ChapterPDF Available

Draft Carpathian Red List of Molluscs (Mollusca)

Authors:
THE STATE NATURE CONSERVANCY
OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC
2014
ISBN 978-80-89310-81-4
CARPATHIAN RED LIST
OF FOREST HABITATS
AND SPECIES
CARPATHIAN LIST OF
INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES
(DRAFT)
This publication was elaborated within BioREGIO Carpathians project supported by South East Europe Programme
and was nanced by a Swiss-Slovak project supported by the Swiss Contribution to the enlarged European Union
and Carpathian Wetlands Initiative.
Slovenská
republika
Program švajčiarsko-slovenskej spolupráce
Swiss-Slovak Cooperation Programme
CARPATHIAN RED LIST OF FOREST HABITATS AND SPECIES CARPATHIAN LIST OF INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES (DRAFT)
obalka_cervene zoznamy.indd 1obalka_cervene zoznamy.indd 1 25.9.2014 21:41:5225.9.2014 21:41:52
CARPATHIAN RED LIST
OF FOREST HABITATS AND SPECIES
CARPATHIAN LIST OF
INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES
(DRAFT)
PUBLISHED BY
THE STATE NATURE CONSERVANCY OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC
2014
© Štátna ochrana prírody Slovenskej republiky, 2014
Editor: Ján Kadlečík
Available from: Štátna ochrana prírody SR
Tajovského 28B
974 01 Banská Bystrica
Slovakia
ISBN 978-80-89310-81-4
This publication was elaborated within BioREGIO Carpathians project supported by South East Europe Programme
and was nanced by a Swiss-Slovak project supported by the Swiss Contribution to the enlarged European Union and
Carpathian Wetlands Initiative.
Slovenská
republika
Program švajčiarsko-slovenskej spolupráce
Swiss-Slovak Cooperation Programme
Table of contents
Draft Red Lists of Threatened Carpathian Habitats and Species
and Carpathian List of Invasive Alien Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Draft Carpathian Red List of Forest Habitats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Red List of Vascular Plants of the Carpathians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Draft Carpathian Red List of Molluscs (Mollusca) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Red List of Spiders (Araneae) of the Carpathian Mts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Draft Red List of Dragon ies (Odonata) of the Carpathians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Red List of Grasshoppers, Bush-crickets and Crickets (Orthoptera)
of the Carpathian Mountains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Draft Red List of Butter ies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) of the Carpathian Mts. . . . . . . . . . 200
Draft Carpathian Red List of Fish and Lamprey Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Draft Carpathian Red List of Threatened Amphibians (Lissamphibia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Draft Carpathian Red List of Threatened Reptiles (Reptilia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Draft Carpathian Red List of Birds (Aves). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Draft Carpathian Red List of Threatened Mammals (Mammalia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Draft List of Invasive Alien Species of the Carpathian Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
5
DRAFT RED LISTS OF THREATENED
CARPATHIAN HABITATS AND SPECIES
AND CARPATHIAN LIST OF INVASIVE
ALIEN SPECIES
Ján Kadlečík (editor)
1. Introduction
The Carpathian Mountains, ranging across seven coun-
tries from the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Ukrai-
ne, Hungary, Romania and the small part of Serbia, are
Europe’s last great natural area with rich biodiversity and
diversi ed landscapes1. They host a unique natural and
cultural diversity, exceptional at the European scale and
are recognized as one of the biodiversity hotspots. On-
going socioeconomic changes and environmental impacts
in uence this sensitive ecological system in the region and
call for further joint action2.
This publication is result of the activities of the Work
Package 3 of the project Integrated management of biological
and landscape diversity for sustainable regional development and
ecological connectivity in the Carpathians3 (“BioREGIO Car-
pathians”) funded from the South East Europe Trans-
national Cooperation Programme. The activitity was lead
during 2011 – 2014 by the State Nature Conservancy of
the Slovak Republic as a partner of the project. The publi-
cation was prepared in cooperation with the other project
Development of nature conservation and protected areas in Slovak
Carpathians funded from the Swiss-Slovak Cooperation
Programe4 and provides rst draft lists of threatened ha-
bitats and species native to the Carpathians and the list of
invasive alien species in the Carpathian region as a basis
for further consultation and nalization for nal appro-
val by the Carpathian Convention bodies and following
activities.
Assessment was made for selected taxonomic groups for
which we expected to have suf cient data to synthesise
and communicate on the conservation status (mammals,
birds, reptiles, amphibians, shes, butter ies, orthopte-
rans, dragon ies, spiders, molluscs and vascular plants),
using IUCN Red List categories and criteria (version 3.1)
(IUCN 2012a). The innovative approach was used when
developing the Red List for habitats for which there are
still only draft guidelines prepared by IUCN. Because of
delays in contracting the specialists for the Red List of
non-forest habitats, in this publication only Red List of
forest habitats is included. The Red List of non-forest
habitats will be available on the relevant web sites of the
projects.
Red Lists are lists of animal and plant species, plant com-
munities, habitats and habitat complexes that are either
collapsed, extinct, have disappeared or are endangered.
The Red List is a tool to inform and catalyse action for bi-
odiversity conservation and policy change, critical to pro-
tecting the natural resources. It provides information on
population size and trends, geographic range and habitat
needs of species5.
For the purposes of regional conservation assessments
there are important reasons to assess species΄ extinction
risk and publish Red Lists within speci c geographical-
ly de ned areas and special guidelines were produced by
IUCN to assist in the application of the IUCN Red List
Categories and Criteria at regional levels (IUCN 2012b).
The Red Lists have many uses in conservation including:
Conservation planning – informing species-based
conservation actions and identifying important sites
for conservation.
Decision-making – in uencing conservation decisi-
ons at multiple scales, from environmental impact as-
sessments to international multilateral environmental
1 http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/black_sea_basin/danube_carpathian/blue_river_green_mtn/
2 http://www.bioregio-carpathians.eu/
3 http://www.bioregio-carpathians.eu/
4 http://www.sopsr.sk/web/?cl=10705
5 http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/our_work/the_iucn_red_list/
6 7
agreements.
Monitoring – indicating the current status of species
and revealing trends in their extinction risk over time,
to track progress towards biodiversity targets6.
To assess current and potential future threats to the bi-
ological diversity, ecosystems, habitats or species of the
Carpathians caused by introduction or release of invasive
alien species (IAS) within the national territory of each
Party and to prevent introduction or realease of IAS or to
harmonize and coordinate measures and common actions
it is necessary rst to identify such species which are likely
to have adverse environmental impacts that could affect
the biological diversity, ecosystems, habitats or species of
the Carpathians. Therefore the rst List of Invasive Alien
Species was elaborated for further consultation and de-
velopment.
This initiative:
makes a contribution to the implementation of provi-
sions of the Carpathian Convention;
makes a contribution to the Global and European
Red Lists by adding Carpathian species and habitats,
and to the European Lists of Invasive Alien Species;
provides the basis for a consolidated Carpathian lists
as a baseline for monitoring the success of future con-
servation action;
is a mechanism for species conservation and manage-
ment of invasive species in the region; and
communicates the best possible consensus informati-
on on habitats and species status to Conventions and
governments to promote conservation action on the
ground.
The initiative tried to mobilize existing knowledge on spe-
cies status which is sometimes dispersed or unpublished,
and to make it available for conservation purposes. Un-
fortunately from different reasons we could not ensure
full participation of all appropriate experts and scientists,
but with support from about 100 specialists from all Car-
pathian countries we received the good basis for further
development of lists of threaned habitats, threatened
species and of invasive alien species in the Carpathian
Mountains.
2. Assessments
2.1 Objectives of the assessment
The objectives of regional assessments can be de ned e.g.
according to FREYHOF & BROOKS (2011):
To contribute to regional conservation planning
through the provision of a baseline dataset describing
the conservation status of the regions species.
To identify those geographic areas and habitats that
need conservation measures to prevent extinctions
and ensure that species reach and maintain a favou-
rable conservation status.
To identify the major threats and propose mitigating
measures and conservation actions to address them.
To strengthen the network of experts focused on
conservation of species in the region, so that the asse-
ssments can be kept up-to-date, and expertise be tar-
geted to address the highest conservation priorities.
To work on hamononized policies and measures aiming
at the prevention of introduction of invasive alien species
(IAS) which are likely to have adverse environmental im-
pacts and to take measures for their controla or eradica-
tion at regional level, it is crucial to identify those species
and assess their potential to affect biological diversity in
the region.
2.2 Background
The Parties to the Framework Convention on the Prote-
ction and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians
(Kyiv, Ukraine; 2003 – the “Carpathian Convention”) ac-
cording to its Article 4 on Conservation and sustainable use
of biological and landscape diversity agreed to pursue policies
aiming at conservation, sustainable use and restoration
of biological and landscape diversity throughout the Car-
pathians. They commited themselves to take appropriate
measures to ensure a high level of protection and sustai-
nable use of natural and semi-natural habitats, their con-
tinuity and connectivity, and species of ora and fauna
being characteristic to the Carpathians, in particular the
protection of endangered species, endemic species and
large carnivores. The Parties shall pursue policies aiming
at the prevention of introduction of alien invasive speci-
es, their control or eradication. Another obligation is to
develop and/or promote compatible monitoring systems,
coordinated regional inventories of species and habitats,
coordinated scienti c research, and their networking.
These provisions are further elaborated in obligatory ar-
ticles of the Protocol on Conservation and Sustainable
Use of Biological and Landscape Diversity to the Carpa-
thian Convention (Bucharest, 2008; the “Protocol”) with
objective to enhance the conservation, restoration and
sustainable use of biological and landscape diversity of
the Carpathians, bringing bene ts to present and future
generations. To achieve these objectives, the Parties shall
harmonise and coordinate their efforts and cooperate on
conservation, maintenance and sustainable use of natural
and semi-natural habitats and conservation and sustaina-
ble use of species of ora and fauna, they should coo-
perate especially on the development, harmonization and
implementation of relevant management plans aimed at
achieving common standards for protection and sustaina-
ble use of habitats and species, prevention of introducti-
on of invasive alien species which might threaten ecosys-
tems, habitats or species native to the Carpathians, their
control or eradication. Another eld is development and/
or promotion of compatible biodiversity indicators and
monitoring systems, of coordinated regional inventories
of species and habitats, development and/or promotion
of coordinated scienti c research programs and projects,
etc.
According to the Article 8 of the Protocol (Conservation,
maintenance, restoration and sustainable use of natural and semi-
natural habitats) and the Article 12 (Conservation of endangered
species including endemic species, and large carnivores of the Carpa-
thians) the Conference of the Parties shall adopt a list of
endangered natural and semi-natural habitat types native
to the Carpathians (Carpathian Red List of Habitats) and
a list of endangered ora and fauna species native to the
Carpathians (Carpathian Red List of Species) based on
internationally recognized principles and criteria.
According to the Article 13 (Prevention of the introduction of
invasive alien species and/or genetically modi ed organisms threa-
tening ecosystems, habitats or species, their control or eradication)
each Party shall pursue policies aiming at the prevention
of introduction or release of invasive alien species (IAS)
which are likely to have adverse environmental impacts
that could affect the biological diversity, ecosystems, habi-
tats or species of the Carpathians, including early warning
on occurrence of new invasive alien species on its territo-
ry. The Parties shall take measures to prevent introduction
or release of IAS and, if need be, control or eradication
of such species.
In the Article 18 (Compatible monitoring and information sys-
tems) the Parties agreed to cooperate to develop a joint
information system on biological and landscape diversity
in the Carpathians and to support coordinated regional
inventories of species and habitats of the Carpathians.
The implementation document for the above mentio-
ned obligations of the Contracting Parties to the Carpa-
thian Convention is the Strategic Action Plan adopted in
20118.
Action 2.1. (The elaboration of the Carpathian Red List of Ha-
bitats) and Action 3.1. (Carpathian Red List of Species elabo-
ration) of the Strategic Action Plan require
Compile and analyse scienti c data, national inven-
tories and maps of natural and semi-natural habitats
and concerning ora and fauna species native to the
Carpathians, in particular endangered species inclu-
ding endemic species and large carnivores, within the
national territory of each Party;
Elaborate the proposal of the Carpathian Red List
of Habitats, including endangered natural and semi-
natural habitat types native to the Carpathians, which
either are in danger of disappearance in their natural
range, or have a small natural range following their
regression or by reason of their intrinsically restricted
area, or present outstanding examples of typical cha-
racteristics of the Carpathian region - to be adopted
by the Conference of the Parties, and revised every
twelve years.
Prepare the proposal of the Carpathian Red List of
Species based on compilation and analysis of scienti-
c data and national inventories concerning endange-
red species, including endemic ora and fauna species
native to the Carpathians, and large carnivores and
following internationally recognized principles and
criteria (e.g. IUCN Red List Criteria) to be adopted
by the Conference of the Parties, and revised every
twelve years.
Action 5.1. asks to develop national policies and/or stra-
tegies targeted at the prevention of introduction or release
of invasive alien species which are likely to have adverse
environmental impacts that could affect the biological di-
versity, ecosystems, habitats or species of the Carpathians
in the national territory; or, if such policies and/or strate-
gies are already in place - evaluate their effectiveness and
implementation up to date.
Action 9.1. requires to cooperate with scienti c and other
relevant institutions on:
a) Elaboration of guidelines on harmonisation of envi-
ronmental monitoring programmes of the Parties in
the Carpathians, in particular those concerning habi-
tats and species native to the Carpathians, with the
objective to ensure data comparability;
b) Preparation of the proposals for common monitoring
programs to be jointly undertaken in the Carpathians
by the Parties, in particular those concerning endan-
gered natural and semi-natural habitat types listed in
the Carpathian Red List of Habitats and listed in the
Carpathian Red List of Species.
Finally Action 9.2. assesses duties to cooperate to deve-
lop a joint information system on the state of biological
and landscape diversity in the Carpathians, based on the
relevant existing Clearing House Mechanisms, including
national results of the public research provided by the
Parties and results of the common scienti c programs
and projects jointly undertaken in the Carpathians by the
Parties, a joint biodiversity information system should be
established.
These were the reasons why the development of the Car-
pathian Red List of threatened habitats and species and
the List of Invasive Alien Species of the Carpathians were
included as important activity to the project “Integrated
management of biological and landscape diversity for sus-
tainable regional development and ecological connectivity
in the Carpathians” (BioREGIO Carpathians).
6 http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/our_work/the_iucn_red_list/
7 http://www.carpathianconvention.org/documents-carpathian-convention.html 8 http://www.carpathianconvention.org/documents-thematic-areas.html
8 9
The activity was coordinated by the Project Partner 9 –
the State Nature Conservancy of the Slovak Republic in
Banská Bystrica and other relevant project partners were
involved (Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Re-
public, Szent István University – Hungary, Environmen-
tal Information Centre UNEP/GRID Warszaw – Poland,
Regional Environmental Protection Agency Sibiu and
Iron Gates Natural Park Administration – Romania, Nati-
onal Forest Centre – Slovakia, Public Enterprise Djerdap
National Park – Serbia and Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
– Ukraine) which engaged about 100 experts working on
threatened habitats, species and invasive alien species of
plants and animals.
There are not many comprehensive regional Red Lists de-
veloped in Europe so far.
IUCN and the European Commission have been working
together on an initiative to assess around 6,000 European
species according to IUCN regional Red Listing Guide-
lines. To date, European regional assessments have been
completed for mammals, reptiles, amphibians, butter ies,
dragon ies, freshwater shes, freshwater and terrestrial
molluscs as well as for selected saproxylic beetles, and va-
scular plant species. Currently there are assessing also pol-
linators (bees and bumblebees), priority medicinal plants
and marine shes and reassessing all birds9.
The Mediterranean Red List is an on-going process that
aims at assessing the conservation sta-
tus of the fauna and ora of the Me-
diterranean region considered also as
a biodiversity hotspot. This initiative
highlights the species that are threa-
tened with extinction at the Mediter-
ranean level (e.g. mammals, reptiles,
amphibians, freshwater and marine
shes, freshwater molluscs, dragon-
ies, and selected groups of vascular
plants) – so that appropriate regional
and local conservation action can be
taken to improve their status10.
Another regional Red Lists exist for
sea basins - Black Sea Red Data Book11
and Baltic Sea Red Lists of biotopes12
and species13 (HELCOM 2013a, b).
All these initiatives have been imple-
mented in speci c long-term projects
with involvement of a number of
specialists and funding from different
sources.
The rst Carpathian List of Endangered Species was
compiled by Z. J. Witkowski, W. Król and W. Solarz (WIT-
KOWSKI et al. eds 2003) and published more than 10 years
ago by the Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative, WWF and
Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of
Sciences. This Red List also covered only part of the Car-
pathians΄ taxonomic groups and compiled information
on red listed taxa and valuable plant alliances in particular
Carpathian countries without assessment expressed clear-
ly in used criteria on regional level.
Ivan Vološčuk (Vološčuk ed. 1996) compiled lists of thre-
atened plants and vertebrates of 17 Carpathian national
parks.
Within limited time, funding, expertise and data available
in the BioREGIO project our ambition was to prepare
at least rst drafts of the Red List of forest habitats and
non-forest habitats, Red List of vascular plants, of Ver-
tebrates and selected groups of Invertebrates, and the
List of Invasive Alien Species for further improvements
and approval by the Carpathian Convention Contracting
Parties.
We understand that there is much to be done and to in-
crease the number of species assessed, improving the
taxonomic coverage and thus providing a stronger base
to enable better conservation and policy decisions in the
Carpathian region. Additional projects for further harmo-
nization of data sets and compiling of lists of threatened
taxa in the Carpathians are necessary.
The collected data will be integrated in the Carpathian
Joint Biodiversity Information System (CJBIS).
2.3 Assessment Methodology
2.3.1 Geographic scope
The boundaries of the Carpathians as used for the pur-
pose of this assessment are shown in
Figure 1. This map was used in previ-
ous projects for development of the
Carpathian Biodiversity Information
System (CBIS)14. This includes bor-
ders of 309 orographic units (in eas-
tern Czech Republic, south-eastern
Poland, most of Slovakia, northern
Hungary, western Ukraine, big part
of Romania and small part of eastern
Serbia), and the organisation of data
collection could be compatible with
previous Carpathian projects.
2.3.2 Habitats/biotopes assessment
The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems
Categories and Criteria (RODRIGUES
et al. 2011) were only proposed in the
time of developing the Carpathian
Red List of habitats. The draft metho-
dology was adapted to the Carpathians to assess the risk
of collapse of the forest and non-forest habitat types, or
whether they are vulnerable, endangered, or critically en-
dangered, assessing losses in area, degradation or other
major changes such as conversion15. The present assess-
ment can be considered as a case study to classify and list
the ecosystems and document their status and so high-
light best practices in ecosystem management.
The proposed IUCN Red List categories for habitats are
similar to those used by the IUCN for the assessment of
species (IUCN 2001). The structure of the categories and
their relation can be found in Fig. 2. The threatened habi-
tats are categorized either as Critically Endangered (CR),
Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU). Habitats that just
fail to meet the criteria of the threatened categories are
classi ed Near Threatened (NT) and ecosystems that
unambiguously meet none of the criteria are Least Con-
cern (LC). Habitats that are in a state of their ecological
optima and are without threat, are classi ed as Ecological-
ly Satisfactory (ES). Analogous to the species categories,
an additional category Data De cient (DD) is given to
biotopes (habitats) for which too few data exist to ap-
ply any criterion. Biotopes (habitats) that have collapsed
throughout their distribution area are categorized Collap-
sed (CO), which corresponds to the category Extinct in
species assessments. For biotopes (habitats), which would
have collapsed only in the region, we allocated category
Regionally Collapsed (RC). Biotopes (habitats) in the ter-
ritory of the Carpathians that have not been evaluated at
all belong to the category Not Evaluated (NE). Biotopes
(habitats), which are not included in the territory of the
Carpathians, are classi ed Not Applicable (NA) (BARAN-
ČOK et al. 2014).
In order to create the Carpathian Red List of threatened
biotopes (habitats) the development of national red lists
of biotopes (habitats) was proposed. The special forms
and database were developed for forest and non-forest
habitats to collect data from all Carpathian countries with
the agreed structure, consistent with the Guidelines for
Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Levels
(IUCN 2003) and categories and criteria proposed for use
in developing a red list of ecosystems by RODRIGUES et
al. (2011).
Biotopes (habitats) in categories CO, RC, CR, EN, VU,
NT, LC, ES and DD were selected as a basis for creati-
on of draft Carpathian Red List. Final categorisation of
the biotopes (habitats) on Carpathian level was done after
common consultations and workshops of expert teams.
2.3.3 Species assessment
The conservation status of the Carpathian species at re-
gional level was assessed using the 2001 IUCN Red List
Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1 (IUCN 2001, 2012a) and
the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at
Regional Levels (IUCN 2003, 2012b).
The structure of IUCN Red List categories at regional
level is the following:
9 http://www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/europe
10 http://www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/mediterranean
11 http://www.grid.unep.ch/bsein/redbook/index.htm
12 http://helcom. /baltic-sea-trends/biodiversity/red-list-of-biotopes-habitats-and-biotope-complexes/
13 http://helcom. /baltic-sea-trends/biodiversity/red-list-of-species
14 www.carpates.org/cbis/orogs.html 15 http://www.iucnredlistofecosystems.org/
Figure 2 Structure of the proposed IUCN Red List categories for non-forest biotopes
(habitats) in the Carpathians by Barančok et al. (unpublished)
Figure 1 Map of the Carpathian eco-region as used in the CBIS.
10 11
In the preparatory phase of the assessment the project
partners were asked to use the most recent version of
the national Red List or to create / update national Red
Lists of Carpathian species using consistent Guidelines
for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional
Levels (IUCN 2003, 2012b).
The idea was to make an overview of all taxa (checklists)
that are categorised in every Carpathian country. National
lists of these taxa from each country were included in the
on-line data forms developed specially for this project in
order to harmonise data collection and assessment proce-
dure and documentation (Fig. 4).
Figure 3. IUCN Red List categories for species at regional level (IUCN 2012b).
Figure 4. Structure of the on-line form for species assessment.
12 13
Figure 5. Example of the data evaluated at national level.
14 15
Evaluation on regional level took into consideration the information of Global Red List16 and of European red lists17 .
16 www.iucnredlist.org
17 www.iucnredlist.org/europe and http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/conservation/species/redlist
18 http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7197 19 http://www.bioregio-carpathians.eu/key-outputs-and-publications.html
Figure 6. The database allows to compare results and to generate maps.
2.3.4 Invasive Alien Species assessment
For compiling the Carpathian List of Invasive Alien Spe-
cies (IAS) were used ora and fauna databases, catalogues
or lists of alien species or lists of IAS already existing in
the project countries.
For alien species or IAS were used de nitions of the Con-
vention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for the purpose of
the CBD Guiding Principles for the Prevention, Introduction and
Mitigation of Impacts of Alien Species that Threaten Ecosystems,
Habitats or Species (annexed to CBD Decision VI/23)18 as
follows:
- alien species: a species, subspecies or lower taxon,
introduced outside its natural past or present distri-
bution, includes any part, gamets, seeds, eggs or pro-
pagules of such species that might survive and subse-
quently reproduce;
- invasive alien species: an alien species whose intro-
duction and/or spread threaten biological diversity;
- introduction: the movement by human agency, indi-
rect or direct, of an alien species outside of its natural
range (past or present). This movement can be either
within a country or between countries or areas beyond
national jurisdiction.
- intentional introduction: the deliberate movement
and/or release by human of an alien species outside
its natural range
- unintentional introduction: all other introductions
which are not intentional
For listing a particular species the assessment of the
species was done and it took into account its taxonomic
identity, time of immigration and invasion status. When
de ning the status of a species in a region/country some
factors were taken into account: origin status (whether the
taxon is native or alien to the region/country), residence
status (when was the taxon introduced and what its posi-
tion is in the invasion process) and invasion status (what is
the degree of its naturalization and possible invasion).
The species were assessed in categories as casual alien speci-
es (not established), naturalized alien species (rare and local),
and invasive alien species (a naturalized species that produ-
ces reproductive offspring, often in very large numbers,
and thus have the potential to spread over a considerable
area19.
To establish the database on IAS the on-line form was
developed, too.
Assessed were vascular plants, vertebrates and some
groups of invertebrates. Species identi ed as invasive in
one of the Carpathian countries were assessed as candi-
dates for the Carpathian List. These were evaluated ac-
cording to criteria as: number of countries/orographical
units and area occupied by the species, impacts on bio-
diversity (or human health and economy), in some cases
invasive potential of the species.
3. Results
The assessments were organized by team leaders focu-
sed on forest habitats (Ivor Rizman), non-forest habi-
tats (Peter Barančok), vascular plants (Peter Turis, Pavol
Eliáš jun.), molluscs (Ľubomíra Vavrová), spiders (Peter
Gajdoš), dragon es (Dušan Šácha), orthopterans (Anton
Krištín), butter ies (Henrik Kalivoda), sh and lamprey
species (Ján Koščo), amphibians, reptiles (Peter Urban),
birds (Peter Puchala) and mammals (Peter Urban), and on
Invasive Alien Species (Ema Gojdičová).
3.1. Number of red listed and of invasive alien spe-
cies
Final versions of the Carpathian Red List and the List of
Invasive Alien Species are the result of a scienti c con-
sensus reached by participating experts. It will be publici-
sed on BioREGIO and Carpathian Convention websites
for following discussion and updating. These are the lists
of Carpathian habitats and taxa classi ed in categories,
described by criteria, data on endemism and listings in
other Conventions (Bern Convention, Bonn Convention)
and EU directives (Habitats Directive, Birds Directive).
Documentation to each categorised species and distribu-
tion maps (mostly on level of orographic units) in the
Carpathians are in the databases. The list of IAS listed the
species identi ed in most of the Carpathian countries as
invasive and causing problems.
16 17
Figure 7. The database helps in compiling statistical data. This report is the rst summary of the draft red lists of
habitats and species and of the black list of invasive alien
species of the Carpathians on which the Carpathian Con-
vention can build.
The overview of the results of assessments of the risk of
collapse/extinction of habitats and species at the regional
(Carpathian) level is in the Table 1.
Forty forest habitat types were classi ed in some of the
categories of threat, while 105 non-forest habitat types
are threatened in the Carpathian region. 21 vascular plant
species already disappeared from the region and 13 speci-
es are probably regionally extinct in the Carpathians. Ad-
ditional about 450 plant species are considered threatened
in the region. In the selected groups of invertebrates are
threatened 37 species of molluscs, 166 species of spiders
(5 regionally extinct), 9 species of dragon ies, 20 species
of orthopterans, 52 species of butter ies (and 2 are regi-
onally extinct). The most threatened group of vertebrates
are birds (27 species and 1 regionally extinct), shes (25
species, 2 regionally extinct), mammals (22 species), for
reptiles were identi ed 7 threatened species and for am-
phibians 6 species.
This information will help to put national conservation
priorities into a Carpathian context, thus maximising the
effectiveness of local and national conservation measu-
res, and facilitating the development of integrated regio-
nal conservation strategies.
As for the invasive alien species in the nal table were
included identi ed vascular plants, molluscs, malacostra-
cans (a group of crustatians), orthopterans, true bugs
(Hemiptera), butter ies, beetles, reptiles and mammals.
IUCN “threatened” categories
Groups assessed CO, EX, (EX?) RC, RE, (RE?) CR (CR(PE)) EN VU
Forest habitats 0 0 13 10 17
Non-forest habitats 0 0 10 26 69
Vascular plants (1) 20 (13) 95 (3) 135 219
Mollusca 001630
Araneae 0 5 8 44 114
Odonata 00045
Orthoptera 0001010
Lepidoptera 0202527
Petromyzontes, Osteichthyes 022716
Amphibia 00006
Reptilia 00133
Aves 015148
Mammalia 102317
Legend: CO = Collapsed (for habitats); EX = Extinct; EX? = probably extinct (for species); RC = Regionally Collapsed; RE = Re-
gionally Extinct; RE? = probably regionally extinct; CR = Critically Endangered; CR(PE) = Critically Endangered (possibly extinct);
EN = Endangered; VU = Vulnerable
Table 1: Threatened categories of habitats and species assessed in the Carpathians
Table 2: Invasive alien plant and animal species in the Carpathians
Groups assessed
Vascular plants
Mollusca
Malacostraca
Orthoptera
Hemiptera
Lepidoptera
Coleoptera
Osteichthyes
Reptilia
Mammalia
Number of
species 37 11 1 1 2 6 4 10 1 4
The list of invasive alien species includes 77 taxa (37 plant
species and 40 animal species). From plant species, 32 are
herbs and 5 woody plants. Majority of animal species are
Invertebrates, 14 arthropods and 11 molluscs are listed.
The most numerous group of invasive Vertebrates are
shes (with 10 species on the list).
3.2 Major threats identi ed in the different assess-
ments
Some species and habitat types have naturally restricted
range and they occur in low densities with limited dis-
persal and these are especially sensitive to any change in
the habitat structure or in the surrounding areas. Other
species or habitats are relatively well distributed but are
facing increasing pressure. Main threats to species in the
Carpathians are:
Habitat loss, degradation, destruction, fragmentation
or alteration
deforestation, intensive logging, decreasing of
area of virgin and old-growth forests, removal of
dead wood from forests;
– afforestation of non-forest areas, e.g. dry rocky
habitats, wet grasslands, changes in land use, ag-
riculture intensi cation, overgrazing on one hand
and land abandonment on the other, decline in
traditional farming and management, grass cutting
and grazing and following succession leading to
overgrowing by shrubs and trees, etc.;
– forest res;
– changes in character of water bodies and sedi-
ments, water regime mismanagement, loss of tem-
porary freshwater habitats, e. g. seasonal ponds
and other wetlands, water abstraction building of
migration barriers, fragmentation of rivers, dam,
hydropower construction;
– water pollution;
degradation of wetlands generally, or some speci-
c habitats, e.g. springs, peat excavation;
– intensive sh farming;
human settlement expansion, infrastructure deve-
lopment;
climate change and resulting habitat changes
Human disturbance – tourism, rock climbing, para-
gliding, winter sports and infrastructure (roads, hotels
etc.);
• Air pollution;
Use of pesticides, especially insecticides and other
chemicals, pest control;
For many vertebrates road mortality, hunting, animal
crime – poaching, illegal shooting, poisoning, delibera-
te persecution; for birds collisions with electric lines;
Introduction and expansion of alien species.
18 19
4. Recommendations and conclusions and future
challenges
The Red Lists of Carpathian habitats and species are im-
portant source of information on the current status of
habitat types and populations of threatened species in the
region. The list could be an essential guide to conservati-
on efforts focused on threatened habitats and species. As
several times mentioned above the present lists are drafts
based on recently available data and knowledge that are in
many cases not suf cient for objective assessment. Future
research should be focused on collecting data necessary
for the habitats and species classi cation according to the
IUCN Red List Criteria. It is important to regularly mo-
nitor the ecosystems, species, their population size and
trends as well as quality of their habitats. Priority should
be given to habitats and species classi ed as threatened
(category CR, EN and VU) and those of the European
and national importance.
The special consideration should be given to alien species
identi ed as invasive and causing biodiversity, health, eco-
nomic or other dif culties and impacts.
The presented lists can be very useful guide for common
action of all Carpathian countries and for developing
of thematically focused strategies on Carpathian level.
It would also help to monitor conservation actions and
their results.
These assessments are now submitted for review, especi-
ally by specialists (e.g. members of IUCN SSC Specialist
Groups) and experts with suf cient overview and infor-
mation on Carpathian-wide or European situation of the
groups or species concerned, with the hope that national
supporting information can be improved any time in the
project database, but the wider regional knowledge is ap-
plied. Updating on species distribution, population size
and trend and threats are activities we should focus on.
Revision of the compiled red lists and the list of invasive
alien species is expected to be done every twelve years20,
however for some groups it may be too long period when
these are under stronger pressure, or are spreading dra-
matically and would require more frequent review. Du-
ring the BioREGIO project it was possible to elaborate
red lists only for the limited number of animal groups
and it is necessary to continue in this work in follow-up
projects (at least for other relatively well-studied groups).
It is strongly recommended to involve from the very be-
ginning relevant data holders (scienti c institutions and
experts) with scienti c approach and good motivation for
the most comprehensive results and using of the as com-
plete data as possible.
During elaboration of red lists there was identi ed neces-
sity for further work on endemic species. Endemism was
one of the attributes considered in assessing the conser-
vation status of Carpathian taxa and compiling the nal
tables of threatened species. However there is not harmo-
nized approach to and understanding of the endemics in
the Carpathian countries and the approaches vary much
in the region. So far there is not elaborated comprehen-
sive study on the Carpathian-wide endemic taxa, howe-
ver compiling and analysis of data concerning endemic
species is included as one of the actions (Action 3.1.) of
the Strategic Action Plan for the Implementation of the
Biodiversity Protocol to the Carpathian Convention.
Increasing recognition of the impact of invasive alien
species will lead to developing the indicators of biological
invasions (EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY 2012). This
case study can help in the development of reliable indi-
cators based on the impact of IAS and in common inter-
pretation of invasiveness and methodological approaches
and nally in prioritisation of actions in the Carpathians.
4.1 Prioritizing of efforts for assessing and reasses-
sing species taxonomic groups and habitat types
Carrying out Red List assessments for all species within
taxonomic groups that contain many species requires con-
siderable effort and resources. In the near future however
there will be necessary to mobilise funds not only for fur-
ther rst assessments for other taxonomic groups chara-
cteristic for the Carpathians, but also for reassessments
of the submitted groups of species and habitats and this
means that this should be the permanent part of the work
plan of the Carpathian Convention, but also of its parties.
This is vital for using the IUCN Red List as an indicator
of biodiversity trends over time. So it is important to de-
sign the assessment and reassessment programmes within
the Carpathian Convention to be sustainable and cost-ef-
fective. To achieve this it will be necessary to establish the
permanent working group (sub-group) on Carpathian Red
Lists (and on Invasive Alien Species) and to include in the
biodiversity strategy and work plan request to continue in
assessing published literature (scienti c and popular) and
unpublished reports on Carpathian habitats and species,
to involve key experts (e.g. through workshops, by email,
and/or open-access web-based discussion fora) in these
processes, analysing monitoring datasets to determine
population trends, assessing remote-sensing data to de-
termine rates of habitat loss, promoting, advocating, sup-
porting and or/funding eldwork to gather new relevant
data on threatened habitats, species, but also on invasive
alien species.
Acknowledgments
We would like to thank all experts who provided data on
habitats and species in their countries, commented the
lists or organized work of specialists (their names are in-
20 Action 3.1.d) of the Strategic Action Plan for the Implementation of the Protocol on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological and Landscape
Diversity to the Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians
cluded in respective articles of this publication), to habi-
tats and taxonomic groups team leaders for compiling the
lists which you can nd in the following parts and to my
colleagues from the Slovak State Nature Conservancy for
their technical and organisation help and support, namely
Alexander Kürthy and Tereza Thompson.
References
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MBRANO-MARTÍNEZ, S. (2012). Updated IUCN Red List
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to the IUCN Red List criteria for ecosystems and their
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20 21
DRAFT CARPATHIAN RED LIST
OF FOREST HABITATS
Compiled by Ivor Rizman
Contributors to the compiling of the Red List: Réka Aszalos (Hungary), Wojciech Mróz, Monika
Szewczyk (Poland), Iovu Biris (Romania), Ivor Rizman, Ľudovít Vaško (Slovakia), Dejan Bakovic
(Serbia), Myroslav Kabal, Mykola Voloshchuk (Ukraine)
Methodology for compiling the Carpathian Forest
Habitats “Red List”
To establish the Red List of Forest Habitats we adopted
proposed methodology of IUCN and published by RO-
DRIGUEZ et al. (2011) (Table 1). For considering only Car-
pathians level on Criterion D we lower the world limits
proportionally. For non-endemic habitats we lower the li-
mits twice and for endemic ones we use the limits from the
proposed Rodriguez limits. Criterion C we did not use.
For Criterion A Short-term decline (in distribution or
ecological function) were used only estimations and data
of country experts, because no real data exist in these
countries. The Natura 2000 habitat mapping and moni-
toring is only starting in these years and the local (mostly
short time) studies are not fully usable for country level
estimation.
For Criterion B Historical decline (in distribution or eco-
logical function) we collected data for current distribution
of all EUNIS habitat types occurred in the countries and
for historical data we used the country maps of potential
vegetation. We are aware that this is not the same as the
habitats distribution 500 years ago, but it considers the
overall decline, through human in uence. Especially in
the Carpathians, where mostly forest communities would
potentially occurred, this approach is good for conside-
ring total historical decline.
For sub-criteria which deal with a reduction or likely redu-
ction of ecological function we collected the data about
current status of forest habitats. Under status A (the best
status of habitat) we consider virgin forests and old grow-
th forests. In some types there are no residues of such
types of forests at all. This fact re ects strong reduction
of ecological function. In some types, experts also consi-
dered the fact of forest health status (Picea forests, Pinus
forest etc.) Experts also consider spreading of invasive
and alien species in oodplain forests.
For collecting data about threats we used the list of thre-
ats of Natura 2000 Standard Data Form.
Not all countries provided the data into database. There
are missing data for the Czech Republic at all, and from
some countries we have only partial data without distribu-
tion. But for establishing the preliminary list we consider
the collected data as suf cient (the full data-sets from Ro-
mania, Hungary, and Slovakia, partly from Poland, Ukra-
ine and Serbia).
The collected list of forest EUNIS habitats (communi-
ties) was merged to appropriate upper level of EUNIS
catalogue. So similar units where merged into one unit
when it was possible, and lower units were included into
the same IUCN status category.
Weaknesses of this Red List (methodological approaches
and results):
The data about all distribution (past, current future) are
only experts opinions, in most countries there was no
real vegetation mapping. The monitoring of habitats only
started in some countries and there are no exact data
about short time decline and about the decline in func-
tion at all.
Our approach mostly considers the data about total his-
torical decline.
We did not consider the fact that some habitats are (strict-
ly) protected by law currently and included into some ca-
tegory of protected areas.
We also did not consider that some forest habitats are
protected against human in uence, because they are in-
cluded into protective forest category and also the fact
that forest cover and status is regulated and “protected”
also by forestry law.
The list should be considered as very preliminary Red
List, which should be commented and revised according
to new data and adapted list of limits and criteria and sub
criteria. The list was created with respect of precautionary
principle of the Carpathians Convention.
Collected data from countries can be found in the da-
tabase and after two expert meetings in Banska Bystrica
merged and evaluated data were lled in also for the Car-
pathian level in this structure:
1. Potential area of distribution in hectares according to
maps of potential vegetation for forest habitats (allian-
ces) or estimated area of distribution 500 years ago.
2. Estimated area 50 years ago
Criterion Sub-criterion - Statusb
A: Short-term decline
(in distribution or ecological
function) on the basis of
any sub-criterion
1. observed, estimated, inferred or suspected decline in distribution of
80% - CR,
50% - EN, or
30% - VU
over the last 50 years.
2. projected or suspected decline in distribution of
80% - CR,
50% - EN, or
30% - VU
within the next 50 years.
3. observed, estimated, inferred, projected, or suspected decline in distribu-
tion of
80% - CR,
50% - EN, or
30% - VU
over any 50-year period, where the period must include both the past and the fu-
ture
4. relative to a reference state appropriate to the ecosystem, a reduction or
likely reduction of ecological function that is
(a) very severe, in at least one major ecological process, throughout 80% of its
extant distribution within the last or next 50 years - CR;
(b1) very severe, throughout 50% of its distribution within the last or next 50
years - EN
(b2) severe, in at least one major ecological process, throughout 80% of its distri-
bution within the last or next 50 years - EN;
(c1) very severe, in at least one major ecological process, throughout 30% of its
distribution within the last or next 50 years - VU
(c2) severe, in at least one major ecological process, throughout 50% of its distri-
bution within the last or next 50 years - VU
(c3) moderately severe, in at least one major ecological process throughout 80%
of its distribution within the last or next 50 years - VU
B: Historical decline (in
distribution or ecological
function) on the basis of
either sub-criterion 1 or 2
1. estimated, inferred, or suspected decline in distribution of
90% - CR,
70% - EN, or
50% - VU
in the last 500 years
2. relative to a reference state appropriate to the ecosystem, a very severe
reduction in at least one major ecological function over
90% - CR,
70% - EN, or
50% - VU
of its distribution in the last 500 years.
C: Small current distribution
and decline (in distribution
or ecological function) or
very few locations on the
basis of either sub-criterion
1 or 2
1. extent of occurrencec estimated to be
100 km2 - CR,
5,000 km2 - EN, or
20,000 km2 - VU
and at least one of the following:
(a) observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected continuing decline in distribution,
(b) observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected severe reduction in at least one major
ecological process,
(c) ecosystem exists at only one location - CR,
5 or fewer locations - EN, or
10 or fewer locations - VU
or
Table 1: Used Criteria and Sub-criteria for Red List Status a (RODRIGUEZ et al. 2011)
22 23
2. area of occupancyc estimated to be
10 km2 - CR,
500 km2 - EN, or
2000 km2 - VU
and at least one of the following:
(a) observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected continuing decline in distribution,
(b) observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected severe reduction in at least one major
ecological process,
(c) ecosystem exists at only one location - CR,
5 or fewer locations - EN, or
10 or fewer locations - VU
D: Very small current
distribution
5 km2 - CR,
50 km2 - EN, or
100 km2 - VU,
and serious plausible threats, but not necessarily evidence of past or current decline
in area or function.
a) Based on the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2001) and other systems proposed to date (Nicholson et al. 2009).
b) Abbreviations: CR, critically endangered; EN, endangered; VU, vulnerable.
c) See IUCN (2001, 2010b) for guidelines on measuring extent of occurrence and area of occupancy.
[Correction added after publication 5 November 2010: Errors in the second column of Criterion D were amended.]
3. Estimated area 10 years ago
4. Current area
5. Status A – area (in forest the area of primeval (virgin)
forest)
6. Estimated trend in the next 10 years
- Trend negative
-- accelerated negative within the last 10 years
+/- Trend largely stable
+ Trend positive
++ accelerated positive in the next 10 years
? Trend cannot be determined
7. Estimated trend in the next 10 years
8. Evaluating of regenerability
N - Not regenerable
M - Minimal regenerability (> 150 years)
V - Very limited regenerability (15-150 years)
L - Limited regenerability (up to 15 years)
X - Ranking not meaningful
9. Endemic Alliance in the Carpathians
Y - yes
N - no
10. Negative Threats to the area or status – maybe possi-
ble to ll more than one but according to some possi-
ble (prepared) values
11. Proposed IUCN Category in the Country (not for
Orographic unit)
12. Used sub criterion by Rodriguez
13. Name of the national expert
Carpathian Endangered Forest Habitats
G1.1112 - Eastern European poplar-willow forests
Red List Status: CR
Criterion: B1 90, B2 90 %, A3 50 %, A2 50 %,
A4a, D 2500 ha
Arborescent galleries of tall Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix
x rubens, Populus nigra and sometimes Populus alba, lining
lowland, hill or submontane rivers of nemoral and boreo-
nemoral Eastern Europe and of eastern and southeastern
Central Europe, including eastern Germany, the Baltic
States, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, the nemoral
parts of Danubian and Balkan states, nemoral Belarus,
the Ukraine and Russia, east to Bashkiria.
Geographical distribution in the Carpathians
Endemic habitat: no
Current area (PL, RO, SK): 900 ha
Primeval virgin forest: 0 ha
Assessment rationale and causes of endangerment
The few remaining semi-natural oodplain forests, parti-
cularly in complex with natural accompanying vegetation,
are very endangered and worthy of protection.
Estimated trend in the next 10 years: - Trend negative
The main threats are direct devastation of the alluvial ve-
getation during any works connected with river bed re-
gulation, ood prevention, dams and roads construction,
drainage, expansion of invasive alien species and non-na-
tive tree species, wood plantations.
Required measures for protection and restitution
Cease cultivation, safeguard the water balance; protection
of semi-natural stands.
G1.1141 - Pannonic willow and poplar-willow galle-
ries
Red List Status: EN
Criterion: B1 70%, D 2500 ha
Riverine willow-poplar woodlands: Growing on the lower
parts of oodplains, these hygrophilous, Salix and Populus
dominated forests presently still get regular ooding.
Geographical distribution in the Carpathians
Endemic habitat: no
Current area (HU, RO): 1160 ha
Primeval virgin forest: 0 ha
Assessment rationale and causes of endangerment
The few remaining semi-natural oodplain forests, parti-
cularly in complex with natural accompanying vegetation,
are greatly endangered and worthy of protection.
The main threats are drainage, invasive alien species, wood
plantations, spreading of non-native tree species.
Required measures for protection and restitution
Cease cultivation, safeguard the water balance; protection
of semi-natural stands.
G1.1213 - Hercynio-Carpathian grey alder galleries
Red List Status: EN
Criterion: B1 70%, B2 70%,
Alnus incana galleries of the montane rivers of the western
and northern Carpathians and of the Hercynian ranges
of the Bohemian Quadrangle.
Geographical distribution in the Carpathians
Endemic habitat: no
Current area (PL, SK): 5844 ha
Primeval virgin forest: 0 ha
Assessment rationale and causes of endangerment
Natural and semi-natural remnants of grey alder forests
only rarely occur and are severely endangered.
Causes of endangerment are clearing, spruce plantation,
grazing, infrastructure development (dams, roads...), stre-
am regulations.
Required measures for protection and restitution
Maintaining the natural tree species composition and wa-
ter regime of the area. Selection and total protection of
semi-natural typical remnants.
G1.1214 – Eastern Carpathian grey alder galleries
Red List Status: EN
Criterion: B1 70, B250%, Dendemic 5000 ha
Alnus incana galleries along the upper reaches of Eastern
Carpathian valleys, with regional species Telekia speciosa,
Petasites kablikianus, Symphytum cordatum, Pulmonaria rubra,
Leucanthemum waldsteinii, which replace the pioneer willow
scrubs of the Salici purpureae-Myricarietum.
Geographical distribution in the Carpathians
Endemic habitat: yes
Current area (RO): 600 ha
Primeval virgin forest: 0 ha
Assessment rationale and causes of endangerment
Natural and semi-natural remnants of grey alder forests
only rarely occur and are severely endangered.
Causes of endangerment are clearing, spruce plantation,
24 25
grazing, infrastructure development (dams, roads...), stre-
am regulations.
Required measures for protection and restitution
Maintaining the natural tree species composition and wa-
ter regime of the area. Selection and total protection of
semi-natural typical remnants.
G1.21 – Riverine Fraxinus – Alnus woodland, wet at
high but not at low water
Red List Status: EN
Criterion: B170%, B270%
Riparian forests of Fraxinus excelsior and Alnus glutinosa,
sometimes Alnus incana, of middle European and nor-
thern Iberian lowland or hill watercourses, on soils pe-
riodically inundated by the annual rise of the river level,
but otherwise well-drained and aerated during low-water;
they differ from riparian alder woods within units G1.41
and G1.52 by the strong representation in the dominated
layers of forest species not able to grow in permanently
waterlogged soils.
Taxonomic note
Habitat includes the following sub-units:
G1.211: [Fraxinus] – [Alnus] woods of rivulets
and springs
G1.2111: Sedge ash-alder woods
G1.2112: Fontinal ash-alder woods
G1.2113: Cabbage thistle ash-alder woods<