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Objectives: The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of fear of public speaking among college students and to assess its association with sociodemographic variables and those related to the voice and oral communication. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study was conducted with 1135 undergraduates aged 17-58 years. The assessment instruments were (1) a questionnaire addressing the variables sex, age, field of undergraduate study, voice, and frequency of exposure to public speaking, and (2) the Self-statements During Public Speaking Scale (SSPS), which includes variables implicated in specific domains of public speaking. A descriptive analysis was performed of the variables as well as uni- and multivariate logistic regressions to examine their association with fear of public speaking. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: In all, 63.9% of the college students reported fear of public speaking. As many as 89.3% of the students would like their undergraduate program to include classes to improve public speaking. Being female, having infrequent participation as speakers in groups, and perceiving their voice as high-pitched or too soft increase the odds of exhibiting fear of public speaking compared with students without those features. Conclusion: A great number of undergraduates report fear of public speaking. This fear is more prevalent among women, students who participate in few activities involving speaking to groups of people, and those who have a self-perception of their voice as high-pitched or too soft.
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Fear of Public Speaking: Perception of College Students
and Correlates
Anna Carolina Ferreira Marinho, Adriane Mesquita de Medeiros, Ana Cristina Côrtes Gama, and
Letícia Caldas Teixeira, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Summary: Objectives. The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of fear of public speaking among
college students and to assess its association with sociodemographic variables and those related to the voice and oral
Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study was conducted with 1135 undergraduates aged 17–58 years.
The assessment instruments were (1) a questionnaire addressing the variables sex, age, field of undergraduate study,
voice, and frequency of exposure to public speaking, and (2) the Self-statements During Public Speaking Scale (SSPS),
which includes variables implicated in specific domains of public speaking. A descriptive analysis was performed of
the variables as well as uni- and multivariate logistic regressions to examine their association with fear of public speak-
ing. The level of significance was set at 5%.
Results. In all, 63.9% of the college students reported fear of public speaking. As many as 89.3% of the students
would like their undergraduate program to include classes to improve public speaking. Being female, having infre-
quent participation as speakers in groups, and perceiving their voice as high-pitched or too soft increase the odds of
exhibiting fear of public speaking compared with students without those features.
Conclusion. A great number of undergraduates report fear of public speaking. This fear is more prevalent among
women, students who participate in few activities involving speaking to groups of people, and those who have a self-
perception of their voice as high-pitched or too soft.
Key Words: Speech-language pathology–Voice–Students–Speech–Fear.
Public speaking is an act specific to oral communication that com-
bines physiological, linguistic, psychological, and cultural factors.1
Public-speaking competence is one of the determinants of pro-
fessional success,2a strategic skill to gain a competitive edge,
credibility, and a positive reputation.3
Thus, the communication exceeds the function of conveying
information. The voice, the rhythm, and the expressiveness of
the speech are valued when it comes to persuading the people.4,5
However, one of the barriers to the communication process
is fear of public speaking—a type of anxiety prevalent in the
general Brazilian population6as well as in other countries.7–13
Fear of speaking leads to communication impairments with
an impact on the individual’s personal, social, and emotional
life.5,14 The causes include lack of speaking practice, insuffi-
cient command of the topic, and/or a negative self-image.12,13
Among the sciences that study the subject, speech-language
pathology assists individuals in building their communication
skills and controlling their public-speaking anxiety.5,8,13,15 However,
if the fear of speaking becomes uncontrollable, psychological
or psychiatric treatment is warranted.4,10,16
Focusing on how college students cope with their fear of speak-
ing reveals that the context is even more challenging. Every year,
millions of students are admitted to university. Their entry is
marked by new challenges and the promise of a profession.
Throughout their preparation years, undergraduates will be
tackling tasks demanding intellectual achievement as well as
public-speaking skills. In view of this, we wonder how stu-
dents are facing this situation and how they are being prepared
for the coming challenge of being judged by their competence
distinguished based on their skills— including that of commu-
nicating proficiently.
We believe that an investigation of fear of public speaking
among college students will raise the interest of the academic
community in the importance of building public-speaking skills
and assist in planning and enhancing programs and/or speech-
language pathology consulting initiatives to that end.15
Accordingly, the aims of the present research study were to
determine the prevalence of fear of public speaking among college
students and to assess its association with sociodemographic vari-
ables and those related to the voice and oral communication.
The present work, a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study,
was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under Tech-
nical Opinion No. 860.425.
In all, 1135 undergraduate students of an institution of higher
education responded to a questionnaire concerning fear of public
speaking. Of these, 765 were women and 360 men, with a ma-
jority of females (67.4%). Ages ranged from 17 to 58 years (mean,
23.2 years). The study was composed of 70 undergraduate pro-
grams of the university, with 34.3% of the college students
enrolled in health sciences programs, 35.3% in humanities, 26.4%
in exact sciences, and 4% in fine arts.
Accepted for publication December 21, 2015.
From the Department Speech-language Pathology and Audiology, Universidade Federal
de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Anna Carolina Ferreira Marinho,
Department Speech-language Pathology and Audiology, Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais (UFMG), Av. ProfessorAlfredo Balena, 190, Belo Horizonte, MG 30130-100, Brazil.
Journal of Voice, Vol. ■■, No. ■■, pp. ■■-■■
© 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Assessment instrument
The research questionnaire was a dedicated self-report instru-
ment developed by the investigators. It consists of two parts. The
first comprises 12 questions concerning the student’s age, sex,
presence/absence of stuttering, field of undergraduate study, self-
perception of voice, influence of voice on fear of public speaking,
participation in activities requiring public speaking, and level
of interest in speech-language training for speaking in public.
All those questions elicited “yes” or “no” answers. For the item
addressing the student’s self-perception of the voice, they should
select how they rated their voices among the following choices:
adequate, hoarse, high-pitched, soft, deep, or nasal. The self-
rated voice was considered positive when the participants regarded
it as adequate, and negative when another description was chosen.
The terms used were easily identified by the general public. The
second part consisted of the Self-statements During Public Speak-
ing Scale (SSPS),12 a self-report measure adapted for Brazilian
Portuguese.11 This protocol relies on the cognitive theories pos-
tulating that social anxiety is the result of one’s negative
perception of oneself and of others regarding one. The scale in-
cludes 10 questions and 2 subscales: one of positive self-
statements (items 1, 3, 5, 6, and 9) and the other of negative
self-statements (items 2, 4, 7, 8, and 10) based on a scale of 0
(totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree) points. The maximum total
score is 50 points, obtained by the summation of the 10 items
of the measure, considering that the scoring of the negative
subscale should be reversed as proposed by the Brazilian group.12
Thus, the closer a score is to 50, the greater the positive eval-
uation and the less negative; conversely, the lower the total score,
the more negative the student self-rates in the public-speaking
situation. According to the mean data of the validation study,11
the values obtained for college students were 22 for the total score,
17.32 for the positive scale, and 5.08 for the negative scale.
The questionnaire and the informed consent form were sent
online, only once, to the students on the undergraduate campus
of the university using the SurveyMonkey software. The data were
gathered during 4 months. The inclusion criteria were: to be an
undergraduate student enrolled in the institution of higher ed-
ucation in the field of arts, exact sciences, humanities, or health,
regardless of ethnicity, sex, or age. Students were excluded from
the study if they self-reported stuttering or failed to complete
the assessment measures. A pilot study was previously admin-
istered to 10 volunteers to verify the correct understanding of
the instrument. All the questions were deemed applicable because
the volunteers had no difficulty answering the questionnaire. The
participants spent 5 minutes on average to answer the questions.
Data analysis
The data were stored on a digital database and were subse-
quently analyzed. The response variable was fear of public
speaking and the explanatory variables were sex, age, field of
undergraduate study, influence of voice on fear of speaking, self-
perception of voice, and participation in activities involving
speaking to an audience. The statistical analysis was done based
on the description of the self-perceived voice features and the
interest in speech-language lessons for public-speaking improve-
ment. The analysis of variance test was used to compare the scores
of the protocol SSPS in relation to the students’ sex. The anal-
ysis of the correlates of fear of public speaking considering other
variables was done using Pearson chi-squared test. The vari-
ables with statistically significant associations (P0.05) were
included in the multivariate logistic regression model. The mag-
nitude of association for each variable taken separately with the
response variable was assessed through odds ratios. The vari-
ables that sustained an association were retained in the final model.
The level of statistical significance was set at 5% across tests.
The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20, and
the STATA, version 12.0 (Intercooled, Stata Corporation, Texas,
USA) software were used for the analyses.
As many as 63.9% of the undergraduates reported fear of public
speaking. Table 1 shows a statistically significant association
between the fear of public speaking to the variables: female
gender, negative vocal self-perception, no influence of voice in
fear and little participation in public-speaking activities. The
groups with and without fear of public speaking did not differ
in age and field of study.
Regarding the association between sex and SSPS scores, it
was found that women had more negative self-statements than
men (Table 2).
The descriptive analysis of the students’ perception of their
own voice and of their interest in the inclusion of speech-
language training in the curriculum is shown in Table 3. Negative
self-perceptions of the voice were more frequent for high-
pitched and soft voice features (Table 3). Of the college students,
89.3% would like their undergraduate program to include classes
for improvement of their public-speaking skills.
All the variables revealing an association in the bivariate anal-
ysis were retained in the final multivariate model (Table 4). Being
a female and perceiving that the voice influenced public-
speaking fear nearly doubled the likelihood of reporting fear of
public speaking when compared with being a male and not ac-
knowledging the influence of the voice, respectively. Negative
self-perceptions of the voice increased by 53% the odds of a
student reporting public speaking fear compared to those who
perceived their voice as adequate. As expected, the association
of fear of speaking in public with scarce participation in activi-
ties of public speaking was strong.
A great number of college students reported fear of public speak-
ing. In the corporate world, oral communication is a critical tool
for professional survival. Large companies value it and welcome
job applicants who, among other skills, are capable of speak-
ing competently in public.4,17 Public speaking is considered an
anxiety-generating factor that leads to fear and has a negative
impact on personal and academic achievement.6,16,18,19
In the United States population, speaking in public is con-
sidered one of the most fear-generating activities.7–9 This is no
different among Brazilians: a study showed that fear of public
speaking afflicted 32% of the population of the largest Brazil-
ian capital.6In the present study, the majority of the sample
2Journal of Voice, Vol. ■■, No. ■■, 2016
(63.9%) experienced fear of public speaking—a greater per-
centage than that found in the aforementioned study.
Percentually, fear of speaking to an audience was more prev-
alent among females, as noted in other studies.6,20 Some studies
note that fear of public speaking is independent of sex, ethnic-
ity, and age; yet in some cases, it has been more associated with
females.20–22 There was no significant association of the vari-
ables age and field of undergraduate study with public-speaking
fear. We believe that fear of speaking afflicts individuals regard-
less of their age or profession. According to the literature,
accumulated experience and enhanced ability to deal with public-
speaking situations can minimize negative impacts on
Current studies on voice have increasingly encouraged taking
into account the subjects’ self-rating of their voice.23–28 In our
study, we found that most students do not relate their voice quality
to fear of public speaking; nevertheless, the data analysis showed
an association between students with negative self-perceptions
of their voice and public-speaking fear. The predominant neg-
ative terms used by the undergraduates to refer to their self-
perceived voice were: high-pitched and soft. The literature
indicates that limited loudness—ie, lack of voice volume—
suggests insecurity, fear, and introversion when speaking.29,30 If
the voice is too high, this could imply that the speaker is child-
ish or frail,30 in addition to somewhat immature psychologically,
which could contribute to an impression of naïvety produced on
Association of Fear of Public Speaking with the Variables Sex, Age, Field of Study, Influence of Voice, Self-perception of
Voice, and Participation in Activities Involving Public Speaking (n = 1135)
Fear of Public Speaking
No Yes
Male 171 41.6 199 27.5
Female 240 58.4 525 72.5 <0.001*
Age (years)
17–21 176 42.8 331 45.7
22–26 168 40.9 283 39.1
27–31 32 7.8 61 8.4 0.255
32–58 35 8.5 49 6.8
Field of study
Health 243 44.4 142 34.0
Exact sciences 188 29.6 114 26.7 0.702
Humanities 261 23.2 139 35.2
Arts 32 2.8 14 4.1
Influence of voice on fear of speaking
No 327 79.6 464 64.1
Yes 84 20.4 260 35.9 <0.001*
Self-perception of voice
Positive 191 46.5 227 31.3
Negative 220 53.5 497 68.7 0.001*
Participation in activities of public speaking
Frequent 159 38.7 110 15.2 <0.001
Rare 252 61.3 614 84.8
*Pvalue 0.05; Pearson chi-squared test.
Comparison of the Variable Sex with the Scores of the “Self-statement During Public Speaking Scale”
Total Score Positive Score Negative Score
Female Male Female Male Female Male
Mean 26.18 25.96 16.27 17.20 9.92 8.76
Minimum 16050 0
Maximum 49 47 25 25 25 26
SD 7.38 7.16 4.75 4.06 6.72 6.39
Pvalue 0.646 0.001*0.006*
*P<0.05; analysis of variance.
Abbreviation: SD, standard deviation.
Anna Carolina Ferreira Marinho et al Fear of Public Speaking 3
the listener with regard to the speaker.30 Recent studies have in-
dicated that a low-pitched voice is charismatic, that is, a more
widely accepted voice compared with a high voice when it comes
to influencing and persuading the listener.31,32
In regard to the association of participation in activities of public
speaking with the presence of speaking anxiety, the data suggest
that college students who take part in many oral presentation
activities exhibited significantly less fear than those reluctant to
speak to an audience. The literature confirms that lack of ex-
perience accounts for increased fear of speaking, which is inherent
to an unknown situation.4,6,10,32,33
A difference was found between sexes in the SSPS scores.
Women had a higher mean negative score, whereas men scored
better on the positive self-statements. This indicates that public
speaking is a more challenging situation for women, presum-
ably because they perceive more negative elements in their
Regarding the students’ interest in public-speaking training
(Table 3), it was found that 89.3% of them would appreciate such
an addition to their curriculum. Astudy shows that after a basic
communication course, college students displayed a signifi-
cant reduction in their anxiety when speaking to an audience,
as well as improved communication competence by the end of
the course, thereby becoming more confident and less anxious
in their overall communication.35
In light of the above data, we emphasize that universities should
acknowledge the importance of public speaking during the grad-
uation of students. Public speaking is a topic of social and
scientific relevance, and further studies are warranted, which
should focus on fear of public speaking with other populations.
Fear of public speaking is a prevalent subtype of anxiety among
college students. It occurs more frequently in women, in stu-
dents who rarely participate in activities involving speaking to
audiences, and in those who have a negative self-perception of
their voice and characterize it as high-pitched or soft. Most college
students appreciate and are interested in having classes for public
speaking in their university curriculum.
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Characterization of the Self-perception of Voice and In-
terest in Speech-language Training in the Curriculum
(N = 1135)
Self-perception of voice
Adequate 418 36.8
Hoarse voice 27 2.4
High-pitched voice 340 30.0
Soft voice 210 18.5
Deep voice 56 4.9
Nasal voice 84 7.4
Interest in speech-language training
Yes 1014 89.3
No 121 10.7
Notes: N: number of cases; %: frequency.
Multivariate Analysis of the Association Between Fear of
Public Speaking and the Variables Sex, Influence of Voice,
Self-perception of Voice, and Participation in Activities
Involving Public Speaking
Fear of Public
OR 95% CI
Male 1.0
Female 1.95 1.49–2.56
Influence of voice on fear of
No 1.0
Yes 1.93 1.39–2.65
Self-perception of voice
Positive 1.0
Negative 1.53 1.16–2.02
Participation in public-speaking
Frequent 1.0
Rare 3.41 2.56–4.53
Note: Logistic regression.
Abbreviations: 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.
4Journal of Voice, Vol. ■■, No. ■■, 2016
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Anna Carolina Ferreira Marinho et al Fear of Public Speaking 5
... Public speaking is a challenging skill for many people (1)(2)(3) . It is currently a top job market requirement, besides hard-skills professional qualifications and multifunctional skills (2,4) . ...
... Among these skills and strategies are self-awareness development (4,9) , the strengthening of self-confidence (9,10) , speech domain, public speaking practice (3,5,11,12) , and search for communicative advice that will help the speaker face the challenge of public exposure (2,4,10,11) . ...
... The articles that made up this review were predominantly from Brazil, had a cross-sectional design, were carried out with college students, and used public speech self-assessment instruments. University students composed the study sample because in higher education, students typically participate in numerous scientific and challenging activities that constantly require public speaking (3,5,24,26,31,32) . Self-assessment is a subjective analysis that brings positive benefits to the individual (23,30,31) . ...
Full-text available
RESUMO Objetivo revisar e descrever os estudos que utilizaram instrumentos para avaliar e autoavaliar a fala em público de indivíduos adultos, no período de 2011 a 2020. Estratégia de pesquisa trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura. A busca dos estudos ocorreu nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, que abrange as bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS. A questão norteadora desta revisão foi: “Quais os tipos, aspectos avaliados e categorias de resposta dos instrumentos que avaliaram a fala em público de indivíduos adultos nos últimos dez anos?”. Critérios de seleção Foram selecionados artigos originais, disponíveis na íntegra, publicados nos últimos dez anos, nos idiomas português, inglês ou espanhol, que apresentassem instrumentos de avaliação da fala em público, em adultos. Foram excluídos da revisão teses, dissertações, monografias, anais de congressos, estudos com análise do discurso e artigos de revisão de literatura. Resultados foram localizados 2539 artigos, dos quais 21 foram incluídos nesta revisão. A maioria dos estudos foi desenvolvida no Brasil, realizada com universitários e utilizou instrumentos de autoavaliação para investigar a fala em público. Conclusão os instrumentos de investigação para avaliação da fala em público são distintos e não há padronização conceitual dos aspectos avaliativos e das categorias de respostas. Nos instrumentos de autoavaliação, os aspectos mais avaliados são ansiedade ao falar em público, voz, velocidade de fala, competência comunicativa, pitch, articulação e loudness. Nos instrumentos de avaliação, os aspectos avaliativos mais abordados são voz, velocidade de fala, articulação, pausas, loudness, pitch e gestos.
... Public speaking is a common fear selected by US college students (61%) and ranks second in the top three concerns, behind death and financial problems (Dwyer and Davidson 2012). A more recent study of undergraduate students in the US found that 64% reported a fear of public speaking (Ferreira Marinho et al. 2017). Public speaking fears of university students have been described in the literature as internal and external fears (LeFebvre, LeFebvre, and Allen 2018). ...
... This further supports the key theme in this survey 'uncertainty about the topic' where forgetting material in public speaking was a predominant fear and occurrence. Further to internal fears, in a questionnaire concerning fear of public speaking of undergraduate students in higher education, the main findings showed an association between students with negative self-perceptions of their voice and public-speaking fear (Ferreira Marinho et al. 2017). ...
... Suggestions were made in respect of more workshops, opportunities to practice public speaking, and teaching presentations as part of a course and incorporating public speaking classes into the timetable. These findings support previous evidence that found 89% of the students were interested in public speaking training and would appreciate this as an addition to their curriculum (Ferreira Marinho et al. 2017). ...
Full-text available
Oral presentations and public speaking are an important aspect of the student experience in the United Kingdom higher education. Many modules (self-contained units normally within a programme of study) use presentations as a form of assessment and require students to verbally engage in small and large group settings to enhance learning. Previous research evidence has indicated that many students experience fear in public speaking. The aims of this qualitative survey were two-fold. First, it sought to gather further insight into the fears experienced and strategies used by students who fear public speaking, including oral presentations. The second objective was to determine whether their fear affected their experience of higher education. A qualitative survey comprising four open-ended questions was completed by 46 undergraduate and postgraduate students with a fear of public speaking from the University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol. All participants were attending one of the Stand Up and Be Heard (SUBH) UWE library-based workshops for fear of public speaking. Thematic analysis was used to identify the following six themes, namely: fear of being judged, physical symptoms, uncertainty about the topic, negative effect on university experience, practice and preparation, and more practical support needed. The results of this survey identify the specific fears students have in public speaking and provide evidence of the overall negative effect on their higher education experience. This survey provides further evidence that higher education institutions should acknowledge public speaking fear among some students and provide more support in oral presentation assessments.
... Scoppa). of their working time talking with/to others (meetings take up 60% of their working hours), suggesting that public speaking might be a key element of highly skilled jobs. On the other hand, public speaking is often considered as an anxiety-generating factor that can negatively impact on personal, academic and professional achievement ( Marinho et al., 2017 ). In lab experiments speaking in front of others is commonly used as an intervention aimed at causing stress ( Kirschbaum et al., 1993 ). ...
... These works, even if not providing any causal evidence, demonstrate how common is the perception that effective public speaking is a key for career success. 4 On the other hand, quite a significant number of psychological papers show that public speaking is an anxiety-generating factor for many people ( Marinho et al., 2017 ). Arnold (2018) , for example, confirms McCroskey's (2009) finding that public speaking anxiety affects approximately 70 percent of the population to varying degrees. ...
... Dhar & Khan (2014) discovered that teachers in Pakistan politicized their students based on their ethnicity and social status, which causes the students to experience a high level of communication anxiety. Marinho et al. (2015) discovered 63.9% of the college students actually feared of public speaking. A large number of the students (89.3%) expressed preference of having classes that could improve their public speaking skills. ...
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Glossophobia or fear of public speaking is commonly experienced by tertiary learners during classroom presentations. This study intends to examine the speech anxiety level experienced by engineering learners and the relationship between the learners’ English language proficiency and their speech anxiety. The study will also identify the causes of public speaking anxiety among these engineering learners. The samples were 65 Engineering Diploma students who responded to McCroskey’s Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) questionnaire. The students’ English language grades at SPM level were used as the measurement of their English language proficiency. The findings showed the students’ speech anxiety is at moderate level (M= 105.9) and there was a weak negative relationship between total PRPSA scores and SPM English language grades (r = -.149, n = 65, p > 0.05). Mere thoughts of presenting a speech with undue worries of being asked questions were the causes of their speech anxiety. Therefore, it is proposed engineering learners be given ample public speaking trainings through planned programmes and engineering curriculum planners include elements of public speaking in engineering subjects. Public speaking skills will be an added value and increase engineering graduate employability in future. Keywords: Communication apprehension, Glossophobia, Public speaking, Speech anxiety, PRPSA
... Topluluk karşısında konuşma becerisinin daha fazla konuşma fırsatı yaratılarak ve kişinin bu becerisi üzerinde geliştirme çalışmaları yapılarak aşılması mümkündür. Bu yüzden saptanması sosyal fobi alt faktörlerinden birinin çözümlenmesi açısından da önemli olacaktır (24). ...
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to develop a scale to evaluate adjustment problems in university students and to reveal the factors affecting compliance. METHODS: A total of 34 questions were created in the areas of procrastination, perfectionism, difficulty in focusing, communication, anxiety, lost mourning and self-confidence, which may disrupt harmony among university students. The study was conducted on the University Health Campus students population. A questionnaire questioning the sociodemographic characteristics, the 34-item Adjustment Problems Scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were applied to the students. When scales with missing responses were excluded, 754 students' responses were included in statistical evaluation because they were complete in all scales. Factors with eigenvalues above one in the explanatory factor analysis were defined as scale sub-domains. Comparisons were made with the brief symptom inventory and the external validity of the scale was tested in this way. Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated in these comparisons.Confirmatory factor analysis conducted for scale fit analysis. RESULTS: Seven of the scale questions were excluded from the scale due to low correlation coefficients (<0.30) and factor content load (<0.50). A total of 26 questions was formed. The scale has a structure consisting of 6 sub-fields with 26 questions. Sub-areas Difficulty focusing, procrastination, communication problems, insecurity, perfectionism, social anxiety. The Cronbach alpha value for 26 questions in the scale was 0.87.Based on the confirmatory factor analysis results, a 21-question scale was created by removing avoidance behaviors in communication. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: As a result of this study, an adjustment problems scale for university students was obtained. Such a scale can be used to identify risky groups in field studies. It can facilitate the production of knowledge in the field of preventive mental health. At the beginning of the therapy for university students, "Adaptation Problems Scale" can be used to determine problem areas.
... Participants were recruited from the Mundet campus of the University of Barcelona and were independent from our own research group. A previous virtual reality study found a greater level of fear of public speaking for women compared to men (Pertaub et al., 2002) and a large sample study amongst college students found the same (Ferreira Marinho et al., 2017). Since our goal was to recruit participants with relatively high levels of public speaking anxiety the most convenient was to recruit women. ...
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Virtual Reality can be used to embody people in different types of body—so that when they look towards themselves or in a mirror they will see a life-sized virtual body instead of their own, and that moves with their own movements. This will typically give rise to the illusion of body ownership over the virtual body. Previous research has focused on embodiment in humanoid bodies, albeit with various distortions such as an extra limb or asymmetry, or with a body of a different race or gender. Here we show that body ownership also occurs over a virtual body that looks like a cartoon rabbit, at the same level as embodiment as a human. Furthermore, we explore the impact of embodiment on performance as a public speaker in front of a small audience. Forty five participants were recruited who had public speaking anxiety. They were randomly partitioned into three groups of 15, embodied as a Human, as the Cartoon rabbit, or from third person perspective (3PP) with respect to the rabbit. In each condition they gave two talks to a small audience of the same type as their virtual body. Several days later, as a test condition, they returned to give a talk to an audience of human characters embodied as a human. Overall, anxiety reduced the most in the Human condition, the least in the Cartoon condition, and there was no change in the 3PP condition, taking into account existing levels of trait anxiety. We show that embodiment in a cartoon character leads to high levels of body ownership from the first person perspective and synchronous real and virtual body movements. We also show that the embodiment influences outcomes on the public speaking task.
Bu araştırmanın amacı, öğretmen adaylarının psikolojik sağlamlık düzeylerinin topluluk önündeki konuşma kaygılarıyla olan ilişkisini incelemektir. Araştırma, nicel türde korelasyonel desende yürütülmüştür. Veriler, kolay ulaşılabilir durum örneklemesiyle belirlenmiş, Bartın ve Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesinde öğrenim gören 239 (kadın=174, erkek=65) öğretmen adayından elde edilmiştir. Veri toplama aracı olarak Kısa Psikolojik Sağlamlık Ölçeği (Doğan, 2015) ve Topluluk Önünde Konuşma Kaygısı Ölçeği (Doğru-Çabuker, Balcı-Çelik ve Aldemir, 2020) kullanılmıştır. Psikolojik sağlamlığın topluluk önünde konuşma kaygısını yordaması amacıyla yapılan basit doğrusal regresyon analizinde, iki değişken arasında anlamlı bir ilişki (R=.309, R2=.096) olduğu belirlenmiş ve psikolojik sağlamlığın topluluk önünde konuşma kaygı düzeyinin anlamlı bir yordayıcısı olduğu görülmüştür [F(1-237)=25.026, p<.05]. Bu açıdan psikolojik sağlamlık olgusunun, topluluk önünde yaşanan konuşma kaygısının doğasını anlamamıza katkı sağlayabilecek türden bir bilgi çerçevesi olduğu söylenebilir.
Introduction The lives of college students are full of various stressors. Students seek a number of stress-relieving modalities as self-prescribed beta-blockers to improve their academic performance. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of beta-blockers (propranolol) usage among Saudi dental students, and their attitude towards its use to enhance academic performance. Methods A cross-sectional study involving a convenient sample was conducted on a group of undergraduate dental students enrolled in Riyadh dental schools during the academic year of 2019/2020. A paper format closed-ended questionnaire was used. Results A sample of 680 students participated in the survey (43% response rate). Approximately 12% of dental students used propranolol for non-medical reasons. The prevalence did not differ significantly with the gender, or year of study. A significantly higher percentage of students from private dental schools reported using propranolol for non-medical reasons (odds ratio (OR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7–5.4; P < 0.001). Propranolol users were significantly more likely to connect with other students using the medication. Both students, those who used and those who did not use propranolol, similarly, highly endorsed the need for being informed about the risk of using propranolol. Compared with non-users, there was more disagreement among propranolol users on the necessity for placing school regulations controlling medication use. Conclusion The use of propranolol to enhance academic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia shouldn’t be disregarded. The study findings emphasise the importance of regulating students’ usage of beta-blockers to promote a fair academic environment.
Fear of public speaking, also known as Glossophobia which is defined as a form of social phobia leading to severely discourage speaking publicly owing to the dread of being ashamed or losing the respect of other people. The recent study used the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety scale including 34 items to survey 374 pedagogy freshmen. The sample consisted of 374 students of which 144 students studying Social Science (38.5%), 140 students studying Natural Science (37.4%), and 90 students studying Educational Science (24.1%) of which were 86 males (23%) and 288 females (77%). The main finding of this study was that a large number of pedagogy freshmen suffered fear of public speaking. Besides, the result found that the difference between the three groups of majors in the levels of glossophobia just very slightly missed the significance level. Educational Science students suffered most public speaking anxiety in three groups of majors. To become professional educators in the future, pedagogy freshmen have to cultivate and self-improve speaking publicly skill which is one of the most essential and crucial soft skills. Additionally, presentation skill is one of the compulsory academic activities and criteria for evaluation of the university of education. These findings contribute to developing courses aiming to reduce students’ public speaking anxiety and improve their presentation skills. Besides, educators could create an education curriculum that is most suitable for freshmen and not cause much pressure leading to their anxiety.
We conduct a field and an online classroom experiment to study gender differences in self-set performance goals and their effects on performance in a real-effort task. We distinguish between public and private goals, performance being public and identifiable in both cases. Participants set significantly more ambitious goals when these are public. Women choose lower goals than men in both treatments. Men perform better than women under private and public goals as well as in the absence of goal setting, consistent with the identifiability of performance causing gender differences, as found in other studies. Compared to private goal setting, public goal setting does not affect men's performance at all but it leads to women's performance being significantly lower. Comparing self-set goals with actual performance we find that under private goal setting women's performance is on average 67% of goals, whereas for men it is 57%. Under public goal setting the corresponding percentages are 43% and 39%, respectively.
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To analyze speech expressiveness in a group of executives based on perceptive and acoustic aspects of vocal dynamics. Four male subjects participated in the research study (S1, S2, S3, and S4). The assessments included the Kingdomality test to obtain the keywords of communicative attitudes; perceptive-auditory assessment to characterize vocal quality and dynamics, performed by three judges who are speech language pathologists; perceptiveauditory assessment to judge the chosen keywords; speech acoustics to assess prosodic elements (Praat software); and a statistical analysis. According to the perceptive-auditory analysis of vocal dynamics, S1, S2, S3, and S4 did not show vocal alterations and all of them were considered with lowered habitual pitch. S1: pointed out as insecure, nonobjective, nonempathetic, and unconvincing with inappropriate use of pauses that are mainly formed by hesitations; inadequate separation of prosodic groups with breaking of syntagmatic constituents. S2: regular use of pauses for respiratory reload, organization of sentences, and emphasis, which is considered secure, little objective, empathetic, and convincing. S3: pointed out as secure, objective, empathetic, and convincing with regular use of pauses for respiratory reload and organization of sentences and hesitations. S4: the most secure, objective, empathetic, and convincing, with proper use of pauses for respiratory reload, planning, and emphasis; prosodic groups agreed with the statement, without separating the syntagmatic constituents. The speech characteristics and communicative attitudes were highlighted in two subjects in a different manner, in such a way that the slow rate of speech and breaks of the prosodic groups transmitted insecurity, little objectivity, and nonpersuasion.
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Purpose to relate data from auditory vocal analysis, complaint and vocal self-perception of journalism students. Methods it is an observational, descriptive, cross-senctional study with prospective data collection, conducted at Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste/UNICENTRO-PR. 41jounalism students participated, 27 women and 14 men. A protocol was applied to collect data of identification and voice complaints, and vocal recordings were made with sustained emission of the vowel “a”; and chained (counting of numbers and months of the year). These recordings were analyzed by a speech therapist, voice specialist, related to voice quality (adapted or altered). Students also responded to the protocol “Descriptive terms about voice”;. Results despite presenting adapted voices, the students presented voice complaints. The most common complaints reported to pitch change, phonemic production, voice quality and speech speed. The students who presented adapted voice quality mentioned a greater amount of positive terms related to the self-perception. There was no difference when compared the average amount of positive and negative terms presented by the group. The most positive terms listed were: nice voice, expressive, confident, feminine, strong and docile. The negatives were: tuneless voice, unstable, oscillanting, irregular, rapid, nasal voice, low and timid. Conclusion even with adapted voices from the auditory vocal point of view, journalism students refer voice complaints, probably due to the demand placed upon them during graduation.
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BACKGROUND: The fear of public speaking is on of the most prevalent fears in the general population, and it is important to assess its underlying cognitive aspects. OBJECTIVE: To perform the cross-cultural adaptation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Self Statements during Public Speaking Scale (SSPS), a self-assessment instrument designed for the public speaking situation. METHODS: The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, the appreciation and approval of the back-translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study on 30 Brazilian undergraduate students, and appreciation by raters who attested to the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was called Escala para Auto-avaliação ao Falar em Público. As part of the psychometric study of the SSPS, the items of the scale were analyzed and its internal consistency was assessed in a sample of 2,314 undergraduate students. RESULTS: The items of the positive self-evaluation subscale received the highest scores. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, and internal consistency was also good, ranging from 0.78 to 0.90. DISCUSSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SSPS proved to be adequate regarding its psychometric properties. Studies evaluating the remaining indicators of validity and reliability of the SSPS on clinical and non-clinical samples would be opportune and necessary.
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The public-speaking fear constitutes a recognizable subtype of social phobia in epidemiologic studies. To verify the impact on personnel functioning and the professional help seeking for treatment of public-speaking fear in a population sample, we conducted a survey with 452 residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty two per cent of the respondents reported that had excessive anxiety when spoke to a large audience. In total, 13% of the survey reported that public-speaking fear had resulted in a marked interference in their work, social life and education, or had caused then marked distress. Seven per cent of the survey had public-speaking fear in isolation, without evidence of others social fears. This data support the inclusion of severe forms of public-speaking fear within the social phobia diagnostic construct and also suggest that public-speaking anxiety may have a negative impact on the lives of many individuals in the community (O medo de falar em público constitui um subtipo não reconhecido da fobia social em estudos epidemiológicos. Para se verificar a prevalência, o impacto no funcionamento pessoal e a procura por tratamento do medo de falar em público, foi realizada uma pesquisa com 452 residentes da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Trinta e dois porcento dos entrevistados reportaram ansiedade excessiva quando falavam para um grande grupo de pessoas. No total, 13% dos entrevistados relataram que o medo de falar em público resultou em grande interferência em seu trabalho, vida social e educação, ou causou sofrimento acentuado. Esta pesquisa apóia a inclusão de formas graves do medo de falar em público no constructo diagnóstico da fobia social e sugere, também, que essa ansiedade de falar em público pode ter um impacto negativo na vida de muitos indivíduos na comunidade)
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As disfonias podem comprometer a qualidade da comunicação e, por conseqüência, a relação social do indivíduo e assim afetar sua qualidade de vida. Existe hoje necessidade de protocolos objetivos para avaliação da qualidade vocal que mensurem suas implicações na qualidade de vida do paciente. OBJETIVOS: Relacionar qualidade de vida e voz com o grau de disfonia e o uso profissional da voz em um grupo de pacientes disfônicos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo clínico prospectivo aplicando-se protocolo internacional para avaliar a qualidade de vida e voz em um grupo de pacientes disfônicos. Realizou-se tratamento estatístico dos resultados considerando-se não-distinção entre profissionais da voz e não-profissionais da voz e, em seguida, considerando-se esta distinção profissional. RESULTADOS: A disfonia afetou a qualidade de vida em todos os indivíduos. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos, profissionais da voz e não-profissionais da voz, quanto ao grau de disfonia. Houve correlação entre qualidade de vida e grau de disfonia, no entanto, considerando-se os grupos separadamente, esta correlação foi significativa apenas no grupo de sujeitos não-profissionais da voz. CONCLUSÃO: A disfonia afetou a qualidade de vida em todos os sujeitos independente do uso profissional da voz.
Background: Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed that social phobia is more prevalent than has been previously believed. An unresolved issue is the extent to which public-speaking fears constitute a recognizable form of social phobia in a community sample and, moreover, to what extent these fears are associated with functional morbidity.Methods: To examine the prevalence and impact of public-speaking fears and their relationship to social phobia in a community sample, we conducted a randomized telephone survey of 499 residents of Winnipeg, Manitoba, a medium-sized midwestern metropolitan area.Results: One third of the respondents reported that they had excessive anxiety when they spoke to a large audience. The onset of fears was early (ie, 50%, 75%, and 90% by the ages of 13, 17, and 20 years, respectively). Anxious cognitions about public speaking included the following fears: doing or saying something embarrassing (64%), one's mind going blank (74%), being unable to continue talking (63%), saying foolish things or not making sense (59%), and trembling, shaking, or showing other signs of anxiety (80%). In total, 10% (n=49) of the respondents reported that public-speaking anxiety had resulted in a marked interference with their work (2%), social life (1%), or education (4%), or had caused them marked distress (8%). Twenty-three persons (5%) had public-speaking anxiety in isolation (ie, without evidence of additional kinds of social fears).Conclusions: These data support the inclusion of severe forms of public-speaking fears within the social phobia construct and, furthermore, suggest that publicspeaking anxiety may have a detrimental impact on the lives of many individuals in the community.
In this study, we assessed how classroom instruction might result in changes in students' communication competence (CC) and communication apprehension (CA). Students enrolled in a basic communication class completed the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) and the Self‐Perception of Communication Competence (SPCC) Scale at the beginning and end of a semester. Scores on the PRCA and SPCC negatively correlated with each other at Time 7 and Time 2. CC increased and CA decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. CC with strangers increased and CA in groups decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. High apprehensive and low competence students experienced greater changes in their respective PRCA and SPCC scores than did their counterparts. Students who completed the course and those who dropped out differed on dyadic SPCC and total PRCA. We discussed implications of the findings.