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“It’s an illusion, but it looks real!” Consumer affective, cognitive and behavioral responses to augmented reality applications

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Abstract

The paper investigates two augmented reality (AR) applications and corresponding consumer responses to their media characteristics. Firstly, it discusses the role of interactivity with AR technology. Secondly, it introduces augmentation as a salient media characteristic of AR applications and tests measurement items of perceived augmentation. Two experimental studies replicate the research design of van Noort et al. (2012), applying it in the context of AR. The results show that perceived augmentation represents a fitting concept for understanding consumer responses to AR features and, furthermore, that flow mediates effects of perceived augmentation on consumers’ affective responses and behavioral intentions. AR features on the other hand do not increase perception of interactivity. Finally, implications of the study and further research directions are discussed. Keywords: Augmented reality, Augmentation, Interactivity, Flow, Affective responses, Behavioral intentions Summary statement of contribution This research represents an early study of augmented reality (AR) in consumer behavior and is the first to show that consumers perceive the AR features to create a convincing simulation of objects in real-time. Two experimental studies confirm that this perceived augmentation affects attitudes towards the application, as well as revisit and repurchase intentions, and that these effects are mediated by flow. However, AR applications at this stage are not perceived to be more interactive than non-AR applications.

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... Overtime, due to technological advancements Azuma (2001, p. 34) reformed his previous definition to be "AR as the technology combines real and virtual objects in a real environment; runs interactively, and in real time and registers (aligns) real and virtual objects with each other". This definition is considered for the current study, as it can reframe the main characteristics of AR technology (Javornik, 2016). ...
... In the same theme, interactivity enables consumers with the option of dragging an item from the platform and modifying its features virtually (Hsu et al., 2021;Song and Zinkhan, 2008;Voorveld et al., 2011). Although interactivity is a commonly-known construct in virtual environments, there are several debates about how it should be approached (Javornik, 2016). In technology context, interactive media is popularly presented in forms like virtual products, 3D items and recommendation and comparison systems. ...
... Relatedly, it plays an important role in comprehending consumers' experience with technology by shaping how they act with that concept. Adding to that, interactivity positively affects consumers' online experience in addition to their purchase intention and their attitude toward the app (Javornik, 2016;Smith et al., 2011;Steuer, 1992;Voorveld et al., 2009). Relatedly, interactivity will lead to diverse OCE with the provided technology. ...
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Purpose The main aim of this research is to portray how augmented reality (AR) characteristics (augmentation, interactivity, personalization, spatial presence, novelty, entertainment and informativeness) can enhance online customer experience (OCE). Design/methodology/approach This study conceptualizes a new framework that proposes various relationships between AR characteristics and OCE. Findings This study is extending the relationships between AR and OCE by including various AR characteristics that have not been tackled by the previous research. Originality/value This research provides an original framework on the relationship between AR characteristics and OCE through highlighting the role of media richness theory. The study is considered the first of its kind to combine these AR characteristics and customer experience in a comprehensive framework.
... Among various solutions that aim to support retailers in providing seamless omnichannel experiences, shopping assistant systems have been suggested as promising tools that can be leveraged in online and offline retail environments [28,29]. These systems act as decision support by retrieving the customer's shopping history, deploying detailed product information, suggesting real-time recommendations, and enabling the easy comparison of alternative products [30,31]. ...
... Immersive technologies have also been deployed in retail environments as shopping assistant systems [32]. Previous examples include systems that enable customers to virtually try on clothes or accessories (e.g., sunglasses) in online shops [31,33] or in physical stores where customers can utilize smart mirrors or virtual fitting rooms [29,34]. These studies have shown that immersive technologies enhance the decision-making process by enabling trial and imagination of the products in the form of a digital twin and enhance the customer's overall shopping experience [29,31,33,34]. ...
... Previous examples include systems that enable customers to virtually try on clothes or accessories (e.g., sunglasses) in online shops [31,33] or in physical stores where customers can utilize smart mirrors or virtual fitting rooms [29,34]. These studies have shown that immersive technologies enhance the decision-making process by enabling trial and imagination of the products in the form of a digital twin and enhance the customer's overall shopping experience [29,31,33,34]. ...
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New digital technologies furnish retail managers with new means to enhance consumer experiences in omnichannel retailing. Conceptual academic literature and industry emphasize the promising use of immersive digital displays and their potential benefits for retailers. In this research, we present the design of a personal shopping assistance system that is based on optical see-through mixed-reality technology. Microsoft HoloLens 2 was leveraged as the archetype to realize this novel system, facilitating consumer information search and decision making. The design incorporates various shopping assistance elements (i.e., product information, reviews, recommendations, product availability, videos, a virtual cart, and an option to buy). Users can interact with these elements with gesture-based inputs to navigate through the interface. A qualitative study with 35 participants was conducted to collect users’ feedback and perceptions about the mixed-reality shopping assistant system. Derived from the qualitative feedback, we propose seven design principles that aim to support future designs and developments of mixed-reality shopping applications for head-mounted displays in omnichannel retail: rigor, informativeness, tangibility, summary, comparability, flexibility and holism.
... The AR technology has already entered the shopping world. Companies and retailers can feasibly apply AR in e-commerce and m-commerce (e.g., Javornik, 2016b;Baek et al., 2018;Beck and Crié, 2018). In these online retailing contexts, AR enables consumers to visualize or even virtually try-on products, such as apparel, eyewear, or cosmetics. ...
... Virtual try-ons allow users to augment themselves with virtual objects. Users of this type of AR application can choose a piece of apparel, shoes, eyewear, cosmetics, or watches and test these products on their own body or their own face in a virtual fitting-room or through a virtual mirror (e.g., Javornik, 2016b;Hilken et al., 2017;Poushneh and Vasquez-Parraga, 2017;Yim et al., 2017). In particular, sellers of apparel (e.g., Huang and Liao, 2015;Baytar et al., 2020), eyeglasses and sunglasses (e.g., Ray-Ban Virtual Try-On, Mister Spex), or cosmetics (e.g., Shiseido AR makeup mirror) have developed such virtual try-ons. ...
... The AR function placing (also termed 'environmental embedding' by Hilken et al., 2017or 'evaluate' by Tan et al., 2021 refers to the augmentation of the physical surrounding of the user with virtual elements. In shopping and retailing contexts, this application is frequently employed for home furniture (e.g., Javornik, 2016b;Heller et al., 2019a;Rauschnabel et al., 2019). Furniture planners (e.g., IKEA place, Cimagine) invite users to scan or click objects of the catalogue, website or app and place these elements virtually in their physical rooms. ...
Article
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The application of augmented reality (AR) is receiving great interest in e-commerce, m-commerce, and brick-and-mortar-retailing. A growing body of literature has explored several different facets of how consumers react to the upcoming augmented shopping reality. This systematic literature review summarizes the findings of 56 empirical papers that analyzed consumers’ experience with AR, acceptance of AR, and behavioral reactions to AR in various online and offline environments. The review synthesizes current knowledge and critically discusses the empirical studies conceptually and methodologically. Finally, the review outlines the theoretical basis as well as the independent, mediating, moderating, and dependent variables analyzed in previous AR research. Based on this synthesis, the paper develops an integrative framework model, which helps derive directives for future research on augmented shopping reality.
... In defining AR, scholars argue that it is somehow related to VR because of its immersivity: in both cases, users feel telepresence, namely, the sensation to be present in an environment that is real, with the possibility to respond, and control and act on the experience they are living (Steffen et al., 2019). VR scenarios are separated from the person (Preece et al., 2015), computer-generated, and depleted of elements belonging to the physical environment (Javornik, 2016a), while AR combines real objects with virtual elements (Rauschnabel et al., 2018(Rauschnabel et al., , 2022) that match the physical environment in terms of real-time perception and interactivity (Javornik, 2016b;Rauschnabel et al., 2022). Beyond interactivity, which produces higher engagement (Esteban-Millat et al., 2014) and influences consumer responses (Gao et al., 2009), augmentation represents a key element in the AR since it redraws the physical reality (Preece et al., 2015). ...
... Even though VR and AR are similarly evolving in both the theoretical models and applicative examples (Loureiro et al., 2020), they still differ in popularity among consumer behavior researchers: only a few studies focused on AR (Javornik, 2016b;Kazmi et al., 2021), in contrast with the VR. Thus, focusing on AR emerged as crucial. ...
... Considering these elements, we argue the importance of deepening the role of AR in the emotional response of consumers to a product and to an experience that is closer to reality. Together with the mentioned engagement the combination of real objects with virtual elements matching the physical environment (Javornik, 2016b;Rauschnabel et al., 2022) and redrawing the physical reality (Preece et al., 2015), AR can be a precious element to investigate realtime consumers' experiences with neuromarketing technique. With regards to neuromarketing, although the context of VR has already been explored, AR neuromarketing is still underrepresented. ...
... Although augmentation is a core aspect of AR-enabled experiences, the impact of augmentation on Generation Z women's body image, self-esteem, and actual purchase behavior and the impact of the type of chatbot support and brand-related factors are notions that have AMEEN ET AL. | 3 not been fully investigated in the marketing context and theory (i.e., social comparison theory) (Javornik, 2016). ...
... It can overlay virtual elements onto people, products, or the surrounding space. Augmentation refers to an enrichment of the environment in which the virtual elements are not separated from the physical ones and computer-generated elements coexist with the physical environment due to the technological ability to augment real objects with virtual annotations (Javornik, 2016). Augmentation is the main characteristic that differentiates augmented reality from other technologies (Javornik, 2016). ...
... Augmentation refers to an enrichment of the environment in which the virtual elements are not separated from the physical ones and computer-generated elements coexist with the physical environment due to the technological ability to augment real objects with virtual annotations (Javornik, 2016). Augmentation is the main characteristic that differentiates augmented reality from other technologies (Javornik, 2016). There has been a significant increase in the integration of augmented reality into the beauty industry in recent years; for example, in the use of magic mirrors and smart virtual applications (Javornik, Rogers, et al., 2016). ...
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Research is needed to identify novel ways to influence Generation Z female consumers' behavior when they interact with various technologies. This study investigates how experiences of using augmented reality, artificial intelligence‐enabled chatbots, and social media when interacting with beauty brands affect body image, self‐esteem, and purchase behavior among female consumers in Generation Z. Through three studies, we propose and test a model drawing on social comparison theory. In Study 1, a survey was completed by Generation Z women (n = 1118). In Study 2 and Study 3, two laboratory experiments were conducted with Generation Z women in Malaysia (n = 250 and n = 200). We show that (1) Generation Z women's perceived augmentation positively affects their body image, self‐esteem, and actual purchase behavior; (2) although trust in social media celebrities positively affects Generation Z women's body image and self‐esteem, the addictive use of social media does not have significant effects; (3) the chatbot support type (assistant vs. friend) has a significant impact on these women's experience; and (4) brand attachment, reputation, and awareness do not have significant effects. This article provides important implications for theory and practice on the behavior of Generation Z females when interacting with various technologies.
... Using the UTAUT framework, we postulate that hedonic and utilitarian values increase attitude (based on multitude perspective, Hilken, et al., 2018) and satisfaction (performance expectations from rational elements (McLean & Wilson, 2019). As a consequence, AR evokes behavioral intention, such as the intention to interact with offerings has been highlighted (Hilken et al., 2017), to buy the offers presented with visual aspects, such as offering a game in an App (Hinsch et al., 2020), and to try products when using retail touchpoints (i.e., physical, mobile, and online) (Javornik, 2016;Carmigniani et al., 2011). ...
... Utilitarian value means consumers perceive the offer's practical and rational benefits (e.g., size, dimensions, colors, features). AR allows a consumer to manipulate the offer (Javornik, 2016). And such manipulation enables the creation of a utilitarian mental picture of how rational aspects should fit the consumer's reality. ...
... Scholars should compare a unidimensional structure with a multidimensional one in predicting consumers' experience . Moreover, future studies may develop other AR dimensions, such as AR device, AR-ease of use, AR expertise, AR perceived, based on consumer purchase (i.e., physical, mobile, and online) (Javornik, 2016;Carmigniani et al., 2011) and customer journey (Flavián et al., 2019). ...
Article
Augmented reality (AR), as a consumer-centric technology, helps businesses by providing new consumer experiences at the purchase occasion. However, we do not know the mechanisms behind AR when influencing behavioral intentions. Drawing on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, the authors develop a framework based on AR as antecedent, hedonic and utilitarian values as first mediators, attitude and satisfaction as second mediators, and behavioral intentions as a consequence. Based on 1,275 effect sizes from 58 manuscripts with 505,416 individuals, the meta-analysis supports AR’s main effect on behavioral intentions and the indirect impact through both sets of mediators. We also found moderating effects depending on AR application design, AR characterization, QR code utilization, access specificity, and display medium. For managerial applications, we developed a post-hoc taxonomy of four dimensions of AR, such as aesthetic, informativeness, perceived usefulness, and enjoyment, and how firms used them for explaining consumers’ responses.
... Augmented reality marketing refers to the application of AR in marketing to enhance consumers' experiences, increase their satisfaction, shape their behavior, and boost companies' revenues (Huang and Liao, 2015;Javornik, 2016;Poushneh and Vasquez-Parraga, 2017;Bell et al., 2018). The novel and attractive media of presentation and interaction enabled by AR play a crucial role in achieving the desired effects. ...
... Specifically, AR integrates digital information or objects into consumers' perceptions of the physical objects and environments, thus providing consumers with rich information about products or services and allowing them to experience products and services easily. Specifically, AR not only improves online experiences and engagement but creates novel and fantastic on-site experiences (Javornik, 2016;Yuan et al., 2021). ...
... Consumers' adoption/use intention of AR technology/AR retail application refers to their willingness to adopt/use it (Pantano et al., 2017;Rese et al., 2017;Yim and Park, 2019;Bonnin, 2020;Park and Yoo, 2020;Qin et al., 2021b). Consumers' continued use/reuse intention of AR technology/AR retail application describes their willingness to use it again in the future (Javornik, 2016;Pantano et al., 2017;Chiu et al., 2021;Daassi and Debbabi, 2021;Hsu et al., 2021;Kowalczuk et al., 2021;Nikhashemi et al., 2021). Consumers' recommendation intention for AR technology/AR retail application refers to their willingness to share the information about it with friends privately or on social media publicly (Javornik, 2016;Pantano et al., 2017;Park and Yoo, 2020;Smink et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Augmented Reality (AR) is a potentially disruptive technology that enriches the consumer experience and transforms marketing. With the surging popularity of AR in marketing practice, academic efforts to investigate its effects on consumer experience, response, and behavior have increased significantly. To obtain an integrated and comprehensive view of the front-line in AR marketing research and identify the gaps for future research, we analyze the existing AR marketing literature through a systematic literature review. Using 99 journal articles selected from the Web of Science core collections, this research sheds light on the general characteristics such as publication year, publication outlet, research design, and research method. Moreover, this research also gains insight into the AR marketing relevant factors such as application area, application context, AR type, and theoretical lenses. The findings of the analyses reveal the state-of-the-art of scholarly publications on AR marketing research. First, the number of journal articles on AR marketing increased rapidly in the past few years, and the journals that published articles on AR marketing cover a wide range of disciplines. Second, the empirical studies in most literature adopted the quantitative research design and used survey or experiment methods. Third, the studies in more than half of the journal articles used mobile AR applications in various online contexts. Fourth, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework are the two most widely used theoretical lenses used in the literature. After that, the major application areas of AR in marketing are retail, tourism, and advertising. To identify the focal themes discussed in the three application areas, this research summarizes the studies by the outcome variables. Specifically, the outcome variables have five categories: technology-related, product-related, brand-related, tourist destination-related, and advertisement-related. Finally, this research proposes the agenda for future academic efforts in AR marketing.
... The traditional stores are being transformed to adapt to digital changes and organisations are modifying the way they interact with customers during the shopping process (Yadav and Pavlou, 2014). The high connectivity and interactivity levels of new technologies can enhance customer's shopping experience (Javornik, 2016). For instance, Lee and Xu (2020) acknowledged that Augmented Reality (AR) has a great potential, minimising the gap between physical and online stores (Beck and Crié, 2016), and enhancing both hedonic and utilitarian consumer values during the shopping experience (Lee and Xu, 2020). ...
... Although AR shopping has captured the attention of retail researchers and practitioners, there are still two major challenges remaining: (i) technical problems regarding accuracy and calibration (Pachoulakis and Kapetanakis, 2012;Javornik, 2016) and (ii) lack of optimal user experience (Beck and Crié, 2016;Yaoyuneyong et al., 2016;Hilken et al., 2017;Poushneh and Vasquez-parraga, 2017a;Caboni and Hagberg, 2019;Javornik et al., 2019). While research indicates that AR would positively impact customer experience (Wedel et al., 2020;Romano et al., 2020) there is still an opportunity to study AR and its design elements (Chen, 2020). ...
... While research indicates that AR would positively impact customer experience (Wedel et al., 2020;Romano et al., 2020) there is still an opportunity to study AR and its design elements (Chen, 2020). Since flow mediates consumer perception of AR and purchase intentions (Javornik, 2016), there is a need to understand which design elements influence consumers' flow state in AR. ...
Chapter
Augmented reality (AR) try-on services have been proven to enhance customer engagement and purchase intentions by enabling users to experience the sense of flow. While few studies focused on the design principles of mobile AR services, little has been done regarding the role of flow in consumer experience whilst interacting with try-on services. This chapter reviews the current design principles of mobile AR and examines its influence in consumer flow state. Through a task-based semi-structured interview with consumers (n=9), it was possible to observe that all participants did not enter the flow state due to lack of perceived control and familiarity with the technology. Finally, this chapter provides recommendations for enhancing the flow experience of mobile AR try-on services. It is expected that this chapter might be of interest to retailers and researchers willing to explore mobile AR effectiveness through try-on-services such as the virtual fitting room (VFR).
... (Tan et al., 2021), but studies in e-commerce and physical stores report initial evidence about negative implications, too (Plotkina & Saurel, 2019;van Esch et al., 2019). Notably, the growing AR research focuses almost exclusively on experiential behaviors in e-commerce (Javornik, 2016b). In these settings, AR mainly helps visualize product usage and product fit, providing a fundamentally different experience and consumer benefit than the AR tools in brick-and-mortar retailing that convey virtual information for physical products. ...
... These studies, among others, build on the technology acceptance model and its extensions (Venkatesh et al., 2003) to explain the adoption of AR technology (Huang & Liao, 2015;Rese et al., 2014Rese et al., , 2017. Other research refers to flow theory (Novak et al., 2003) to explain the motivational factors (Javornik, 2016b). Many studies consider AR's utilitarian and hedonic benefits (e.g., Rauschnabel et al., 2019), building on insights into consumers' adoption and digital technologies' effectiveness to support shopping (Childers et al., 2001). ...
... Referring to H3, we expanded the interaction quality's set of indicators as competing mediating processes. We test for variables that are relevant in AR settings, such as presence (Hilken et al., 2017;Javornik, 2016b), novelty (Yim et al., 2017), as well as utilitarian and hedonic benefit (Holdack et al., 2020;Rese et al., 2014). Moreover, this study compares the effect to that of a control group without ARPI. ...
Article
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Augmented reality-delivered product information (ARPI) can overcome the limited space at the point of sale to inform shoppers on demand and will therefore become more widespread in brick-and-mortar stores. To fill the void of academic research, this paper develops a model of how consumers process ARPI and how ARPI can shape brand image and purchase intentions. Making use of the cues-filtered-out theory, this paper suggests that the effect of ARPI controllability depends on information detailedness. An unintended backfire effect of controllability occurs when the accessible information is detailed, which is explained by the mediating process via perceived comprehensiveness. This backfire effect is a risk primarily in busy shopping times. The main experiment conducted in a hypermarket and four follow-up studies (using field, lab, and video settings) empirically confirm the proposed model on the basis of different data sources, including usage tracking, questionnaires, and scanner data. The paper derives managerial implications and outlines directions for future research. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11747-022-00855-w.
... Recent researchers emphasize that virtual technologies (i.e., VR and AR) can provide more information and stimulate customer immersive experience (Kim et al., 2017) and they are also expected to affect customer emotions and decision-making evaluations (Dacko, 2017;Hilken et al., 2017). According to Javornik (2016), MAR apps can embed virtual content into real environments; thus, several companies have applied this emerging technology in creating virtual products. However, the immersive experience with MAR apps and its impact on customer responses are still neglected. ...
... Thirdly, recent research has emphasized that virtual technologies (i.e., MAR apps) can enhance customer emotions and decision-making evaluations (Dacko, 2017;Hilken et al., 2017). However, studies related to the immersive experience in technological advancements, such as MAR apps, as well as its subsequent impact on customer responses are still neglected (Javornik, 2016). Comprehension of the immersive experience can help firms gain higher performance by influencing customers' positive emotions (e.g., pleasure, arousal, dominance), customer values (e.g., utilitarian value, hedonic value, social value) and eventually changing their behavioral responses (e.g., purchase intention, word-of-mouth) (Novak et al., 2000;Yim et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to develop and propose an integrated conceptual framework that illustrates how emerging technologies such as mobile augmented reality applications (MAR apps) stimulate a user's immersive MAR app-enhanced experience—a human psychological state of being engaged and engrossed in a virtual environment—which in turn facilitates user responses. Design/methodology/approach This study draws on a literature review of related fields to develop a theoretical model showing the centrality of the immersive MAR app-enhanced experience. Findings A conceptual model that explicates the selected antecedents and outcomes of the AR-enhanced immersive experience is proposed. The findings suggest that the traits of both the user (mental imagery, personal innovativeness) and the device (simulated physical control, environmental embedding) facilitate the immersive MAR app-enhanced experience. Moreover, the immersive MAR app-enhanced experience is identified as a key driver of customer emotions, values and behavioral responses. Originality/value The integrated conceptual model provides scholars and practitioners with a general picture of the main factors affecting the immersive AR-enhanced experience, as well as the benefits available to firms; thus, theoretical and practical implications are delineated. Paper type Conceptual paper.
... In AR, virtual elements are superimposed directly onto a real-life environment via a screen or projector. e augmentation-enrichment of the environment coexists with the physical world due to AR's technological ability to augment real objects with virtual annotations [21][22][23]. e most significant difference with VR technology is that the main environment is real, but the objects depicted in the environment are virtual [24]. With AR, users can experience the virtual world and remain to see the real world [25]. ...
... Both of these enable a feeling that the digital environment is "real" and the transition between interaction and engagement. In this process, the use-value is generated and reflected in the key behavior of repeated use of services and word of mouth [22,69]. In research on the acceptance of AR in retail, augmentation quality and media characteristics are two themes studied in the literature. ...
Article
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This study explores users’ perceptions of technological features in augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of technologies (e.g., AR vs. VR) in fashion retailing. The findings are presented from a qualitative approach and content analysis of focus group interviews. Users’ perception of AR technological features consisted of 5 dimensions: augmentation, user control, vividness, responsiveness, and simplicity. Users’ perception of VR technological features consisted of 4 dimensions: telepresence, simulator sickness, visual discomfort, and user control. Practical implications for the application of mixed reality technology in fashion venues are discussed: for AR technology as a part of shopping tools, the advantages of control and simplicity should be taken seriously; for VR, an immersive experience as the main pros facilitated by telepresence, while sickness, followed by visual discomfort as the main simulator cons. This research offers valuable and useful insights into AR and VR as antecedents from the technological aspect and helps marketers develop and formulate new solutions for the application of AR and VR in fashion retailing.
... AG kullanımının, faydacı hem de hedonik değer boyutlarının her ikisine ilişkin tüketici algılarını geliştirdiğini göstermektedir (Poncin ve Mimoun 2014). AG uygulamaları, markalı uygulamaların hem faydacı hem de hedonik faydalar sağlayabileceğini göstermiştir (Alnawas ve Aburub, 2016;Hilken vd., 2017;Javornik, 2016a). Bu nedenle aşağıdaki hipotezler geliştirilmiştir. ...
... Böylelikle H5 hipotezi de kabul edilmiştir.Bu araştırma, pazarlamada artırılmış gerçeklik uygulamasının, çevrimiçi hizmet deneyimi, ağızdan ağıza iletişim niyeti ve satın alma niyeti arasındaki etkinin belirlenmesi amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir.Çalışmada ilk olarak MAG'ın, tüketicilerin çevrimiçi hizmet deneyimine ilişkin faydacı ve hedonik değer algıları üzerinde olumlu etkisi olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Elde edilen bu sonuç literatürle uyumludur(Qin vd., 2021b; Rauschnabel vd., 2019; Alnawas ve Aburub, 2016; Hilken vd., 2017;Javornik, 2016a).Poncin ve Mimoun (2014)'in araştırmasında AG kullanımının, faydacı ve hedonik değer boyutlarının her ikisine ilişkin tüketici algılarını geliştirdiğini göstermiştir. Bu sonuca dayanarak MAG'ın, tüketicilerin çevrimiçi hizmet deneyimine ilişkin faydacı değer ve hedonik değer algıları üzerinde olumlu bir etkiye sahip olduğu ifade edilebilir. ...
Article
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zet Araştırma, pazarlamada artırılmış gerçeklik uygulamasının, çevrimiçi hizmet deneyimi, ağızdan ağıza iletişim niyeti ve satın alma niyeti arasındaki etkiyi ölçmek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın evrenini artırılmış gerçeklik teknolojisi kullanarak tüketicilere ürünlerini deneyimleme olanağı sunan Arçelik markasını satın alan tüketiciler oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma kapsamında "kolayda örneklem" (convenience sampling method) yöntemi uygulanmıştır. Veriler, çevrim içi ve çevrim dışı ortamlar aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Araştırmada hipotezlerin test edilmesi için Smart PLS 3 (Partial Least Squares) istatistik programı kullanılmıştır. Yapılan testler sonucunda artırılmış gerçekliğin, çevrimiçi hizmet deneyimini pozitif etkilediği, çevrimiçi hizmet deneyimin de ağızdan ağıza iletişim niyetini pozitif etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca ağızdan ağıza iletişim niyetinin, satın alma niyetini pozitif etkilediği sonucuna da ulaşılmıştır. Abstract The research was carried out to measure the effect of augmented reality application in marketing between online service experience, word of mouth communication intention and purchase intention. The universe of the research consists of consumers who buy the Arçelik brand, which offers consumers the opportunity to experience their products using augmented reality technology. Within the scope of the research, the "convenience sampling method" method was applied. Data were collected through online and offline media. In the research, Smart PLS 3 (Partial Least Squares) statistical program was used to test the hypotheses. As a result of the tests, it was determined that augmented reality positively affects the online service experience, and the online service experience positively affects the word-of-mouth communication intention. In addition, it was concluded that word of mouth communication intention positively affects purchase intention.
... In contrast to previous research (Hilken et al., 2017;Javornik, 2016;Poushneh and Vasquez-Parraga, 2017;Yim et al., 2017), our study could not detect a statistically significant difference in "Purchase Intention" when comparing RSS, ARSS and XARSS. However, we argue that the cumulative effect of increased usefulness, entertainment and information, added to the positive sentiment expressed in the open questions Q3 and Q4 and the demonstrated confidence of using ARSAA in various shopping scenarios in Q6, provides notable evidence that ARSAA can be used to influence in-store shopping experience positively. ...
... flow). Importantly, "flow" has shown to have a strong influence on purchase intention (Hausman and Siekpe, 2009;Huang and Liao, 2017;Javornik, 2016). Thus, we call for future studies assessing the impact on important outcome variables (e.g. ...
Article
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Purpose The transition to omnichannel retail is the recognized future of retail, which uses digital technologies (e.g. augmented reality shopping assistants) to enhance the customer shopping experience. However, retailers struggle with the implementation of such technologies in brick-and-mortar stores. Against this background, the present study investigates the impact of a smartphone-based augmented reality shopping assistant application, which uses personalized recommendations and explainable artificial intelligence features on customer shopping experiences. Design/methodology/approach The authors follow a design science research approach to develop a shopping assistant application artifact, evaluated by means of an online experiment ( n = 252), providing both qualitative and quantitative data. Findings Results indicate a positive impact of the augmented reality shopping assistant application on customers' perception of brick-and-mortar shopping experiences. Based on the empirical insights this study also identifies possible improvements of the artifact. Research limitations/implications This study's assessment is limited to an online evaluation approach. Therefore, future studies should test actual usage of the technology in brick-and-mortar stores. Contrary to the suggestions of established theories (i.e. technology acceptance model, uses and gratification theory), this study shows that an increase of shopping experience does not always convert into an increase in the intention to purchase or to visit a brick-and-mortar store. Additionally, this study provides novel design principles and ideas for crafting augmented reality shopping assistant applications that can be used by future researchers to create advanced versions of such applications. Practical implications This paper demonstrates that a shopping assistant artifact provides a good opportunity to enhance users' shopping experience on their path-to-purchase, as it can support customers by providing rich information (e.g. explainable recommendations) for decision-making along the customer shopping journey. Originality/value This paper shows that smartphone-based augmented reality shopping assistant applications have the potential to increase the competitive power of brick-and-mortar retailers.
... Therefore, it seems that the positive aspects of AR can overcome potential hesitancies of consumers when it comes to sharing personal information. Besides word-of-mouth intentions and willingness to share personal data, the reviewed literature chiefly agrees that AR can induce intentions to revisit stores (Javornik, 2016;Park & Yoo, 2020) that support AR functionality as well as increase purchase intentions (Beck & Crié, 2018;Brengman et al., 2019;Moriuchi et al., 2021;Zhang et al., 2019). This is important for marketers, as it pinpoints AR technology as a medium with the potential not only to increase sales conversion but also to maintain customer relations. ...
Chapter
Recent years have seen a swift embracement of augmented reality (AR) as an interactive marketing tool, which has been accelerated even more rapidly by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the general attitude toward the technology as well as the factors that inhibit or facilitate its adoption from both, the consumers, and practitioners, remain elusive. This prevents marketers from fully exploiting the potential related to AR marketing. This chapter (1) draws on current literature to conceptualize consumer experience in AR marketing and (2) complements these findings with a practitioner perspective by conducting interviews with small retailers. The results of the present chapter indicate that, from the consumer perspective, AR can give rise to diverse cognitive, affective, and social-psychological outcomes, which can translate into behavioral outcomes, including purchase intentions, word-of-mouth intentions, and brand engagement. From the practitioner’s perspective, initial interview results reveal that advancements toward an easy integration of AR within existing IT infrastructures, as well as efficient ways to create virtual product replicas are crucial for the adoption of AR by small retailers. Based on the combined observations from literature and the conducted interviews, a comprehensive framework of interactive AR marketing is provided, and a way forward is discussed by addressing the emergent trends of AR as an interactive marketing technology.KeywordsAugmented realityInteractive marketingShoppingRetailConsumer experience
... Different from the perspectives of consumers' value and risk assessment in Bonnin (2020) and the frame of functional mechanisms of AR in Yim et al. (2017), this study reveals the role of new technology in creating online store attractiveness based on consumers' bidimensional experience (i.e., extrinsic and intrinsic), and explores the differences of hedonic and utilitarian shopping contexts. After the initial trial in the market and technical improvement of AR, it has largely broken through technical problems like response lag and limited convenience and applied to more product categories (Javornik, 2016a;Plotkina & Saurel, 2019 ...
Article
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Augmented reality (AR) is increasingly coming into the spotlight for its potential to improve the consumer experience through the creation of presence. This research aims to explore the theoretical mechanisms through which AR‐based product presentation influences online store attractiveness and whether the effects differ in the purchasing contexts of hedonic and utilitarian product types. From the perspective of consumers’ bi‐dimensional experience, we find that AR increases online store attractiveness by creating perceived coolness (intrinsic attribute) and spatial presence experience (extrinsic attribute), which would further have a positive impact on consumers’ purchase intention. The mediating mechanisms are different in purchasing contexts of various product types: for hedonic products, perceived coolness and spatial presence are parallel mediating factors leading to the improvement of online store attractiveness; while for utilitarian products, only the mediation effect of spatial presence presents. Our findings enrich the literature on AR marketing by proposing an insightful mediating force (i.e., perceived coolness) to complement the effect of presence, and explore the different purchasing contexts. We also provide managerial guidance for e‐retailers to differentiate AR interface design for diverse product types to apply AR technology effectively.
... Araştırmalar daha çok tüketicilerin tercihlerinde nasıl ve neden AR uygulaması kullandığı üzerine yoğunlaşmıştır. Bu araştırmalarda AR uygulamaları ile etkileşime giren tüketicilerin karar verme aşamaları ve motivasyonları incelenmiştir (BeckandCrié, 2016;Hilken vd., 2017;Huang ve Hsu Liu, 2014;Javornik, 2016;Poushneh, 2018;Scholz ve Duffy, 2018). AR pazarlamasının kurumsal hedeflere ulaşması için tüketici faydaları önemlidir. ...
Chapter
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Yıllar önce yalnızca bilim kurgu filmlerinde gördüğümüz teknolojiler günümüzde nefes kesici deneyimler sunmakta ve sanal ile gerçek dünya arasındaki sınır gün geçtikçe azalmaktadır. Endüstri 4.0 ile daha fazla ön plana çıkan artırılmış gerçeklik, 21. yüzyılın önde gelen teknolojik gelişmelerinden biridir. Bu teknolojide kullanıcılar dijital içerik ile eşzamanlı olarak etkileşime girmektedir. Fiziksel ortam ile sanal ortam gerçek zamanlı olarak üst üste binmekte ve kullanıcılara yeni bir ara yüz sunmaktadır. Amaç, gerçek görüntünün üstüne üç boyutlu sanal bir görüntünün eklenmesidir. İlk zamanlar eğlence amaçlı kullanılan artırılmış gerçeklik, son zamanlarda tüketicilerin bir ürün satın almadan önce ürünle ilgili bilgilere erişmesini sağlamak için de kullanılmaktadır. Hatta bu önemli teknoloji mimari, tıp, eğitim, oyun, eğlence, turizm ve pazarlama gibi çeşitli alanlarda gittikçe yaygınlaşmaktadır. Artırılmış gerçeklik dünyasında yaşanan son gelişmeler, pazarlama alanında büyük bir ilgiye yol açmıştır. AR, ürünleri tüketicilerin fiziksel nesnelere ve ortamlara ilişkin algılarına entegre ederek, tüketicilere ürünler veya hizmetler hakkında zengin bilgiler sağlamaktadır. Bu durum müşterilerin ürün ve hizmetleri kolayca deneyimlemelerine olanak tanımaktadır
... AG, gerçek bir ortamda sanal ve gerçek nesneleri birleştiren, hizalayan, etkileşimli ve gerçek zamanlı çalışan bir teknolojiyi ifade etmektedir (Azuma vd., 2001). Artırılmış gerçeklik pazarlaması; dijital bilgi veya nesneleri, tüketicilerin fiziksel nesnelere ve ortamlara ilişkin algılarına entegre ederek onların yeni ve fantastik deneyimler yaşamasını sağlamak, mal veya hizmetler hakkında zengin bilgiler sunarak, çevrimiçi deneyimleri ve etkileşimi iyileştirerek memnuniyeti artırmak, tüketici davranışlarını şekillendirmek ve işletme gelirlerini artırmak için pazarlamada artırılmış gerçeklik teknolojisinin uygulanmasını ifade etmektedir (Javornik, 2016;Du vd., 2022). ...
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Bu çalışma günümüz işletmelerinin teknolojinin yıkıcı etkilerini olumluya çevirmek için pazarlama çabalarına dâhil ettiği yeni teknolojileri konu edinmektedir. Kitabın ilk bölümünde Metaverse kavramı, özellikleri ve pazarlama alanında kullanım örneklerine yer verilmektedir. Fiziksel dünyanın sanal ikizini olan Metaverse kavramı literatür için henüz yeni olmakla beraber, işletmelerin hızla adapte olmaya çalıştığı bir evrendir ve elektronik ticaretin gelişmesi bu süreci daha da hızlandırmaktadır. Metaverse ile birlikte dijital bir puzzle’ın parçaları olan Blochain teknolojisi ve NFT (Nitelikli Fikri Tapu- Non-Fungible Token ) sanal ve arttırılmış gerçeklik teknolojisi, yapay zekâ ve makine öğrenme teknolojisi ile Chatbot pazarlama kavramları kitabın diğer bölümlerini oluşturmaktadır. İkinci bölümde sanal gerçeklik ve artırılmış gerçeklik teknolojisinin müşteri deneyiminde açtığı 360 derece üç boyutlusanal pencerelerin pazarlama stratejilerine getirdiği yaratıcı boyuta yer verilmektedir. Sanal ve artırılmış gerçeklik teknolojisi tabanlı pazarlama faaliyetleri ürün lansmanından maddi deneyimlere, etkinlik ve perakende deneyimlerden pazar araştırmasına pek çok açıdan pazarlama profesyonellerinin imdadına koşmaktadır. Üçüncü bölümde yer verilen, şifrelenmiş işlem ve dağıtılmış defter teknolojisine dayanan Blokchain, güvenli alt yapısı ile pazarlama disiplinine önemli katkılar sağlamaktadır. Hedef pazara ilişkin veri toplamak, depolamak ve karar alıcılara iletmek pazarlamanın en önemli görevlerinden biridir. Bu noktada taklit edilemeyen veya değiştirilemeyen verilerin toplanması ve işlenmesinde Blokchain, gizlilik, güvenlik, şeffaflık ilkelerini pazarlama için kullanılabilir hale getirmektedir. Bu teknolojinin bir parçası olan NFT kavramı pazarlama açısından yeni, özgün ve değiştirilemez bir rekabet avantajı sunmaktadır. Meta CEO’su Mark Zuckerberg’in gelecekte hayatımızı daha iyi hale getireceğini düşündüğü yapay zekânın olmadığı yer kalmadığı için bu kitabında dördüncü bölümünde yer almaktadır. En önemli alt kümesi olan makine öğrenme teknolojisi ile algoritmaları yönetmek, hata paylarını sıfıra indirmek, hedefleme, kişiselleştirme gibi pek çok konuda pazarlama karar alıcılarına destek olan yapay zekâ, pazarlamayı akıllı ve verimli hale getirmek adına yapılan uygulamaları ile ön plana çıkmaktadır. Chatbot pazarlamanın artan önemine değinilen son bölümde, yapay zekâ kullanılarak geliştirilen Chatbot teknolojisinin iletişim ve etkileşim ekseninde işletme ve pazarlama amaçlarına ulaşmadaki etkin rolüne yer verilmektedir. Müşteri deneyiminin her şey olduğu bir dönemde, dijital dünyanın nimetlerinden biri olan bu teknolojinin müşteri yaşam döngüsündeki kilit kavram olduğu düşünülmektedir.
... In Merle et al. (2012), for example, users could modify the avatar's body shape and skin colour and upload an image of their head. In other studies avatars could be also rotated 360°to display fit from different angles (Fiore & Jin, 2003), yet it is debatable whether the VTOs in that generation offered AR. AR is different from virtual reality (VR), of course, in that the environment in VR is computer-generated, whereas AR superimposes digital content onto consumers' real-world (Javornik, 2016). Researchers have leaned towards studying apps that work like a virtual mirror, such as the Sephora VTO (Scholz & Duffy, 2018), as the 'live AR' experience that these VTOs offer, is still unavailable in Zeekit and Forma. ...
Article
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Virtual try-on (VTO) apps are now used by many fashion consumers, but VTOs for the apparel category have met with resistance. This study examines privacy concern, body image and social value as antecedents to adoption intention towards an apparel VTO with two types of photorealistic avatars. Twenty users first tried out the app in lab sessions, then 301 completed an online survey with a video of the VTO. A majority of participants were concerned about potential misuse of their uploaded picture and preferred to use a pre-loaded avatar of a model with a similar body. This option explains why privacy concern had a weak negative impact on adoption intention in our model, albeit at the expense of self-presentation benefits. The trait of privacy disposition best predicted consumer responses overall, yet other motives were also revealed. Discussed are the implications of this study’s results and limitations to privacy calculus research.
... This shortage of sensory input creates difficulties to present and inspect the products and services comprehensively. For example, previous research stated that a visual representation of a product on a neutral background (e.g., 2D or 3D picture) does not always indicate how this product would look or feel in real life (Javornik, 2016;Hilken et al., 2017;Petit et al., 2022). Furthermore, the online store environment also lacks multisensory atmospheric cues that enables consumers to be fully immersed in a store atmosphere (Petit et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Over recent years, online shopping has grown at a tremendous rate, reaching a worldwide online retail sales of 4.9 trillion USD in 2021. Moreover, forecasts predict a growth by 50% over the following four years, reaching 7.4 trillion USD in 2025 (Statista, 2022). Needless to say that it is crucial for retailers to optimally market their offerings online. This Research Topic aims at widening the knowledge on creating online multisensory customer experiences and comprises four empirical papers, one review on the on- and offline multisensory tasting experience, and one perspective on consumer consciousness in multisensory extended reality.
... By giving the original inanimate carrier its emotional color, the video touches the audience's emotional direction and stimulates their emotional resonance. It truly sublimates the purpose of "touching consumers' emotions" [27]. ...
Article
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The in-depth development of the multimedia era has caused network video marketing to gradually penetrate into social production and daily life, and the network self-media platform has also played its own advantageous hand and established links in the creation of a new network video marketing model, highlighting the important role of the network self-media platform. To this end, this article analyzes the current situation of video marketing in the multimedia era and combines a variety of marketing tools such as trends, implantation, and emotions to optimize the transformation in promotion by analyzing new marketing strategies while promoting sustainable development of enterprises. On this basis, this article explores and analyzes the impact of video marketing on consumer psychology and behavior in the multimedia era.
... Therefore, the qualitative aspects can play a vital role in AR app usage. Augmentation quality (AQ) is similar to the augmented reality quality concept used by Javornik (2016) in retail. AQ is defined as the output quality that results from interaction with digital contents in the real environment regarding mapping quality, correspondence quality, or information quality (Javornik et al., 2015). ...
Article
The current study of Augmented Reality technology aims to understand consumers’ behavioural aspects toward tourism destination intentions in the current situation of a pandemic. Augmented Reality’s role has significantly influenced consumers’ intentions to travel in the future, yielding fruitful results for academics and managers. The technology readiness index, technology acceptance model, quality, Augmented Reality psychological engagement, attitude, and enjoyment were used to assess consumer behaviour. The final data analysis included 484 respondents, who provided insights into the use of Augmented Reality technology. The findings suggest that Augmented Reality aspects influence tourists who want to travel, tour, and realize their desired destination intention in the future. The conceptual framework’s overarching theories with Augmented Reality aspects provide relevant findings across the fulcrum of tourism research.
... According to Leonidou, Palihawadana and Theodosiou (2011), strong marketing capabilities are important for sensing the needs of consumers in a quick and accurate manner, leading to higher competitive advantages. Rational consumer behavior requires that consumers redirect their buying patterns and patronage towards firms that have the ability to meet their needs, serve them with valued products and ensure that their expectations are met (Javornik, 2016;Xie & Kahle, 2014; Bign e-Alcañiz, 2012). Nalcaci and Yagci (2014) argue that particularly in modern markets, where consumers have heterogeneous and dynamic valuations for quality, marketing capabilities cannot be overlooked. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and marketing capability on consumer behavioral responses in the mobile telecommunication industry in Ghana. Particularly, the study estimated the moderating effect of marketing capability on the relationship between CSR and consumer behavioral responses. Design/methodology/approach Both customers and employees of three major mobile telecommunication companies were sampled for this work. A mixed linear regression technique was used to examine the relationship between corporate responsibility, marketing capability and customer behavioral responses. Findings The empirical results revealed that marketing capabilities moderate the relationship between CSR and consumer responses in the telecommunication industry. Research limitations/implications The study proposes practical dimensions to the mobile telecommunication companies that the extensive development of strong marketing capabilities serves a conduit for CSR to achieve favorable consumer responses. Originality/value The results have opened up rather a limitation studies on the moderation role marketing capabilities in relationship between CSR and consumer behavioral responses in the telecommunication industry.
... Park and Yoo [52] recently demonstrated that perceived interactivity with augmented reality influences mental imagery, which leads to a positive consumer attitude. Many cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions associated with consumer experiences are influenced by interactivity [53]. Therefore, we propose the following hypotheses: ...
Article
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Artificial intelligence (AI) is an important link between online consumers and the tourism industry. AI-chatbots are the latest technological advancement that have shaped the tourism industry. AI-chatbots are a relatively new technology in the hospitality and tourism industries, but little is known about their use. The study aims to identify factors influencing AI-chatbot adoption and their use in improving customer engagement and experiences. Using an offline survey, researchers collected data from 530 respondents. Using the structural equation modeling technique, the conceptual model was empirically tested. According to the results, the SO -R theoretical framework is suitable for evaluating chatbot adoption intentions. Additionally, the structural model supported the ten hypotheses, validating the suggested directions of substantial impacts. In addition to practitioners and tourism managers, this study also has broad implications for scholars.
... Mekni and Lemieux (2014) stated that MAR apps can provide attractive and informative virtual products in order to make customers satisfied. This technology can also give customers additional information about the products (Baier et al., 2015) before making purchasing decisions (Javornik, 2016;Pantano et al.). Virtual glasses can be used to create added value for customers and impact their perception (Oyman et al., 2022;Verhagen et al., 2014). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of customer immersive experience on attitude and adoption intention toward mobile augmented reality applications (MAR apps). This paper also examines the moderating role of technology anxiety on the relationship between immersive experience on attitude and adoption intention toward MAR apps. A dataset of 322 customers and the partial least square structural equation model (PLS-SEM) with the SmartPLS 3.2.8 statistical software were used to test the proposed hypotheses. The results show that immersive experience significantly affects attitude and adoption intention toward MAR apps. In addition, the vital role of technology anxiety in moderating the relationship between customer immersive experience and their responses toward MAR apps is revealed. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
... They found that functional properties of AR applications, such as impact and stimuli, have a profound effect on users' voluntary use of the application. In their study, Javornik et al. (2016) looked into the effects of a make-up application placed in a store that allows users to try makeup virtually on user experience. The study participants stated that they were greatly amused, excited, and surprised by their experience with the application. ...
Article
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Due to mobile applications have become popular in marketing activities, many retail businesses have begun to launch their Augmented Reality (AR) applications. The application of AR technology to marketing is a very new process. When businesses create interactive channels through which they can reach consumers, they can influence the purchasing decision processes of consumers. In addition, companies aim to provide consumers with an unforgettable shopping experience. The study's research question was, "How do consumers' innovativeness and AR experiences affect their loyalty and purchase intentions? Also, innovativeness has a significant effect on their AR application use intentions. This study investigates the impact of innovativeness and AR experience on consumer loyalty and purchase intention. Based on the assumption that the importance of AR applications in marketing activities will gradually increase, it can be said that examining the effects of AR applications on consumer attitudes and behaviours is gaining reputation. Studies investigating the impact of augmented reality applications are very limited in the consumer behaviour literature. This situation shows the original value of the study. In the application part of the study, a quantitative research design was used. In this context, the convenience sampling method was selected. Data were collected from 319 participants via an online questionnaire, and the responses obtained were analysed using a structural equation model. The results showed that the AR experience had been affected positively by the innovation dimension, while consumer loyalty was affected positively by the AR experience.
... Vieira et al. (2018) affirmed that while shopping online, consumers are indeed motivated by utilitarian drivers instead of hedonic ones. As a result, to better comprehend the impact of augmented reality technology on a variety of consumer responses, researchers have begun to investigate its elements and the involvement of utilitarian values(Watson et al., 2018) and how this influences impulse buy intentions.Against this,Yaoyuneyong et al. (2014), Javornik (2016b, andTafesse (2021) argued that AR taps into consumers' experiencing more hedonic motivations from the fashion and beauty industry perspective.Rauschnabel et al. (2019) expressed the need to further examine consumers' motivation drivers for using AR-enabled mobile apps, leading to the below hypothesis: ...
Article
The relationship between augmented reality (AR) in mobile applications and consumers' online impulse purchase intention is still at its nascent stage. This study focuses on the cosmetics category under online purchase. Firstly, it examines the relationship between women consumers' motivation to use AR in the mobile app, vis a vis perceived quality of augmentation on perceived value. Secondly, it also tests the relationship between perceived value and impulsive online purchase. Thirdly, it examines the mediating role of perceived value between two exogenous variables and impulsive intention of online purchase. Further, it tests the moderating role of product involvement between perceived value and impulsive intention of online purchase. We collected data from 343 millennial women respondents and analyzed them using PLS‐SEM. The results highlight that AR in mobile applications can lead to impulsive purchase intentions among millennial women.
... Kim and Lee [26] examined the motivations for users viewing 360-degree VR art and found that their sensation-seeking tendency influenced their motivation for viewing VR art, including learning from entertainment. Given that realism is a type of sensual gratification, we assume that if a person integrates a VR video realistically into his/her perception of the real world [54], he/she is more likely to consider whether the presentation in that video has personal meaning for himself/herself. Thus, the following hypothesis was proposed. ...
Article
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The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and recent economic recession have been impacting many people’s mental health. The experience of social distancing created new hardships for people who already reported symptoms of depression or anxiety. In these circumstances, new technologies, such as immersive virtual reality (VR) videos, could serve as useful tools for facilitating interactions, emotional sharing, and information processing within a virtual environment. In this study, researchers aimed to enrich the information processing literature by focusing on the uses and gratifications of 360-degree VR videos during the pandemic. Through employing survey research with 1422 participants located in the U.S. and structural equation modeling for data analysis, this study found that five types of gratification, including utilitarian (i.e., navigation), hedonic (i.e., enjoyment), sensual (i.e., realism), social (i.e., community), and symbolic (i.e., coolness), significantly motivated users to use such immersive videos. Simultaneously, data demonstrated that these five types of gratification could influence users’ cognitive engagement with virtual content. In addition, such VR engagement facilitated users’ positive attitudes toward immersive videos and continued usage of them. The findings provided practical implications for COVID-19 global recovery as well.
... Thus, trust is considered an antecedent of intention and attitude. Trust, therefore, has an important role with its determinants in the attitude expansion and customers' intent to exchange information with an online seller (Javornik, 2016). ...
... In Table 2 we summarize selected relevant literature, which reveals growing support for AR's positive impact on customers' intended and actual purchases (e.g., Heller et al. 2019b;Petit et al. 2021;Tan et al. 2021). However, this support is by no means universal, as several studies fail to find support for such effects (Javornik 2016;Kowalczuk, Siepmann and Adler 2021;Plotkina and Saurel 2019;Yim et al. 2017), which points to gaps in our understanding of AR as a customer-facing technology. Specifically, research has almost exclusively studied customers' use of AR for individual products and in a single stage of the purchase funnel (i.e., online product evaluation). ...
Article
Many firms use augmented reality (AR) that projects lifelike product holograms into the physical environment to assist customers in bridging so-called “imagination gaps,” which can arise on their path to purchase. However, research has not yet studied whether and how AR might help customers address two pertinent sources of such imagination gaps: (1) increased cognitive load when evaluating multiple products together (e.g., in a bundle) and (2) extended physical distance to the point-of-sale (e.g., out-of-store, at home). Building on mental imagery theorizing, we explain how AR supports customers in bridging these gaps, and, through a series of field and experimental studies, we evidence effects on customer purchase intentions and behavior. Specifically, we show that AR-generated imagery of bundled (versus individual) products enhances intended and actual purchases at the point-of-sale. Furthermore, when deployed at distant points in the purchase funnel (out-of-store, at-home), AR increases purchases through improved self-projection, which we describe as the psychological mechanism customers use to mentally bridge distance to the point-of-sale. We qualify this mediating mechanism through an important moderating process, where the effect of AR-generated imagery on self-projection is suppressed for customers with a holistic (versus analytic) thinking style.
... Scholars have detailed the role of AR in several contexts, such as service experience (Hilken et al., 2017), customer dining experience (Javornik, 2016b;Batat, 2021) and intimate self with makeup brands (Scholz and Duffy, 2018). The experience has been characterized as involving escapism (Liao and Humphreys, 2015) and imagination (Huang and Liu, 2014;Beck and Cri e, 2018). ...
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Purpose This paper examines what the use of an augmented reality (AR) makeup mirror means to consumers, focusing on experiential consumption and the extended self. Design/methodology/approach The authors employed a multimethod approach involving netnography and semi-structured interviews with participants in India and the UK ( n = 30). Findings Two main themes emerged from the data: (1) the importance of imagination and fantasy and (2) the (in)authenticity of the self and the surrounding “reality.” Research limitations/implications This research focuses on AR magic makeup mirror. The authors call for further research on different AR contexts. Practical implications The authors provide service managers with insights on addressing gaps between the perceived service (i.e. AR contexts and the makeup consumption journey) and the conceived service (i.e. fantasies and the extended self). Originality/value The authors examine the lived fantasy experiences of AR experiential consumption. In addition, the authors reveal a novel understanding of the extended self as temporarily re-envisioned through the AR mirror.
Chapter
Businesses should be able to distinguish themselves in the ever-growing service market by providing an interactive experience to customers to remain competitive amidst market turbulence. The interactive experience allows businesses to provide unique experiences to their customers through physical and online servicescapes, influencing consumer behavioural outcomes. However, existing research models have not fully captured critical attributes that drive the interactive experience of physical and online servicescapes for long-term business revenue growth. Therefore, similarities and differences in attributes for both contexts must be elucidated to pinpoint gaps for future investigations. Additionally, although interactive marketing scholars have devoted considerable effort to determine the effects of servicescapes on consumer behaviour, information on an up-to-date systematisation of theoretical and empirical findings remains scarce. This chapter aims to critically review the interactive experience research for physical and online servicescapes within a 10-year period (2012–2022). The review highlights the importance of this emerging area of interest by considering previous research on the interactive experience in the literature. An agenda for research was developed, serving as a foundation for future studies into this essential yet often neglected aspect of the interactive experience of online and physical environments. Also, understanding this interactive experience for both contexts is essential for practitioners to respond to consumers’ actions, behaviour, preferences, expectations, and demands quickly and appropriately.KeywordsInteractive experienceservicescape experienceAn online interactive experience
Purpose Virtual try-on apps (VTOs) allow consumers to examine fashion and furniture items in usage context without going to a physical store. But the adoption of such apps has varied across product categories, and research on user acceptance of AR marketing has been fragmented. The current study aims to develop and test a general model that explains the formation of decision comfort (DC) in the majority of AR try-on experiences for mobile shopping. Design/methodology/approach After reviewing 30 VTOs available on the iOS app store, the authors chose the Wanna Kicks sneaker shopping VTO as the most representative to test their hypotheses for AR try-on in general. Overall, 178 online consumers performed a sneaker shopping task on their mobile devices, and their responses were analyzed with the partial least squares method. Findings The study confirmed the key role of perceived augmentation in leading to DC via a utilitarian and a hedonic path. These effects were attenuated for younger users, and haptic imagery only had a utilitarian impact. Scholars should pay more attention to the variable of age, while managers should act quickly to enhance the basic AR affordances of mobile try-on apps. Originality/value This is the first study of a VTO in the footwear category and with a model that tests age as a moderating variable between antecedents and consumer responses.
Article
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Augmented reality (AR) has been shown to improve consumers' shopping decisions and experiences. Based on a theoretical stimulus-organism-response model and cognitive load theory, this research examines the effects that AR has on cognitive variables related to cognitive load, hitherto scarcely considered. Specifically, this research examines the impact of perceived similarity among options, confusion caused by overchoice and prepurchase cognitive dissonance on purchase-related behavioral intention variables such as purchase intention and willingness to pay for products. The study is based on consumers' AR web shopping experiences of an online cosmetics store which offers a wide assortment of products. The mixed-method research combines two focus groups and an experiment. This combination allows triangulation of the findings to provide corroboration. The results showed that AR reduces cognitive dissonance through its effects on perceived similarity and confusion caused by overchoice. Furthermore, lower cognitive load enhances purchase intentions, resulting in greater willingness to pay more for the product. The research extends knowledge of the benefits provided to consumers by AR in their decision-making through its impacts on perceived similarity, confusion by overchoice and prepurchase cognitive dissonance. The application of web AR in e-commerce shops is particularly useful when a wide assortment of similar products is offered. Online retailers can use AR to improve their economic performance both by increasing their sales’ volumes and their margins.
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Advertising aims to attract attention, evoke emotions, and convey information. However, consumers have a limited ability to remember and for selective retention. This phenomenon has been exacerbated with the advent of the internet. Consequently, the implementation of shocking images by companies has been considered a valid means to attract consumers’ attention. Although the literature has explored consumers’ reactions to shockvertising, few studies have focused on moral emotions. Hence, the research objective of this work is to understand which moral emotions are evoked by shockvertising and what the object of such emotions is. Because of the increased environmental impact of businesses and human activities, this study explores consumers’ reactions and moral emotions evoked by the use of shocking images to communicate issues related to plastic waste. Our findings show that shocking images arouse, for the most part, negative emotions and, in particular, contempt and anger. The use of shocking images can thus attract users’ attention, generate a discussion on the plastic issue, and enhance consumer awareness.
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Many transformations have affected the retail scenario in the last few years. Digitalization and sustainability are the main challenges to consider for the further development of retailing. From the assumption of the acceleration of digital innovation, this chapter considers augmented reality (AR) a supportive technology that supports sustainable retailing. This chapter aims to explore the adoption of augmented reality for sustainable retailing, highlighting the opportunities and limitations in the application. As a first approach in understanding how augmented reality could be helpful for sustainable retailing, this work contributed to exploring the intersections between the actual knowledge on the AR role in the retail industry and the 3Ps (Planet, People, and Profit) principle for sustainability in the business context. Even commenting on specific AR applications in retail sustainability projects helps understanding the state of the art and expressing future perspectives in retail.
Article
Purpose To deliver superior customer experiences, retailers are increasingly turning to augmented reality (AR) technologies for new digital services that can enhance their customer interactions. The potential of AR has been validated in lab experiments, but when implemented in real-world contexts, its commercial impact has been limited. Therefore, this paper investigates how to design AR-based services (AR services) that enhance customer experiences in retail. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a conceptual research approach to integrate research on AR in the context of retail, combining customer, retailer, and technical perspectives with the design thinking method to demonstrate how the challenge of AR service design can be addressed through design thinking. Findings The paper develops propositions that explain how a design thinking method is useful in the design of effective AR services. The paper also articulates principles for how to implement the design thinking method in the specific context of AR for enhanced customer experiences. Practical implications The study documents critical practices for retailers seeking to be competitive with superior customer experiences under the increasing digitalization of retailer-customer interactions. Originality/value The study contributes to the service design literature by answering the call to develop moderately abstracted explanations of how different digital technologies can be used to provision new services in different application domains, with the focus here being the design of AR services in the context of retail.
Article
This paper contributes to the debate on MR technology in the museum setting by investigating how and to what extent functional elements of the MR devices affect experiences and drive post-experience behaviours. It bridges several research gaps in MR investigation, demonstrating unexplored causal relationships between the functionality of MR devices and museum experiences and post-experience behaviours, which have been investigated separately. The research confirms that MR advances empower the museum's mission of heritage valorisation and education, which drive new immersive experiences and behaviours. It introduces insights to overcome technological limitations as a challenge for practitioners as well as a flourishing area of investigation.
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With recent technological advancements, empowered by the self-learning capabilities of algorithms and increasing power of machine computation, artificial intelligence (AI)-driven technologies have become more salient for addressing and solving specific types of business problems. This saliency is no less important for firms operating in the agricultural technology (AgriTech) sector, where the impacts of AI-driven technologies and systems create new opportunities and challenges. We argue that with the unique characteristics of AI technologies and emerging challenges and aspirations of the AgriTech sector, there is a need to rethink traditional theories of technology adoption and readiness within AgriTech firms. In this paper, we develop an understanding of AI readiness and adoption through a fuller appreciation of micro- and meso-empirical data that delineates the determinants of AI readiness and uncovers a set of strategic components that can help AgriTech firms better manage the readiness process for AI adoption. To do this, we employ a mixed-methods approach and elicit data from 236 e-surveys and 25 interviews from an important conference in the AgriTech field. Our findings have implications for research and practice to understand AI technological readiness.
Article
Background: The consumption pattern in the Beauty Industry has been changed due to the COVID-19 crisis. As hygiene issues were raised, non-face-to-face communication was emphasized, and within this framework, the use of Augmented Reality emerged as one of the hottest topics in the industry. Aims: To check the usefulness of Augmented Reality in the Beauty Industry by systematically examining quantitative research which in turn verifies empirically the effectiveness of Augmented Reality. Methods: A total of eight quantitative studies that verified the effect of AR in the cosmetic field were identified, and the contents of the studies were analyzed using PRISMA flow diagram. Result: Sub-elements of reciprocity, augmentation, and expressive power for AR showed that stimulate individual emotions and induce purchase intentions CONCLUSION: In the current Beauty Industry dominated by non-face-to-face interactions, AR was evaluated as an appropriate means to respond to changes in the market.
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With the development of the mobile device, augmented reality (AR) is moving from the laboratory into the consumer market. Product presentation in the augmented environment has become a compelling function that helps consumers have a better perception of the product. In this article, we proposed a comparative study to figure out how users perceive the product model in the AR environment and the difference compared with the real-world product. Through this research, we will further understand which attributes of the product can be better perceived in AR. The product semantic differential method was used here to build the product evaluation metrics and compare the user perception of 3 types of product presentation based on product semantic.
Article
Advances in information technologies today have created rich forms of reality to engage consumers. This study examines the effects of augmented realism and technology fluidity of augmented reality (AR) applications on consumer decision-making. A posttest-only between-group experiment was conducted in a laboratory setting to enable the completion of a simulated product-evaluation task via a web-based AR system, a mobile-app based AR system and a non-AR marketing device. Findings demonstrated that augmented realism and technology fluidity strongly influenced consumers’ flow experience, which led to cognitive and affective responses toward the brand and/or the AR-interface medium, in addition to increased purchase intention. The four sub-dimensions of flow also helped explicate the relationships between immersive shopping experience and cognitive, affective and behavioral outcomes. The study contributes to theory building in AR-based immersive and online marketing research.
Article
Purpose Today, contactless businesses are becoming part of the “new normal” in daily life. Augmented reality-based services (ARBS) thus provide a mechanism for contactless commerce, offering customers access to sensory experiences, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, privacy can be a key concern when consumers decide whether to continue using ARBS. Thus, drawing on the Appraisal Tendency Framework (ATF), the study aims to examine how augmentation quality (Aug-Q), discrete emotions (joy and frustration) and privacy perceptions influence users' ARBS continuing use intention. Design/methodology/approach A survey methodology with a well-designed online questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were analyzed using a structural equation model with Amos v. 22.0 software. Findings This study demonstrated that Aug-Q had a significant positive impact on joy and a significant negative impact on frustration. Additionally, joy was positively associated with the perception of privacy benefits and ARBS continuing use intention, while frustration was negatively associated with the perception of privacy benefits and ARBS continuing use intention. The results also indicate that (perceived privacy risks) PPR–benefits predict the likelihood of ARBS continuing use intention. Originality/value This study enhances understanding of users' ARBS continuing use intention from an integrative perspective based on the ATF, thus identifying the Aug-Q-induced emotions that subsequently influence privacy trade-offs and predict users' ARBS continuing use intention. The results provide evidence that privacy and emotions can be key determinants when consumers decide whether to continue using ARBS. The findings of this research may be beneficial for commercial companies in preventing the loss of ARBS users.
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Augmented reality technology is accepted in different fields today. Marketing is one of the areas where this new generation technology is widely used. This technology, which enables customers to gain experience between the virtual world and the real world, regardless of time and place, in order to ensure sustainable purchasing behavior, should be considered as a gateway to the changing world of marketing. In addition to its use in the fields of augmented reality, health, defense, education, engineering, architecture, media, it has also been effective in the acceptance of institutions/organizations, brands, and social media by wider customers/users. Provided that this technology is implemented in all marketing strategies, it contributes to gaining competitive advantage in the market. In this chapter, augmented reality technology will be discussed first. In the rest of the chapter, the application of this technology to marketing strategies will be explained with examples.
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Purpose: This study aims to examine the role of augmented reality (AR) in online impulse behaviour for high-body-involvement products. This study further explores whether flow and spatial presence mediate the link between AR and online impulse behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: We collected 255 responses from shopping mall visitors and used SPSS (21.0) (PROCESS macro) and AMOS 21.0 to test the hypothesised model. Findings: The findings reveal that AR virtual try-on significantly influences online impulse behaviour by providing hedonic value and reducing product risk prior to purchase. Second, flow and spatial presence partially and complementarily mediate the relationship between AR characteristics, hedonic value, and product risk. Originality/value: Theoretically, this study extends the literature on AR and online impulse behaviour from a psychological perspective, and it broadens managers' understanding of how they can use AR as a tool to increase sales.
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This study examines the influence of augmented reality on consumer behaviour in online retailing based on the stimulus-organism-response model. In this context, the affective and cognitive response, and the effect on purchasing behaviour are investigated in more detail. For this purpose, a quantitative study was carried out and analysed using structural equation modelling. The results show a positive influence of the perceived augmentation both on emotions during the use of AR and on the perceived amount of information. The attitude towards the use of AR has the greatest impact on purchasing behaviour, followed by the perceived amount of information. In addition, emotions indirectly effect the purchasing behaviour through its attitude as a mediator.
Conference Paper
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This research investigates which uses of AR have emerged so far in marketing and proposes classification schemas for them, based on the intensity of the augmentation, different contexts of consumption and on marketing functions. Such differentiation is needed in order to better understand the dynamics of augmentation of physical surroundings for commercial purposes and consequently to distinguish between consumer experiences.
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We are on the verge of ubiquitously adopting Augmented Reality (AR) technologies to enhance our perception and help us see, hear, and feel our environments in new and enriched ways. AR will support us in fields such as education, maintenance, design and reconnaissance, to name but a few. This paper describes the field of AR, including a brief definition and development history, the enabling technologies and their characteristics. It surveys the state of the art by reviewing some recent applications of AR technology as well as some known limitations regarding human factors in the use of AR systems that developers will need to overcome.
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This research integrates the technology acceptance model and concepts of experiential value to investigate factors that affect sustainable relationship behavior toward using augmented-reality interactive technology (ARIT). In line with consumers’ innovativeness, this research discovers that consumers’ level of cognitive innovativeness affects their sustainable relationship behaviors toward using ARIT. Online consumers with high cognitive innovativeness put more emphasis on usefulness, aesthetics, and service excellence presented by ARIT; in contrast, those with low cognitive innovativeness focus on playfulness and ease of use presented by ARIT.
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Although the literature on customer experience within retail environments spontaneously invokes the sensuous, affective and emotional aspects of experience, the body - which is the locus of these - is conspicuous by its absence. In these terms, researchers have relied on a theory of mind. This article seeks to suggest an embodied, spatial approach to customer experience, arguing that it is thanks to the body that we sense the environment, and that likewise, it is thanks to the environment that we can sense and experience our body. The reciprocity between body and world implies an inter-corporeality that extends or retracts the spatiality of the body as a result of its motility. This article emphasizes the bodily, spatial character of customer experience, concluding with implications and suggestions for future studies.
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This experiment examines interactivity and vividness in commercial web sites. We expected increased levels of interactivity and vividness would lead to more positive attitudes toward web sites, stronger feelings of telepresence, and greater attitude—behavior consistency. In addition, we expected increased levels of vividness to lead to the development of more enduring attitudes toward the site. Participants explored four web sites. Increases in interactivity and vividness were associated with increased feelings of telepresence. In addition, increases in vividness were associated with more positive and more enduring attitudes toward the web site. Implications for new media researchers and practitioners are discussed.
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This paper draws on the construct of brand experience to investigate the previously little-researched role of digital signage (DS) in retail atmospherics. Face-to-face between-subjects survey experiments were carried out at permanent DS installations in the UK: a pretest in a university (n = 103), and a field trial at the Harrods department store, London (n = 437). Findings demonstrate the effectiveness of DS sensory-affective advertisments (little functional information), whereas previous studies concern mainly cognitive content. DS content high on sensory cues evokes affective experience. DS ads that are high in factual information evoke intellectual experience. Evoked affective experience is more associated with attitude towards the ad and approach towards the advertiser than is evoked intellectual experience.Summary statement of contribution: The findings indicate that incidental brand-related stimuli on DS can lead to evaluative judgments such as attitudes. Such stimuli can also work by evoking sensory and affective experiences and eliciting approach behaviour towards an advertiser. Practical implications arise as ‘affective’ DS ads can increase shoppers’ approach towards an advertiser and the store that carries the ads, especially in generating loyalty from first time shoppers.
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Interactivity is an often mentioned but seldom operationalized concept associated with the World Wide Web. Interactivity has been positioned conceptually as a process, a function, and a perception, but most operational definitions have focused on the process or function. This study develops scales to operationalize the perception-based approach to interactivity, because consumer perceptions are central to advertising research. Three overlapping constructs that are central to interactivity are explored: direction of communication, user control, and time. A multistage method is used to identify and refine measures of perceived interactivity (MPI). The 18 items included in the MPI offer researchers a tool for measuring a consumer perception central to advertising on the Web.
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Although an extensive body of research has emerged on marketing in computer-mediated environments (CMEs), the literature remains fragmented. As a result, insights and findings have accumulated without an overarching framework that provides structure and guidance to the rapidly-growing literature. We believe this is detrimental to long-term knowledge development in this area. To address this issue, we organize and synthesize findings from the literature using a framework structured around four key interactions in CMEs: consumer-firm interactions, firmconsumer interactions, consumer-consumer interactions, and firm-firm interactions. The proposed framework serves a valuable organizational function and helps identify a broad spectrum of gaps in the literature to advance the next generation of knowledge development.
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In this paper, we examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive and negative aspects. We seek to provide a working definition of AR and to examine how it can be embedded within situated learning in outdoor settings. We classify it according to key aspects (device/technology, mode of interaction/learning design, type of media, personal or shared experiences, whether the experience is portable or static, and the learning activities/outcomes). We discuss the technical and pedagogical challenges presented by AR, before looking at ways in which it can be used for learning. Finally, the paper looks ahead to AR technologies that may be employed in the future.
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The use of interactivity as a variable in empirical investigations has dramatically increased with the emergence of new communication channels such as the world wide web. Though many scholars have employed the concept in analyses, theoretical and operational definitions are exceedingly scattered and incoherent. Accordingly, the purpose of this project is to engender a detailed explication of interactivity that could bring some consensus to how the concept should be theoretically and operationally defined. Following Chaffee’s (1991) framework for concept explication, we generate new theoretical and operational definitions that may be central to future work in this area. In particular, we suggest that interactivity is both a media and psychological factor that varies across communication technologies, communication contexts, and people’s perceptions.
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The conceptualization of a virtual experience has emerged because advancements in computer technology have led to a movement toward more multisensory online experiences. Two studies designed to explore the concepts of virtual experience and presence are presented, with the results largely supporting the proposition that 3-D advertising is capable of enhancing presence and, to varying degrees, ultimately influencing the product knowledge, brand attitude, and purchase intention of consumers. The marketing implications are immediate because the ability to create a compelling virtual product experience is not beyond the current capability of interactive advertising. By creating compelling on-line virtual experiences, advertisers can potentially enhance the value of product information presented and engage consumers in an active user-controlled product experience.s
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In the past few years virtual worlds have become increasingly popular, often hosting, in addition to gaming and social activities, commercial activities that can potentially not just cater for in-world demand but also go beyond the virtual environment’s boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of users’ simulated experience in a virtual store and to show the subsequent impact of that experience on engagement. The outcome of that engagement was examined in relation to enjoyment and satisfaction, including the role of satisfaction in purchasing the real product. An experimental quantitative approach was followed, testing three models of constructing user experience. Our empirical analysis examined confounding factors of a simulated retail experience and the critical role of that experience, along with hedonic and utilitarian values, in engagement. Engagement and enjoyment were found to positively influence user satisfaction when choosing clothing products and, in turn, user satisfaction was found to positively influence purchasing intention for these products.
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In this paper, we examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit for mobile learning but, to date, little has been done that discusses the phenomenon in detail or that examines its potential for learning, in a balanced fashion that identifies both positive and negative aspects of AR. We seek to provide a working definition of AR and examine how it is embedded within situated learning in outdoor settings. We also attempt to classify AR according to several key aspects (device/technology; mode of interaction; type of media involved; personal or shared experiences; if the experience is portable or static; and the learning activities/outcomes). We discuss the technical and pedagogical challenges presented by AR before looking at ways in which AR can be used for learning. Lastly, the paper looks ahead to what AR technologies may be on the horizon in the near future.
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Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those wanting to start thematic analysis, or conduct it in a more deliberate and rigorous way, and consider potential pitfalls in conducting thematic analysis. Finally, we outline the disadvantages and advantages of thematic analysis. We conclude by advocating thematic analysis as a useful and flexible method for qualitative research in and beyond psychology.
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Mixed Reality (MR) visual displays, a particular subset of Virtual Reality (VR) related technologies, involve the merging of real and virtual worlds somewhere along the 'virtuality continuum' which connects completely real environments to completely virtual ones. Augmented Reality (AR), probably the best known of these, refers to all cases in which the display of an otherwise real environment is augmented by means of virtual (computer graphic) objects. The converse case on the virtuality continuum is therefore Augmented Virtuality (AV). Six classes of hybrid MR display environments are identified. However quite different groupings are possible and this demonstrates the need for an efficient taxonomy, or classification framework, according to which essential differences can be identified. An approximately three-dimensional taxonomy is proposed comprising the following dimensions: extent of world knowledge, reproduction fidelity, and extent of presence metaphor.
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Interactivity is an often mentioned but seldom operationalized concept associated with the World Wide Web. Interactivity has been positioned conceptually as a process, a function, and a perception, but most operational definitions have focused on the process or function. This study develops scales to operationalize the perception-based approach to interactivity, because consumer perceptions are central to advertising research. Three overlapping constructs that are central to interactivity are explored: direction of communication, user control, and time. A multistage method is used to identify and refine measures of perceived interactivity (MPI). The 18 items included in the MPI offer researchers a tool for measuring a consumer perception central to advertising on the Web.
Chapter
This chapter proposes several theoretical formulations with interface features as the cause and user psychology as the effect. Four models specifying distinct psychological mechanisms have governed this effort, producing empirical findings that not only advance the knowledge about media psychology but also inform interaction design. The most important keyword in the discourse of modern media is “interactive.” The starting point of a theory of interactive media effects (TIME) is an affordance offered by the medium of communication. The theoretical formulation of TIME is a combination of four models that have guided much of the author's research. The interactivity effects model, agency model of customization, and the motivational technology model explicate the various mechanisms underlying the action route, whereas the Modality-Agency-Interactivity-Navigability (MAIN) model governs the cue route of TIME. The chapter discusses each of these four models.
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Recent technological advances in interactive marketing allow consumers to use a ‘virtual mirror’ (created with their own digital photo uploaded to a retailer's Web site) to see how products would look on them. The virtual mirror can be used for simulated product experiences in virtual shopping environments (e.g., trying a garment or a pair of sunglasses in an Internet shopping mall). To enhance our understanding of the managerial implications of this new marketing tool, we test whether the images consumers select to construct their ‘virtual mirror’ influence their product evaluations. Psychological theorizing suggests that it is difficult to distinguish one's reaction to the product from one's reaction to the personal image to which the product is applied, giving rise to misattribution effects. Consistent with this assumption, three studies show that consumers evaluate a product more favorably the more they like the image used to construct a virtual mirror (for themselves or for someone they personally know); the variables used to enhance consumers' liking of their virtual mirror include the consumer's own facial expression (Study 1), a visual enhancement of the image (Study 2), and a regular vs. mirror image format (Study 3).
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Theory is the bedrock of many sciences, providing a rigorous method to advance knowledge, through testing and falsifying hypotheses about observable phenomena. To begin with, the nascent field of HCI followed the scientific method borrowing theories from cognitive science to test theories about user performance at the interface. But HCI has emerged as an eclectic interdiscipline rather than a well-defined science. It now covers all aspects of human life, from birth to bereavement, through all manner of computing, from device ecologies to nano-technology. It comes as no surprise that the role of theory in HCI has also greatly expanded from the early days of scientific testing to include other functions such as describing, explaining, critiquing, and as the basis for generating new designs. The book charts the theoretical developments in HCI, both past and present, reflecting on how they have shaped the field. It explores both the rhetoric and the reality: how theories have been conceptualized, what was promised, how they have been used and which has made the most impact in the field -- and the reasons for this. Finally, it looks to the future and asks whether theory will continue to have a role, and, if so, what this might be. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Backdrop to HCI Theory / The Role and Contribution of Theory in HCI / Classical Theories / Modern Theories / Contemporary Theory / Discussion / Summary
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of interactive and social features on users' online experiences and their purchase intention of virtual goods from a social network site. Design/methodology/approach A banner with a hyperlink that connected to the author's web survey was posted on the homepage of Facebook. Of the 258 responses returned, 176 were fully completed. Measurement items were adapted from previous literature. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate the research model and hypotheses testing. Findings The results of an empirical study supported the use of the stimuli‐organism‐response (S‐O‐R) model in a social networking site and showed how environmental features should be incorporated to enhance users' online experiences and purchase intentions. Specifically, social identity showed the strongest influence on involvement and flow. More specifically, affective involvement showed the greatest influence on purchase intention compared to flow and cognitive involvement. Practical implications The relative importance of both interactivity and social identity in platform features in shaping consumers' online experiences should not be ignored. The author suggests online games or apps. Additionally, platform providers should advance social identity features that show a strong positive impact on users' online experiences. Originality/value With the proliferation of online social gaming, there is growing evidence for virtual goods consumption; however, relatively few studies have discussed this phenomenon. This paper draws on hypotheses from environmental psychology; specifically, users' intentions to purchase are modeled on user responses to the online stimuli of a Web platform and the online experience that such an environment elicits.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which presence, media richness, and narrative experiences yield the highest experiential value in augmented-reality interactive technology (ARIT). Design/methodology/approach – A survey is performed to collect data. Valid questionnaires of 344 ARIT users are identified. The hypothesized associations are analyzed using structure equation modeling. Findings – Empirical results indicate that narrative experience induces a higher experiential value than other simulative experiences, including presence and media richness. Practical implications – Results of this study provide a valuable reference for managers attempting to design an ARIT process in order to optimize the experiential value in various online simulation environments. Originality/value – This study adopts an integrated framework that incorporates narrative theory, media richness theory, and presence in the online ARIT. Exactly how narrative experience, media richness, and presence affect the formation of experiential value in the ARIT process is explored as well.
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Using survey data from registered users of the popular virtual world Second Life, this research extends the theory of planned behavior model. In addition to the theory's basic predictors (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control), the extended model includes virtual world brand experience, self-image congruence and perceived diagnosticity to improve the model's predictive power for explaining how virtual world brand experience affects real world purchase intentions and behavior. The study results show that virtual world brand experience has an impact on real world purchasing intentions and behaviors, and this relationship is moderated by self-image congruence and perceived diagnosticity. When a virtual world brand experience is considered to be helpful for evaluation and is consistent with the consumer's self-concept, the experience is found to have a stronger influence on real world purchase intentions and behavior. Overall, the findings indicate that multichannel effects exist between virtual world brand experiences and real world purchasing decisions.
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To investigate the relationship between actual and perceived interactivity, this study combines a content analysis of interactive functions on the Web sites of the top 100 global brands with a survey (n = 715) that measures the perceived interactivity of the same Web sites. The study has three main findings: (1) there is great incongruence between the level of actual and perceived interactivity, (2) adding interactive functions to a Web site does not guarantee a stronger perception of interactivity, and (3) six unique Web site characteristics contribute positively to perceived interactivity. These novel or unexpected characteristics make the Web sites of global brands truly interactive.
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form only given. Cyberspace technology often grants us (or others) control over our self-representations. At the click of a button, one can alter our avatars' appearance and behavior. Indeed, in virtual reality we can often appear to others as ideal in stature and weight, what ever we want in terms of age and gender, and exhibit perfect form while surfing a forty foot wave. Centuries of philosophical discussion and decades of social science research has explored the concept of “the self”, but in the digital age we are encountering identitybending only imagined by science fiction authors. In this talk, I explore a research program that explores what William Gibson referred to as “the infinite plasticity” of digital identity. In particular, I address two research areas. The first, called The Proteus Effect, explores the consequences of choosing avatars whose /appearance/ differs from our own. Over forty years ago, social psychologists demonstrated self perception effects, for example wearing a black uniform causes more aggressive behavior. Similarly, as we choose our avatars online, do our avatars change us in turn? A series of studies explore how putting people in avatars of different attractiveness, height, and age alter not only behavior online but also subsequent actions in the physical world. The second area examines the consequences of choosing avatars whose /behavior/ differs from our own, specifically the phenomenon of seeing oneself in the third person performing an action one has never physically performed. Once a three-dimensional model resembling a specific person has been constructed, that model can be animated to perform any action fathomable to programmers. A series of studies examine how watching one's own self behave in novel manners affects memory, health behavior, and persuasion. I discuss related communication and psychological theories, as well as implications for citizens living in the digital age.
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This research examines the impact of rich media on purchase intentions and willingness to pay in online stores. Via an online experiment, we tested the effects of two rich media presentation formats: product videos and virtual product experience, and compared them with static displays. The results confirm that the rich media displays enhanced the feeling of informedness about the examined products and increased excitement regarding the shopping experience. Virtual product experience had a direct positive effect on consumer purchase intentions, suggesting that virtual product experience-focused tools have the potential to outperform passive videos. Moreover, consumers showed higher willingness to pay values for experience products than for search products when interaction was possible.
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Web site interactivity creates numerous opportunities for marketers to persuade online consumers and receives extensive attention in the marketing literature. However, research on cognitive and behavioral responses to web site interactivity is scarce, and more importantly, it does not provide empirical evidence for how interactivity effects can be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the underlying principle that explains the influence of web site. interactivity on consumers' cognitive, affective and behavioral responses: online flow, the web site users' complete immersion in an online activity (Hoffman and Novak 2009). In two studies, the hypothesis was tested that a visitor's flow experience in a specific brand web site mediates the effects of interactivity on the number and type (web site vs. product related) of thoughts, on attitudes toward the brand and web site, and on several behavioral intentions. The results provide evidence for the importance of flow in a marketing context, and the notion that the flow experienced on a specific web site is the underlying mechanism by which cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral responses to an interactive brand web site can be explained.
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We demonstrate a new platform for holographic interactive 3D experience. New user experience includes holographic 3D visual and audio experience, natural free-space 3D interaction, and augmenting the interface of smaller devices (e.g. smartphones). The head tracking component is compact and non-intrusive to 3D glasses' appearance. Depth sensor based 3D hand and object tracking enables in-the-air dual hand 3D interactions. Hand tracking system and holographic visualization system are calibrated so user can directly interact with the virtual objects. And we created a set of easy and natural free hand interactions so hat the system can have wide range of applications and usable by the general public.
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Recently, it has been proposed that creating compelling experiences in the distinctive consumption environment defined by the Internet depends on facilitating a state of flow. Although it has been established that consumers do, in fact, experience flow while using the Web, consumer researchers do not as yet have a comprehensive understanding of the specific activities during which consumers actually have these experiences. One fruitful focus of research on online consumer experience has been on two distinct categories of consumption behavior—goal directed and experiential consumption behavior. Drawing distinctions between these behaviors for the Web may be particularly important because the experiential process is, for many individuals, as or even more important than the final instrumental result. However, the general and broad nature of flow measurement to date has precluded a precise investigation of flow during goal-directed versus experiential activities. In this article, we explore this issue, investigating whether flow occurs during both experiential and goal-directed activities, if experiential and goal-directed flow states differ in terms of underlying constructs, and what the key characteristics are—based on prior theory—that define “types” of flow experiences reported on the Web. Our approach is to perform a series of quantitative analyses of qualitative descriptions of flow experiences provided by Web users collected in conjunction with the 10th GVU WWW User Survey. In contrast with previous research that suggests flow would be more likely to occur during recreational activities than task-oriented activities, we found more evidence of flow for task-oriented rather than experiential activities, although there is evidence flow occurs under both scenarios. As a final note, we argue that the role that goal-directed and experiential activities may play in facilitating the creation of compelling online environments may also be important in a broader consumer policy context.
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The purpose of this article is to discuss the media effects approach broadly, to point out limitations the traditional approach imposes on the field, and to discuss a “mix of attributes” approach with a focus on the study of “new” technologies for the dissemination of news. It is argued that the mix of attributes approach would better serve to advance both theory and empirical research, not only in the area of new media technologies, but also for more traditional media effects research.
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This study examines the conditions necessary to transform online information search into "play," a highly positive experience capable of delivering intrinsic value in the form of escapism and enjoyment. On the basis of the four-channel model of flow, perceived play is investigated as the consequence of flow versus various nonflow states. Moderated by product involvement, play serves as a link between flow theory and the online consumer attitude formation process.
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In this article, I contrast traditional marketing with a new approach to marketing called Experiential Marketing and provide a strategic framework for Experiential Marketing. Traditional marketing views consumers as rational decision-makers who care about functional features and benefits. In contrast, experiential marketers view consumers as rational and emotional human beings who are concerned with achieving pleasurable experiences. Five different types of experiences, or strategic experiential modules (SEMs), that marketers can create for customers are distinguished: sensory experiences (SENSE); affective experiences (FEEL); creative cognitive experiences (THINK); physical experiences, behaviours and lifestyles (ACT); and social-identity experiences that result from relating to a reference group or culture (RELATE). These experiences are implemented through so-called experience providers (ExPros) such as communications, visual and verbal identity, product presence, electronic media, etc. The ultimate goal of experiential marketing is to create holistic experiences that integrate individual experiences into a holistic Gestalt. The paper concludes with an examination of strategic issues and a discussion about how to create the experience-oriented organization.
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The rapid growth of e-commerce and consumers' increasing use of 3D virtual worlds to make purchases have rendered it important to understand how consumers develop their buying intentions in this novel context. Drawing from literature on modality richness, this study examined the effects of pre-experimental product involvement and the modality of marketing information presentation on consumers' product evaluations, buying intentions, and enjoyment of online shopping. The results of a 2×2 between-subjects experiment indicate significant interaction effects between modality richness and prior involvement. Consumers with low involvement are influenced by modality richness, whereas those with high involvement are not, thus confirming the moderating role of prior involvement for shopping behaviors inside 3D virtual environments. Managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
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The digital interactive transformation in marketing is not unfolding, as some thought it would, on the model of direct marketing. That model anticipated that marketing, empowered by digital media using rich profiling data, would intrude ever more deeply and more precisely into consumer lives than broadcast media had been able to. Instead the transformation is unfolding on a model of consumer empowerment, in which consumers use digital media to communicate with one another and deal with marketing's intrusions, showing none of the passivity displayed by mass media audiences. This paper categorizes five roles for the interactive consumer and draws implications for marketing practice. It concludes that the balance of power over marketplace meaning-making is shifting from marketer to consumer to the extent that media usage migrates from broadcasting to interactivity. The new marketplace rewards more participatory, more sincere, and less directive marketing styles than the old.