strategies and deciding which to utilize
Understanding, but not being limited by, cognitive strengths and weak-
Associating new information with information that is already known
Improving memorization by using strategies such as rehearsal
Once leaders develop the ability to comprehend more complicated cog-
nitive processes, they could also be taught psychological principles that
will help regulate their cognitive activity more effectively. For example,
Baumeister and Tierney (2011) report that the ability to think effectively
can be impacted by the amount of sleep one gets, how much stress one
is under, how recently one ate, and how many decisions one has made re-
cently. Using this knowledge of how the brain operates, leaders can monitor
their energy and regulate their behavior so that their minds are functioning
optimally for the task being performed.
As a leader learns to implement and rene these strategies, their use will
become increasingly automatic. When that occurs, this opens up cognitive
capacity to monitor and regulate cognitive processes (Lord & Hall, 2005).
With experience, the ability to understand increasingly complex cognitive
functions and knowledge of one’s strengths, weaknesses, and preferences
will grow.
The following sections present specic tools and strategies leaders can
use to develop their MCA.
Tools for Developing MCA
Many useful tools and activities exist that can help develop MCA. These
have been applied in various contexts, but what they have in common is
that they require leaders to reect on their own awareness and thought pro-
cesses. They can be used individually, in a group, or with a teacher or coach.
However, it is important for leaders to develop the ability to nurture their
own metacognitive development. Luckily, a myriad of activities and strate-
gies exist that can be tied to leader self-development.
Developing MCA Through Self-Development. Even the most rigor-
ous leader development programs are relatively short in scope when com-
pared to the amount of time that individuals spend in their daily work
and leisure contexts. Therefore, leaders need to focus persistently on devel-
oping their leadership abilities (Reichard & Johnson, 2011) during these
programs and beyond. Therefore, self-development or the purposeful inte-
gration of “self-initiated behaviors focused on developing leadership capac-
ities” (p. 35) can play an extremely large role in the development of MCA.
Mindfulness meditation: Mindfulness meditation is a reective practice
where one sits quietly and observes thoughts, emotions, and/or body sen-
sations without trying to change or inuence them. Mindfulness medita-
tion can help develop MCA by increasing leaders’ ability to notice how
they think and feel. This practice is believed to improve cognitive abil-
ities (Zeidan, Johnson, Diamond, David, & Goolkasian, 2010) and the
capacity to regulate thoughts and emotions by creating more detachment
from them (Creswell, Way, Eisenberger, & Lieberman, 2007), thus giving
them the opportunity to be more intentional in choosing how to respond.
Journaling: Research shows that leaders may benet over time from jour-
naling about what they are learning and about themselves as leaders.
McCrindle and Christensen (1995) conducted a study in which uni-
versity students in a freshman biology course were separated into two
groups. One group was instructed to keep a learning journal detailing
their learning processes throughout the course, and the other group was
instructed to complete a scientic report on what they were learning.
The students who kept a learning journal (weekly for ve weeks) used
more sophisticated and metacognitive learning strategies, and also per-
formed better on the nal exam. Dunlap (2006) recommends scheduling
journaling activities every two or three weeks to minimize burnout, or
scheduling them after key events or project milestones. Hence, leaders
can incorporate this practice after important presentations or meetings,
at the end of project phases, or at other meaningful points in time.
Developing MCA Through Conversation. Developmental relation-
ships such as coaching and mentoring provide a context where leaders can
reect on the nature and quality of their thoughts, as well as dene and test
strategies for developing as a leader. This type of relationship also allows
leaders to receive feedback that is deemed effective and credible because it
is provided by an objective third party and intended to contribute to their
growth. These relationships can occur as part of a formal development strat-
egy, but can also be intentionally sought after by leaders to advance in their
development path.
Debrieng: Leaders, coaches, mentors, teachers, facilitators, or peers can
utilize debrieng methods to help others gain insight after a develop-
mental experience. Debrieng entails allocating time and effort to talking
about how learning is going, what is working and not working, or what
happened with a completed project or activity in terms of the process as
well as the outcomes. For example, DeRue, Nahrgang, Hollenbeck, and
Workman (2012) found that in a leadership development context, “after-
event reviews” are effective interventions for enhancing leaders’ develop-
ment through experiences. Leaders who engage in this type of debrief-
ing tend to “improve their performance of key leadership behaviors over
time” (DeRue et al., 2012, p. 1008). Debrieng supports a systematic and
deliberate way of processing and analyzing information, thus enhancing
leaders’ MCA.
Think-aloud learning: By communicating thought processes verbally dur-
ing a task or activity, leaders can become more aware of their own and
others’ cognitive processes. This can promote individual and organiza-
tional learning, and enhance communication and teamwork. An exam-
ple of think-aloud learning would be to use case-based questions in the
classroom or leadership training. Leaders could read hypothetical sce-
narios and share not only how they would address the problem, but also
how they arrived at their conclusions. Through these types of think-aloud
activities, leaders learn metacognitive strategies from one another and
become more aware of their own thinking.
Classroom and formal training: Teachers and facilitators can integrate
learning and application of metacognitive strategies in lectures and work
assignments. The deliberate teaching of these strategies can help students
apply them in other contexts or situations. For example, a teacher can
provide explicit instructions for students to think and write about their
thought process when performing a task or completing an assignment.
A facilitator may want to include reective questions as part of train-
ing or developmental activities to encourage participants to think about
which learning strategies are working best, or what information or skills
they may still be missing. Moreover, teachers and facilitators can openly
discuss metacognitive strategies to evaluate learning processes (Pintrich,
2002), or include best practices and study skills along with the lesson or
Coaching: Coaching is generally dened as a collaborative relationship
in which coach and client work together to support the client in obtain-
ing valued personal and professional developmental outcomes (Grant,
Passmore, Cavanagh, & Parker, 2010), and many coaching practices sup-
port the development of MCA. At the core of a coaching relationship is
an inquiry process, which fosters reection and insight on the part of
the client while setting, planning, and pursuing a goal. A key tool for
the coach is to ask questions that raise clients’ awareness and knowledge
about the thoughts and beliefs that inform their attitudes, characteristics,
and behaviors (e.g., values, perceived strengths and weaknesses). This
evaluation on the part of the client often leads to identifying and practic-
ing strategies to self-regulate.
Engaging in a conversation with a coach can help leaders explicitly
focus on discovering, evaluating, and, if needed, changing their cogni-
tions (thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes) about their capacity to lead. To
illustrate, imagine an emerging leader who discovers through the coach-
ing process that he lacks condence in his leadership ability because he
is an introvert and associates good leadership with someone who is out-
going or talkative. By working with the coach, he could overcome this
assumption and focus on leveraging his unique strengths to improve his
condence. Through the coaching process, leaders will likely learn to step
back and reect deeply upon other situations in their lives, thus further
enhancing their MCA.
Mentoring: As with coaching, the relationship between mentor and
e focuses on development and improved performance. A mentor
is usually a member of the organization who has greater authority, expe-
rience, or tenure in the emerging leader’s eld of interest, from whom the
leader wants to learn. A key element that supports MCA in mentoring
is modeling. Leaders can learn metacognitive skills by observing their
mentors and actively asking them to share their thought processes and
rationales behind choices or decisions. In addition, the leader may be able
to shadow the mentor, paying close attention to thinking, problem solv-
ing, and interacting with others. A mentor can help leaders become more
aware of their own thoughts and beliefs through feedback and mirroring,
and help create strategies to monitor, plan, and evaluate those thoughts.
Discussion and Limitations
Despite the fact that metacognitive research has been ongoing for 35 years,
there is still quite a bit more that needs to be done on the subject to ad-
vance understanding of its importance to leadership. To begin, there needs
to be increased clarity about what does, or does not, constitute metacog-
nition and MCA. Currently, there is a wide range of conceptualizations,
denitions, and measurement techniques of metacognition. Part of the
challenge is that what is effective in one situation may not be effective in
another. As mentioned previously, leadership is a complex social process
that is highly contextual. Although self-reection may be extremely bene-
cial in one situation, it may actually progress in another. For example, being
thoughtful and deliberative about how you are completing a task may be a
hindrance if you are on a tight deadline.
This brings us to the potential dark side of metacognitive activity. Ex-
cessive monitoring or MCA may lead to paralysis by analysis, which refers
to the condition of becoming lost in evaluating possibilities at the expense
of forwarding action (Flavell, 1979). Additionally, one of the key attributes
of entering the ideal productive state of ow, or getting in the zone,isa
loss of self-consciousness (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991). Thus, monitoring
could potentially prevent leaders from entering this optimal state. Lastly,
maladaptive self-reection has the potential to turn into rumination, which
can result in anxiety and a loss of self-condence (Mor & Winquist, 2002).
This type of monitoring consumes critical cognitive resources that may
otherwise be dedicated to an activity that advances one’s growth as a leader
(Avolio & Hannah, 2008).
Despite these limitations, leaders can greatly benet from developing
their MCA and can inspire followers to do the same. It is intended that the
ideas and tools provided in this chapter help practitioners to instill those
metacognitive abilities in the next generation of leaders and inform future
directions into research in this domain. Given the nature of work, MCA
will be progressively important for developing leaders who are capable of
managing the rapid change of modern organizational life. These leaders are
those who are developmentally ready, who understand the need for con-
tinual learning and growth, and who strive to ensure the effectiveness and
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HUNTER BLACK is a doctoral student of positive organizational psychology at
Claremont Graduate University. His research interests include leadership de-
velopment, coaching, and assessment. In particular, he is interested in the key
variables that separate effective from ineffective leadership coaching, as well as
coaching strategies that can be applied in a leadership or managerial role.
LISA SOTO is a doctoral student of positive organizational psychology at Clare-
mont Graduate University. Her research interests include leader development
through positive interventions in the workplace in general, and coaching in
particular. She is a certied professional business coach with extensive experi-
ence in human talent development through training and development, coaching,
mentoring, and leader assessment.
SAM SPURLIN is a doctoral student of positive organizational psychology at Clare-
mont Graduate University. His research interests include self-management and
how individuals experience the actual moment-to-moment reality of meaningful
work. He works for The Ready as an organizational design consultant in New
York City.
... It is proved that mindfulness (Sampl et al., 2017;Furtner et al., 2018) or metacognition (Black et al., 2016;Kontostavlou and Drigas, 2021) is beneficial for the development of individuals' self-leadership. Actually speaking, there is no relevant empirical research on the internal structural relationship among these three variables (mindfulness, metacognition and leadership) in education or university related fields. ...
... Furthermore, metacognition can correct cognitive bias and realize cognitive reconstruction, help individuals to get away from problems and review and solve problems from a bystander's perspective (Connell and Wellborn, 1991), which is conducive to the development of individual autonomy. Black et al. (2016) believe that metacognition promotes the development of leadership by monitoring and adjusting incongruous concepts in individual cognition and improving self-awareness, self-learning management, understanding and influencing others. Therefore, metacognition can help college students build the ability of selfeducation, self-management and self-perfection. ...
... In general, compared with previous studies, this study is characterized by a more comprehensive focus on the relationship between mindful agency, metacognitive ability and self-leadership. Most previous studies only explored the relationship between the two variables, such as mindfulness and self-leadership (Sampl et al., 2017;Furtner et al., 2018), mindfulness and metacognitive ability (Garland et al., 2009;Sears and Kraus, 2009), metacognition and self-leadership (Black et al., 2016). Therefore, this study can comprehensively reveal the internal relationship among mindful agency, metacognitive ability and self-leadership. ...
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As one of 21st century key skills, self-leadership is not only the internal factor of private college undergraduates’ independent development, but also related to the quality improvement of talent cultivation of private undergraduate colleges. It is proved that mindfulness or metacognition separately has the predictive effect on self-leadership, but their structural relationships has not been revealed. The present study explored the interrelations between mindful agency, metacognitive ability, and self-leadership through the mediation analysis with structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping was conducted to test the mediating effect. The sample comprised 1,244 private undergraduate sophomore (38.4% male and 61.6% female), and they completed online questionnaires of mindful agency, metacognitive ability, and self-leadership. The results revealed that mindful agency of private undergraduate students not only directly and positively predicted self-leadership, but also indirectly and positively predicted self-leadership through the mediating effect of metacognitive ability. Metacognitive ability partially mediated the relationship between mindful agency and self-leadership. The direct effect of mindful agency and the mediating effect of metacognitive ability, respectively, account for 86.9% and 13.1% of the total effect. The results suggest that the more mindful private college undergraduates are, the more willing they are to practise their metacognitive skills in their learning, and the more progress in self-leadership they make. Educational implications for mindfulness training and metacognition practice to foster their self-leadership are discussed.
... Therefore, in the future, successful leadership will not result from the old paradigms of traditional leadership frameworks (Bolden, 2011;Elkington, Pearse, Moss, Van der Steege, & Martin, 2017;Mehra, Smith, Dixon, & Robertson, 2006), as they are not fully equipped to handle technology's impact on social and business structures. Instead, research reflects that new leadership strategies are required, such as systems thinking (Osborn, Hunt, & Jauch, 2002;Ramosaj & Berisha, 2014;Rios et al., 2018;Schneider, Wickert, & Marti, 2017;Senge et al., 2015) contextual intelligence (Khanna, 2014(Khanna, , 2015Kutz, 2008aKutz, , 2017Kutz & Bamford-Wade, 2013;Leavy, 2013;Masciulli, 2011) and metacognitive strategies (Avolio & Hannah, 2008;Black, Soto, & Spurlin, 2016;Chua, Morris, & Mor, 2012;Davis, Curiel, & Davis, n.d.;Swart, Chisholm, & Brown, 2015). ...
... enhanced degree of metacognition, or an understanding of one's own thinking as well as the elements and conditions that impact that thinking (Black et al., 2016;Davis et al., n.d.). As posited by Avolio and Hannah (2008), metacognitive ability can accelerate leadership learning by allowing leaders to identify, make sense of, and learn from their experiences. ...
... 290). A metacognitive strategy enables leaders to be more aware of their thinking and the biases that might interfere with appropriate action (Black et al., 2016;Davis et al., n.d.). Metacognition, or thinking about thinking, aids in recognizing when and how thinking impacts the interpretation of the experiences, and how to adapt and respond to each experience in a more thoughtful rather than automatic fashion (Baron, Rouleau, Grégoire, & Baron, 2018). ...
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As the world becomes increasingly interconnected through intricate networks in technology-laden environments, leadership has become exponentially more complex. This VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous) context disrupts long-held leadership constructs. Historically, leaders have been able to reflect on past decision making to guide their current and future decisions. No longer is this practice viable; leaders now require new skills to lead competently in this rapidly iterating ecosystem. With its challenges, this dynamic environment also offers opportunities for those who are able to capitalize on the next waves of disruption. Social entrepreneurs, tackling the world’s most pressing challenges, are leading systems-wide changes within this technology-driven context. With a heightened awareness of these global issues, employing contextual intelligence to capitalize on new and innovative social solutions through creative destruction enables leaders to exploit this technology-rich landscape to expand their social impact. Consequently, this phenomenological qualitative study utilized semi-structured interviews to investigate the best practices and strategies employed by Ashoka Fellow social entrepreneurs who are leading change successfully within this VUCA context. In addition, this study explored the challenges these entrepreneurs encountered while leading, the ways in which they evaluated their success, the role that technology played day-to-day, and what recommendations they would make to future leaders of systems-wide change. Through this study, 30 key findings surfaced in relation to successful practices and strategies for leading systems-wide change in a technology-rich VUCA ecosystem.
... Some studies suggest that exposing women to entrepreneurial role models might help to narrow the entrepreneurship gender gap. Besides, teacher leadership, which is accepted as a form of leadership activity (Shen et al. 2020), can positively influence students' critical thinking (Black, Soto, and Spurlin 2016), motivation (Islam et al. 2012), and academic engagement (Trigueros et al. 2020). There are also has gender differences in teacher leadership in different situations (Liu 2021). ...
... To encourage entrepreneurship, a series of targeted policies focused on college students have been implemented. An understanding that why female college students show lower entrepreneurial intentions not only could be instructive for both Chinese governments and universities to take effective measures to encourage entrepreneurship, but also point out the direction for improving teacher leadership in entrepreneurial education (Islam et al. 2012;Black, Soto, and Spurlin 2016;Shen et al. 2020;Trigueros et al. 2020;Liu 2021). That effort would be supported by an identification of the factors that impact the differences in entrepreneurial intention between male and female Chinese college students. ...
To better specify the methods of teacher leaders in entrepreneurial education in Chinese higher education institutions, gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions were investigated to determine how these differences affect the allocation of limited resources and how these differences affect the institutions’ meeting of students’ needs. Based on the classic Theory of Personal Behavior, this work analyzed the extent and determinants of gender differentials in the entrepreneurial intentions of Chinese college students with Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. The data came from a field survey of 620 Chinese college students. The result suggested that, instead of discrimination and stereotypes, the gender difference in entrepreneurial intentions was primarily due to different “endowment effects” (gender differences in the observed variables with respect to entrepreneurial attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control). Hence, as leaders who take a more hierarchical position of facilitator, decision-maker, or mediator in entrepreneurial education, teachers should tailor their educational approaches in accordance with the different aptitudes between female and male students. Different curricula that target those gender qualifications would be required to balance the gender difference in entrepreneurial intentions of college students.
... Followers are moved highly and influenced well by leaders perceived to have moral authority and mental ability (Zhu et al., 2016). A study by Black et al. (2016) confirms that metacognitive ability can be taught and people can be trained to get the required techniques. One needs to be aware of his metacognitive ability, for this leads to self-directed learning readiness (Jin & Ji, 2020;Ors &Titrek, 2018). ...
... Team dynamics is one of the crucial indicators of SN functions because it serves as a factor in transformational leadership because it is a key element for the success of any organization. According to Black et al. [74], as a leader, one needs to maintain factors such as open communication which is also part of the metacognitive skills. Communication, another essential indicator of SN, is a critical factor in maintaining a positive work performance between employees as it encourages interaction between employees. ...
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Workforce management has always been an essential consideration by businesses worldwide to improve organizational efficiency. The measurement of diversified labor present in modern Philippine companies has never been viable as generational and cultural differences shape and influences one’s leadership behavior, decision-making, and style. Employee motivation, multigenerational cohort, interpersonal skills, work values, and organizational culture significantly affect company leaders’ perceived effectiveness, resulting in varying management styles and approaches applicable to service companies. This study aimed to determine significant variables affecting the perceived leadership effectiveness and metacognition between multigenerational management clusters among service companies integrating behavioral theories such as Generational Cohort Theory (GCT) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Through self-administered questionnaires, data was utilized for multivariate analysis through structural equation modeling using the SPSS statistical software and SPSS AMOS 29 software and random forest classifier utilizing Python 5.1. Results showed that Motivation, Managerial Cohort, Organizational Culture, and Work values have a high level relationship with Perceived Behavioral Control, Attitude Towards Behavior, and Social Norms. The results presented could be utilized in evaluating the management sector in service industries to provide and develop an optimum approach to leadership management. Managerial insights and suggestions are shown in the study.
... Individuals with low self-esteem employ dysfunctional and destructive thinking patterns as a default reaction and, if not resolved, these could sabotage the coaching process (Dimotakis, Mitchell & Maurer, 2017;Dinos & Palmer, 2015). The ability of an individual to reflect is a basic requirement for coaching to succeed (Black, Soto & Spurlin, 2016). The intent of coaching is for the coachee to reach a point where self-reflection creates space for self-assessment and correction, to the extent that the coach becomes obsolete (Bartlett, Boylan & Hale, 2014). ...
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Abstract Lack of coachee readiness impacts negatively on the effectiveness of coaching. Despite the general awareness of the phenomena that influence coachee readiness, this concept needs better description in the coaching literature. This article reports on a Critical Interpretive Synthesis (CIS) study of the factors that influence coachee readiness and consider ways to overcome this. This article seeks to contribute to the formulation of a theory on the concept of coachee readiness by developing a theoretical framework with the aim of guiding stakeholders at the pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation phases of a coaching assignment. Keywords behavioural change process, coachee readiness, coachee commitment to change, Self�Determination Theory (SDT) Article history Accepted for publication: 11 January 2022 Published online: 01 February 2022 © the Author(s) Published by Oxford Brookes University
... Moreover, the metacognitive skills of monitoring and adaptation can affect leadership skills. The metacognitive skills that are associated with leadership are self-awareness, regulation, monitoring, understanding, and influencing others [54]. According to , self-awareness is fundamental to leadership development [55]. ...
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The purpose of this article is to investigate how metacognition supports giftedness in leadership. In this paper, we provide a literature review of the contemporary literature. The concepts of metacognition, giftedness, and leadership seem to be interrelated. The article attempts to explore new trends in understanding giftedness and its development. Research has shown that the concept of metacognition is inextricably linked to the concept of giftedness. Metacognition has an important role in the development of individuals because it helps them to improve their cognitive and metacognitive skills. Metacognitive skills, such as monitoring, self-regulation, and awareness, are higher skills that gifted individuals process to a high degree and, through training, can improve even further. Moreover, the metacognitive skills of monitoring and adaptation can affect leadership skills. The metacognitive skills that are associated with leadership are self-awareness, regulation, and monitoring.
... Leadership thinking is an indispensable part to guide and lead successful leadership activities [45]. Over time, leadership thinking has had certain changes which have a significant impact on the change of the leader's behavioral style, but despite the changing objective context, effective leaders often demonstrate deep leadership thinking in all aspects for effective decision-making [46]. ...
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Objectives: The transformational leadership style is accepted as suitable for leading administrative agencies to achieve outstanding results and help organizations cope with challenges. Besides, leadership thinking is also considered to have a very important role in leadership performance in administrative agencies. Therefore, the main objective of the study is to explore the relationship between transformational leadership style and leader thinking to organization's performance. Methods: The article focuses on explaining the views on transformational leadership style, healthy thinking, and the relationship between transformational leadership style and leadership thinking, and at the same time points out the current status of transformational leadership style, transformational leadership, leadership thinking as well as this relationship in practice among the leaders of provincial agencies in Vietnam. Descriptive, inductive, deductive, synthetic, and quantitative statistical methods were applied to interpret the results. Findings: Research results show that transformational leadership style, leadership thinking in the team of leaders of provincial agencies is quite average, there is a strong positive correlation between transformational leadership style. In contrast to leadership thinking, a more transformative leadership style means that it requires an innovative leadership thinking. Novelty:The results achieved when applying a transformational leadership style are quite closely related to the application of leadership thinking to solve leadership challenges. Doi: 10.28991/esj-2021-01307 Full Text: PDF
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The endeavor to produce a book such as this Highlighting Education Simulacrum in Pandemic through Contemporary Research, is an extensive thought of personal task. Many colleagues from the education and nursing communities have inspired me to write something which could be my legacy as a researcher with experience in practice and education. The recent situation of pandemic commences the love for research towards education as it viewed the system in the new context. Numerous challenges and significant circumstances arose as we go through with education in the new normal milieu. As a researcher, those would be potential research topics aiming to produce varied and substantial outcomes. The book is arranged according to chapters which are as follows: I. Teaching Interventions II. School Governance III. Teachers’ Welfare IV. Learners’ Welfare It is hoped that the use of this book would contribute to the improvement of research culture and in educational sector as well. This will also serve as findings dissemination of the researches conducted in this time of pandemic. Teachers should always be equipped with real-time evidence-based practices to capacitate themselves with a strong knowledge, competent skills, and an altruistic and humble attitude.
This chapter offers practical reflections of ancient Biblical narratives useful for modern applications. Examining the philosophical, hermeneutic, and pragmatic leader cognitive activities aligned with all forms of building, development, theoretical, and practical constructions are central. The past can often become the prologue for realizing a vision, innovation, or renovation. The purpose of this writing emphasizes the examination of the activities, environment, and motivations of an ancient Middle Eastern narrative for profitable contemporary insights of effective metacognitive skills within a leader’s mind. Nehemiah, an official serving under King Artaxerxes, is mobilized by curiosity, revealing a large problem and ultimately activating his leadership within a psychosocial narrative framework. Among others within this writing, he serves as an ancient prototypical example of the types of metacognitive skills (fueling humility, wisdom, and cooperation) active within a leader’s mind and subsequent activity. This examination of Nehemiah’s memoir serves as an investigation into the contemplation and consideration required to lead a diverse group of people from reality through inquiry, vision, disagreement, and labor into possibility. Leaders looking to take a closer look at how to transition from assessment to planning and from strategy into construction are encouraged to adopt specific leadership behaviors reflecting humility, wisdom, and cooperation as internal tools supporting achievement and positive organizational or civic influence.KeywordsNehemiahPhilosophyHermeneuticsPragmatismAssessmentPlanning
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Understanding CoachingSkills, Performance and developmental CoachingExecutive and Workplace CoachingThe Professional Status of Coaching: Accreditations and Industry OrganizationsCoaching Professionalization Parallels development in Other FieldsCoaching Psychology as an Emerging Psychological SubdisciplineCoaching ResearchOutcome StudiesRandomized Controlled StudiesLongitudinal StudiesMeasuring Outcomes of CoachingCompetencies of Effective Coaches and CoacheesResearch DirectionsA Positive Future?A Well-Being and Engagement Framework for Organizational CoachingCoaching and Coaching Psychology: A Shared Path Forward?References
Full range leadership development strives to grow transformational leadership in organizations at all levels, including followers, thereby generating numerous positive outcomes at all levels. Organizations that support and develop transformational leadership across organizational levels are more productive and profitable, attract and retain high quality associates, promote creativity and innovation, garner trust and commitment from employees, and are strategically positioned to respond well to changes in the market.
Transformational Leadership, Second Edition is intended for both the scholars and serious students of leadership. It is a comprehensive review of theorizing and empirical research that can serve as a reference and starting point for additional research on the theory. It can be used as a supplementary textbook in an intense course on leadership--or as a primary text in a course or seminar focusing on transformational leadership. New in the Second Edition: New, updated examples of leadership have been included to help illustrate the concepts, as well as show the broad range of transformational leadership in a variety of settings. New chapters have been added focusing specifically on the measurement of transformational leadership and transformational leadership and effectiveness. The discussion of both predicators and effects of transformational leadership is greatly expanded. Much more emphasis is given to authentic vs. inauthentic transformational leadership. Suggestions are made for guiding the future of research and applications of transformational leadership. © 2006 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
We constructed a 52-item inventory to measure adults′ metacognitive awareness. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader categories, knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Two experiments supported the two-factor model. Factors were reliable (i.e., α = .90) and inter-correlated (r = .54). Experiment 2 reported the knowledge of cognition factor was related to pre-test judgments of monitoring ability and performance on a reading comprehension test, but was unrelated to monitoring accuracy. Implications for educational assessment and future research were discussed.
Leader self-development enables leaders to adapt to the continually changing environment both within and outside of the organization. The purpose of this paper is to describe the construct of leader self-development and the processes by which it can serve as an organizational leadership development strategy. We framed the paper around a multi-level model of leader self-development linking organizational level constructs such as human resources practices and resources with group level phenomena of norms, supervisor style, and social networks with the individual leader self-development process. Leader self-development is a cost-effective way for organizations to develop leaders resulting in competitive edge.